Up until 1858, the British East India Company had a monopoly on trade with Asia and also governed most of the Indian subcontinent, although it was replaced by direct British rule after the ebellion of 1757-58. Initially, the Company was not interested in 'modernizing' or reforming India, but only in expanding its power and profits. It would either buy off of eliminate all of its competitors and interlopers, as it did by hanging Captain Kidd in 1701 on charges of piracy. It sold opium to China to help finance its activities, and Chinese attempts in restrict this trade in the Opium Wars of 1839-42 and 1856-60 resulted in the British takeover of Hong Kong. In the Boston Tea Party of 1774, the East India Company's monopoly on trade with Asia sparked the American evolution, led in part by merchants who preferred free trade policies along the lines of…… [Read More]
Imperialism was always seen as positive for Westerners, but as destructive by the peoples of Africa and Asia." To what extent does this statement appear to be true?
Rudyard Kipling's "The White man's burden" seems to be an ironic condemnation of imperialism. Whilst most Westerners of the viewed imperialism as a necessary fact and as a boon to the 'savages', Kipling was a pre-contemporary in more ways than one and saw the 'Whites' as simply one more other race populating the world. The White man in his greed and folly was perpetrating needless wars and occupying another's land as well as stealing their wives, children, property, and money for the benefit of themselves. Kipling, however, was unique in that most Westerners disagreed with him. To them, they were not only doing their duty but many defined their acts as charity. They were educating the illiterate; teaching the savage the ways…… [Read More]
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]
Jeremy ifkin: The European Dream
So we are all familiar with the proverbial American Dream. Whether it exists or not, whether it is attainable or not are questions that better to be left alone at this point because there appears to be another proverbial dream that has emerged that demands our attention. According to Jeremy ifkin, the idea of American dream is not only outdated, it is also being quickly replaced by the European Dream. "While the American Spirit is tiring and languishing in the past," ifkin writes, "a new European Dream is being born.." In his book, The European Dream, ifkin lays down the thesis that America has lost its charm, its appeal and almost everything it once symbolized, the new American generation is overweight, under-educated and unnecessarily aggressive with little or no regard for religion. So the American Dream that revolved around tapping into opportunities, buying a nice…… [Read More]
European and American imperialism from 1900-1918
Empire is the term from which the word imperialism is carved. Government implies the act of mastery of one nation by another one, with the sole intention of expanding region, power and impact. It conveys with it the thought of social prevalence from the radical, judging the lifestyle, cultures and convictions of those colonized as sub-par and in need of changeover (Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com).
Nonetheless, Imperialism normally posits as a political control and making monetary subservience. In Europe, the time of dominion coincided with patriotism and unification when prior political units were assembled under governance that asserted the privilege to keep rule over them. "I rehash that the elite races [European] have a privilege in light of the fact that they have an obligation. They have the obligation to socialize the downtrodden races [non Europeans] (South Africa History, n.d.)"
Ashley Smith the journalist isolated hypotheses…… [Read More]
Even with the fact that the philosophy is appreciated by many individuals today, the fact that it promotes immoral behavior and that it influences people to take on aggressive attitudes against innocent people in order to achieve their goals makes it no different than earlier theories that ended in failure.
Individuals who have a cultural Islamic background are most likely to favor radical Islam. However, even these individuals are apparently inclined to express hesitation with regard to supporting the ideology. "After 23 years of rule by fundamentalist clerics, most Iranians, especially the young, would like to live in a far more liberal society" (Fukuyama). Even with the fact that some feel that it would be justified for them to be unsupportive of American cultural values, many consider that supporting radical Islam is not the answer to their problems.
Fukuyama is right in thinking that radical Islam makes no difference to…… [Read More]
European Imperialism and Decolonization:
Spectacular in Some Respects
Not Spectacular in Other Respects
European Imperialism and Decolonization:
Spectacular in Some Respects, Not Spectacular in Other Respects
The term "spectacular" is, in some respects, subjective. The collapse of European empires after 1945 was spectacular in some respects but not in others. The British Empire's decolonization after orld ar II can be logically called "spectacular" in its scope; however, it was not "spectacularly" surprising or shocking, for the Empire began decolonization decades before orld ar II. In contrast to the Empire's decolonization, France's decolonization can be logically called "spectacular" in both its scope and turmoil. According to research, these differing experiences of decolonization can be traced to several national and accidental factors.
