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ut though Indian resistance was strong Native Americans didn't have effective military organization and Europeans used the tactics of total warfare. Knowing enemy's superiority Indians unleashed guerilla wars but they didn't have any chance to win as they were not united. That was the main reason of Native Americans' failure. Colonists played various Indian tribes against one another as Colin G. Calloway wrote and this Roman strategy succeeded. Very few Native Americans realized this threat but they could do nothing: they all were sentenced to death in the battle against own brothers or colonists. It is worth mentioning that warfare influenced both European and Indian military tactics: "Europeans showed Indians that survival depended on securing and using guns; Indians taught Europeans that success in American warfare demanded adapting to the American environment." ut every smart person knows that war is always evil whatever it is waged for. Military pressure was…
Colin G. Calloway, New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998
Colin G. Calloway, New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press,1998), 10.
Colin G. Calloway, New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 15.
Colin G. Calloway, New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press,1998), 33.
European colonies across the world and their relationships with the natives and competing colonial powers.
Development of European colonies throughout non-European territories began in the 15th century, and perhaps even earlier. For European explorers, their motivation was likely a combination of human curiosity, pursuit of adventure, and a possible economic payoff for discovering new trade routes. Such motivations typically compelled European explorers like Amerigo Vespucci, Magellan, Columbus, and others, to seek out undiscovered lands, peoples, and potential profits.
In particular, European colonization of non-European territories, in areas like the New World (now the Americas); Alaska; and Africa, permitted countries like Spain; Portugal; Italy; Great Britain; Holland, Russia, and various others, sometimes at the same time, to lay claim to foreign territories, and their indigenous peoples (often, as with the Spanish, in the guise of religion). Colonization by one European power also often led to competition from others; increasingly, nations like…
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
Father Bartolome de Las Casas is one of the most prominent advocates of the Cuban indigenous people. He actually owned slaves himself at one point, yet he set his own slaves free and renounced the practice. He also joined the Dominican order of Christianity and protested against the cruel and unusual punishment that the indigent people had suffered. He was especially against the practice of encomienda which is to trade a life for other material possessions. He wrote:
"The Indies were discovered in 1492. In the following year a great many Spaniards went there with the intention of settling the land. Thus, forty-nine years have passed since the first settlers penetrated the land, the first so claimed being the large and most happy isle called Hispaniola, which is six hundred leagues in circumference…And all the land so far discovered is a beehive…
And for example, in 1910 one group of Islanders "...gave 10,000 coconuts to their island neighbours and an additional 3,000 to the Papuan Industries Limited for a new church rather than selling" the coconuts, according to Lui-Chivizhe. Meanwhile, in the 1930s, control of the pearl boats was taken over by government administrators, who controlled "earnings of the Islanders who worked the boats," Lui-Chivizhe writes. When the Islanders didn't work fast enough or hard enough to suit the administrators, the Islanders were punished. Eventually, the Islanders not only lost the right to control their production, the government of Queensland "introduced a nightly curfew and a permit system to control Islander movement between the Islands."
Eventually, those restrictions were eased, and more recently, things have not been quite as repressive. "Even though the social and political organizational context for our lives has changed with European arrival in the region," Lui-Chivizhe concludes, "the…
Bibliography - List of References
Beckett, Jeremy 2000, 'Chapter 3: Colonial Occupation,' Humanities Department Central
Queensland University, Retrieved July 20, 2006 at http://humanities.cqu.edu.au/abtorres/tsiwww/course/module/chap3/chap3.htm .
COAG, 2006, 'Indigenous Issues: Generational Commitment,' Council of Australian
Governments' Meeting 14 July 2006. Retrieved July 20, 2006, at http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/140706/index.htm#indigenous .
"Some also do grudge at the great increase of people in these days, thinking a necessary brood of cattle far better than a superfluous augmentation of mankind" (Harrison 1586). One way to ease the situation was to induce or force some to settle in the new territories. They would become the workforce in the colonies and reduce the problem back home at the same time. "These petty thieves might be condemned for certain years in the western parties" as indentured servants to provide hard labor and menial tasks (Hakluyt 1584). This was not only an attractive concept for the privileged classes but also for many of the poor or disadvantaged. In the society they left behind they had little hope of ever improving their circumstances. The hardships and threats they would face in the new world were worth the risk for the chance to improve their condition. Many, however, regretted…
Frethorne, John. "Letter to His Parents." Indentured Servitude. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1623.
Fumas, J. The Americas: A Social History of the United States. New York: Putnam, 1969.
Hakluyt, R. "Reading 2." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1584.
Harrison, W. "Reading 1." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1586.
Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq were all "constructed" as "imperial conveniences for France and ritain" (Gause, 444). And so, when the ritish and French were authoritative landlords, places like Kuwait (a ritish "protectorate" until 1961) were safe from outside interference. ut once ritain was long gone from Kuwait, Hussein had his chance to move in and he did, until the U.S. And its allies pushed him out in 1991.
Conclusion: After WWI, the winners divided up the Ottoman Empire, and that was the origin of the country of Iraq. The history of the Middle East -- beginning in the 19th Century and continuing today -- is shaped by outside forces, by colonialism, war, greed, and cultural conflicts. An alert reader can see why the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. In 2003 was star-crossed in the first place, and why ritain and the U.S. are hated so fiercely by the…
Gause, Gregory F. 1992, 'Sovereignty, Statecraft and Stability in the Middle East', Journal of International Affairs, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 441-460.
Gillen, Paul, and Ghosh, Devleena, 2007, Colonialism & Modernity, University of New South Wales (UNSW), UNSW Press: Sydney, Australia.
Nieuwenhuijze, Chritoffel Anthonie Olivier. 1971. Sociology of the Middle East: A Stocktaking and Interpretation. Brill Archive: Boston, MA.
Public Broadcast Service. 2008. 'Kuwait: Country Profile', retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/kuwait605/profile.html .
" (nd) the conception of Ringrose is one that was based upon "family, clan, and community allegiances. The links in such a network are stated to have resulted from "individual decisions and, in the aggregate, they constituted the inter-city transactions that, described collectively, allow us to identify urban networks." (nd)
II. GLOAL EXPANSION of CHINA
Ringrose relates that the same process is observable in the history in Ming China. The community schools were only nominal providers of education and "were subverted by local elites in a predictable way." (nd) However, in sixteenth century China central authority was not nearly as overwhelming in affairs that were local resulting in these schools being transformed by elites into "academies that provided the training necessary to pass the Imperial Civil Service examination." (Ringrose, nd) Not only did bureaucracy become more acknowledging of local dynamics in communities but also resulting was the construction of "commercial…
Europeans Abroad, 1400-1700: Strangers in Not-so-Strange Lands" Online available at http://www.iga.ucdavis.edu/Research/All-UC/conferences/2006-fall/Ringrose.pdf
Zurndorfer, Harriet T. (nd) Cotton Textiles and Ming/Qing China in the Global Economy (1500-1840) Online available at http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/economicHistory/GEHN/GEHNPDF/PUNEZurndorfer.pdf
Frank, Andre Gunder. 1998. ReOrient: The Silver Age in Asia and the World Economy (Berkeley: University of California Press)
Pikerman, Allen (2002) the Iberian Golden Age: European Expansion, Exploration and Colonization 1400-1650. 2002. Online available at http://history-world.org/iberian_golden_age.htm
His analysis is therefore a direct investigation of the contact between the two cultural identities and their specific characteristics.
