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It should be noted that this risk of becoming simply an "ethnocentric fantasy" is something that not all filmmakers are worried about. Indeed, it might well be argued that the creation of an ethnocentric fantasy might well make an ethnographic film more popular and more profitable.
Indeed, an ethnocentric fantasy is one of the storylines that fits well into the narrative expectations of Western audiences, who will not be surprised by tales of Noble Savages or simply Savages whose lives are made better and more meaningful through contact with the West. There is also the accepted trope that is no more than simple ethnocentrism: There is certainly room for the filmmaker who produces ethnocentric movies that allow Western audiences to feel validated in the idea that their own culture is better than that of the people whose lives are being depicted.
A More Naive -- or Simpler? -- World
Grimshaw, a. (1995). Conversations with anthropological film-makers: Melissa Llewellyn-Davies. Cambridge: Prickly Pear Press.
Grimshaw, a. (2001). "The anthropological television of Melissa Llewlyn-Davies" in the ethnographer's eye: Ways of seeing in modern anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 149-171.
Loizos, P. (1993). The Loita Maasai films: Televised culture" in Innovation in ethnographic film: From innocence to self-consciousness, 1955-1985. Manchester University Press: 115-138.
MacDougall, D. (1994). "Films of memory," in L. Taylor ed., Visualizing theory: Selected from V.A.R., 1990-1994. London: Routledge: 260-269.
In the wake of the serviceman's complaint and the health and welfare inspection, the intervention will be determined.
Talk with building residents to follow up on the health and welfare inspection findings. Check if there are other respiratory issues for residents.
Follow-up to make sure that the building maintenance personnel have changed filters and spare parts in the building environmental systems.
Review medical records and intervention methods. Make sure that medications are current and that medical therapies are in order, including the Advair (disk), Albuteral (inhaler) and Fluticasone (nasal spray) and a review records of health-seeking behavior exhibited by Navy members ("Comprehensive family assessment," 2011)
A follow up health and welfare inspection will be conducted in a month to measure the effectiveness of the intervention. At the inspection, the commander will fill out a checklist to report to the Troop Medical Clinic on the results. Success will be measured as…
Comprehensive family assessment process. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/family_assessment/fa4.htm .
Frese, P.R., & Harrell, M.C. (2003). Anthropology and the United States military: coming of age in the twenty-first century . New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
Secnavinst 5300.28d asn (m&ra) secnav instruction 5300.28d. (2005, December 5).
Retrieved from doni.daps.dla.mil/Directives/../05../5300.28D.pdfSimilar.
During the sequence followed, many of the younger males put on a "machismo" like attitude in an attempt to assert they were very familiar with sex and sexuality. This is due largely to the pressures observed in the environment throughout the movie, an environment that suggests virginity is something that should be lost as soon as possible. Thus, if one has not lost their virginity, they may become an outcast or subject of ridicule. This in turn may lead to embarrassment, as is the case with the young girl in this scene.
On careful examination however of the participants in the pre-birth control meeting, there is much in the way of nonverbal evidence that the people engaged in the conversation are insecure. While male fathers proudly demonstrate using their words, mannerisms and gestures that they are "all man" and incapable of remaining virgins, as are their sons, you can see…
This will protect not only the privacy of the individuals involved, but also their safety.
There are a variety of options I can consider in terms of entering and studying a prison population. In addition to entering the prison population itself, I would also consider the roles and interactions of the guards, head warden, nurses, visitors, lawyers, and priests where applicable. In terms of prison officials, the nature of my presence and study will be fully disclosed. During my time in the general prison population, I will form friendships and observe interactions while being discreet about the nature of my presence. This is important to ensure the validity and reliability of my data and indeed the study as a whole.
By means of interviews with prison officials, I will be able to form a concept of interaction from a variety of perspectives. I will be able to consider how…
Berg, Bruce L. (2007). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences (7th edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Family Health International. Qualitative Research methods: A Data Collector's Field Guide: Participant Observation. Retrieved from: http://www.fhi.org/nr/rdonlyres/ed2ruznpftevg34lxuftzjiho65asz7betpqigbbyorggs6tetjic367v44baysyomnbdjkdtbsium/participantobservation1.pdf
Lofland, John, David Snow, Leon Anderson and Lyn Lofland. (2006). Analyzing Social Settings, 4th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
National Institute of Justice (2007). Prison Rape Research Findings. Retrieved from: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/corrections/institutional/prison-rape/research-findings.htm#note1
Ethnographic Research on Business Culture
Ehtnographic research as it pertains to business culture
Influence of culture on business management
According to Cox (1993, 45-56) cultural diversity in an organization includes the different ways in which the entire workforce experiences a unique group identity that is either based on sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, gender or age. Cox further ads on that culture entail the beliefs, values and customs of each distinct group and that organization can be classified into any of the three groups depending on their cultural diversity, which are the monolithic, plural or multicultural organization. Scholarly literatures have shown that cultural diversity has an influence on business management accountability and decision making strategies.
Accountability has been portrayed as a rational practice that is a requirement in the governance structure of business organizations, while accountants present it as the main aim in financial reporting. Fernandez (1991, 112-123) noted in his…
Cox, Taylor, Jr. (1993) Cultural Diversity in Organizations Berrett-Koehler Publishers, pp 45-56.
Cox, Taylor, Jr. (1991)"The Multicultural Organization" Academy of Management Executive Vol. 5, pp 23,
Fernandez, John P. (1991) Managing a Diverse WorkForce. Lexington Books, pp 112-134
Ethnographic Study of a Military Family Medical Center
Ethnography eport -Technical Writing
Ethnographic Project -- Military Family Medical Center
Project Purpose & Setting:
This report addresses the workings of a family care center located in a large military hospital on a joint operations military base. The hospital serves active duty members of the military, family members and dependents of active duty soldiers, citizens who work for the military in some capacity, and retired members of the military. A considerable number of wounded warriors are treated at this military hospital, including those who have been diagnosed with PTSD. The military hospital is situated on a joint command post that is receiving a great many warriors who have returned from fighting down range.
Using a grounded theory ethnographic approach, a series of six observation sessions in the waiting room of the family care center were conducted, along with two…
Coffey, A., and Atkinson, P. (1996). Making Sense of Qualitative Data: Complementary Research Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dye, J.F., Schatz, I.M., Rosenberg, B.A., and Coleman, S.T. (2000). Constant comparison method: A kaleidoscope of data, The Qualitative Report (4) 1 & 2. Retrieved http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR4-1/dye.html
Glesne, C. And Peskin, (1992). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Goetz, M.D. And LeCompte, J.P. (1981, Spring). Ethnographic research and the problem of data reduction. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 12 (1), 51-70.