Analysis of the British Empire's Decolonization
The Empire and Decolonization Prior to 1945
The most common type of imperial control was the "colony," directly ruled by a Governor representing the…… [Read More]
Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq were all "constructed" as "imperial conveniences for France and ritain" (Gause, 444). And so, when the ritish and French were authoritative landlords, places like Kuwait (a ritish "protectorate" until 1961) were safe from outside interference. ut once ritain was long gone from Kuwait, Hussein had his chance to move in and he did, until the U.S. And its allies pushed him out in 1991.
Conclusion: After WWI, the winners divided up the Ottoman Empire, and that was the origin of the country of Iraq. The history of the Middle East -- beginning in the 19th Century and continuing today -- is shaped by outside forces, by colonialism, war, greed, and cultural conflicts. An alert reader can see why the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. In 2003 was star-crossed in the first place, and why ritain and the U.S. are hated so fiercely by the…… [Read More]
Thus, the ideas of mercantilism contributed directly to colonialism and a host of colonial wars and conflicts. No mercantilist state was averse to expanding into the markets of any other nation. ather the goal was to contain as much of the production and trade within one's own borders. War was a natural consequence of each nation attempting to control as much of a finite supply of wealth as it possibly could. The nation that most successfully exploited these policies became naturally the most powerful. Spain with its huge resources of gold and silver failed in the control and production of other resources. France failed to maintain control over the territories necessary for production. Holland lacked sufficient native resources to establish effective control over enough territories to fully ground a mercantilist empire. Great Britain succeeded because it followed the mercantilist credo and was able to take control over each stage of…… [Read More]
The Egyptian King Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularly elected afd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their distinctly nationalist platform. The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coercion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint an enfeebled afd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during the Second orld ar. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were 'so closely associated with the structures of colonialization that they did not outlast them' (Owen 1992, 19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the King to dismiss any elected government of nationalists 'that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defining Britain's rights' (Owen 1992, 19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.
Pan-Arabism Causes Conflict…… [Read More]
First World War was the first-ever war that had brought great destruction and required greater involvement of many countries, most especially the European nations. Evidence of the impending world war started during the early 19th century, wherein colonization and strengthening of military power is the most prevalent activity of all European nations at that time. The World War I was said to have many causes, although the most important and more popular cause discussed by historians today is that the First World War started because of the rising imperialism among competing European nations. The war had two competing groups, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance was composed of Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy, while the Triple Entente was made up of Great ritain, France, and Russia. These groups were not originally formed as a triad; rather, each nation became affiliated with each other before and during…… [Read More]
The most important development in shaping the modern world was the development of the internal combustion engine. European exploration, expansion and imperialism sits well behind that. But in terms of European expansion and imperialism, there is a lot to unpack if one is to apply a value judgment (good versus bad). Moreover, one of the main issues with that sort of framing is the unknown element of the alternatives, which could range from the expansion/imperialism of other nations, the delay of European expansion until the internal combustion engine (and subsequent advances in philosophy and governance that may have dramatically altered the shape of that expansion). European expansion likely did not occur at the best time for something like that to have occurred.
The key underpinnings of analysis with respect to European expansion and imperialism lie with the belief among the Europeans conducting such expansion that they were…… [Read More]
Iran and Iraq
Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq
The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.
The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…… [Read More]
European exploration the world was undertaken in the 1500's in an attempt to reach the markets of Asia. And once they reached the East, the Europeans quickly found that their technological superiority gave them a strategic advantage over the Asian countries they encountered. As a result, the West began a period of Colonial Imperialism whereby European nations, followed later by the Americans, occupied and administered entire regions of Asia as colonies to be economically exploited. The Asian countries of India, China, and Japan reacted differently in response to the predations of the West, with differing results. India was completely conquered, China ended up conquered to a degree, and Japan started conquering. These three different results were in due, partially because of the stability of their nations, and partially due to the ability of each to adapt and modernize.