As opposed to this, Cronon uses an indirect argumentation to demonstrate the differences between the two cultures. He starts his discussion from a critique of Thoreau's view on the origins of the American civilization. Thoreau first advocated that the American land was a virgin territory when it was in the hands of the Indian-Americans. He thus contrasts at the same time the ecosystems and the economic policies of the Natives and the Colonists, focusing his argumentation of the external aspects of the two cultures rather than on the inner, spiritual cores of these cultures, like Axtell. His main thesis is that the Western colonizers brought with them the concept of "property" which is the main culprit for the subsequent radical changes in the ecosystems of the country: "English property systems encouraged…
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
Unlike the French, most English and Spanish conquerors believed that it was abnormal for one to worship in any other way that was not Christian. The French managed to live along side of the Huron tribes, making it possible for Huron tradition to exist in the present. In contrast, the Spanish and the English imposed their cultural values on the people they conquered, to the point where they were assimilated and were left with no cultural identity other than the one that was forced on them (Sayre 131).
The aftermath of European expansion in America is still felt today, through the fact that most of the continent speaks English, French, and Spanish, in accordance with the three major nations that conquered territories on the continent. The fact that the Native American population presently living in America is very small in comparison to people of other races is largely owed to…
1. Sayre, Gordon M. Les Sauvages Americains: Representations of Native Americans in French and English Colonial Literature (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).
Colonization vs. Anti-Slavery
The question asked for this brief report is whether the wants and demands of the pro-colonial folks and the anti-slavery folks that existed during the early days of the United States both had their demands and preferences met as far as end outcomes and such. The answer is "yes" but it did not really start until the Civil War, went a lot further in the 1960's and in some way continues to this very day. However, both parties should be at least fairly happy with the end outcome as slavery is gone and America is completely developed and "colonized" for all intents and purposes.
Slavery certainly didn't start with the United States as many European colonies and countries around the world used the practice and Great Britain in pre-United States history was certainly on exception. This continued even after the creation of the United States in the…
1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.
Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.
One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…
Jiu-Hwa Upshur (2012) World History Wadsworth; comprehensive, compact 5th edition)
John M. Cohen (1969) The Four Voyages, Penguin: UK
Founding European Colonies in the New World
Founding of European Colonies in the New World
The New World was not founded over night. It was, in fact, a very laborious period where several European colonies worked for centuries to secure a new spot in a virgin territory, filled with natural resources the continent of Europe had never seen before. Early struggles and hardships eventually led to successful colonies which, over time, developed into their own autonomous nations.
There were a number of events which led to the early development of European colonies in the context of the New World. Essentially, some of the greatest navy developments in Europe took place during this time period. Countries like Spain and Portugal began building up their navy in an attempt to hold greater competitive advantage over their other European counter parts. There were a number of wars and conflicts during the period, where…
This viewpoint was the justification for global colonization, the enslavement of numerous groups of indigenous people, and the massive enforcement of certain religions (such as Christianity) on different peoples throughout the world. There are a couple of interesting facts in denoting the contemporary view of this subject among the Western world. The U.S. was the only country surveyed in which more people still adhered to the belief that their culture was better than that of other civilizations and countries. All of the European countries have apparently abandoned this notion, or at the very least have more people who disbelieve the fact that they are culturally superior to others than those who do. Germany is nearly evenly divided on this subject (No author, 2011).
The category in which the U.S.'s views on autonomy are most prevalent is that in which compares the values of individualism vs. The importance of a state…
No author. (2011). "American exceptionalism subsides: the American-Western European values gap." PewResearchCenter. Retrieved from http://www.pewglobal.org/2011/11/17/the-american-western-european-values-gap/
Greek colonization, much like the colonization of Africa and Asia by European powers in the early twentieth century, was an act of achieving land, recourses, and influence, and thus, power. The eventual expansion of the Greek Empire was unique, however, in that it was one of the first major exercises of colonization ever noted in the history of civilization. A number of things, but most notably, the shortages in the existing territories (both land and recourses), the desire for new trade routes, and the re-emergence of the written language facilitated the Greek expansion.
Prior to the widespread colonization by the Greeks, existing cities were growing by population and exhausting the land around them. Traditional plots of land reserved for Greek citizens were becoming smaller, and in some cases, non-existent. It was clear to those in leadership positions that overcrowding was becoming a rampant problem for the Greek cities, and in…
Boardman, John. The Greeks Overseas. New York: Thames and Hudson. 1982.
Murray, Oswyn. Early Greece. Cambridge: Harvard UP. 1993.
Osborne, Robin. Greece in the Making. New York: Routledge. 1996.
With localized colonial governments, world leaders demonstrated that empires could be founded on mastery of regional trade routes. At the beginning of the 20th century nations like Japan were at the forefront of the new model of imperialism.
Q3.Explain WWI? World War 1.
World War One was a natural outcome of the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the subsequent imbalance of power those downfalls entailed. Moreover, the First World War was a direct consequence of the ages of imperialism, colonialism, and industrialization. The war paved the way for emerging states to create a free market economy based on capitalism or on the other hand, a closed-market system based on state-controlled resources.
Q4.The Paris Exhibition had two famous sculptures: one of Paris in an evening gown and the other of Rodin's the Thinker. Elaborate upon the meaning of both and its lesson for us in the…
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth and lands in the eastern part of North America.
Native Americans in North America after 1763
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth…
James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self. America: A Concise History (textbook) 2012. pgs. 100-104 and 116-125, 138-142
Many Europeans viewed America as the New World. To them this was a world full of new expectations, opportunities and, for others, the chance of a new beginning. The success, or failure, of the early settlers was largely dependant on the motives and expectations that they brought with them, but also on the way in which they dealt with the problems awaiting them in their new land. Just as with the Spanish settlers of the 16th Century, the inhabitants of the first permanent English colonies, at Jamestown in Virginia and Plymouth in New England, came to America with differing motives and an individual set of expectations. Records appear to suggest, however, that in pursuit of their opportunities, the colony at Jamestown adopted an approach that was similar to that of the Spanish, unlike their counterparts in Plymouth.