They treasure what they have been lost since becoming destitute and homeless. On the opposite, American removes coming forward mostly. They yearn native land is actually for the memories about childhood which has gone forever. At the same time, the future is waiting for them in a broad space faraway." (ai, 2007)
V. DIFFERENCES in EDUCATION
The work of Price and riley (1999) entitled: "Culture, Education and Cognition: A Review and Discussion of Chinese vs. American Cognitive Styles" relates a study in which proposed is that..."that differences in the education practices prevalent in China and America are an important source of cognitive differentiation, and suggest that future research could benefit from greater exploration of 'experienced educational style'." Price and riley relate that based upon the literature in the area of developmental psychology Price and riley's study presents: "...an integrated model of cognitive development that appreciates both the influence of the…
Price, Lydia J. And Briley, Donnel a. (1999) Culture, Education and Cognition: A Review and Discussion of Chinese vs. American Cognitive Styles. Jun 1999. Institutional Repository - the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Library. Online available at http://repository.ust.hk/dspace/handle/1783.1/1024
Of all the Difference Between Chinese and American Culture, Which One Do You Think is the Most" (2007) Bai. 21 Aug 2007. Online available at http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/31830409.html
Zheng, Yin-xiao, and Cui, Ruo-nan (2008) Luckhohn and Strodbeck's Value Model in Chinese and American Culture. Sino-U.S. English Teaching. Vol. 5, No. 4 April 2008. Online available at http://www.linguist.org.cn/doc/su200804/su20080412.pdf
Asian Culture Blossoms at QO - People Around the World (2007) Bimonthly Faculty Newsletter. Quince Orchard High School Celebrates Diversity. May 2007. Online available at http://esol.qohs.org/PAW/pawissue4.pdf
Ethnographic study of a culture reveals the insider perspective of that culture. In this article, the author chose an interesting sub-culture i.e. skateboarders and tried to present an insider view of the world of skateboarders including their psyche, their clothing, their beliefs etc.
Authors believe that skateboarding is a culture in itself which is rather debatable because authors have not described culture in detail and hence it is difficult to fathom why skateboarding qualifies as a culture. But we can suppose that since not everyone is interested in skateboarding and only a certain people religious follow this activity, it can be classified as a culture. Authors have selected some specific genres in skateboarding including street skateboards, vert skaters and air skaters. This has been done because of the variety that these sections of skateboarders offer from the very amateur to highly professionals.
It is found that street skateboarders are usually…
He remembers this fondly, even in the midst of so many other memories and recollections from Turkey.
See, the country has a long and provocative history. Levon explains that Turkey is the home of some of the world's oldest cultures and societies; how the spark of civilization began early in such a great land. In the Middle Ages, Turkey was consumed by war and bloodshed, with invasions from barbarian tribes such as the Mongols. Next came the Ottoman Empire which ruled the region for over 600 years. Levon remembers his grandfather's stories about the chaos which ensued during World War II and the peace which came after with an American promise to protect both Turkey and its neighbor Greece. Long after the stories of invasions and barbarians, Turkey is now a democratic nation with a large and representative parliament. The government and regulatory bodies are not that much different than…
The health issues returned and at that time it became clear that something more drastic had to be made. The subject eventually stopped to go out with the same people. This, together with the pressure coming from other friends and the family contributed to slowly changing his mind about drug abuse. The main person who helped the subject greatly was represented by the girlfriend. She was an occasional user of the same drug and when the situation worsened visibly she stopped using the drug and offered the interviewed person a lot of emotional support. She also tried to make him analyze the situation in objective terms. I believe that the fact that she left him when he started reusing drugs after the first period of recovery was an important factor which contributed to the development of the situation " She just left. And this is how I realized how big…
But as an erotic dancer, that is my purpose. I perform to turn you on, and if I fail, I feel I've done a poor job. (Sundahl, 1987, p. 176) (Downs, James, and Cowan 2006, 748)
The work's message then become some of similarities and loss not being experienced by the social cultural experience of the dancing per se but of the fact that the individual women had lower self-esteem and limited socialization because of the isolation and lack of support they experience from their normal social network including family and friends outside the industry. (Downs, James, and Cowan 2006, 745)
As is expressed by those in other studies the work itself does not always feel demeaning, as the support networks they experience are isolated and inclusive of the lifestyle of the dancer. The culture becomes one that is expressive of only dancing, in much the same way that individuals…
Benoit, Cecilia, and Frances M. Shaver. 2006. Critical Issues and New Directions in Sex Work research/Enjeux Cruciaux et Nouvelles Orientations Dans la Recherche Sur le Travail Du Sexe. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 43, no. 3: 243..
Downs, Daniel M., Shaan James, and Gloria Cowan. 2006. Body Objectification, Self-Esteem, and Relationship Satisfaction: A Comparison of Exotic Dancers and College Women. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 54: 745.
Lewis, Jacqueline. 1998. Learning to Strip: The Socialization Experiences of Exotic Dancers. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 7, no. 1: 51.
Liepe-Levinson, Katherine. 2001. Strip Show: Performances of Gender and Desire. New York: Routledge.
On the surface, Shahin's problem is her weight. Her physical health will suffer if she does not attend to her nutritional needs. Yet as with most anorexic clients, Shahin is not as concerned about her physical symptoms as her loved ones are. Her self-deprivation is a sign of internal struggles. When interviewing Shahin, we talked about her perspective as well as her family's. As Kleinman & Benson (2006) suggest, an explanatory model encourages inquiry into fundamental beliefs about health and healing. How Shahin and her parents label the problem, what they feel its causes and effects are, and what they fear most about the condition were focal points of the interview.
What Shahin's parents saw in their daughter is the dramatic weight loss. Their focusing on the physical aspects of the condition is common and is not directly related to cultural perspectives because all parents should be worried about the…
Kleinman, a. & Benson, P. (2006). Anthropology in the Clinic: The Problem of Cultural Competency and How to Fix it. Retrieved Oct 12, 2008 from PubMed:
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Web site retrieved oct 12, 2008 at http://qsen.org
ethnographic examination of how guidance teachers make sense of their caring abilities on the job. Also, it looks at the counseling services they offer to students. The findings illustrate the influence of Chinese (particularly Confucian) culture the in Hong Kong schools. Implications for promoting culturally responsive approaches to counseling and culturally competent practices for helping are discussed.
The important 1990s government initiative to implement a whole school approach to guidance is described. It appears, however, that the role of the guidance teacher in the school reforms has not been clearly stated. In addition, the author seeks to investigate how school guidance and counseling is practiced within schools Chinese society.
The overall qualitative design was meant to provide the seed-bed for a later more in-depth quantitative study that will then involve statistical analysis. At present, the general research environment had to be probed qualitatively with interviews only to determine the criteria…
Hue, M. (2008). The influence of confucianism: a narrative study of hong kong teachers'
understanding and practices of school guidance and counselling. British Journal
of Guidance & Counselling, 36(3), 303 -- 316.
Farrar, Straus and Giroux. New York. 1999.
