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Ethnographic Essays (Examples)

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Guests of the Sheik Ethnography of an Iraqi Village
Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11151107
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Ethnographic Perspective: Guests of the Sheik

Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village -- analysis

Elizabeth Fernea's book "Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village" provides readers with a complex description of women in Iraqi village during the 1950s. The text is meant to enable people to abandon stereotypes they might have considered when coming across Iraqi women. The book should not necessarily be understood as a form of criticism with regard to society's understanding of this particular community, as it is actually meant to inform readers and to make it possible for them to employ more open-minded attitudes with regard to the group. The fact that the writer provides a personal account regarding Iraqi women during the 1950s contributes to the overall authenticity of the manuscript.

The book is based on Fernea's experiences in Iraq during her stay there with her husband, an…

Works cited:

Warnock Fernea, E. (2010). Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Interview With a European
Words: 1221 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59503014
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Ethnographic Interview

My name is Alex, I come from Como, Italy. It's right on the border with Switzerland, near Milan. I speak Italian, German, English and some French.

I have lived in the U.S. For two years now. My family is still back in Italy. I'm the only one over here. I moved here because this is where my wife lives. We used to work for the same company in Singapore, and that's where we met. I've actually been coming here for quite a few years, but only a couple of years ago did we get married and I moved here.

I return to Italy every year, and I would go more if I could. I would say that most of my memories are quite fond. Como is a very beautiful place, and wealthy. I haven't ever worked there since I was in school, I always had to work somewhere…

Underground Raves in Southern California
Words: 3307 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89794795
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The first is the actors in the setting. The researcher will collect variables such as age and gender so as not to interfere with the natural setting of the revelers. The second category is the behaviors being carried out by these actors. These will be recorded as acts which are small units of behavior, activities which are a set of related acts and events which are a set of related acts in a sequence. The third category is the space that is occupied by these actors. This will essentially be an understanding of the setting of the underground rave. Information on ventilation, lighting, cleanliness, and setting of the underground rave will be collected. The fourth category is the arrangement of objects in the space. This will seek to collect information regarding the arrangement of tables, chairs, bars, and other items in the underground rave. The next category is the time…


Anderson, Tammy L. "Understanding the Alteration and Decline of a Music Scene: Observations from Rave Culture." Sociological Forum 24.2 (2009): 307-36. Print.

Aronson, E., T.D. Wilson, and M. Brewer. "Experimental Methods." The Handbook of Social Psychology. Eds. Gilbert, D., S. Fiske and G. Lindzey. 4th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Random House, 1998. 99-142. Print.

Creswell, J.W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, 2002. Print.

Demers, Joanna. "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste." Popular Music 25.3 (2006): 401-14. Print.

Sports Team Ethnography
Words: 1422 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97901208
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This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…


Cherry, K. (n.d.). The three types of psychology research. Introduction to Research Methods. Retrieved online: 

Munro, C.E.S. (2006). Sports fan culture & brand community: an ethnographic case study of the Vancouver Canucks Booster Club. University of British Columbia [Thesis].

Noto, C.S. (2008). The ethnography: What it is and how to write it. Retrieved online: 

"Writing an Ethnography," (n.d.). Retrieved online:

Culture Refers to the Accumulated
Words: 4685 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87152746
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In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.

The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…

references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x

Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526

Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.

Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978

Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.

Turnbull Ethno Colin Turnbull's Ethnography
Words: 1503 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 17373381
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On the other hand, this return to a people made largely more recognized by Turnbull's first ethnography does suggest something about the ethnography itself where anthropological purpose is concerned. Namely, the degree to which the people of the Mbuti tribes may have been exposed to the larger intersection with the modern world as a result of Turnbull's first work is illustrative of the way that research can actually interfere with and alter the course of its subject's experience.

To an extent, the ethnography may be a double-edged sword, with its apparent benefits through immersion taking on troubling implications where the researcher's immersion itself becomes a factor in shaping data and outcomes. In addition to distorting intended findings, this also calls into question various ethical concerns where scientific examination is concerned. It is conceivable to argue that an ethnography such as that crafted by Turnbull may have eschewed proper ethical considerations…

Works Cited:

Garson, J. (2006). Ethnographic Research. North Carolina State University. Online at .

Turnbull, C. (1983). The Mbuti Pygmies: Change and Adaptation. Thomson Learning.