The origins of British rule in India began with the British East…… [Read More]
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…… [Read More]
In Lenin's view, 19th century industrialized colonialism was different than previous colonial endeavors in that it was far more economically driven: nations had once used colonies as political and military buffers against their enemies. Now they needed colonies to ensure that the system that enabled the capitalist elites to prosper would survive. Without colonies, the capitalist system would topple. Lenin was prescient in seeing that colonialism made the world inherently unstable -- secret alliances and colonial conflicts were two of the major causes of World War I. Ironically, the Cold War would also be spawned by a kind of colonialist conflict -- not only did the Soviet Union strive to use Eastern Europe as a political buffer, it also economically exploited many of the Eastern European nations in its sphere of influence and forced members of the Warsaw Pact to adopt the Soviet economic system. (Lenin pointed out that colonies…… [Read More]
1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.
Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.
One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…… [Read More]
European culture in Africa
Published in 1958, the book Things Fall Apart is an influential piece of work by Achebe that portrays, in most conventional style, the life and culture in a very traditional village in Africa. This book is about restoration of traditional values and identification of identity of African people in the wake of European cultural dominance and acceptance. This report is about how the writer has projected upon the life and revived the African culture as against the treat of European cultural imperialism.
In this novel the writer tries to enlighten the foreign world as regards to the cultural traditions of Ibo and in doing so the writer is also reminding the African people of their own traditions and cultural values. The writer is of the notion that the African people must not forget their old values, customs and cultural norms in this changing verve of the…… [Read More]
Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism
The Strains of Living in a Postcolonial orld
In the wake of Colonialism and Imperialism, much of the world still finds itself in pieces -- unable to remember life before being conquered. hat has resulted is great turmoil in many areas of the world caused by a confusion of cultural identity and a complete lack of national identity. Yet, this move to revive individual cultures has also set off a sharp debate within the field of postcolonial theory; these cultures become protective blankets which then keep nations separated in their own twisted visions. Conquerors such as the United States and Great Britain continue on this bravado of the superior nations who still power over their former colonies. This then results in estern literature romanticizing the East as to reaffirm those chauvinistic beliefs. Thus, the conquered people face a crucial internal dilemma -- adoption into what the…… [Read More]
" (Capital, p. 915)
Ecological damage is grounded in resource depletion and density of population. You can have 10,000 over a 1000 acre land and this might not hurt the ecological balance but when you have the same number of people on 10 acre land, the balance is seriously disturbed as water, minerals, and other resources of a very small area are constantly being used up. This is what happened during the colonization process. Only some nations were constantly being robbed of their natural resources while nothing was coming from European countries. It must always be a two-way flow of resources because when its one-way, it leads to multifarious environmental and ecological problems. It is for this reason that Accion Ecologica argues "it's time to shut off the tap" to stem the "unjust flow of energy, natural resources, food, cheap labour and financial resources from the South to the North."…… [Read More]
Paradox of Imperialism as Presented in Heart of Darkness
Beginning in the 1500's, European countries explored the world and claimed large parts of it as their own. This was the beginning of the Age of Exploration, as first the Portuguese and Spanish, then the British, Dutch, French, and other Europeans raced to discover and claim new areas of the world. By the 1800's the Age of Exploration had settled into a system of Imperialism which maintained huge Empires for the economic benefit of the home countries in Europe. While the stated goal of creating such Empires was to bring civilization to uncivilized parts of the world, the need for raw materials combined with a commercial greed created a system that cruelly exploited indigenous peoples and raped whole territories of natural resources. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, paralleled this ultimate paradox of Imperialism by describing how a good man named Kurtz,…… [Read More]
globalization and imperialism and argues that globalization is actually nothing more than imperialism under a new guise. The writer uses several sources to illustrate the definition of imperialism and then holds it against globalization to prove they are one and the same under different names. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Globalization = U.S. Imperialism
As mankind continues with the process of globalization, many world leaders point to it as an indication of peace on earth. Proudly discussing the coming together of nations, cultures, ideas and technology, the leaders of the world relay to their constituents that globalization is a positive step toward worldwide cohesiveness. Those who live in the nations, taking part in the process, look at technological advances, the ability to widen their market bases and other things and wholeheartedly agree with what they are being told. While there are many aspects of globalization that…… [Read More]
Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life. But when analyzing we can realize that the actual dissatisfaction of individuals arises forms the modern life that they need and in comparison to that the others around the world lead. The term globalization is used to describe the various changes that have taken place in the social, economical and political scenarios that has brought about change in the current situation.