The books and magazine vendors, the panhandlers, the second-hand merchants -- you see them every day on the corner of the street, praising their merchandise, chasing customers, jazzing up the street. You may regard them with curiosity, with feelings ranging from pity to blame, from disapproval to fear, but have you ever wonder how is it like to be in their shoes, not for an hour, not for a day, but for years and years? The sociologist Mitchel Duneier did. For five years. And he scribbled down his experience in Sidewalk, a fascinating ethnography study, which can be described as an excellent introduction into New York urban life in all its complexity.
Published in 1999, Sidewalk opens a gate to the heart of Greenwich Village, through the eyes of poor black men and women, who work and live on the sidewalk…
Planning and Design Analysis Grid
Ethnographic Research of Patient Care
Deitrick L; Bokovoy J; Stern G; and Panik A. (2006) Dance of the call bells: using ethnography to evaluate patient satisfaction with quality of care. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 21(4): 316-24. Retreived http://bluescrubbrigade.wikispaces.com/file/view/Dance+of+the+Call+Bells.pdf
Is the research Qualitative or Quantitative?
The research study is qualitative and uses ethnographic methodologies.
Ethnographic methods can provide insights into patients' perceptions of quality of care.
The study examined problems related to answering patient call lights on an inpatient unit in the hospital. The call bell problem was perceived to have three different components: Answering the call bell, communicating the patient's request, and following through with the request.
The purpose of the research was to understand the perceptions of nursing staff and patients with respect to the use of the nurse call bells as it reflects on patient care.
Since this was an…
In Chapters 3-5 of Anna Tsing's 2005 book Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection, the author expands on the core argument related to the collaborative construction of globalized spaces. This section of the book falls under the rubric of Part II, "Knowledge." Chapter 3 is entitled, "Natural Universals and the Global Scale." Here, Tsing discusses the notion of generalization and the myths related to universal truths. Tsing also discusses the role that science has played in shaping a paradigm based on incessant categorization. Generalizations have reflected the impetus in the human brain for categorization and stereotyping, but this process has infected and biased human worldviews. A searcher for truth must find what Tsing calls an "axiom of unity," (p. 89). In Chapter 4, entitled, "Nature Loving," Tsing discusses the identities and ideologies of "nature lovers." Cosmopolitanism and nature loving is linked thematically and theoretically. Tsing unavoidably addresses the…
Tsing, Anna L. 2005. Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection. Princeton University Press.
Personnel are dressed in differently colored t-shirts intended to reflect tech support, sales associate, product specialist and managerial positions. This makes it easier for customers to identify the type of staff member who might be able to assist them. However, upon entrance, most customers are greeted by an employee who asks the purpose of the visit. He will then direct the customer to either the proper display or staff member according to the response. The size of the staff is usually large enough that the ratio of staff to customer was rarely worse that 1 to 3 even during the busiest moments. As a result, most customers were assisted in a timely fashion by sales associates who were attentive, friendly and knowledgeable. Personnel use walkie-talkies to communicate with one another inside the store, making response time to customer needs typically very fast. With wide aisles and sleek looking, uncluttered product…
Small Scale Ethnographic
Over the decades, the impact of language on culture has been continually debated. The main reason is because there are different views among ethnographic researchers. What has been happening is a host of studies were introduced in the 1970's by Dr. Noam Chomsky. He determined that language does not have any kind of effect on the way people think. This is based on the fact that everyone will put their sentences and ideas together in similar patterns. As a result, Chomsky theorized that language will have minimal effects on thoughts and behavior. This is when he suggested that universal standards could be created that will integrate the various languages down to one. (Bordotsky 2010)
However since the 1990's, scientists have been challenging these views. The main reason is because in spite of Chomsky's ideas, language was still having an impact on behavior. A good example of this…
'Comparative Analysis,' 2012, Business Dictionary, [Online], Retrieved 12 February 2012 from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
'What is Qualitative Research,' 2012, QSR International, [Online], Retrieved 12 February 2012 from: http://www.qsrinternational.com/what-is-qualitative-research.aspx
Bordotsky, L, 2010, 'Lost in Translation,' WSJ, [Online], Retrieved 12 February 2012 from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703467304575383131592767868.html
Hopkins, W, 2000, 'Quantitative Research Design,' Sport SCI, [Online], Retrieved 12 February 2012 from: http://www.sportsci.org/jour/0001/wghdesign.html
grounded theory, phenomenological research, ethnographic research, and historical techniques. The main focus of qualitative research approaches is to find meaning and several realities. As a result of this focus, qualitative sampling is based on acquiring enough and suitable information. Despite of the differences in the types of qualitative research, the approaches are founded on a holistic worldview that incorporates several concepts. Some of the major ideas that are the basis of these approaches include the absence of a single reality, reality is founded on perceptions that vary for every individual and change over time, and findings have meanings only within a specific context or situation (emshardt & Flowers, 2007).
Ethnographic research is a naturalistic inquiry form that seeks to see the world through eyes of the members of a culture and file social interactions among these members. In contrast, grounded theory is based on the principle that a researcher should…
Anderson, J.D. (2006). Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.icoe.org/webfm_send/1936
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How is it Done?
Qualitative Research, 6(1), 97-113. Retrieved from http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/sshonors/webdocs/Integratingqualandquant.pdf
Pettigrew, S.F. (2000). Ethnography and Grounded Theory: a Happy Marriage? Advances in Consumer Research, 27, 256-260. Retrieved from http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=8400
I would hypothesize that individuals born into an area or a population that is highly positioned from a socio-economic perspective would be more prone to accept social stratification that afforded the upper or upper middle castes some benefits. However, I would also expect that the lower the socio-economic of the region where the children are interviewed, the less likely the focus would be on social stratification, and the more likely people would be to argue for human rights.
Undoubtedly the readings from the syllabus would provide additional information that would coincide with the information gathered from the field research. This semester we have learned that many factors including socio-economic status, gender and ethnicity can all have an impact on one's culture, one's beliefs, one's religion and perhaps one's class stature.
Because India is a region where religion is heavily influencing, I would expect to also ask questions about religion, to…
Practicing Ethnographic Methods
JFK (John F. Kennedy) International Airport is one of the busiest international airports in the United States and serves as a gateway for the New York City and other Tri-State within the metropolitan regions. Apart from enjoying services from the Jet Blue, and Virgin America, the JFK airport is the major destination for visitors from various continents such as Europe, South America, Asia, Middle East and Africa. The JFK airport receives over 41 million visitors yearly making the airport the busiest international gateway in the New York. However, airports are the social-based organization where the visitors and employees come from various social and cultural backgrounds, which influence the airport decision making.
Objective of this paper is to carry out the ethnographic research by presenting the results of the observation of the social and cultural settings at the John F. Kenney International Airport.
I use the ethnographic…
Kusenbach, M. (2003). Street Phenomenology the Go-Along as Ethnographic Research Tool. Ethnography, 4: 455-485.
