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Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: What is the solution?
Causes and Solutions to the Water Pollution Problems of Chesapeake Bay's Waterways
Chesapeake Bay, the largest inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, has been plagued with pollution for hundreds of years. Originally described by Captain John Smith in the early 1600's as having clear water with underwater grasses, oyster reefs, and abundant fish, the Bay today is on the Environmental Protection Agency's "Dirty waters" list (Chesapeake Bay Foundation, "Water Pollution in The Chesapeake Bay"). Polluted with nitrogen and phosphorous, among other pollutants, the Bay's inhabitants, both in the animal kingdom and the plants, are in severe danger of destruction, unless humans interfere with aggressive action. This paper will discuss the reasons for the eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay, the consequences of that eutrophication, and possible solutions to the problem.
Located off the coast of Eastern Maryland and Eastern Virginia, Chesapeake Bay's length is 200…… [Read More]
Cloern & J. Emmett Duffy, 2007). Reduced livestock, reduced fertilizer usage, improved efficiency of fertilizer usage, reduced nitrogen emissions from industrial plants, and effective treatment of potential runoff and wastewater have all been suggested as methods to deal with eutrophication (Carpenter, 2009; James E. Cloern & J. Emmett Duffy, 2007). Additional suggestions include restoring buffer zones between potential sources of nutrient rich-runoff and susceptible bodies of water. The United States and Europe have each undertaken efforts to mitigate eutrophication by recommending a National Coastal Nutrient Management Strategy (via the 2000 National Research Council report) and establishing the European Union's ater Framework Directive, respectively (James E. Cloern & J. Emmett Duffy, 2007). Due to the diversity of sources for eutrophication, a concerted and multifaceted approach toward this problem will ultimately be required.
Carpenter, S. (2009, October 25). Final Report: Eutrophication Thresholds -- Assessment, Mitigation, and Resilience in Landscapes and…… [Read More]
Despite the significance or importance of the microbes, they remain unseen in the context of daily activities or human experiences. They grow and live almost everywhere through application of wide range of resources in comparison to the plants and animals with reference to the lifestyles. Two factors are essential in the growth, development, and operation of the microbes in the marine environment. One of the essential factor is the aspect of light vital in the execution of the duties and functions of the microbes. The other factor is temperature of the water thus multiplication or reduction of the number of the microbes and influence on their development. It is also essential to note that microbes play critical role in the formation of the sediments.
In the evaluation of the microbes in the marine ecosystems, it is essential to determine the essence through which the living organisms acquire energy to grow.…… [Read More]
Phosphorus and Eutrophicaation of Aquatic ystems
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all life forms. It is a mineral nutrient. Orthophosphate is the only form of P. that autotrophs are able to assimilate. Extracellular enzymes hydrolyze organic forms of P. To phosphate. Eutrophication is the overenrichment of receiving aquatic systems with mineral nutrients. The results are excessive production of autotrophs, especially algae and cyanobacteria. This high productivity leads to high bacterial populations and high respiration rates, leading to low oxygen concentrations or anoxia in poorly mixed bottom waters and at night in surface waters during calm, warm conditions. Low dissolved oxygen causes the loss of aquatic animals and release of many materials normally bound to bottom sediments including various forms of P. This release of P. reinforces the eutrophication.
Excessive concentrations of P. is the most common cause of eutrophication in freshwater lakes, reservoirs, streams, and headwaters of estuarine…… [Read More]
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…… [Read More]
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…… [Read More]
Still, it is not unimaginable, within a lake as large as Victoria that they might also divide into separate populations along very subtle lines of variation -- like mating behaviors or feeding preferences.
This sort of interpretation of the situation in Lake Victoria, however, rests upon the notion that the species of cichlid found there evolved from a single ancestral species. Yet, even Meyer acknowledges that this might not be the case: "Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic." Put differently, it is possible that the species of cichlid that have evolved in Lake Victoria came from a group of distinct, but closely related, fish that colonized the region several thousand years ago. If this is the case, then the scientific importance of the Victorian cichlids would be somewhat diminished, because a less explosive series of adaptive radiations could explain…… [Read More]
It can be influenced by winds and tides. Infrequent episodic oxygen depletion occurs less than once per year. It is the first signal a system has reached a critical point of eutrophication, which combined with physical processes causes hypoxia. Persistent hypoxia occurs in systems prone to persistent stratification. It accounts for 8% of the dead zones (Diaz).
Phase one of coastal hypoxia enhances the deposition of organic matter that promotes microbial growth and respiration and produces greater demand for oxygen. DO levels deplete with stratification. Phase two hypoxia will become transiently causing mass mortality of benthic animals. Phase three, after time and continued buildup of nutrients and organic matter, hypoxia becomes seasonal or periodic. Phase four, if conditions persist, causes the hypoxia zone to expand and, as DO levels fall, anoxia establishes and releases microbial generated H2S. The critical point is the appearance of severe seasonal hypoxia.