To explain, globalization is the termed used to describe the technique in which the various far away parts…… [Read More]
The faith allows for stoning of people, torture of women and the suicide bombings that the world has grown accustomed to suffering (Hoagland, 2001).
Islamic fundamentalist believe that their faith instructs them to seek out and destroy Americans. They also believe that if they are suicide bombers they will be rewarded in heaven ten fold. As America continues to fight against the human rights violations that Persian Gulf nations continue to support, the fundamentalists believe it is their calling and duty to act against American interests. They want American interests out of their area and they will do what it takes to get it done including acts of terrorism.
As the world watched in wonder the Soviet Union collapsed. It dismantled its government, it started over and it began to rebuild as a democracy after many years of being in a cold war with the United States.
For some the…… [Read More]
Asia and Africa in estern European Art
Globalization is generally associated as a modern phenomenon, however, it is a global movement that began with the Greeks and did not accelerate until the renaissance era. The est, going back to Alexander the Great, has a long history of interactions with Asia and Africa. Ideas and goods were consistently traded. This trend of globalization accelerated with the age of exploration in the 16th century when Europeans came into further contact with Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Driven by the quest for gold and natural resources estern European traders navigated the world. This had a profound effect back home, as Europeans developed an interest in the exotic. The interest blossomed during the 18th and 19th century, during the height of estern power and colonialism. Curiosity into the foreign permeated all levels of society. Artists incorporated Asian and African artistic styles into their…… [Read More]
92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.
Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.
The new Imperialism of America (and…… [Read More]
British Imperialism Be Explained?
In the colonial period, Africa became the land of opportunity for Europeans who exploited the people and resources for profit. When Europeans went to Africa, home of black skinned people, they looked at the land as available to use as they wished. They never considered that this land belonged to its original inhabitants. Neither did they consider themselves thieves. They did not bother to think of black natives as human beings, but rather sought every way possible to use them to make money. Rather than openly admit their mercenary motives, whites assumed an attitude of superiority and declared that they were acting out of generosity to bring civilization and Christianity to primitive peoples. The thesis of this essay is that the colonial period in Africa was characterized by the arrogance of whites and atrocities committed against blacks. The focus will be on the British Empire and…… [Read More]
Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.
Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…… [Read More]
Conflict and Cooperation: Native Americans and European Settlers in Early America
The early history of the settlement of what would eventually become the United States has many competing narratives. Many people view the relationship between Native Americans and European settlers as fundamentally combative. hile at times the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans was certainly one of conflict, this period was also full of significant curiosity, education and cooperation that went on between both groups. Many times, each group was inquisitive about the other and knowledge was exchanged. The Native Americans were often portrayed as brutal savages, but current literature shows that this was not often the case. The apparent viciousness of the European settlers towards the native peoples, particularly in terms of cultural destruction and land acquisition, is also more complicated than it initially seems. Though the eventually dominance of the Europeans over the Native Americans lead…… [Read More]
Former Soviet Satellites and the European Union
Recent decades have been decades of great change for the nations and peoples of Europe. The est has witnessed the gradual demise of interstate rivalries, the former system of wholly independent states being replaced by an increasingly close union of partner nations. Meanwhile, in the East, these same years saw nearly the whole of Europe from the Baltic to the Black Sea fall under the domination of the Soviet Union. However, with the collapse of communism in the early 1990s, these former Soviet satellites were transformed, almost overnight, into a collection of fledgling democracies. And though the nations of Eastern Europe, at least ostensibly, now share the same political values as their neighbors to the est, their transformation has not been without its problems. Years of Communist rule, has left these countries economically backward and underdeveloped. Yet each of these former Communist nations…… [Read More]
Given the very nature of colonialism and imperialism, it is doubtful that the Europeans would have wanted to give any credit to the Native Americans for their contributions to the development of democracy in the United States. As Johansen points out, the settlers in the Northeast must have gleaned some information about how Enlightenment principles can be put into practice. However, the indigenous peoples of North America were incredibly diverse, as were the settlers and their settlement patterns. Influences of Native Americans on Europeans varied, and in many cases the interactions were totally unlike the ones described by Johansen.