His firms' methodology concentrates on tracking shoppers throughout stores and videotaping their behavior, then analyzing it in the context of displays, traffic routing strategies and the use of signage in the stores. As a result of this methodology, the company Envirosell captures 50,000 hours of video each year. His firms' analysis shows that the front of stores is often used as a decompression zone, and that Americans tend to turn right when they walk into a store. As is the case with auto dealerships' service centers, the most crucial time to meet a customer is when they first enter the dealership or store. Mr. Underhill's analysis supports this fact with his firm stating that the first minute a customer enters the store is the most important in getting them to purchase. he challenges that Mr. Underhill highlights for retailers are to control the flow of traffic through their stores and…
Throughout the article there are specific strategies defined for increasing the sales effectiveness of retailers, illustrating the unique methodology that Mr. Underhill's firm Envirosell utilizes to increase the effectiveness of retailing strategies. His firms' methodology concentrates on tracking shoppers throughout stores and videotaping their behavior, then analyzing it in the context of displays, traffic routing strategies and the use of signage in the stores. As a result of this methodology, the company Envirosell captures 50,000 hours of video each year. His firms' analysis shows that the front of stores is often used as a decompression zone, and that Americans tend to turn right when they walk into a store. As is the case with auto dealerships' service centers, the most crucial time to meet a customer is when they first enter the dealership or store. Mr. Underhill's analysis supports this fact with his firm stating that the first minute a customer enters the store is the most important in getting them to purchase. The challenges that Mr. Underhill highlights for retailers are to control the flow of traffic through their stores and also specifically control the eye movement of shoppers. Each of these techniques is briefly analyzed below.
Increasing Same-Store Sales by Incenting Customer Loyalty
Mr. Underhill highlights the use of signage and shows the significant differences in how it is used at meat counters in grocery stores where 61% of the time spent waiting is after an order is placed (Berfield, 2009) in addition to how Williams-Sonoma uses signage to underscore the uniqueness and value of their products to customers. Mr. Underhill makes the point that the signage must have immediacy to them, as shown in the meat counter example, yet also be rich enough with content to provide sufficient differentiation for the products being sold. The example of this connection of incenting loyalty of customers through signage is also shown for
Ethnographic Perspective: Guests of the Sheik
Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village -- analysis
Elizabeth Fernea's book "Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village" provides readers with a complex description of women in Iraqi village during the 1950s. The text is meant to enable people to abandon stereotypes they might have considered when coming across Iraqi women. The book should not necessarily be understood as a form of criticism with regard to society's understanding of this particular community, as it is actually meant to inform readers and to make it possible for them to employ more open-minded attitudes with regard to the group. The fact that the writer provides a personal account regarding Iraqi women during the 1950s contributes to the overall authenticity of the manuscript.
The book is based on Fernea's experiences in Iraq during her stay there with her husband, an…
Warnock Fernea, E. (2010). Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
My name is Alex, I come from Como, Italy. It's right on the border with Switzerland, near Milan. I speak Italian, German, English and some French.
I have lived in the U.S. For two years now. My family is still back in Italy. I'm the only one over here. I moved here because this is where my wife lives. We used to work for the same company in Singapore, and that's where we met. I've actually been coming here for quite a few years, but only a couple of years ago did we get married and I moved here.
I return to Italy every year, and I would go more if I could. I would say that most of my memories are quite fond. Como is a very beautiful place, and wealthy. I haven't ever worked there since I was in school, I always had to work somewhere…
The first is the actors in the setting. The researcher will collect variables such as age and gender so as not to interfere with the natural setting of the revelers. The second category is the behaviors being carried out by these actors. These will be recorded as acts which are small units of behavior, activities which are a set of related acts and events which are a set of related acts in a sequence. The third category is the space that is occupied by these actors. This will essentially be an understanding of the setting of the underground rave. Information on ventilation, lighting, cleanliness, and setting of the underground rave will be collected. The fourth category is the arrangement of objects in the space. This will seek to collect information regarding the arrangement of tables, chairs, bars, and other items in the underground rave. The next category is the time…
Anderson, Tammy L. "Understanding the Alteration and Decline of a Music Scene: Observations from Rave Culture." Sociological Forum 24.2 (2009): 307-36. Print.
Aronson, E., T.D. Wilson, and M. Brewer. "Experimental Methods." The Handbook of Social Psychology. Eds. Gilbert, D., S. Fiske and G. Lindzey. 4th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Random House, 1998. 99-142. Print.
Creswell, J.W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, 2002. Print.
Demers, Joanna. "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste." Popular Music 25.3 (2006): 401-14. Print.
This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The three types of psychology research. Introduction to Research Methods. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/ss/expdesintro.htm
Munro, C.E.S. (2006). Sports fan culture & brand community: an ethnographic case study of the Vancouver Canucks Booster Club. University of British Columbia [Thesis].
Noto, C.S. (2008). The ethnography: What it is and how to write it. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/the-ethnography-write-it-1913940.html
"Writing an Ethnography," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bethelcollege.edu/users/blowers/writing%20an%20ethnography.htm
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…
references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x
Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526
Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.
Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978
Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
On the other hand, this return to a people made largely more recognized by Turnbull's first ethnography does suggest something about the ethnography itself where anthropological purpose is concerned. Namely, the degree to which the people of the Mbuti tribes may have been exposed to the larger intersection with the modern world as a result of Turnbull's first work is illustrative of the way that research can actually interfere with and alter the course of its subject's experience.
To an extent, the ethnography may be a double-edged sword, with its apparent benefits through immersion taking on troubling implications where the researcher's immersion itself becomes a factor in shaping data and outcomes. In addition to distorting intended findings, this also calls into question various ethical concerns where scientific examination is concerned. It is conceivable to argue that an ethnography such as that crafted by Turnbull may have eschewed proper ethical considerations…
Garson, J. (2006). Ethnographic Research. North Carolina State University. Online at .
Turnbull, C. (1983). The Mbuti Pygmies: Change and Adaptation. Thomson Learning.
ethnological investigation and analysis, is centered on cultural and religious activity in a contemporary community situation. Essentially, the aim of this research was to observe various cultural and social behavior patterns as they pertain to religion and spirituality in society. Two faiths were observed over a period of time. A Western religious faith such as Catholicism was compared to an Eastern faith such as Buddhism.
This topic was chosen for a number of reasons. In the first instance religion is a central facet of all cultures and societies. The search for a larger and more existential meaning to life is a cultural trait that can be observed in every culture throughout human history. It is therefore a subject that is central to cultural life and which has enormous ramifications in terms of its influence on other dimensions of cultural activity.