Hypoxia…… [Read More]
Island nations may be beautiful, but their isolation makes them vulnerable to outside forces that increasingly threaten their survival. Rising sea levels linked to global warming could submerge some altogether. Tuvalu, a est Pacific nation whose peak height rises just 5 meters over sea level, could be uninhabitable within 50 years, some experts say. A similar fate could also doom the Maldives, the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tokelau. Of all the threats facing island nations, the rise in sea level could be the most catastrophic....in the early 1990s, satellites began generating more comprehensive profiles of global sea level. Thanks to these orbiting systems, scientists now know that the average global rate of sea level rise has increased 50% during the last 12 years -- up to 3 millimeters per year from a 50-year annual average of 2 millimeters,...NASA..
hen we discuss this issue we often slide back to…… [Read More]
This study demonstrates that different total P. fraction releases may differ between two bodies of water under similar oxygen conditions (Kisand & Noges, 2003). This study is important in that it highlights the complexity of understanding P. fractions in any given body of water. There are a multitude of potential reactions in any body of water. Oxygen plays a role in the reactions of any individual lake, but one cannot make predictions based on oxygen level alone.
Shallow lakes differ from stratified lakes in many ways. A stratified lake typically reaches equilibria in such a manner that it becomes divided into regions. This is not the case with shallow lakes. With a shallow lake, the entire lake may change from clear water to macrophyte dominated to algae dominated, each phase has its own state of equilibrium (Dokulil & Teubner, 2003). Total chlorophyll to phosphorus ratios are different in these various…… [Read More]
clarion call for the people and leaders of El Paso to better focus (or at least start focusing) on the subject of soil erosion, water runoff and sedimentary issues relating the land and material around the roads and bridges of our town. While some may treat this subject as relatively or completely unimportant, this could not be further from the truth. As shown by what can happen with things like flash floods, landslides and so forth, the proper management of waste and rain water runoff is very important and should be handled in an evidence-based way rather than a cobbling together of a budget line item here and there. While a lot of the calls for more infrastructure funding and better infrastructure management are over the top, this is not one of those messages and not one of those subjects that should be easily dismissed or set aside.
The…… [Read More]
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
15,355…… [Read More]
Like most complex systems, ecosystems tend to exemplify cyclic fluctuations around a state of estimated stability. Looking at the picture from a long-term perspective, however, ecosystems inexorably alter when the atmosphere changes or when a very different species appears because of migration or evolution -- or they are introduced deliberately by humans (utherford & Ahlgren 1991). What all this illustrates is not only mankind's dependence on the environment, but how mankind finds itself confronted with the fact that it may be living at the expense of future humans to come. Our innovations -- especially technological ones -- may hide the decrease in the earth's potential to maintain human activities, but, looking at the situation from a long-term perspective, the technological (or other) innovations will not be able to compensate for the major reduction in essential resources such as productive land, fisheries, forests, and biodiversity (Daily 1997).
On a global scale,…… [Read More]
This would require the full support of government and state authorities to punish those who break the rules. For instance, officers should patrol the forests and severely fine the tourists who leave trash in the nature. Also, a radical change should come from the multinationals, which should respect stricter environment protection rules and should pay drastically when breaking these rules. The first point in this direction would be achieved once the population has an environment education and would then punish and ban the organizations which break these rules. With a damaged reputation and customers refusing to purchase their products, the corporations would have to reconsider their actions. Then, the second direction would appeal to the good will of the people and would state that the good deeds relative to the natural habitats are a social duty of each and every one of us. Therefore, if these two courses of action…… [Read More]
The former had been neglected. This was a very serious kind of neglect, she said. She concluded that unless the nitrogen problem was confronted and adequately contained, climate change would not be solved (ohan).
EPA established that exposure to indoor NO below the 53 ppb outdoor standard could lead to respiratory symptoms among children with asthma, especially in a multi-family setting (elanger 2006). This effect continues to be a public health issue because of the number of people exposed to the gas. According to the U.S. Census, more than half of all U.S. households use gas. Their primary source of residential NO is a gas-fueled cooking appliance. This was the summary finding of a study conducted with 1,002 participating families in Connecticut and southwestern Massachusetts from 1997 to 1999. It associated indoor NO with increased respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children. At present, there are no U.S. standards for indoor…… [Read More]
.. provide nourishment for the small organisms on which jellyfish feed. In waters where there is eutrophication, low oxygen levels often result, favoring jellyfish as they thrive in less oxygen-rich water than fish can tolerate. The fact is that jellyfish are increasing is a symptom of something happening in the ecosystem."
Researchers have been the ones that have as well contended that in some arias, such as the Gulf of Mexico or the Adriatic Sea, jellyfish have taken the role of fish, the former animals' number being far greater than the one of the latter's, and this can be as well put on the intensity with which the human intervene in the nature's life. Moreover, it has been observed that in the above-mentioned areas jellyfish have formed a sort of "gelatinous cover" of the water. In my opinion, this might be the reason for which during many years, Jelly researchers…… [Read More]
Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…… [Read More]
It should not be a difficult question to answer: we must begin reducing ocean pollution and taking steps to prohibit overfishing of our ocean shallows.
The plan that is formulated to address the overfishing and man-made pollutants in the coral reefs must be conducted by authorities in marine and ecological sciences. It must be conducted on two levels: the fishing industry associated with the catches on the coral reefs; and the pollutants that are introduced into the coral reefs through contact with man. This can be done by monitoring commercial tourism and diving industries, which claim there is no residual effect on the coral reefs (Carrier, James, and McLeod, Donald, 2005, p. 315).
The Plan for Preserving the Coral eefs
Action Items in the correct order)
esearch and identify the effects of overfishing of species found in coral reefs.
eview fishing data as it pertains to catches,…… [Read More]