Ethnological Investigation and Analysis Is Centered on
Words: 3087 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86733241
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ethnological investigation and analysis, is centered on cultural and religious activity in a contemporary community situation. Essentially, the aim of this research was to observe various cultural and social behavior patterns as they pertain to religion and spirituality in society. Two faiths were observed over a period of time. A Western religious faith such as Catholicism was compared to an Eastern faith such as Buddhism.

This topic was chosen for a number of reasons. In the first instance religion is a central facet of all cultures and societies. The search for a larger and more existential meaning to life is a cultural trait that can be observed in every culture throughout human history. It is therefore a subject that is central to cultural life and which has enormous ramifications in terms of its influence on other dimensions of cultural activity.

However, religion per se is a very broad and somewhat…



Ethnographic fieldwork. Retrieved from

Hoey B. What is Ethnography? Retrieved from 

Humanist profile: John Dewey (1859-1952) (2009) The Humanist, 2009. Retrieved from

Specific Opinion About This Two Anthropology Sources
Words: 1048 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85091447
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Ethnography From an Artistic Point-of-View

One of the most intriguing things about art is that it pervaded all cultures, regardless of the conditions present in some communities. Values that seem absurd for some cultures can be especially appreciated by others and vice-versa, considering the complex nature of the contemporary society. Napoleon A. Chagnon's article "Doing Fieldwork among the Yanomamo" provides readers with a first person understanding of the Yanomamo tribe and with the opportunity to understand why the community's members take on attitudes that the masses might be inclined to criticize.

The writer emphasizes the extreme aggression present in the Yanomamo culture and the fact that these people actually consider this to be one of the most important values in their community. hat was even more surprising is that they seemed to be enthusiastic about it and that this induced feelings related to brutality and unfairness in Chagnon. As most…

Works cited:

Chagnon, Napoleon, A., "Ya-nomamo, the fierce people," (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977)

Loizos, Peter, "Innovation in Ethnographic Film: From Innocence to Self-Consciousness, 1955-85," (Manchester University Press ND, 1993)

Counting the Dead the Work
Words: 2152 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76882450
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eflexivity: "How did the author come to write this text…Is there adequate self-awareness and self-exposure for the reader to make judgments about the point-of-view?"

This work is probably strongest on the issue of reflexivity because the author makes clear that she was embedded in the controversy, though she also offers and outsiders perspective, the experiences of the work were lived experiences. Her introduction material makes clear that she had both a journalistic and personal interest in the development of the human rights condition within the culture of Columbia. This could have created a challenge to objectivity but her scholarly skill obviously well contains the desire to be overly personal or sentimental, a problem that can be seen in some ethnographic works.

Impact: "Does this affect me? Emotionally? Intellectually?" Does it move me?

The work did impact me, emotionally and intellectually as it adequately demonstrated atrocities, though like I said previously…


Richardson, Laurel. "Evaluating ethnography." Qualitative Inquiry, 6, n. 2, (2000) 253-255.

Tate, Winifred. Counting the Dead: The Culture and Politics of Human Rights Activism in Columbia Berkeley CA: University of California Press, (2007).

University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead"

University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead"

Ainsworth Corsaro and Children's Relationships Theories of
Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33374857
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Ainsworth, Corsaro, And Children's Relationships

Theories of child development generally focus on whether there it is more indebted to their private relationships (typically consisting of the child's interactions with their family) or public relationships (involving the child's interactions with their peers.) The former theory is known as attachment theory since it refers to the child's reliance on their parents, while the latter is considered an ethnographic approach, as it places greater emphasis on the environment in which the child's development takes place. Although both approaches are scientifically viable, they are in many ways antithetical; this essay elucidates some of the salient differences between the two.

Mary Ainsworth's approach to child development is characterized as "attachment theory." In Ainsworth's seminal procedure "The Strange Situation," she offers a comprehensive model for measuring a child's sociability, with a complete taxonomy for various diagnoses. The procedure lasts for 20 minutes and involves the child,…

Ethics Are Often Stronger Than the Laws
Words: 889 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27744553
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Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.

Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.

Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…


Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from 

Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from 

Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.

Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from

Observation Journal
Words: 2920 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 54207530
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It provides a marker for conducting and easily recording observations of complex learning. This is in a paperless format, highly efficient and engaging strategy." (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)

This is illustrating how technology is critical to reaching out to students and offering them with further explanations about what is occurring. When this happens, they will be able to more effectively relate to key ideas and have a grasp of the way they can be utilized in the future. It is this point, when everyone will have a more hands on feel for these ideas and can easily remember them. (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)

Moreover, Johnson (1994) found that having individuals work with each other in small groups is more effective than requiring them to sit and listen to someone presenting the material. Evidence of this can be seen with Johnson saying, "The ability of all students to learn to work…


Haberman, M. (1995). Star Teachers for Children and Youth in Urban Poverty. The Phi Delta Kappan, 76 (10),

pp. 777 -- 781.

Howard, G. (2007). As Diversity Grows So Must We. Responding to Changing Demographics, 6 (62),

pp. 16 -- 22.

Hal Beder Is Interested in
Words: 326 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 92366358
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Behaviors such as writing answers to the exercises they were given, turning pages, and eye movement to indicate reading the material were looked for by Beder in this study.

When students were not engaged in learning, Beder observed them talking to one another about things that had nothing to do with the class, day dreaming, and taking breaks. These were clear indications that the students were not interested in what they were learning. People cannot learn if they are not interested and engaged in the material, so getting this engagement is critical for teachers who want to help adult learners with their literacy. Beder's main problem was that there were no previous, identifiable studies that provided this kind of information for adult learners. His conclusions, though, showed that there were three main issues where the engagement of these students were concerned: behavioral norms, the instructional system itself, and the roles…

Food Ritual Observance - A
Words: 2321 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74443737
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Take trail mix... It is an energetic, "idealized" snack food. This comes primarily from the target populations the manufacturer focuses it is marketing. Other channels for influence include consumers looking for "quick" fixes, such as families looking for fast and fun food. It would be interesting to explore the link marketing of "fast" snack products such as this have on families with young children, and compare this with the influence the product had on the political and behavioral habits and beliefs of the college students consuming it.

Lastly, symbolic systems help us better understand how products are systematically introduced and marketed to consumers. This helps shapes attitudes and beliefs. Also important to note however, as learned in class, is whether societies tend to accept or reject certain items even if marketed well. For example, oark (2007) noted that in many cultures certain foods or animals are taboo. Consider for a…


Chex Mix Peanut Lovers" Taquitos.Net (2007), Reviewed 7, June, 2007: .

Coen Flynn, Karen. Food, Culture, and Survival in an African City, New York,

NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.

High Turnover of Both Senior
Words: 3079 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29928061
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In this second phase of interviews with senior management, both direct and indirect studies of the congruence of their behavior and actions with the cultural norms and values they verbally endorse will be compared with their actual behaviors and actions. Seeing if the senior management of Acme Software "walks the talk" of empowering employees and honoring their contributions will be evaluated. While these two attributes are not specifically called out in the case details, there is the very good chance that these values are regularly endorsed by senior management. The congruence of their many statements and their actions needs to be qualified through a series of observations and interviews, because disconnects at this level would reverberate quickly throughout the remainder of the company. If the senior managers below the C-level executives sense a less that complete commitment to making the most of peoples' talents and abilities, and allowing them to…


Barbian, J. (2002, June). Short shelf life. Training, 50-53.

Buckingham, M. & Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break all the rules: what the world's greatest managers do differently. NY, NY: Simon Schuster.

Casell, C. And Symon, G. (1994), Qualitative methods in organizational. research: a practical guide, 2nd Edition, Sage Publications, London.

Downs, C. (1977). The relationship between communication and job satisfaction. In R. Huseman, D. Logue, & D. Freshly (Eds.), Readings in interpersonal and organizational communication (pp. 363-376). Boston: Holbrook Press.

Paris Is Burning
Words: 833 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 69453378
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Paris is burning achieved the status of controversy when it came out as a documentary that offered a white view of the black and Latino drag world. It is important to understand that Jenny Livingston, the director of the film, is a white lesbian whose sexuality and race had a bearing on the way the film was made and presented.

The film documents the lives and dreams of drag performers in balls that are organized to assess the height of realness in drag experience as presented by the performers. The performers are judged on the realness of their performance. They need to walk and act like fashion models would do on runways and represent their Houses. These houses offer a sense of belonging to gay and transgender community of New York City.