However, religion per se is a very broad and somewhat…
EMIC AND ETIC PERSPECTIVES. Retrieved from http://www.uwec.edu/minkushk/anth%20161emic.htm
Ethnographic fieldwork. Retrieved from http://manual.recoup.educ.cam.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Ethnographic_fieldwork
Hoey B. What is Ethnography? Retrieved from http://www.brianhoey.com/General%20Site/general_defn-ethnography.htm
Humanist profile: John Dewey (1859-1952) (2009) The Humanist, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-207350169.html
Ethnography From an Artistic Point-of-View
One of the most intriguing things about art is that it pervaded all cultures, regardless of the conditions present in some communities. Values that seem absurd for some cultures can be especially appreciated by others and vice-versa, considering the complex nature of the contemporary society. Napoleon A. Chagnon's article "Doing Fieldwork among the Yanomamo" provides readers with a first person understanding of the Yanomamo tribe and with the opportunity to understand why the community's members take on attitudes that the masses might be inclined to criticize.
The writer emphasizes the extreme aggression present in the Yanomamo culture and the fact that these people actually consider this to be one of the most important values in their community. hat was even more surprising is that they seemed to be enthusiastic about it and that this induced feelings related to brutality and unfairness in Chagnon. As most…
Chagnon, Napoleon, A., "Ya-nomamo, the fierce people," (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977)
Loizos, Peter, "Innovation in Ethnographic Film: From Innocence to Self-Consciousness, 1955-85," (Manchester University Press ND, 1993)
eflexivity: "How did the author come to write this text…Is there adequate self-awareness and self-exposure for the reader to make judgments about the point-of-view?"
This work is probably strongest on the issue of reflexivity because the author makes clear that she was embedded in the controversy, though she also offers and outsiders perspective, the experiences of the work were lived experiences. Her introduction material makes clear that she had both a journalistic and personal interest in the development of the human rights condition within the culture of Columbia. This could have created a challenge to objectivity but her scholarly skill obviously well contains the desire to be overly personal or sentimental, a problem that can be seen in some ethnographic works.
Impact: "Does this affect me? Emotionally? Intellectually?" Does it move me?
The work did impact me, emotionally and intellectually as it adequately demonstrated atrocities, though like I said previously…
Richardson, Laurel. "Evaluating ethnography." Qualitative Inquiry, 6, n. 2, (2000) 253-255.
Tate, Winifred. Counting the Dead: The Culture and Politics of Human Rights Activism in Columbia Berkeley CA: University of California Press, (2007).
University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead" http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10703.php
University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead" http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10703.php
Ainsworth, Corsaro, And Children's Relationships
Theories of child development generally focus on whether there it is more indebted to their private relationships (typically consisting of the child's interactions with their family) or public relationships (involving the child's interactions with their peers.) The former theory is known as attachment theory since it refers to the child's reliance on their parents, while the latter is considered an ethnographic approach, as it places greater emphasis on the environment in which the child's development takes place. Although both approaches are scientifically viable, they are in many ways antithetical; this essay elucidates some of the salient differences between the two.
Mary Ainsworth's approach to child development is characterized as "attachment theory." In Ainsworth's seminal procedure "The Strange Situation," she offers a comprehensive model for measuring a child's sociability, with a complete taxonomy for various diagnoses. The procedure lasts for 20 minutes and involves the child,…
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…
Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/
Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
It provides a marker for conducting and easily recording observations of complex learning. This is in a paperless format, highly efficient and engaging strategy." (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)
This is illustrating how technology is critical to reaching out to students and offering them with further explanations about what is occurring. When this happens, they will be able to more effectively relate to key ideas and have a grasp of the way they can be utilized in the future. It is this point, when everyone will have a more hands on feel for these ideas and can easily remember them. (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)
Moreover, Johnson (1994) found that having individuals work with each other in small groups is more effective than requiring them to sit and listen to someone presenting the material. Evidence of this can be seen with Johnson saying, "The ability of all students to learn to work…
Haberman, M. (1995). Star Teachers for Children and Youth in Urban Poverty. The Phi Delta Kappan, 76 (10),
pp. 777 -- 781.
Howard, G. (2007). As Diversity Grows So Must We. Responding to Changing Demographics, 6 (62),
pp. 16 -- 22.
Behaviors such as writing answers to the exercises they were given, turning pages, and eye movement to indicate reading the material were looked for by Beder in this study.
When students were not engaged in learning, Beder observed them talking to one another about things that had nothing to do with the class, day dreaming, and taking breaks. These were clear indications that the students were not interested in what they were learning. People cannot learn if they are not interested and engaged in the material, so getting this engagement is critical for teachers who want to help adult learners with their literacy. Beder's main problem was that there were no previous, identifiable studies that provided this kind of information for adult learners. His conclusions, though, showed that there were three main issues where the engagement of these students were concerned: behavioral norms, the instructional system itself, and the roles…
Take trail mix... It is an energetic, "idealized" snack food. This comes primarily from the target populations the manufacturer focuses it is marketing. Other channels for influence include consumers looking for "quick" fixes, such as families looking for fast and fun food. It would be interesting to explore the link marketing of "fast" snack products such as this have on families with young children, and compare this with the influence the product had on the political and behavioral habits and beliefs of the college students consuming it.
Lastly, symbolic systems help us better understand how products are systematically introduced and marketed to consumers. This helps shapes attitudes and beliefs. Also important to note however, as learned in class, is whether societies tend to accept or reject certain items even if marketed well. For example, oark (2007) noted that in many cultures certain foods or animals are taboo. Consider for a…
Chex Mix Peanut Lovers" Taquitos.Net (2007), Reviewed 7, June, 2007:
Coen Flynn, Karen. Food, Culture, and Survival in an African City, New York,
NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.
In this second phase of interviews with senior management, both direct and indirect studies of the congruence of their behavior and actions with the cultural norms and values they verbally endorse will be compared with their actual behaviors and actions. Seeing if the senior management of Acme Software "walks the talk" of empowering employees and honoring their contributions will be evaluated. While these two attributes are not specifically called out in the case details, there is the very good chance that these values are regularly endorsed by senior management. The congruence of their many statements and their actions needs to be qualified through a series of observations and interviews, because disconnects at this level would reverberate quickly throughout the remainder of the company. If the senior managers below the C-level executives sense a less that complete commitment to making the most of peoples' talents and abilities, and allowing them to…
Barbian, J. (2002, June). Short shelf life. Training, 50-53.
Buckingham, M. & Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break all the rules: what the world's greatest managers do differently. NY, NY: Simon Schuster.
Casell, C. And Symon, G. (1994), Qualitative methods in organizational. research: a practical guide, 2nd Edition, Sage Publications, London.
Downs, C. (1977). The relationship between communication and job satisfaction. In R. Huseman, D. Logue, & D. Freshly (Eds.), Readings in interpersonal and organizational communication (pp. 363-376). Boston: Holbrook Press.
Paris is burning achieved the status of controversy when it came out as a documentary that offered a white view of the black and Latino drag world. It is important to understand that Jenny Livingston, the director of the film, is a white lesbian whose sexuality and race had a bearing on the way the film was made and presented.