Although Johansen overestimates the influence of the Iroquois Confederacy government and social structure on the development of democracy in the United States, the role of Native Americans in the development of the United States should not be discounted. The very fact that Europeans encountered diverse indigenous peoples became a major factor…… [Read More]
constructing responses titles I listing. In response make show reference entry. (01) Discuss
One of the most powerful movements that transformed European society during the early modern era was the dissemination of information and the propagation of reading material due to Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press around 1450 A.D. The movement that would prove to have the most impact upon society as a whole, however, was the imperialist movement that many credit to have originated with Columbus' journeys to the Americas, the first of which was in 1492. The imperialist movement would allow the appetite for power and conquering to expand beyond Europe and eventually encapsulate the entire globe. This movement is directly responsible for today's globalization, and the previous (and perhaps current) colonization and tyranny of many non-European nations. Another major movement during this time period was the beginning of the Protestant eformation, which began around 1517…… [Read More]
Duiker and peilvogel's book, World History ince 1865, Volume II examines the emergence of imperialism promoted by Europeans and the resulting affects of their determination to expand, far surpassing imperial Rome.
Great Britain, France, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, pain, Portugal and even Russia intruded forcefully into Africa, Asia, the Middle East and the outh Pacific and finally sought out the North and outh Poles. Today, there is common agreement that European overseas expansion was a constant factor of the nineteenth century, with British commercial activities the most obvious.
But the key aspect of this mobile expansion and what dominated world history from 1500 to the present is the gradual integration of the world into a European-dominated global system. One of the more interesting aspects of this "globalization" is to understand that countries outside of Europe were not victims of this movement. Historical, social, economic and political dynamics contributed to European…… [Read More]
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
The…… [Read More]
Industrialization in Europe increased the development of machines, production of goods and new energy resources of other societies. However, it had many positive and negative effects to the society. The building of new empires enabled Europe to gain access to their armies, exports, finances and strategic locations. The paper will analyze how Industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies and what made the European Armies so effective against native resistance.
There are various reasons why industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies. The first reason was the availability of larger consumer markets. Industrialization in Europe allowed other countries in spreading their influence to weaker countries. Because of the spread, the industrialized countries managed to create markets for the manufactured products along with producing some specific products to be sold in these markets. The second reason was the availability of raw materials that was used…… [Read More]
European entry into Africa is associated with explorers and missionaries. These were people that aimed to improve Africa and the Native groups living in it. However, the reason that the missionaries and explorers set foot as the first group in Africa was to introduce the very deceitful idea that Europe was interested in making life better for these people who knew nothing of civilization. The politics that later set in from the late eighteenth century going forward, clearly expose the foundations of genocide in this continent that was before that full of culture and life. Of importance to note is that the extermination policy first affected the Africans and other Peoples inferior to Europe. However, this same ideology that made Europe bask in the pride of its superiority later culminated to their own Holocaust. Lindqvist powerfully reckons with the past and offers enormous contribution to colonial African Literature as well…… [Read More]
America and the Great War" and "The New Era"
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. Vol. 2: A Concise History of the American People .4th Edition. McGraw-Hill 2004.
What were the causes of WWI in Europe in 1914? Why was President Wilson so reluctant for the U.S. To get involved until 1917 and what finally put the U.S. "over the edge" and decide to enter the conflict directly?
Nationalism, imperialism, and secret treaties all played a role in the instigation of WWI in Europe, but President Wilson was initially reluctant to become involved, because of a long history of American isolationism in regards to entangling European affairs, particularly the secret alliances that stimulated the conflict. His refusal to involve the U.S. In WWI became a crucial part of his re-election campaign. But President Wilson began to protest German violations of American neutrality more vehemently in his public rhetoric than British violations,…… [Read More]
This article makes several key points. The first is that the imperialist attitude was hypocritical. This is explicitly stated: "That sense of moral responsibility, however, was often misplaced or, even worse, laced with hypocrisy." The second is that the historical white view of imperialism is that it was beneficial. The author uses Kipling's White Man's Burden as an example of the pro-imperialism stance. The third key point is that the black man has suffered greatly from imperialism, but valiantly lives on. The author uses the text The Black Man's Burden to illustrate his point.
The document is significant because it presents the case in favor of and against imperialism. Furthermore, while The White Man's Burden is a well-known piece, its counterpoint is less well-known, so the article lends some exposure to The Black Man's Burden. What I learned from this article was to appreciate the different perspectives on history that…… [Read More]
Horses have been an important and influential part of North American and European history. In his book, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, Alfred W. Crosby argues that horses helped to bring about European's successful colonization of a number of temperate regions such as North America, Australia, New Zealand, and some parts of South America. He argues that the profound success of horses in these regions resulted from the filling of an empty biological niche, and that the arrival of horses on the plains in North America resulted in profound changes in the lives of North American Indians. In his article, The ise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures, Pekka Hamalainen argues that the common view that horses brought success to Native Americans is fundamentally oversimplified. He suggests that the common focus on only the successful incorporation of horses by the Lakota people has distorted modern understanding of…… [Read More]
Race for Colonies in the Late 19th Century
Although European imperialism had started in the 15th century when a number of European powers such as Spain, Portugal and Great Britain began to look for new settlements around the world, another great race for colonies occurred in the late 19th century. This time around, other countries such as the United States and Japan also joined Europe in the race. Some of the major reasons for the establishment of colonies in the late 19th century and specific examples of such colonies are outlined below.
The industrial revolution in Europe and the United States had greatly increased their technological and military power by the second half of the 19th century. Japan, too, had embarked on a path of rapid modernization in the mid-nineteenth century. As a result, several countries in Europe (including England, France, Germany and Italy), the U.S. And Japan…… [Read More]
Bernstein's book, a Splendid Exchange:How trade shaped world" retitled switch exotic spices
For quite some time, the western world, spearheaded, of course, by Europe, has made a point to access both the far and the middle east in order to exchange commodities and goods in what was the beginning of global trade. This proclivity is well documented within the historical narrative of William Bernstein's book entitled A Splendid Narrative: How Trade Shaped the World. The valuables that Europeans have historically sought from the far and the middle east included exotic spices, sugar and tea, the likes of which were largely not available in the western hemisphere. As Bernstein explains in great detail within his manuscript, this desire of Europe's to access these goods of the middle east was eventually transformed from the luxuries afforded by extravagant spices to stable commodities that would eventual create the world economic trading…… [Read More]
This will reveal the bias of the West and how it has come to embrace the stereotypical imagery and ideas of the Oriental.
In conclusion, the essay will briefly recount the points made throughout the essay overall, but will also offer analytical ideas as to how, understanding Orientalism as a product of the colonial and post colonial West, how the East and the West might move forward and achieve the cultural equality necessary to build a safe and productive global community and environment of co-existence through mutual respect, understanding, and equality.
It is only in conjunction with other works which specifically address the subject of Orientalism that one begins to identify markers of Orientalism in Captain Sir Richard Burton's interpretation of the Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (Burton, ). Works by authors like Edward W. Said, who spent much of his life studying and…… [Read More]
Nationalism and Its Importance in the Development of Nations in the 1900s
Nationalism is considered as the proliferation of a homogenous political identity to a community that is bounded by a territory through various means of communication. In some cases, nationalism is described as the feeling of patriotic zeal for an individual's country. Nationalism was a common factor in the development of nations in the 1900s that also contributed to the First orld ar. This concept played a crucial role in the development of nations in the 1900s by developing a sentiment that bounded large groups of people on the idea that they have certain things in common such as religion, culture, and ethnicity. However, the modern concept of nationalism is based on a sense of common national identity. Given the patriotic fervor it generates, nationalism played a significant role in the development of nations in the 1900s.
The Concept…… [Read More]
Popular ideologies like Social Darwinism both reflected and created the reality of England, Germany and the United States in the 1890's. During that time, all three nations were economic and social powerhouses, potentially poised on the edge of greatness (or teetering on the brink of destruction, given the benefit of hindsight). Social Darwinism was likely one of the most powerful ideologies of the time, and it both contributed to the reality of the great nations, and influenced the reality of the times.
During the 1890's, America, England and Germany were all economic powerhouses, as well as great centers of culture and education. All three great nations had not yet felt the effects of the Great ar, which crippled the German economy and likely ultimately strengthened both British and American societies.