Starring people called Venus Xtravaganza, Willie Ninja and Octavia along with others, Paris is Burning is a commentary…


Bell hooks, "Is Paris Burning?" Z, Sisters of the Yam column (June 1991)

Reserve Personnel Management Officer Evaluations
Words: 4371 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1940124
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eserve Personnel Management Systems Division: Officer Evaluations

This paper engages in a thorough assessment of the culture, organization and technology of the reserve personnel management that operates as a branch within the Personnel Service Center of the United States Coast Guard: specifically the Officers Evaluation Systems. The method used to assess this particular branch relies heavily on ethnographic skills and related techniques. According to the official website of the U.S. Coast Guard, this is the division which handles "boards, panels, promotions, evaluations, advancements, retirements, resignations, discharges and separations for all reserve officer, chief warrant officers, and enlisted members" (, 2013). This is the division which deals with assignments, copies of records, medical issues and disability, individual ready reserve, promotions, separations, reserve retirement requests, policy waives and a host of other connected factors.

By scrutinizing closely factors like culture, organization, technology and related issues, one is able to obtain an accurately…


Boisjoy, R. (2013). Professional Responsibility and Conduct (Ethical Decisions - Morton Thiokol and the Challenger Disaster) . Retrieved from 

Goldstein, H. (2005, September 1). Who Killed the Virtual Case File? Retrieved from 

Howard, A. (2012, February 22). Data for the public good. Retrieved from

Israel, J. (2012). Why the FBI Can't Build a Case Management System. Computer, 73-80.

Narrative Ethnography the Readings on
Words: 1762 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42875079
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They may not be overtly trying to keep blacks down, but I have noticed they it is important in this company to keep whites at the top of the ladder.

For example, my manager, a Caucasian, has been with this company for 20 years, he earns a salary in six figures and has no college experience. It shows. In fact under his supervision our department is collapsing. There is a supervisor who is African-American who tries hard to cover up for his boss's errors of judgment and wrongheaded decisions. He should be the one running our department, but he hasn't been promoted or compensated -- or even given credit for the yeoman's work that he does. The black supervisor has been with the company as long as the white manager, and the black supervisor has two master's degrees, but he can't catch a break in the company pecking order. The…

Marketing Audio Research's Zentral Home
Words: 778 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 37752353
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That is, there would not be a tendency to impulsively buy each and every latest gadget, though there would be a desire to own the newest and best pieces of technology available. Consideration of value and benefits is part of the play-element of this product class, and this is playfulness is observable in the behavior patterns that these consumers exhibit. It is quite likely that many of the consumers will also be avid video game players, for instance, as well as engaging in other competitive activities and comparisons with their peers. All of these elements of the targeted consumers' behavior can be used to more effectively market these products directly to this typified consumer set.

How can you describe their lifestyles and activities?

Along with some degree of expendable income, the primary consumers for this product would also have a fair amount of leisure time in which they were engaged…

Anthro if Anna Tsing Author of in
Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66196166
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If Anna Tsing, author of In the ealm of the Diamond Queen, were to apply her methodologies, theories, and approaches to ethnography to the Nuer people, the result would be a far different book than E.E.E. Pritchard's (1969) The Nuer. Flipping the perspective would completely alter Tsing's goals in the research, and the view the researcher takes on what the appropriate role of the ethnographer is to provide context and meaning to the work. Both Tsing and Pritchard would remain concerned about issues like kinship, lineage, and basic socio-political structures. Both would also include explication of economic institutions and processes, and might mention gender roles, norms, and hierarchies, too. However, Tsing would bring multiple dimensions to the Nuer study that Pritchard misses. Tsing starts her analysis of the Meratus people by describing how they are perceived not by the foreign ethnographer, but by the modern nation-state in which they…


Pritchard, E.E.E. (1969). The Nuer. Oxford University Press.

Tsing, A.L. (1993). In the Realm of the Diamond Queen. Princeton University Press.