Those who traveled to America did so for a wide variety…
Ayers, Edward. American Passages: A History of the United States. London:
Harcourt Brace College, 1999.
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. New York: McGraw Hill, 1993.
Virtual Jamestown. Jefferson Village. 25th September 2002 http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/vcdh/jamestown/ .
In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.
Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.
Government policy and exclusion
According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…
Aboriginal health issues. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/aboriginal_health_issues-open
Anderson, I.,&Whyte, D. (2006). Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 5-16.
McCalman, J., Morley, R., & Mishra, G. (2008). A health transition: Birth weights, households and survival in an Australian working class population sample born 1857 -- 1900. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1070-1083.
McCalman J., Smith L., Anderson I., Morley R., Mishra G. (2009) Colonialism and the health transition: Aboriginal Australians and poor whites compared, Victoria, 1850 -- 1985. History of the Family 14-253 -- 265
The argument surrounding the recent conflict in Iraq was two sided: one favored ridding Iraq of Saddam Hussein; the other did not. Arguments of the anti-war sides bordered on accusing the United States of being an imperialist and colonialist power. That America had become an occupying force that sought to impose its will on a weaker nation found favor among most of the Middle Eastern Islamic countries. Though this argument might prove philosophically and intellectually disingenuous; there is historical precedence to colonialist ambitions. The Dutch, Spaniards, French and ritish and to a lesser extend the Danish colonized most of the world for more than five hundred years. The legacy that we see today in the world's lingua franca, the English language, is testament to that fact that the ritish were largely victors in the intra-imperialist wars. "ritannica" ruled the world for several centuries. Over the last century, most…
Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Ferguson, Niall. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
Hiatt, L.R. Arguments About Aborigines: Australia and the Evolution of Social Anthropology. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Kearney, Milo. The Indian Ocean in World History. Themes in World History. New York, NY: Routledge, 2003.
Isuues Pertaining to Colonization
Issues Pertaining to the Colonization of America
Identify the three cultural regions of North America directly preceding colonization. Note one group for each area and describe its culture and the distinctive traits that defined the communities it created.
Three cultural regions of North America in place before the colonization of Europeans were established by the Iroquois, the Algonquian, and the Narragansett nations. The Iroquois were mainly settled in what is now upstate New York between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls. They lived in pole villages and the men hunted deer while the woman raised corn, squash, tobacco, and beans. Women held high status in Iroquois society and decent was matrilineal. Families lived in bark covered rectangular structures called long houses (Dill, 1996).
The Algonquian tribes inhabited what is now Quebec and Ontario Canada. They were patriarchal and semi-nomadic. They mainly relied on hunting for…
"Canadian Algonquin: First nations." (NDI). Hudsonrivervalley.org. Retrieved May 16, 2013, from http://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/library/pdfs/articles_books_essays/canadian_algonquin.pdf
Dill, J.S. (ed). (1996). Iroquois history. First Nations/First People's Issues. May 16, 2013, from http://www.tolatsga.org/iro.html
"English, French, and Spanish colonies: A comparision." (NDI). Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763). History of North America. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.granburyisd.org/cms/lib/TX01000552/Centricity/Domain/287/Fact_Sheet_U1_Comparison_of_Eng_Fr_Sp_Col.pdf
"Historical perspectives of the Narragansett Indian tribe: Early history." (2009) Narragansett Indian Tribe. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.narragansett-tribe.org/history.html
New Lands? Old Ideas
The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries were the great age of European exploration in the New World. Spain concerned itself with South America and the Caribbean, while countries such as France and England turned northward to the great, unknown vastness of the North American continent. Men such as Verrazzano, Hariot, and Champlain arrived to explore and to record their experiences of this mysterious land. Strange new plants and animals, curious native customs, and assessments of natural resources all appear in the pages of their respective accounts. Yet their visions of this New World were colored by the expectations of the old. European dreams of hidden riches, and Spanish discoveries of gold and silver enliven their observations. These earliest of descriptions of North America are as much commentaries on contemporary European society and its aspirations, as they are catalogs of new things and new places.
Doughty, Arthur G. "Samuel de Champlain." The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1999.
Hariot, Thomas. "A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia." 1588. From The Heritage Education Program - National Park Service - Cape Hatteras. (No date) http://www.nps.gov/fora/hariotpart1.htm
Wroth, I., Ed. S. Tarrow, Trans. The Voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano. 1970.
Northern European Power Shift
It seems to be a universal human trait that we are always seeking to go beyond perceived boundaries and explore the unknown. Sometimes, this is done for the sake of adventure and nothing more. Most times, however, this is done in the pursuit of wealth, whether it be in the form of land, gold, spices, slaves, or some other highly desirable commodity for a given culture in a given time.
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the dominant explorers of the time hailed from Portugal and Spain, and these countries were made quite wealthy as a result. Their position, however, as significant empires would not last forever, and soon, the countries of Northern Europe -- in particular, the Netherlands, France, and England -- set out to take their share of the riches, too. These countries improved on the Spanish and Portuguese methods of exploration, ship building,…
Goldman, Steve. "Defeat of the Spanish Armada." 2003. The History Buff. http://www.historybuff.com/library/refspain.html.
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003. © 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com.
Conflict and Cooperation: Native Americans and European Settlers in Early America
The early history of the settlement of what would eventually become the United States has many competing narratives. Many people view the relationship between Native Americans and European settlers as fundamentally combative. hile at times the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans was certainly one of conflict, this period was also full of significant curiosity, education and cooperation that went on between both groups. Many times, each group was inquisitive about the other and knowledge was exchanged. The Native Americans were often portrayed as brutal savages, but current literature shows that this was not often the case. The apparent viciousness of the European settlers towards the native peoples, particularly in terms of cultural destruction and land acquisition, is also more complicated than it initially seems. Though the eventually dominance of the Europeans over the Native Americans lead…
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. New York:
Cornell University Press, 2000.
-- . "English Perceptions of Treacherym 1583-1640: The Case of the American 'Savage'." The Historical Journal. Vol 20. No. 2. (June 1977) pp. 263-287.
-- . Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. 2nd Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
Before the Scramble for Africa of the late 19th century, Africa was hierarchical, authoritarian, and paternalistic, just like the European countries invading them. Insubordination and disobedience to the deference pyramids were punished by violence. Some tribes carried this violence out against their neighbors, from whom they stole cattle and other property. The strength of white settlers in Africa came from their technology. Before the nineteenth century, some African prophets and seers foretold of great human suffering at the hands of white invaders. There were many in tribes who resisted white settlement from the beginning, while other tribes studied the ways of the white man and tried to form alliances with the Europeans against their enemies. Many tribes were neutral, although their chiefs might accept gifts in return for cooperation. The presence of white man changed the dynamics of power in Africa in many ways.