In the 1890's, all three nations were gripped, to some extent, by the sheer possibilities the Industrial Revolution and earlier…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
China and Europe have taken divergent views of religion, commercial exchange, and politics. However, there have emerged various points of commonality and intersection. Chinese and European society have both evolved through periods of feudalism and "warring states," and both have generally preferred centralized systems of power. China and Europe have both participated robustly in global trade, and have each developed profitable and enduring routes of trade that facilitate the movement of people, goods, and services.
Imperialism has remained a core strategy for both Chinese and European political and economic leaders. While China has refrained from actively colonizing the regions it has traded with, European societies have prided themselves on their imperial prowess. China's tendency towards imperialism has been selective, strategic, and regional in focus, whereas European colonization has been extensive and geographically expansive. Moreover, the goal of European imperialism merges with the colonial strategy of controlling the local population extensively.…… [Read More]
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…… [Read More]
Accessed October 5, 2010 at http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/bdorsey1/41docs/02-las.html
eaction 2: Bartolome de Las Casas' brief biography and timeline
The Christian humanitarian Bartolome de Las Casas is characterized as one of the world's earliest international human rights advocates. During the Age of European Imperialism and conquest of the New World, Las Casas is justifiably called a colonist rather than a conquistador, although at the beginning of his ventures in the New World he took part in a "violent and bloody conquest of Cuba" and received "Indian serfs for his efforts" (Las Casas, Philosophy 302, 2010). Although he was a Dominican priest, and many Christian missionaries acted barbarically towards the native population, Las Casas became more and more Utopian in his outlook. He fought to ban slave labor and briefly set up a colony to teach the native people about Christ. He treated the natives in an equitable fashion. The first man to…… [Read More]
What I appreciated most about Master and Commander was in fact the nontraditional approach to the war movie. Instead of focusing on battle scenes and commanders' egos, Weir and his fellow filmmakers focus on those commanders' motives and to the prevailing social norms and political values. Those norms and values gave impetus to explore the world and learn about the diversity of culture and species the planet houses.
As outmoded models of government were falling by the wayside, generals like Napoleon were able to fill leadership vacuums easily. Trust in governance and leadership had yet to evolve. Aubrey's death embodies the social and political struggles taking place during the early nineteenth century. The sea bird that dies is a powerful symbol for Aubrey, a literary device that makes the movie more than a simple sensationalist Hollywood production. Master and Commander forces students to think harder about their academic readings. The…… [Read More]
Porfirio Diaz "began as an activist against reaction and privilege and ended as a longtime dictator and staunch defender of the very forces he had once opposed," (Tuck). Indeed, Porfirio's life is characterized by a series of ironies. Porfirio was a Mestizo. His mother was a Native woman and his father was a working class Criollo (Mexican-born Spaniard). Some sources trace the Diaz family on both sides to Mestizo, "descended from both Mixtec Indians and Spaniards," (Mabry). In any case, Porfirio Diaz's father Jose de la Cruz Diaz died when Porfirio was three years old. Porfirio was one of eight children. Although Porfirio was "born into extreme poverty and never even reached complete literacy," and although the "early years of his life were filled with economic hardship and tragedy, the man would become one of the enemies of Mexico's poor (Minster n.d.; "Porfirio Diaz - from Military Hero…… [Read More]
Modern Political Thought
The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…… [Read More]
However, despite this sweeping generalization offered by the government, U.S. foreign policy has always been clear and direct about its stance against terrorism. Even President Clinton, far prior to the tragedy of 9/11 addressed the United Nations General Assembly about the importance of the prevention of international terrorism and identified it as a major priority in the world arena (Chomsky, 84).