Game of Dominoes We All
Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93117588
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Sometimes everyone draws nine bones. Usually, in Dominican rules, if one player is blocked, he cannot play, has to pass, and does not draw from the bone yard; so those 27 bones are completely out of the game. In the variants of different cultures, sometimes the blocked player must draw one bone every time he passes, and in others must continue to draw bones until he has a play. ut that is the game's objective: block the other team's moves, while getting your bones onto the board. It sounds easy, but there is a complicated tango of mathematics and shrew guesswork involved. Dominoes is a game that permits, even necessitates, "card" counting, and it is this dance of four intelligences, drawing on their own wisdom and experience of the game, that makes for the competitive aspect.

Here is the most important thing to know about Dominican dominoes: Never, ever, place…


1. Dominoes. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web 23 March 2010

2. Board Games. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web 23 March 2010

Anthropology Japanese-American Internment During the
Words: 5857 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22390575
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... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'

The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…


Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.


Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Glendale Mall Sometimes a Mall to Paraphrase
Words: 2516 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91860799
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Glendale Mall

Sometimes a Mall

To paraphrase Sigmund Freud, sometimes a mall is just a mall. Except that this is almost never true. For Americans who grew up in any city large enough to have its own shopping mall (or who grew up next to a city that was large enough to have its own shopping mall), the mall was a place where many of them learned to be grown-ups. Or at least how grown-ups would be if they had a more-than-usual amount of disposable income and no job to get to. And a lot of hormones to work off.

This paper examines the Glendale as a site in which the commerce that is enacted is far less important that the growing-up that occurs there. The fact that teenagers use malls as a sounding board for their adult lives is never an explicit aspect of the identity of the Glendale…


American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau -- Ancestry:2000 -- Glendale city, California." . Retrieved January 29, 2011.

Bean, T. & Moni, K. (2003). Developing students' critical literacy: Exploring identity construction in young adult fiction Journal of adolescent and adult

Gold, E. (1998). Deconstructive approaches in the teaching of texts. In W. Sawyer, K. Watson, & D.R. Gallo (Eds.) Re-viewing English (pp. 198 -- 203). Sydney: St. Clair Press.

Langhorne, R. (2001). The coming of globalization: Its evolution and contemporary consequences. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave.

Cultural Observation of Dress
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 383010
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Cultural Observation of Dress

Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.

Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)

f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.

People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…

Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)

Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.

Miner's article is discussing the appearance

Anthropology Blackfeet Nation Indians
Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96956563
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This is a five page paper dealing with the Blackfeet Nation Indians. It will explore the tribe's history and early lifestyles. It will also cover the health and education of the tribe now. Problems facing the tribe and methods used in preserving their culture will also be addressed. There are seven references used.
The Blackfeet Indians are a Native American tribe that live in Northern Montana. They have a history rich in traditions and rituals. There is some controversy on how they became known as Blackfeet, but many believe it is because of the black moccasins they wore. It's not sure how these moccasins became black, but two suggestions are the Indians painted them or they were darkened by prairie fire (
The Beginnings
The original home of the Blackfeet is believed to have been in the eastern woodlands "north of the Great Lakes ("…


(Origins and Early History of the Blackfeet (accessed 10-01-2002) http://

Ritter, John. "Blackfeet plan USA's only offshore bank." USA Today. (2000): 03 April.

Nijhuis, Michelle. "Tribal immersion schools rescue language and culture." The Christian
Science Monitor. (2002): 11 June.

Yiddish as a First Language in Ultra-Orthodox
Words: 3999 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60238313
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Yiddish as a first language in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, compared to the use of local vernacular (for example, Hebrew in Israeli-ased Jews, or English in London and New York-ased Jews): in Hasidic Jews, the use of Yiddish is widespread, whereas in other Jewish groups, the local vernacular is more common.

This paper discusses the reasons behind these differences, and looks at the functions that Yiddish serves in these Hasidic Jew communities. The paper also looks at the effects of outside pressures has on the use of Yiddish, and on issues of identity in general.

The paper also looks at the religious issues related to the use of Yiddish, and at heritage issues in general. The paper also looks in detail at the use of Yiddish as a cultural isolating mechanism, as a way to create barriers between Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews, and also Hasidic Jews and non-Jews (gentiles).



Abraham, J.E. (1985). Perceptions of English Learning in a Hasidic Jewish Sect.

Abrams, D. And Hogg, M.A. (2000). Social Identity: Constructive and Critical.

Belcove-Shalin, J. (1995). New World Hasidim: Ethnographic Studies of Hasidic Jews in America.