New forms of power brought by…
With oligarchies in place, European countries still controlled considerable the resources of Africa. Large transnational institutions such as the IMF and World Bank, furthermore, funded by the western governments, have set up lending schemes for Africa under the guise of assistance, although these loans are permitted only if countries in Africa follow special IMF and World Bank restructuring programs that oftentimes result in austerity measures for the people. These restructuring programs have been criticized by many as forms of neocolonialism. They typically entail the cutting of public services and devaluation of the currency. The turmoil after these measures tends to thrust a country's society into chaos, ending in dictatorship. (Burns)
1. Ranger, Terrence. (1995) the Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa. New York: Wiley Publishing
2. Burns, Marshall. Disillusion and Hope on the Dark Continent. Kenya Report
Ceremonies of Possession/Differences in How America as Settled
Patricia Seed in her book, Ceremonies of Possession, assumes a novel position in regard to the settlement of the New orld by the various European powers. Seed's theory is that each of the five main nations involved in the settlement of the New orld: England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, did so in their own unique way and that these unique ways were more closely related to the individual country's rituals and practices as opposed to their inherited traditions. Reducing Seed's theory to its least common denominator: "Englishman held that they acquired rights to the New orld by physical objects, Frenchmen by gestures, Spaniards by speech, Portuguese by numbers, Dutch by description
The demonstration of the English dependence on physical objects can be seen in their heavy reliance on building, erecting, and planting as part of their cultural development when they…
Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995).
Ceremonies of Possessions
Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995). p. 179.
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Hamondsworth: Penguine, 1975. Print.
Duiker, William. The Essential World History. Boston: Wadsworth Learning, 2011. Print.
Engels, Frederic. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Gainty, Denis. Sources of World Societies. Boston: St. Martins, 2009. Print.
War in Africa
Due to European colonization and then decolonization, Africa was left in a similar state of the other former colonies. What state were the other colonies left in and what are the similarities?
Concomitant colonization and decolonization of Africa left most of the countries in a state of utter economic dependence on their colonial masters. This state is more or less similar to what happened to former colonies in the Americas and Asia. While there are other socio-political impacts that also resulted, this brief paper focuses only on the state economic dependence that African colonies found themselves in soon after colonial masters went back to their countries.
Prior to the "Scramble and Partition of Africa," African economies were on an upward trend in most areas, but more so in terms of trade. Africans had already established trade patterns with some long distance traders walking covering miles just to…
Bojicic, Savo. America…. America…. Or Is It? New York, NY: AuthorHouse, 2010.
Clayton, Anthony. Frontiersmen; warfare in Africa since 1950. Philadelphia: UCL press, 1999
Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
Conference Berlin consequences b)
The History of Contemporary frica
Ever since parts of its region became colonized by Europeans (which began happening fairly regularly since the early part of the nno Domini timeline), frica has suffered an abundance of problems relating to its political, social, and economic spheres of existence. fter its introduction to what is best termed a fledgling globalization through colonization in several of its countries by a number of European nations, frica has understandably endured a number of issues relating to its primary systems of government, economics, and socialization. lthough events related to the conclusion of World War II were largely responsible for decolonization in this part of the world, many nation states on the continent would struggle for several years -- and are still struggling -- to overcome the effects of colonization and the inherent instability it provided to many of the key infrastructures within today's…
A large degree of political turmoil took place in Uganda following its liberation from colonization midway through the 20th century. A number of political factions vied for power in the ensuing years; many of these were associated with religious groups set up by the European colonialists, such as Catholic and Protestant supporters. Economically, the country had a strong Indian population that was in control of much of the commerce nad industry there, which is why dictator Idi Amin expelled them in the early 1970's. Deforestation issues have affected Uganda quite significantly. Urbanization and expanding farmlands are responsible for much of Uganda's deforestation problem, while like most regions in Africa, the population housed within this country has seen an explosion in the number of victims of AIDS and HIV. Civil wars and internal fighting, however, would regularly plague Uganda into the new millennium. In more recent times, efforts have been made to reduce barriers to women owning property and being an economic influence within this country. The traditional gender equality within Uganda has certainly circumscribed its growth.
One of the most insidious instances of neo-colonization in Africa, however, was evinced in South Africa. The system of apartheid, which was essentially a legalized subjugation of people of African descent that highly favored Europeans and those of European descent, was responsible for political instability for several years as black South Africans strove to overturn such a repressive regime. Apartheid was eventually overturned in 1994 with the presidency of Nelson Mandela, but economically, unemployment was largely rampant in the country as it struggled to transition to true independence. Other contemporary issues plaguing this country are a nationwide rapid deforestation process, as well as rampant AIDS infection (South Africa may have the most people with AIDS in the world today). Women have played a significant role in the true liberation of this country from first its colonial history and then its repressive reign of Apartheid, as is evinced within the perseverance and political inclinations of Winnie Mandela.
There were several things about Africa that I learned while taking this course. One was that there was a highly planned, systematic implementation of repression that is responsible for keeping Africa socially, economically, and politically years behind many other parts of the world. This repression truly took hold during colonialism, but the bouts of neocolonialism that many countries endured even after formal colonialism was dispelled certainly contributed to this cause. I was also unaware of the contemporary problems that Africa has regarding issues of deforestation. I had no idea that the cutting down of trees and the reduction of forests could take hold of this area as quickly as it had, and continue to affect the environments there today.
In the 21st century, American, European, and Asian trans-national corporations (e.g., General Motors; Toyota; Coca Cola; IBM; Nestle, etc., build plants in Mexico and Latin America, where indigenous labor is cheaper than American labor. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of poor Mexican citizens living in poverty struggle to sneak across the borders of the United States, into California, Arizona, Texas, or New Mexico, in hope of finding better lives by working for American dollars, instead of Mexican pesos.
All in all, European colonialism, an outgrowth and direct result of acquisitive worldwide European exploration and expansion, from the time of the Spanish conquistadores through the Enlightenment Period; through the Industrial Revolution and beyond, has done more harm than good within both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For the most part, within these regions, colonialism (and/or its long-lasting after-effects) brought disease; poverty, and much cultural coercion to those areas. Natural resources were stolen;…
Bradshaw, Michael et al. Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global
Connections, Local Voices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999.
elder Thomas King's Green Grass, Running Water world "bent" "fix." This task explore ways American Indian literature helps imagine ways fix bent things world explain findings matters world.