The film documents the lives and dreams of drag performers in balls that are organized to assess the height of realness in drag experience as presented by the performers. The performers are judged on the realness of their performance. They need to walk and act like fashion models would do on runways and represent their Houses. These houses offer a sense of belonging to gay and transgender community of New York City.
Starring people called Venus Xtravaganza, Willie Ninja and Octavia along with others, Paris is Burning is a commentary…
Bell hooks, "Is Paris Burning?" Z, Sisters of the Yam column (June 1991)
eserve Personnel Management Systems Division: Officer Evaluations
This paper engages in a thorough assessment of the culture, organization and technology of the reserve personnel management that operates as a branch within the Personnel Service Center of the United States Coast Guard: specifically the Officers Evaluation Systems. The method used to assess this particular branch relies heavily on ethnographic skills and related techniques. According to the official website of the U.S. Coast Guard, this is the division which handles "boards, panels, promotions, evaluations, advancements, retirements, resignations, discharges and separations for all reserve officer, chief warrant officers, and enlisted members" (uscg.mil, 2013). This is the division which deals with assignments, copies of records, medical issues and disability, individual ready reserve, promotions, separations, reserve retirement requests, policy waives and a host of other connected factors.
By scrutinizing closely factors like culture, organization, technology and related issues, one is able to obtain an accurately…
Boisjoy, R. (2013). Professional Responsibility and Conduct (Ethical Decisions - Morton Thiokol and the Challenger Disaster) . Retrieved from Onlineethics.org: http://www.onlineethics.org/Topics/ProfPractice/PPEssays/thiokolshuttle/shuttle_pro.aspx
Goldstein, H. (2005, September 1). Who Killed the Virtual Case File? Retrieved from ieee.org: http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/software/who-killed-the-virtual-case-file/0
Howard, A. (2012, February 22). Data for the public good. Retrieved from Oreilly.com: http://strata.oreilly.com/2012/02/data-public-good.html
Israel, J. (2012). Why the FBI Can't Build a Case Management System. Computer, 73-80.
They may not be overtly trying to keep blacks down, but I have noticed they it is important in this company to keep whites at the top of the ladder.
For example, my manager, a Caucasian, has been with this company for 20 years, he earns a salary in six figures and has no college experience. It shows. In fact under his supervision our department is collapsing. There is a supervisor who is African-American who tries hard to cover up for his boss's errors of judgment and wrongheaded decisions. He should be the one running our department, but he hasn't been promoted or compensated -- or even given credit for the yeoman's work that he does. The black supervisor has been with the company as long as the white manager, and the black supervisor has two master's degrees, but he can't catch a break in the company pecking order. The…
That is, there would not be a tendency to impulsively buy each and every latest gadget, though there would be a desire to own the newest and best pieces of technology available. Consideration of value and benefits is part of the play-element of this product class, and this is playfulness is observable in the behavior patterns that these consumers exhibit. It is quite likely that many of the consumers will also be avid video game players, for instance, as well as engaging in other competitive activities and comparisons with their peers. All of these elements of the targeted consumers' behavior can be used to more effectively market these products directly to this typified consumer set.
How can you describe their lifestyles and activities?
Along with some degree of expendable income, the primary consumers for this product would also have a fair amount of leisure time in which they were engaged…
If Anna Tsing, author of In the ealm of the Diamond Queen, were to apply her methodologies, theories, and approaches to ethnography to the Nuer people, the result would be a far different book than E.E.E. Pritchard's (1969) The Nuer. Flipping the perspective would completely alter Tsing's goals in the research, and the view the researcher takes on what the appropriate role of the ethnographer is to provide context and meaning to the work. Both Tsing and Pritchard would remain concerned about issues like kinship, lineage, and basic socio-political structures. Both would also include explication of economic institutions and processes, and might mention gender roles, norms, and hierarchies, too. However, Tsing would bring multiple dimensions to the Nuer study that Pritchard misses. Tsing starts her analysis of the Meratus people by describing how they are perceived not by the foreign ethnographer, but by the modern nation-state in which they…
Pritchard, E.E.E. (1969). The Nuer. Oxford University Press.
Tsing, A.L. (1993). In the Realm of the Diamond Queen. Princeton University Press.
Sometimes everyone draws nine bones. Usually, in Dominican rules, if one player is blocked, he cannot play, has to pass, and does not draw from the bone yard; so those 27 bones are completely out of the game. In the variants of different cultures, sometimes the blocked player must draw one bone every time he passes, and in others must continue to draw bones until he has a play. ut that is the game's objective: block the other team's moves, while getting your bones onto the board. It sounds easy, but there is a complicated tango of mathematics and shrew guesswork involved. Dominoes is a game that permits, even necessitates, "card" counting, and it is this dance of four intelligences, drawing on their own wisdom and experience of the game, that makes for the competitive aspect.
Here is the most important thing to know about Dominican dominoes: Never, ever, place…
1. Dominoes. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web 23 March 2010
2. Board Games. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web 23 March 2010
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.
Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Sometimes a Mall
To paraphrase Sigmund Freud, sometimes a mall is just a mall. Except that this is almost never true. For Americans who grew up in any city large enough to have its own shopping mall (or who grew up next to a city that was large enough to have its own shopping mall), the mall was a place where many of them learned to be grown-ups. Or at least how grown-ups would be if they had a more-than-usual amount of disposable income and no job to get to. And a lot of hormones to work off.
This paper examines the Glendale as a site in which the commerce that is enacted is far less important that the growing-up that occurs there. The fact that teenagers use malls as a sounding board for their adult lives is never an explicit aspect of the identity of the Glendale…
American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau -- Ancestry:2000 -- Glendale city, California." Factfinder.census.gov. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-context=qt&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_QTP13&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-CONTEXT=qt&-tree_id=403&-all_geo_types=N&-redoLog=false&-geo_id=16000US0630000&-search_results=16000US0630000&-format=&-_lang=en . Retrieved January 29, 2011.
Bean, T. & Moni, K. (2003). Developing students' critical literacy: Exploring identity construction in young adult fiction Journal of adolescent and adult
Gold, E. (1998). Deconstructive approaches in the teaching of texts. In W. Sawyer, K. Watson, & D.R. Gallo (Eds.) Re-viewing English (pp. 198 -- 203). Sydney: St. Clair Press.
Langhorne, R. (2001). The coming of globalization: Its evolution and contemporary consequences. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave.
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
THE BLACKFEET NATION INDIANS
This is a five page paper dealing with the Blackfeet Nation Indians. It will explore the tribe's history and early lifestyles. It will also cover the health and education of the tribe now. Problems facing the tribe and methods used in preserving their culture will also be addressed. There are seven references used.
The Blackfeet Indians are a Native American tribe that live in Northern Montana. They have a history rich in traditions and rituals. There is some controversy on how they became known as Blackfeet, but many believe it is because of the black moccasins they wore. It's not sure how these moccasins became black, but two suggestions are the Indians painted them or they were darkened by prairie fire (www.blackfeetnation.com).