Ben-Rafael, E. Language and Social Division -The Case of Israel.

Welcoming Homosexual Lifestyles at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Words: 3029 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86596399
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Black Colleges Homosexuality

In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.

Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…


Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).

Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).

Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.

Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226

Day of the Dead
Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6841245
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Dead: A Cultural Experience

One of the most common misconceptions about The Day of the Dead is that it is synonymous and analogous to the American tradition of Halloween. However, in certain respects the two traditions are a bit like night and day, particularly regarding their perspectives on life and on death. While western traditions don't really have a full multi-day holiday by which to honor the dead, there is an interesting amount of co-occurrence with certain Western rites. For instance, it coincides with the Catholic All Soul's and All Saint's Day, "…the indigenous people have combined this with their own ancient beliefs of honoring their deceased loved ones. They believe that the gates of heaven are opened at midnight on October 31, and the spirits of all deceased children (angelitos) are allowed to reunite with their families for 24 hours. On November 2, the spirits of the adults come…


Herz, M. (2013). Day of the Dead: Celebration, History & Origins. Retrieved from 

RTC. (2013). Day of the Dead & the Sugar Skull Tradition. Retrieved from (2013). The Day of the Dead -- November 2nd . Retrieved from

Crisis Nature of Health Care
Words: 1937 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75473270
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The way in which these quotes were related to previous research also asserted trustworthiness. The reliability and validity of ethnographic research is often questioned in comparison to experimental research, although there are several strategies recognized to enhance credibility (LeCompte and Goetz, 1982); there is little evidence of use of such strategies in the study.

The findings of the study enabled the researchers' to put forward several indications towards future practice in health care in rural communities, although it was recognized that in order for a comprehensive set of nursing care management regulations and interventions to be identified, further research within the specific types of community used are required.

Summary of critique and conclusions

Overall, the piece of research effectively identified several gaps in the current research regarding the effect of health care transitions in rural communities. The study identified three relevant research questions, although presented little information regarding the current…


Boyd, C.O. (1993) Toward a nursing practice research method. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2), 9-25.

LeCompte, M.D. And Goetz, J.P. (1982) Problems of reliability and validity in ethnographic research. Review of Educational Research, 52 (1), 31-60.

Lowenberg, J.S. (1993) Interpretive research methodology: broadening the dialogue. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2), 57-69.

Magilvy, J.K. And Congdon, J.G. (2000) the crisis nature of health care transitions for rural older adults. Public Health Nursing, 17 (5), 336-345.

Interview Techniques Dicocco and Crabtree 2006 Discuss
Words: 1934 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40167820
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interview techniques. DiCocco and Crabtree (2006) discuss different interview strategies. One is the unstructured interview, a technique that originates in anthropology study. This technique is used when the type of information to be gathered is not known, or is only loosely-defined, because the technique is open-ended. Eliciting insights is a key objective of this type of interview.

A second interview strategy is the semi-structured interview. In this technique, the interviewer is able to "delve deeply into social and personal matters" (Ibid). The group interview can be used with this strategy as well. Semi-structured interviews are commonly used to gain information that might be open-ended in nature, in a group setting, or to learn about someone's life experiences. The focus group is a form of semi-structured interview used in marketing.

A third interview strategy is the individual in-depth interview. This technique is used when the research question is focused, and is…


DiCocco, B. & Crabtree, B. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical Education. Vol. 40 (2006) 314-321.

Finucane, A. & Mercer, S. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness -based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry. Vol. 6 (2006) 14.

Kennedy, T., Regehr, G., Baker, G. & Lingard, L. (2009). Preserving professional credibility: Grounded theory study of medical trainees' requests for clinical support. British Medical Journal. Vol. 338.

Premberg, A., Carlsson, G., Hellstrom, A. & Berg, M. (2010). First-time fathers' experiences of childbirth -- A phenomenological study. Midwifery.

Qualitative Nursing Study on Hourly Rounding
Words: 1657 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14111540
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Nursing Study on Hourly ounding

Qualitative nursing Study on Hourly ounding

Similarities and difference to other quantitative articles

Similar to other qualitative papers, ethnographic researchers target the inclusion and representation of the views and observations of the subjects. The questions in qualitative and ethnographic researchers try to focus on the understanding of the subjects in their engagements in the day-to-day experiences. It is the interests of qualitative and ethnographic researchers to seek the relative positions and evaluations of the subjects about the subject matter (Green, Dixon, & Zaharlick, 2002).