Most people are likely to acknowledge that society has severe problems and that urgent action needs to be taken in order for it to be able to recover from a moral point-of-view. Powerful bodies have always had the tendency to persecute minorities and groups that have generally been unable to stand up for themselves. Thomas King's 1993 novel "Green Grass, Running Water" discusses in regard to how the world is bent and describes particular characters as they vainly try to fix it. It is very probable that the writer wants his readers to accept the impossibility related to changing human nature and uses satire with the purpose of having them considering accept that society is broken. Similarly, Joseph oyden's manuscript "Three Day…
Buzo, Adrian, The Making of Modern Korea (New York: Routledge, 2002)
Cox, James H., "All This Water Imagery Must Mean Something": Thomas King's Revisions of Narratives of Domination and Conquest in "Green Grass, Running Water,"
American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Spring, 2000)
Scott, Jamie S., "Colonial, Neo-colonial, Post-colonial: Images of Christian Missions in Hiram M. Cody's the Frontiersman, Rudy Wiebe's First and Vital Candle and Basil Johnston's Indian School Days," Journal of Canadian Studies 32.3 (1997)
Scramble for Wealth in Africa
1880-1900 was a period that was characterized by rapid colonization of the entire African continent by European nations. This was what was known as the scramble for Africa and it took place due to various economic, social as well as political evolutions that were taking place in Europe. This scramble was known as the race of Africa or partition of Africa was a process of invasion, occupation and eventual annexing of the African territory by European powers during the new imperialism period.
By 1880, around the coast of Africa and a small distance inland found along major rivers like Niger and Congo were under the European rule which was only a small part of Africa. This paper will therefore look at the scramble for Africa and the reasons that led to this evolution. There are various factors that led to the impetus scramble for Africa,…
Global security.org (2013). The Scramble for Africa - 1880-1899.retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/scramble-for-africa.htm
Boddy-Evans, A. (2010). What Caused the Scramble for Africa? Retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://africanhistory.about.com/od/eracolonialism/a/ScrambleWhy.htmc
Commerce and Its Demographics
The diffusion of ideas and technological impacts that have taken place globally.
Globalization as a phenomenon of economic and cultural connectivity has been growing for centuries, but the current form is of a fundamentally different order (Smith and Doyle 2002). The speed of communication, the complexity and size of the networks involved and the huge volume of trade, interaction and risks involved make up the current and peculiar form. The diffusion of ideas, practices and technologies that occurs within is more than internationalization, universalization, modernization and westernization. Anthony Giddens (1990 as qtd in Smith and Doyle) described today's globalization as "the intensification of worldwide social relations, which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." It has changed the way geography has been traditionally understood and how localness has been experienced. The new…
1. Diao X and Somwaru A. (1996). Dynamic Gains and Losses from Trade Reform: an Intertemporal General Equilibrium Model of the United States and MERCOSUR. University of Minnesota Economic Development Center Bulletin. St. Paul Minneapolis Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics: University of Minnesota.
2. Electric Communities (1995). Commerce and Society in Cyberspace. http://www.crockford.com/ec/commerce_society.html
3. Held, D et al. (1999). Global Transformations. http://www.polity.co.uk/global/executiv.htm
4. Killon, MU. (2005). Chinese Regionalism and the 2004 ASEAN -- China Accord: the WTO and Legalized Trade Distortion. http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/it/papers/0501/0501003.pdf
America, without doubt the most powerful nation on earth and the sole super-power of the 21st century evokes vastly conflicting feelings in people around the world, depending on their individual paradigm: the lens through which they look at the world. While to most people, America is a symbol of prosperity, freedom and equal opportunity it also is a source of equally negative feelings for others who resent its prosperity, and its economic, cultural and military power. This Jekyll & Hyde image of the country in the world, though surprising to many Americans, is not difficult to understand if one examines the issue in its historical, political, and cultural perspective. In this essay we will discuss what America looks like to an outsider, and what it means to people from different countries of the world as a state, as a people, and as a geographic region. Into what larger ideas and…
Fowlie, Wallace. "Voltaire." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002
Johnson, Paul E. And Nancy Woloch. "United States (History). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
Nash, Gary B. "United States (Overview). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
Klepp, Susan E. "United States (People)." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
The lasting impact of colonial settlement
The colonialism is taken to be a political and economic experience which paved the way for the European to explore, conquer, settle and exploit large areas of the world. The era of modern colonialism started during 1400 A.D with the European discovery of sea route around Africa's southern coast during 1488 and that of America during 1492. They made provisions to transfer the sea power from that of the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic and to the emerging new nation-states at that time which were Portugal, Spain, Dutch epublic, France and that of England. The initiation for discovery, the desire to conquer and settlement led these nations to expand their territories and to colonize over the world, extending the European institutions and culture to other parts of the world. The competition continued among the European nations for colonization across the world. Such colonies…
Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/colonial.html
Accessed 21 September, 2005
Exploration. Retrieved from http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/movement/exp.cfm
Accessed 21 September, 2005
Dutch invasion of razil
In the 17th Century razil found itself the centre of contesting and warring European powers. The Portuguese colonization of razil was followed by the invasion from Holland as well as by French attempts to establish a presence in the country. Historians however describe the Dutch invasion of razil in the 17th century as one of the most damaging, imposing and far-reaching occupations of the country. This was mainly due to the well-organized and well-planned nature of the Dutch intrusion.
The Dutch invasion was an attempt not merely at establishing some fortuitous harbors for trade but was colonization in the true sense of the term. One of the obvious reasons was export of natural resources such as sugar.
The Dutch occupation of razil presents a number of pertinent and important questions that will form the fulcrum of the discussion in this paper. These are - the reasons…
Alden, Dauril, ed. Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil: Papers of the Newberry Library Conference. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
Alden, Dauril and Warren Dean, eds. Essays concerning the Socioeconomic History of Brazil and Portuguese India. Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1977.
Azevedo, Fernando de. Brazilian Culture: An Introduction to the Study of Culture in Brazil. Translated by Crawford, William Rex. New York: Macmillan, 1950.
Barbour, Violet. Capitalism in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1950.
Eurocentrism and History Of Amerindians
Eurocentrism and the History of Amerindians
hen Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic and reached the Americas, he was convinced that he actually reached India. Because of his conviction, Columbus dubbed the peoples of the Americas "Indians." It was the beginning of European and later Euro-American myth-making in describing Native Amerindians and the shared histories of peoples who have lived in the American continent for the last five hundred centuries. Columbus was not the first person to come up with myths about Native Americans, but he led an expedition which paved the way for the conquest and exploitation of the Americas (its people and the land). Since Europeans and Euro-Americans who conquered the New orld unjustly murdered and enslaved the indigenous Americans and pillaged their land, historians for the last several centuries, strongly influenced by the values of the society that nurtured them, grappled with…
Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Can't of Conquest. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975. Print.