The original home of the Blackfeet is believed to have been in the eastern woodlands "north of the Great Lakes (www.blackfeetnation.com)."…
(Origins and Early History of the Blackfeet (accessed 10-01-2002) http://
Ritter, John. "Blackfeet plan USA's only offshore bank." USA Today. (2000): 03 April.
Nijhuis, Michelle. "Tribal immersion schools rescue language and culture." The Christian
Science Monitor. (2002): 11 June.
Yiddish as a first language in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, compared to the use of local vernacular (for example, Hebrew in Israeli-ased Jews, or English in London and New York-ased Jews): in Hasidic Jews, the use of Yiddish is widespread, whereas in other Jewish groups, the local vernacular is more common.
This paper discusses the reasons behind these differences, and looks at the functions that Yiddish serves in these Hasidic Jew communities. The paper also looks at the effects of outside pressures has on the use of Yiddish, and on issues of identity in general.
The paper also looks at the religious issues related to the use of Yiddish, and at heritage issues in general. The paper also looks in detail at the use of Yiddish as a cultural isolating mechanism, as a way to create barriers between Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews, and also Hasidic Jews and non-Jews (gentiles).
Abraham, J.E. (1985). Perceptions of English Learning in a Hasidic Jewish Sect.
Abrams, D. And Hogg, M.A. (2000). Social Identity: Constructive and Critical.
Belcove-Shalin, J. (1995). New World Hasidim: Ethnographic Studies of Hasidic Jews in America.
Ben-Rafael, E. Language and Social Division -The Case of Israel.
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…
Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).
Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).
Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.
Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226
Dead: A Cultural Experience
One of the most common misconceptions about The Day of the Dead is that it is synonymous and analogous to the American tradition of Halloween. However, in certain respects the two traditions are a bit like night and day, particularly regarding their perspectives on life and on death. While western traditions don't really have a full multi-day holiday by which to honor the dead, there is an interesting amount of co-occurrence with certain Western rites. For instance, it coincides with the Catholic All Soul's and All Saint's Day, "…the indigenous people have combined this with their own ancient beliefs of honoring their deceased loved ones. They believe that the gates of heaven are opened at midnight on October 31, and the spirits of all deceased children (angelitos) are allowed to reunite with their families for 24 hours. On November 2, the spirits of the adults come…
Herz, M. (2013). Day of the Dead: Celebration, History & Origins. Retrieved from inside-mexico.com: http://www.inside-mexico.com/featuredead.htm
RTC. (2013). Day of the Dead & the Sugar Skull Tradition. Retrieved from mexicansugarskill.com: http://www.mexicansugarskull.com/support/dodhistory.html
Unm.edu. (2013). The Day of the Dead -- November 2nd . Retrieved from Unm.edu: http://www.unm.edu/~htafoya/dayofthedead.html
The way in which these quotes were related to previous research also asserted trustworthiness. The reliability and validity of ethnographic research is often questioned in comparison to experimental research, although there are several strategies recognized to enhance credibility (LeCompte and Goetz, 1982); there is little evidence of use of such strategies in the study.
The findings of the study enabled the researchers' to put forward several indications towards future practice in health care in rural communities, although it was recognized that in order for a comprehensive set of nursing care management regulations and interventions to be identified, further research within the specific types of community used are required.
Summary of critique and conclusions
Overall, the piece of research effectively identified several gaps in the current research regarding the effect of health care transitions in rural communities. The study identified three relevant research questions, although presented little information regarding the current…
Boyd, C.O. (1993) Toward a nursing practice research method. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2), 9-25.
LeCompte, M.D. And Goetz, J.P. (1982) Problems of reliability and validity in ethnographic research. Review of Educational Research, 52 (1), 31-60.
Lowenberg, J.S. (1993) Interpretive research methodology: broadening the dialogue. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2), 57-69.
Magilvy, J.K. And Congdon, J.G. (2000) the crisis nature of health care transitions for rural older adults. Public Health Nursing, 17 (5), 336-345.
interview techniques. DiCocco and Crabtree (2006) discuss different interview strategies. One is the unstructured interview, a technique that originates in anthropology study. This technique is used when the type of information to be gathered is not known, or is only loosely-defined, because the technique is open-ended. Eliciting insights is a key objective of this type of interview.
A second interview strategy is the semi-structured interview. In this technique, the interviewer is able to "delve deeply into social and personal matters" (Ibid). The group interview can be used with this strategy as well. Semi-structured interviews are commonly used to gain information that might be open-ended in nature, in a group setting, or to learn about someone's life experiences. The focus group is a form of semi-structured interview used in marketing.
A third interview strategy is the individual in-depth interview. This technique is used when the research question is focused, and is…
DiCocco, B. & Crabtree, B. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical Education. Vol. 40 (2006) 314-321.
Finucane, A. & Mercer, S. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness -based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry. Vol. 6 (2006) 14.
Kennedy, T., Regehr, G., Baker, G. & Lingard, L. (2009). Preserving professional credibility: Grounded theory study of medical trainees' requests for clinical support. British Medical Journal. Vol. 338.
Premberg, A., Carlsson, G., Hellstrom, A. & Berg, M. (2010). First-time fathers' experiences of childbirth -- A phenomenological study. Midwifery.
Nursing Study on Hourly ounding
Qualitative nursing Study on Hourly ounding
Similarities and difference to other quantitative articles
Similar to other qualitative papers, ethnographic researchers target the inclusion and representation of the views and observations of the subjects. The questions in qualitative and ethnographic researchers try to focus on the understanding of the subjects in their engagements in the day-to-day experiences. It is the interests of qualitative and ethnographic researchers to seek the relative positions and evaluations of the subjects about the subject matter (Green, Dixon, & Zaharlick, 2002).
Qualitative and ethnographic researchers obtain guidance on implementation and design in conducting their study from the theoretical orientations. These orientations include data collections tools -- interviews, artifacts, participant observation -- and data analysis measures (Green et al., 2002). Theoretical guides also direct on measures of entering the field, data to collect, the relevant literature to retain, necessary records to make and…
Green, J., Dixon, C., & Zaharlick, A. (2002). "Ethnography As A Logic Of Inquiry." In Handbook For Methods Of Research On English Language Arts Teaching, Ed. James Flood, Julie Jensen, Diane Lapp, And James Squire. New York: Macmillan.
LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2013). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice: Elsevier - Health Sciences Division.
By conducting a peer led focus group the interaction between the participants allows for sharing of stories and experiences and opens up the lines for a deeper, more meaningful discussion. Instead of the participants directing their responses to questions and statements asked of the researcher to the researcher, participants will be able to converse with one another. The researcher will still be a part of the focus group, but his role will not be as prominent as it would be in a traditional style focus group. Instead, the researcher will observe, take notes and steer the group in the right direction if they start to discuss other topics which are not a part of the study.
Because this research deals with the dynamics of welfare recipients as opposed to how many people are on welfare, a qualitative approach is best. The only information that could be dealt with…
Berg, B.L. (2009). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (7th edition ed.). Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.
Childstats.gov - America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2010 - Economic Circumstances. (n.d.). Childstats.gov - Home. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/eco.asp
Lofland, J., Snow, D.A., Anderson, L., & Lofland, L.H. (2005). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis (4th ed. ed.). Gwenn Wilson: Wadsworth Publishing.
Murray, C. (2006). Peer led focus groups and young people. Children and Society, 20(4), 273-286.
Ethnography of Communication in High School Film
The EOC (ethnography of communication) is the analysis of communication within a culture, and practices of speech of a number of community. The EOC refers to the discourse analysis in linguistic drawing the anthropological field investigating the use of speech, their meaning or interpretation as being found in human groups or particular communities. The normative and cultural are two important concepts in the ethnographic communication analysis, which are used to analyze language, cultural norms, and situation context that influence communication among people.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the concept ethnographic of communication using the film titled "High School" directed by Frederick Wiseman.
Part 1 of Project
The study uses the film titled "High School" to illustrate the concept ethnographic communication. High School is an American film directed by Frederick Wiseman in 1968. High School is an ethnographic film depicting Northeast…
Gudykunst, W. B. (2005), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 55-68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Knippenberg, D. V. & Hogg M. A. (2004), Leadership and power: Identity processes in groups and organizations (pp. 210-223). London: Sage
Shimanoff, S. B. (1980). Communication rules: Theory and research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
However, the ability to criticize and gain depth into a subject was the key factors involved in qualitative research. In order for qualitative research methods to be applied to qualitative research, these methods had to undergo some form of transformation to make them acceptable to the empirical mindset. ainwright argues that in order to achieve this, qualitative methods had to sacrifice some of their critical elements in favor of validity and reliability. He argues that one cannot have criticism and validity at the same time.
However, this is a difficult viewpoint to accept and if one examines the method to be employed in this research, the presence of validity and controls does not limit the ability to criticize the results. Increasing validity and reliability in the qualitative research means the development of criteria on the data collection. This may be a hindrance in the traditional sociological setting, such as field…
Beattie, G. 2002. Head Counts. Guardian Unlimited. May 28, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/universityguide/story/0,721013,00.html .
Dehnart, a. 2001. Celebrating Classic Sociology: Pioneers of British Qualitative Research. A symposium organized by Qualidata and held on 5-6 July 2001 at the University of Essex. Aug. 6, 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at http://www.esds.ac.uk/qualidata/news/symposium.asp
Fielding, N. 1993. Ethnography. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life. London: Sage.
Hammersley, M. 1992. What's wrong with ethnography? London: Routledge.
interviews and surveys with women offenders who are inmates in the aylor Correctional Institution form the foundation of this discussion of data analysis and report writing. The revised research questions accentuate the need for a greater balance of qualitative and quantitative research to ensure as complete and accurate a research methodology is executed. The first phase of the study concentrates on a more thorough analysis of the qualitative factors that influence the outcomes of every research question. The second phased concentrates on the use of attitudinal scaling at the interval or ratio level of measurement so that multidimensional scaling (MDS) can be used to define perception- and attitudinal-based maps of how and why trigger events lead to lapses on drug tolerance. The use of MDS techniques to determine the relative level of self-awareness and attitudes towards specific treatment strategies is commonplace in social science, and often provides insights into interrelationships…
Beck, J.A. (2006). Offending women: Discipline, punishment, and re-forming selves in a therapeutic-community drug treatment program. (Order No. 3219609, University of California, Santa Cruz). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 407-407
Marlowe, D.B., Festinger, D.S., Dugosh, K.L., Arabia, P.L., & Kirby, K.C. (2008). AN EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL OF CONTINGENCY Management IN A FELONY PREADJUDICATION DRUG COURT. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(4), 565-77.
Robbins, C.A., Martin, S.S., & Surratt, H.L. (2009). Substance abuse treatment, anticipated maternal roles, and reentry success of drug-involved women prisoners. Crime and Delinquency, 55(3), 388-411.
Schwartz, S.H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C. Konty, M. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(4), 663.
This raises the question of the extent to which this particular qualitative methodology is successful in terms of large generalizations.
In general, the qualitative method of data acquisition and research has many advantages over the more restrictive and rigid quantitative methodologies. Qualitative research seeks a more in-depth and holistic view of the subject and is particularly well suited in terms of taking account of the plethora of variables that may occur in the process of investigation. Quantitative research on the other hand is usually bounded by questions of measurement and invariably starts with a predetermined set of parameters about the research and is therefore restricted in terms of its contextual and investigative potential. Qualitative research is therefore more successful in education research and the social sciences; where the subjective element and the participation of the data sample group are also taken into account. Many researchers prefer this methods as they…
Hubbard L. 'The role of gender in academic achievement '(2005) International
Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education Vol. 18, No. 5, September-October 2005, pp. 605-623
Myers M.D. Qualitative Research in Information Systems. Retrieved June 22, 2007 at http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/
Qualitative Research Methods. Retrieved June 22, 2007 at http://www.orau.gov/cdcynergy/soc2web/Content/activeinformation/tools/toolscontent/qualitativemethods.htm
setting with a focus on one specific EMS unit that will participate in the CDP training program. This setting was selected because it offered a snapshot collection of data that could be valuable based on the outcome of the training provided by the CDP program. The researcher will conduct pre and post-interviews with the members of the EMS unit as they start and complete the program. One of the benefits of this style of approach is that it allows for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data.
A mixed research study design provides the researcher with hard, numerical data on feelings, thoughts, beliefs and perceptions. The organization benefits from this type of study because the organization can analyze through numerical data how its members actually perceive the training they receive. The data can help discover whether the training is effective or needs to be improved upon.
ATLAS.ti Retrieved http://www.atlasti.com/ .
Milley, J.E. (1979). An Investigation of case study as
Ethical Issues. Be sure that your paper includes an assessment of how you will deal with potential ethical issues that might arise in your study.
Palena Neale, P., Thapa, S., and Boyce, C. (2006, May). Monitoring and Evaluation -- 1
This means that modernization has no place in the lives of most Africans, primarily because they have learned to survive and live despite the inconveniences that forest life presents. From this realization, readers are shown how development is interpreted from the point-of-view of those who have remarkably survived early forms of living, such as the life of hunting-gathering that the forest people have known ever since they have become part of the Ituri forest.
Apart from their lifestyle, the BaMbuti's social organization is radically different from the one established under a capitalist economic system (which is the prevalent social structure for most developed and developing nations in the 20th century). In Turnbull's study of the tribe's social structure and organization, it became apparent that the tribe had no established social system, be it political or economic in nature. He claims that "...the BaMbuti were a single cultural unit...There was no…
Turnbull, C. (1961). The Forest People. NY: Simon and Schuster.