Qualitative and ethnographic researchers obtain guidance on implementation and design in conducting their study from the theoretical orientations. These orientations include data collections tools -- interviews, artifacts, participant observation -- and data analysis measures (Green et al., 2002). Theoretical guides also direct on measures of entering the field, data to collect, the relevant literature to retain, necessary records to make and…


Green, J., Dixon, C., & Zaharlick, A. (2002). "Ethnography As A Logic Of Inquiry." In Handbook For Methods Of Research On English Language Arts Teaching, Ed. James Flood, Julie Jensen, Diane Lapp, And James Squire. New York: Macmillan.

LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2013). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice: Elsevier - Health Sciences Division.

Lives of Welfare Recipients Investigating
Words: 2136 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22151891
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By conducting a peer led focus group the interaction between the participants allows for sharing of stories and experiences and opens up the lines for a deeper, more meaningful discussion. Instead of the participants directing their responses to questions and statements asked of the researcher to the researcher, participants will be able to converse with one another. The researcher will still be a part of the focus group, but his role will not be as prominent as it would be in a traditional style focus group. Instead, the researcher will observe, take notes and steer the group in the right direction if they start to discuss other topics which are not a part of the study.


Because this research deals with the dynamics of welfare recipients as opposed to how many people are on welfare, a qualitative approach is best. The only information that could be dealt with…


Berg, B.L. (2009). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (7th edition ed.). Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon. - America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2010 - Economic Circumstances. (n.d.). - Home. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from 

Lofland, J., Snow, D.A., Anderson, L., & Lofland, L.H. (2005). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis (4th ed. ed.). Gwenn Wilson: Wadsworth Publishing.

Murray, C. (2006). Peer led focus groups and young people. Children and Society, 20(4), 273-286.

Ethnography of Communication Analysis in High School Film
Words: 1849 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97778572
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Ethnography of Communication in High School Film

The EOC (ethnography of communication) is the analysis of communication within a culture, and practices of speech of a number of community. The EOC refers to the discourse analysis in linguistic drawing the anthropological field investigating the use of speech, their meaning or interpretation as being found in human groups or particular communities. The normative and cultural are two important concepts in the ethnographic communication analysis, which are used to analyze language, cultural norms, and situation context that influence communication among people.

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the concept ethnographic of communication using the film titled "High School" directed by Frederick Wiseman.

Part 1 of Project

The study uses the film titled "High School" to illustrate the concept ethnographic communication. High School is an American film directed by Frederick Wiseman in 1968. High School is an ethnographic film depicting Northeast…


Gudykunst, W. B. (2005), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 55-68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Knippenberg, D. V. & Hogg M. A. (2004), Leadership and power: Identity processes in groups and organizations (pp. 210-223). London: Sage

Shimanoff, S. B. (1980). Communication rules: Theory and research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

Reality TV Reinforce Negative Role
Words: 5002 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86423863
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However, the ability to criticize and gain depth into a subject was the key factors involved in qualitative research. In order for qualitative research methods to be applied to qualitative research, these methods had to undergo some form of transformation to make them acceptable to the empirical mindset. ainwright argues that in order to achieve this, qualitative methods had to sacrifice some of their critical elements in favor of validity and reliability. He argues that one cannot have criticism and validity at the same time.

However, this is a difficult viewpoint to accept and if one examines the method to be employed in this research, the presence of validity and controls does not limit the ability to criticize the results. Increasing validity and reliability in the qualitative research means the development of criteria on the data collection. This may be a hindrance in the traditional sociological setting, such as field…

Works Cited

Beattie, G. 2002. Head Counts. Guardian Unlimited. May 28, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at,721013,00.html .

Dehnart, a. 2001. Celebrating Classic Sociology: Pioneers of British Qualitative Research. A symposium organized by Qualidata and held on 5-6 July 2001 at the University of Essex. Aug. 6, 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at

Fielding, N. 1993. Ethnography. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life. London: Sage.

Hammersley, M. 1992. What's wrong with ethnography? London: Routledge.