Zinn Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 -- Present, 20th anniversary edition. New York: Harper Collins, 1999. Print.
Much of the conventional wisdom around slavery rightly centers around the issue of racism. To many Europeans, the darker skin and different culture of the African peoples indicates the latter's inferiority and lesser level of development. Many Europeans justified colonization based on the idea of bringing civilization to the savage heathens. Others believed that the inferiority of the African races also meant that slavery was a natural social order.
A closer look at the history of colonialism and slavery, however, indicates forces at work other than racism. There were four distinct colonial periods in from the 16th to the late 20th century, and the actions of colonial powers such as Portugal and Spain were not always explained simply by skin color.
This paper reflects on the other forces that underlay the European colonization efforts.
It looks at the role played by patriarchy and religion in the colonial experience.…
Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History." Sub-Saharan Africa:. 11 September 2002. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 http://www.harpercollege.edu/mhealy/g101ilec/ssa/afh/afcol/afcolfr.htm .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America Narrative. 1999. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/narrative.html .
Nathaniel's Nutmeg: The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader who Changed the Course of History" by Giles Milton. Specifically, it will discuss the main theme of the book. The world was a different and much more profitable place after spices were discovered in the East, and spices changed Europe especially. Spices encouraged exploration, created vast fortunes, encouraged European colonization on far away shores, and changed global trade forever. The world could not live without spice, and spice created a new world.
Spices were an important part of living in medieval Europe. They were said to have medicinal properties, and they were used in many recipes. However, they were expensive, and Venice owned a monopoly on their trade. The author notes, "spices had become so popular that demand had long since outstripped supply" (Milton 21). The Portuguese initially had a stronghold on the Spice Islands in Indonesia, but before…
Milton, Giles. Nathaniel's Nutmeg: The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader who Changed the Course of History. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
She is perceived as vulnerable by her lovers, both her Englishman and her American, and exploited in different ways. Over the course of the novel, because it is told from Fowler's perspective, the reader never gains a sense of who Phuong is as a human being, only what he sees in her, and what he projects onto her image. Phuong becomes more of a metaphor for South Vietnam itself, less of a character and how Europeans saw it as exotic, vulnerable, and feminine, and how Americans saw it as ripe for the taking, in danger of being overtaken by communism, and thus in need of American democratic moral guidance and salvation. Phuong is also treated poorly by her own sister, dominated by almost every other character in the novel, which further reinforces her status as a metaphor for Vietnamese peasants who cannot articulate themselves either in the face of European…
Greene, Graham. The Quiet American. New York: Penguin Classics, 1973.
elics of the Mexican evolution
There are numerous facets of Mexican culture and civilization represented in the Mexican Teotihuacan monument. An analysis of these different elements indicates that some of the goals of the revolution are embedded within this particular work. It renders various members of Mexican society who have a critical impact on both Mexico's history as well as its future. In this regard, the monument is of immense important to Mexico, because it helps to illustrate some of that country's glorious past -- and alludes to the impact that past could have on both its present and its future.
It is critical to denote that some of the more stark representations of this monument are from Mexico's pre-Hispanic past. Numerous people, some of whom are Mexican, attribute Mexico's present existence to the work that the conquistadores pioneered in this area during their global colonial rampage. There are myriad…
Hearn, K. (2016). Who built the great city of Teotihuacan? http://science.nationalgeographic.com / Retrieved from
Inductive reasoning leads Legrand to discover an encrypted message that he sets out to painstakingly decipher. Poe's detailed analysis of the cryptogram is quintessentially romantic, encouraging rational inquiry into seemingly supernatural phenomenon. A respect for both the natural and supernatural worlds is implied by the story. Interestingly, nothing supernatural does take place in "The Gold-ug." Legrand admits to the striking coincidences that led him to the treasure, but coincidences themselves are not supernatural events. Legrand states, "it was not done by human agency. And nevertheless it was done."
The titular bug is a scarabaeus, which is a direct allusion to ancient Egypt. Like pirates, the imagery and lore of ancient Egypt has romantic, compelling connotations for readers. The reference to the scarab is coupled with the eerie image of the skull. When Jupiter finally climbs out on the "dead" limb the situation takes on an ominous tone before resolving itself…
Budding interest in the science of mind is also a key theme in Edgar Allen Poe's work. In "The Gold-Bug," Legrand is suspected to be mentally ill. In fact, the narrator is certain that his friend is going mad and urges him repeatedly to seek help. The narrator comments on Legrand's carrying the bug like a conjurer, "When I observed this last, plain evidence of my friend's aberration of mind, I could scarcely refrain from tears." Legrand later admits to teasing the narrator and deliberately acting insane just to humor him. However, Legrand also does exhibit genuine signs of mild bipolar disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Towards the beginning of the story, the narrator states, "I thought it prudent not to exacerbate the growing moodiness of his temper by any comment...I dreaded lest the continued pressure of misfortune had, at length, fairly unsettled the reason of my friend." Legrand even begins to take on the appearance of someone who is mentally ill: "His countenance was pale even to ghastliness, and his deep-set eyes glared with unnatural luster." Although it would be a full fifty years before Freud, Poe does suggest awareness of mental instability as a natural rather than supernatural occurrence.
Edgar Allen Poe's 1843 short story "The Gold-Bug" addresses attitudes towards race in antebellum America. The story is rooted in the Romantic literary tradition, while remaining grounded in historical fact as well. Even the Captain Kidd legend introduces readers to the real role of pirates during the colonial era. Poe mentions the combination of French, Spanish, and English loot. Legrand's Huguenot background also begs inquiry into the minor threads of European colonization.
The intended audience for Poe's story included any American curious about history, science, and the supernatural. The story is set in the same time it was written, which encourages the reader to identify fully with the narrator. Poe deliberately blanks out the last two digits of the dates in the story, too, which allowed his nineteenth century audience to project whatever date they wanted onto the story. Readers during the middle of the nineteenth century would have been curious about the natural sciences as well as the discovery of gold. After all, the California gold rush and the Wild West loomed in American consciousness. The idea that Americans had access to buried treasure and could get rich quick was as real in the 1850s as it is today.
The book the American Story attempts to dispel common notions of the conquest of the New World. According to the author,
"The story recounted first in Europe and then in the United States depicted heroic adventurers, missionaries and soldiers sharing Western civilization with the peoples of the New World and opening a vast virgin land to economic development. The familiar tale celebrated material progress, the inevitable spread of European values and the taming of frontiers." (Divine, 2)
Divine believes this is a grossly distorted version of the truth for many reasons explained below.