What must be stressed at this point is that terrorism is about the frustrations of a voiceless country -- one that feels that it will not be heard through conventional political or military means. Since the root of the problem is political, the solution is more of a political issue than a security issue because the solution is not in counterstrikes, or fighting fire with fire, but in finding a way to restore the country's voice so that the frustration is relieved instead of stoked (Scheuer, 88). So far…… [Read More]
Thus, paramount American interests were to be presented as being really the interests of the Europeans themselves. It would be a situation wherein America was simply helping along people who were, at present, unable to adequately help themselves. The concept had much in common with the goals of many charity or self-help organizations - people grow and are transformed by learning to help themselves. They are given assistance so as to be enabled to learn the skills and life ways necessary to improve their own conditions. Naturally, everything that was in the "real" interests of Europeans would also be in the interests of the United States. The more similar the peoples of the two continents could become, the more readily Europeans could identify their own aspirations with those of the American people, the closer would be the bond between the two sides. In effect, the new post-ar Europe would be…… [Read More]
In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…… [Read More]
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…… [Read More]
New World" & "Black Robe"
Both Terrence Malick's "The New World" and Bruce Beresford's "Black Robe" deal with themes of Native American encounters with European settlers and how it impacted both parties. There are subtle differences in each movie, but the main themes of cultures clashing and the inevitable conflict that will occur as a result permeate both films. Both films are notable for their attention to detail and their respective quests for historical accuracy, though "The New World" deals with the far more mythologized and recognized story of Pocahontas. These two films together represent a shift in the telling of Native American tales in the cinema, no longer satisfied to project the image of "Noble Savage" that had previously dominated these types of movies.
In Malick's "The New World," Pocahontas is portrayed as a woman torn between two cultures: the one she has known for the whole of her…… [Read More]
" In more general terms, Conrad uses Marlow to give his tale, neither the full close of the plot of earlier fiction, nor James' more limited completeness in the formal structure, but a radical and continuing exposure to the incompleteness of experience and the impossibility of fully understanding it." (Watt, 1978)
The strength of subjectivity as far as perception was concerned is another modern theme. It is safe to state that Conrad managed to prove the profound importance of the subjective dimension in a very complex manner. The stream of consciousness and first person technique which he applied had as a result a process through which the reader completely identified with the inner life of the character.
Naturally all certainty and objectivity is lost in the process and not only does the reader not know where he is going, but he embraces the upcoming transformations as exciting surprises. From this…… [Read More]
Splendid Little War
John Hay -- "A Splendid War"
Secretary of State John Hay once wrote to Theodore oosevelt that the Spanish-American War had been "a splendid little war" (Fried, 1998). It was an opinion shared by many Americans at the time. The three-month war -- declared in April 1898 and over by August -- had few American casualties and helped open up many foreign territories for the United States.
The war began with the Cuban evolution. Spanish rule in Cuba was fiercely opposed by Cuban rebels who were routinely dehumanized, degraded and mistreated in the country throughout the late 19th Century (Lovett, 1997). Spanish general Valeriano Weyler instituted many concentration camps to contain insurgents and suppress the threat of rebel uprisings. The camps were scenes of indecency and deplorable living conditions where death, starvation and malaria and typhoid epidemics were rampant. The suffering of Cubans was deemed a social…… [Read More]
It would be agreeable that the growth of multicultural focus is something that has remained a long journey towards our present understanding of the topic. The path towards our contemporary multiculturalism remains a distinct area of psychology that developed some years ago. The historical development shows clearly that there have been different individuals and thinkers who have focused on the ethnic associations and issues related to human interactions (Cauce, 2011).
Throughout the years in history, it would be clearly agreeable that different historical periods have constantly played a unique role in establishing different thoughts, ideas, and concepts that have defined our societies. For instance, there are stances of activism and even racism that have been playing a unique towards the development and establishment our present ideas on human psychology and multiculturalism (Franklin, 2009, p. 420). Different societal establishments and communities have over the years been critical towards establishing the best…… [Read More]
Over the past several thousand years, the Chinese have contributed some of the world's most significant technological tools and inventions. Most of these inventions have had a tremendous impact on human history and it is hard to imagine life without any of them. Among the most influential of Chinese inventions include gunpowder/explosives; paper; moveable type; the magnetic compass; tea; noodles; matches; and silk. Of these eight inventions, the four most important include paper, gunpowder, tea, and noodles. Of those four, the Chinese invention I could least likely live without would be noodles.
It is difficult to imagine how human beings could have spread information without paper. Even if the Chinese had not invented moveable type well before the Gutenberg printing press was designed in Europe, the invention of paper is one of the most important contributions to the spread of knowledge, learning, ideas, and information. As the Franklin Institute…… [Read More]