Interviews and Surveys With Women Offenders Who
Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98836517
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interviews and surveys with women offenders who are inmates in the aylor Correctional Institution form the foundation of this discussion of data analysis and report writing. The revised research questions accentuate the need for a greater balance of qualitative and quantitative research to ensure as complete and accurate a research methodology is executed. The first phase of the study concentrates on a more thorough analysis of the qualitative factors that influence the outcomes of every research question. The second phased concentrates on the use of attitudinal scaling at the interval or ratio level of measurement so that multidimensional scaling (MDS) can be used to define perception- and attitudinal-based maps of how and why trigger events lead to lapses on drug tolerance. The use of MDS techniques to determine the relative level of self-awareness and attitudes towards specific treatment strategies is commonplace in social science, and often provides insights into interrelationships…


Beck, J.A. (2006). Offending women: Discipline, punishment, and re-forming selves in a therapeutic-community drug treatment program. (Order No. 3219609, University of California, Santa Cruz). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 407-407

Marlowe, D.B., Festinger, D.S., Dugosh, K.L., Arabia, P.L., & Kirby, K.C. (2008). AN EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL OF CONTINGENCY Management IN A FELONY PREADJUDICATION DRUG COURT. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(4), 565-77.

Robbins, C.A., Martin, S.S., & Surratt, H.L. (2009). Substance abuse treatment, anticipated maternal roles, and reentry success of drug-involved women prisoners. Crime and Delinquency, 55(3), 388-411.

Schwartz, S.H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C. Konty, M. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(4), 663.

Role of Gender in Academic
Words: 1462 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20088493
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This raises the question of the extent to which this particular qualitative methodology is successful in terms of large generalizations.

In general, the qualitative method of data acquisition and research has many advantages over the more restrictive and rigid quantitative methodologies. Qualitative research seeks a more in-depth and holistic view of the subject and is particularly well suited in terms of taking account of the plethora of variables that may occur in the process of investigation. Quantitative research on the other hand is usually bounded by questions of measurement and invariably starts with a predetermined set of parameters about the research and is therefore restricted in terms of its contextual and investigative potential. Qualitative research is therefore more successful in education research and the social sciences; where the subjective element and the participation of the data sample group are also taken into account. Many researchers prefer this methods as they…


Hubbard L. 'The role of gender in academic achievement '(2005) International

Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education Vol. 18, No. 5, September-October 2005, pp. 605-623

Myers M.D. Qualitative Research in Information Systems. Retrieved June 22, 2007 at

Qualitative Research Methods. Retrieved June 22, 2007 at

Setting With a Focus on One Specific
Words: 3574 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32567229
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setting with a focus on one specific EMS unit that will participate in the CDP training program. This setting was selected because it offered a snapshot collection of data that could be valuable based on the outcome of the training provided by the CDP program. The researcher will conduct pre and post-interviews with the members of the EMS unit as they start and complete the program. One of the benefits of this style of approach is that it allows for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data.

A mixed research study design provides the researcher with hard, numerical data on feelings, thoughts, beliefs and perceptions. The organization benefits from this type of study because the organization can analyze through numerical data how its members actually perceive the training they receive. The data can help discover whether the training is effective or needs to be improved upon.

esearch Topic

This thesis…


ATLAS.ti Retrieved .

Milley, J.E. (1979). An Investigation of case study as

Ethical Issues. Be sure that your paper includes an assessment of how you will deal with potential ethical issues that might arise in your study.

Palena Neale, P., Thapa, S., and Boyce, C. (2006, May). Monitoring and Evaluation -- 1

Forest People by Colin Turnbull
Words: 1477 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30231371
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This means that modernization has no place in the lives of most Africans, primarily because they have learned to survive and live despite the inconveniences that forest life presents. From this realization, readers are shown how development is interpreted from the point-of-view of those who have remarkably survived early forms of living, such as the life of hunting-gathering that the forest people have known ever since they have become part of the Ituri forest.

Apart from their lifestyle, the BaMbuti's social organization is radically different from the one established under a capitalist economic system (which is the prevalent social structure for most developed and developing nations in the 20th century). In Turnbull's study of the tribe's social structure and organization, it became apparent that the tribe had no established social system, be it political or economic in nature. He claims that "...the BaMbuti were a single cultural unit...There was no…

Works Cited

Turnbull, C. (1961). The Forest People. NY: Simon and Schuster.