First, North America was already a land of great cultural and technological achievement before the Europeans arrived. There are many examples provided, but the one that stands out the most is Chaco Canyon on the San Juan River in present-day New Mexico (Divine, 4). With as many as fifteen thousand people, Chaco Canyon had…
Divine, Robert, et. al. The American Story (Second Edition). New York: Penguin, 2002.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Touchstone Books, 1995.
China and Europe have taken divergent views of religion, commercial exchange, and politics. However, there have emerged various points of commonality and intersection. Chinese and European society have both evolved through periods of feudalism and "warring states," and both have generally preferred centralized systems of power. China and Europe have both participated robustly in global trade, and have each developed profitable and enduring routes of trade that facilitate the movement of people, goods, and services.
Imperialism has remained a core strategy for both Chinese and European political and economic leaders. While China has refrained from actively colonizing the regions it has traded with, European societies have prided themselves on their imperial prowess. China's tendency towards imperialism has been selective, strategic, and regional in focus, whereas European colonization has been extensive and geographically expansive. Moreover, the goal of European imperialism merges with the colonial strategy of controlling the local population extensively.…
Gainty, D. & Ward, W.D. (2012). Sources of World Societies. Volume 1. Bedford/St. Martin's.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Robert Miles, the construction and subsequent discourse of "race" is a complex, dynamic sociological phenomenon. Representations of the Other as distinct from the Self do serve specific psychological, political, and economic purposes. For instance, the notion of the Other creates groups of inclusion and exclusion, and influences self-perception. Moreover, construing the Other in a pejorative manner bolsters images of the Self and offers a sense of personal and cultural superiority. Therefore, representations of the Other are often linked intimately to class, although class is not the only determining factor of racial representation. One of the key threads running through Miles' chapter on representation is that the discourse of race has been largely used to "exclude and inferiorize," (51). Referring to early documentations of encounters with the Other, the author states on page 33: "A negative representation of the Other therefore defined and legitimated the 'positive' qualities of author and reader."…
French and the Native American: A Mutually Beneficial elationship
When considering the history of the United States and its inception, the most common conception is of Native American tribes being tortured, murdered, and generally emaciated from their contact with the Europeans. And certainly, this was generally the case. However, in the often sad history of contact between the new entrants into the Americas and the native tribes, there are also a few sparks of light, where the native tribes and Europeans in fact benefited from their interactions with each other. Although these benefits were often not without their complications, the relationships between the French and the native tribes with whom they came into contact were generally of a far less violent and murderous nature than most other Indian-European interactions. Indeed, the mutual benefits of these relationships began based upon the fur trade and later progressed to intermarriage and intercultural relationships.…
Templeton, K.A. (n.d.). Trail of Tears: The Native American "Problem" in the New World. Retrieved from: https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~katster/Hist16p.htm
University of Ottawa (n.d.). European Colonization and the Native Peoples. Site for Language Management in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/european_colonization
White, S. (2013). Wild Frenchmen and Frenchified Indians: Material Culture and Race in Colonial Louisiana. University of Pennsylvania Press
When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed."
Zinn details similar atrocities committed by Cortes against the Aztecs. He was also a Spaniard whose expeditions were financed predicated "and blessed by the deputies of God" and predicated on the hope of repayment in gold from the New World:
"Cortes then began his march of death from town to town, using deception, turning Aztec against Aztec, killing with the kind of deliberateness that accompanies a strategy-to paralyze the will of the population by a sudden frightful deed. And so, in Cholulu, he invited the headmen of the Cholula nation…
In this way, they differ significantly from the general global tendency to have fewer children in the interest of a sustainable future for humanity. Cultural values are regarded as primarily important in the decision to have and raise children.
When the issue is thoroughly investigated, it is clear that culture is indeed a political issue. There are several and divergent reasons for this, of which the most important is that both politics and culture are inseparable from human life itself. There is no community that does not have some sort of government and some sort of culture. The ways in which culture and politics interact and manifest are as numerous as there are nations on earth. This is what makes it both a complicated and rich field of study.
Bentley, Jerry H. 1996. Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History. The American Historical eview, Vol. 101, no. 3. June…
Bentley, Jerry H. 1996. Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History. The American Historical Review, Vol. 101, no. 3. June 1995. http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/support/whatis_reading_2.pdf
International association for Conflict Management. 2007. Reciprocating concessions in intercultural and intracultural contexts. 20th Annual Conference: Budapest Hungary, July 1-4. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1100608
Philpott, Daniel. Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion. University of Notre Dame
Sizoo, Edith. 2000. An intercultural and multilingual contribution to the framing of a Charter of the Alliance. Syros Workshop, Greece. October 30 -- November 4.
Domestic Uniformity in the U.S. Between 1815-1830
In the glorious aftermath of a triumphant revolution newly independent Americans were intent on freeing themselves fully from the control of European interests. To attain this liberation, the first Americans were charged with a task of enormous difficulty: harnessing the tremendous natural resources of their new land and using them to construct a great nation. Immense forests filled with raw timber stood waiting to be transformed into homes and vast tracts of open land lay ready for the farmer's plow. For decades after independence was wrested from British hands the first Americans worked to transform potential into reality, and soon a rising player on the international stage had emerged. hereas centuries of autocratic oppression had dulled the creative sensibilities of European designers and manufacturers, their American counterparts were now free to explore their creative whims and soon they began producing works of skilled…
Guay, L. "Peace and Conflict: The War of 1812." Historica. (2006): n. page. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. .
Maier, P, M.R Smith, A Keyssar, and D.J. Kevles. Ed. Inventing America. 2nd. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company, 2005. 295-306. Print.
Monroe, J. "President James Monroe's Seventh Annual Message to Congress." United States Congress, Washington D.C.. December 12th, 1823. In Person. .
Middle East countries, and also former colonies around the world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became "paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported"(Shah, 2000). People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that "weak spot" and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the "invasive" West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization. Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs…
Global Connections -- the Middle East. (2002). Retrieved February 12, 2007, from PBS Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/resource/index.html
Levitt, M., a. (2002). The Political Economy of Middle East Terrorism. MERIA Journal, 6(4). Retrieved February 11, 2007, from MERIA Web site: http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2002/issue4/jv6n4a3.html
Middle East. (1993-2006). Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Web site: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579298/Middle_East.html
Shah, a. (2000). The Middle East. Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Global Issues Web site: http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast.asp
African Women Slavery
What was life like for African female slaves?
When most people hear the word slavery they will often associate it with the harsh living conditions and the demoralizing atmosphere they were going through. While this is true, the reality is that many slaves endured even more suffering. For women, this became worse in comparison with men. Part of the reason for this, is because they were considered to be inferior to men.
This is troubling because, it meant that they would be exposed to a wide variety of abuses at the hands of their slave masters and other slaves. To fully understand what took place, we will look at the underlying levels of privation that were occurring. Once this happens, it will offer specific insights about the overall amounts of difficulties that they had to deal with.
The Typical Life for a Slave Woman
In America prior…
"Life of Slave." Think Quest. Last modified 2002. http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215469/life_of_a_slave.htm
Davis, Angela. "Black Woman's Perspective." Women, Race and Class. 1- 15. New York, Random House, 1983.
Hughes, Sarah. "Gender in European Colonization." Women in World History. 100 -- 105. Armonk, ME Sharp, 1997.
Morrison, Kathleen. "African-American Cultural Context." Family Violence, 5 -7. Thousand Oaks, Sage, 2004.
This article makes several key points. The first is that the imperialist attitude was hypocritical. This is explicitly stated: "That sense of moral responsibility, however, was often misplaced or, even worse, laced with hypocrisy." The second is that the historical white view of imperialism is that it was beneficial. The author uses Kipling's White Man's Burden as an example of the pro-imperialism stance. The third key point is that the black man has suffered greatly from imperialism, but valiantly lives on. The author uses the text The Black Man's Burden to illustrate his point.
The document is significant because it presents the case in favor of and against imperialism. Furthermore, while The White Man's Burden is a well-known piece, its counterpoint is less well-known, so the article lends some exposure to The Black Man's Burden. What I learned from this article was to appreciate the different perspectives on history that…
With all the resources of normal use for Indians in missionary control, Indians began to attack the missions and military forces to steal animal and take revenge of sexual assaults on Indian women. Continuous demand of laborers for the missions impacted the Indian tribes greatly and finally in 1836, the Mexican Republic who officially took over from Spain in 1823, took away the missions powers of obtaining forced labor from Indian and the missions collapsed.
One third of the California Indian population, over 100,000 Indians perished to deaths attributable to missions of California. The 1824 constitution of Mexican Republic promised Indians voting rights as citizens but they continued to be treated as slaves.
The discovery of Gold in California in 1848 subjected the Indians to the most horrible period of their history. California was seized by U.S. military from Mexico in 1846 and sufferings of the Indians multiplied by the…
California Indians Past and Present, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.allianceofcatribes.org/californiaindians.htm
Census 2000, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.nahc.ca.gov/California 'sNativeAmerican, Eskimo and Alute populations.htm
Five Views: An Ethnic Site Survey for California, Nov. 2004, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views1.htm
Heizer, R.F. The Destruction of California Indians: A Collection of Documents from the Period 1847 to 1865 in Which Are Described Some of the Things That Happened to Some of the Indians of California, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 1993.
Kiss Fur Queen
In Kiss of the Fur Queen, the natives in 20th Century Canadian society experience mass poverty, disempowerment and violence, including the rape and murder of native women in innipeg, which Jeremiah witnesses. Tomson Highway, Canada's leading native playwright, is "obsessed with history and the native legacy of European colonization," which is also a common theme in his plays (Howells 83). He tells the story of imperialism and its impact on native culture and society through the semi-autobiographical life stories of two brothers, Jeremiah and Gabriel Okimasis, who were members of the Cree nation in northern Canada. Sent away by their father to a Catholic Church boarding school at a yond age, they experienced forced assimilation as well as physical and sexual abuse that damages them for life. This was a common feature at all of those schools, whose main purpose was the destruction of native languages and…
Highway, Tomson. Kiss of the Fur Queen. University of Oklahoma Press, 2000.
Howells, Coral Ann. "Tomson Highway's Kiss of the Fur Queen" in Howells, Coral Ann (ed), Where are the Voices Coming From? Canadian Literature and the Legacies of History. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, BV, 2009: 83-94.
Lane, Richard A. "Surviving the Residential School System: Resisting Hegemonic Canadianess in Tomson Highways Kiss of the Fur Queen" in Bellarsi, Frana and Marc Maufort (eds), Reconfigurations: Canadian Literature and Post-Colonial Identities. Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang, SA, 2004: 191-202.
In April 2nd 1982, the then Argentinian government sent soldiers to take over the disputed Falklands Islands. The reason for this is that the South American country regarded the group of islands as part of its territory. However, the British, who already occupied the islands, also regarded the Falklands as their territory. Over the next one month, both countries made serious attempts to store the conflict from escalating. Alexander Haig, who was the then United States Secretary of State was right in the middle of the diplomatic negotiations to try and stop the conflicting from escalating. He and his team travelled frantically between the London and Buenos Aires to meet and negotiate with the leaders of the two countries, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom and President Leopoldo Galtieri of Argentina. Nevertheless, the countless hours of negotiations and the frantic efforts of the Alexander Haig and his…
Of course, the much shorter pleated skirt we now associate with modern Japanese school girls is also a chic look, and the carrying over of this simple design into a popular and often fetish-linked fashion for Western girls of modern times is an important note of timelessness.
Court" Fashion for Japanese Males, Asuka Period (593-710):
Eastern influence is not reserved for Westerners alone, as one can see in Asuka and Nara period clothing designs from Japan. Chinese influence was strong during this time period for clothing styles in Japan between 593 to 794 AD. uddhism and Chinese culture design was popularized by the imperial court members that wore clothing of this kind. The hakama trousers remained intact, but without the binding ties below the knee that earlier periods had emphasized. The upper garment of this period, the "ho" ("Japanese Dress in Former Times...") was less form fitting than previous designs,…
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. "Orientalism - East Meets West." Galley of Fashion. January 2005. http://gbacg.org/orientalism_fashion.htm
At-Home Dress." Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/orie/hod_1994.302.1.htm
Banyan." Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/orie/hod_1981.208.2.htm
Bhatia, Nandi & Puwar, Nirmal. "Fashion and Orientalism." Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. October 2003. v7 n3-4.
The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.
Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures
The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.
More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…
Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.
Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.
The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online: http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html
Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
McComb runs with this general theme of transformation from the beginning of his history of Galveston onward. To accomplish this, he starts by describing the island in geographical terms; yet, he does not simply provide a topographical map for the reader to ponder; instead, McComb supplies the very first map ever written of the island, and attempts to generate a picture of how the island itself was formed, and how the first explorers and Native Americans who found it might have seen it. This is an appropriate technique considering, according to McComb, that some of the first Europeans to land on the island were a crew of shipwrecked Spaniards. However, as increased trade and warfare eventually came to the region, the island of Galveston began to reveal its practical utility. At first, it was used as a camp for prisoners of war, but gradually transformed into a small town. Of…
McComb, David, 1986, Galveston: a History, the University of Texas Press, Austin.
Texas State Historical Association, 2000, "Galveston: a History and a Guide," Texas State Historical Association. Available: