Excessive Force Essays (Examples)

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Section 1983 Claims for Police Excessive Use of Force

Words: 1559 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1406648

Excessive Force Liability

The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).

Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified…… [Read More]

Reference

Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from  http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .

Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).

Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).

Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
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Police Force to Diffuse Tense

Words: 2390 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45966480

Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4

police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.

Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf

2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5

3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm

4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at,  http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
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Using Force in Policing

Words: 2900 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12449164

police management affect the way police officers use force?

The Force Continuum

Style of Leadership and Management

Proper Management of Police Resources

Innovations in Excessive Force Training

Protection of its citizens is the fundamental mission of any government. And on the forefront of this mission are the law enforcement officers who are in fact the most visible arm that the government utilizes to protect the citizens and also to preserve public order ("Police Use of Excessive Force: A Case Study of Lethal (Deadly) Force," 2016).

And to achieve these missions, the police are given authorities that are unique in civil governments as well as granted by the society - authority to control the behaviors of the citizens with the ultimate aim of protecting them from harm. Hence in a manner that is most direct, the behavior of the members of the society are controlled and managed by the police personnel…… [Read More]

References

Atherley, L., & Hickman, M. (2014). Controlling Use of Force: Identifying Police Use of Excessive Force through Analysis of Administrative Records. Policing, 8(2), 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/police/pau003

Banker, R., Chang, H., & Pizzini, M. (2004). The Balanced Scorecard: Judgmental Effects of Performance Measures Linked to Strategy. The Accounting Review, 79(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2308/accr.2004.79.1.1

Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA [etc.]: Sage Publications.

Belasen, A., Eisenberg, B., & Huppertz, J. Mastering leadership.
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Force Police and Other Protectors

Words: 3816 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69106210

One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.

Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:

Klokar's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312

Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886

Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Five Forces Analysis Porter 1980

Words: 1857 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57406247

Five forces' analysis (Porter 1980)

Five Forces Analysis of Competitive Structure

Michael Porters Five Forces Analysis of Competitive Structure is a paradigm for competitive position, which states that overall a company's profitability may be determined as a measure of the industry it is competing in and its strategic position within that industry (Strategy4u, 2004). According to the model some industries by nature will have a higher profit potential than others, primarily because they have a stronger competitive position and are placed within a more profitable industry.

Porter's Model also suggests that profitability is assessed via several factors, including the following: buyers/customers power, supplier's power, and rivalry among competitors, threat of new entrants into the market, and the threat of substitute products (Strategy4u, 2004). The company or industry will have a greater profit potential the less influential each of these items are. For example, if a company sells a product for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Business Insight. "Michael Porter's Five Forces Model." 2003. Available: http://www.businessplansoftware.org/porter.asp

Devine, Donald. "Pols Dare Not Challenge Giveaway to Media Gods." Insight on the News, Vol. 13, May 1997. p. 1

Economics A-Z." Economist.com. Retrieved March 27, 2004. Available: http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?TERM=PROFIT

Fellner, W. "Competition among the Few: Oligopoly and Similar Market Structures." New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949, pp. 55-59
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Inputs for Porters 5 Forces Analysis on Kraft Foods

Words: 1569 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5177771

Economics

Sources of Information for a Porters Five Forces Analysis on Kraft Foods

To undertake a Porters Five Forces analysis it is necessary to identify potential sources of information that will give the required information. The Five Forces analysis will require an assessment of the five areas; degree of rivalry among competitors, threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of customers, and availability of substitutes. This process can be examined by looking at the sources which may be used for a Porters Five Forces analysis of Kraft Foods, a firm that competes in the food industry. Each of the forces will be considered separately.

Degree of rivalry among competitors

Source 1; CSI Market; URL is http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT

This is a very useful web site which has the primary aim of providing information to potential investors. The page on Kraft Foods is particularly useful in assessing the firm's position…… [Read More]

References

Baertlein, L, (2014, Sept 30), Kraft challenged by "healthier" macaroni and cheese brands, didReuters, accessed at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/30/us-kraft-macandcheese-idUSBREA2T09C20140330

CSI Market (2014), Kraft accessed at  http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT  on 7th Sept 2014

Food and Drug Administration, (2004), accessed at http://www.fda.gov/Food / on 7th September 2014

K-Mart, (2014), accessed at http://www.kmart.com/en_us/grocery-pet.html on 7th Sept 2014
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Complaints From Community Members the Fact That

Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88268416

Complaints From Community Members

The fact that Officer Daniels has received complaints filed by multiple different members of the community in a relatively short period of time would raise immediate concerns. Whereas an isolated complaint could be the result of a misunderstanding, an unfounded act of retribution by someone for appropriate police action initiated by the officer, or the result of a single bad momentary decision, the fact that there are multiple such complaints suggests it is more likely that Officer Daniels may not be performing his duties optimally. Moreover, the fact that the complaints involve three different types of unrelated conduct suggests that there might be a common underlying issue such as psychological fatigue, burnout, or unresolved psychological trauma, as opposed to a an issue of poor or insufficient training (Miller, 2007). As a police psychologist, I would approach the situation as a possible unconscious request for help by…… [Read More]

References

Lindsey, D. (2007). Police Fatigue: An Accident Waiting to Happen. FBI Law

Enforcement Bulletin, 76(8): 1-8.

Malmin, M. (2012). Changing Police Subculture. FBI Law

Enforcement Bulletin, 81(4):
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Criminal Justice - Use of

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4375697

Specifically, police tactical policy must outline criteria for the use of every tool and every technique authorized for use by officers.

Effective policy and procedure management also includes indirect methods of minimizing the potential need for increased levels of force. For example, a lone officer typically faces situations that allow for fewer options in force escalation, particularly where the officer is outnumbered by subjects or suspects (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Therefore, some of the simplest but most effective administrative methods of minimizing the necessary use of force include assigning officers in pairs and establishing protocols detailing response and backup procedures corresponding to specific types of tactical situations or calls for service (McCauley, 2005). Training is essential for effective UOF control in modern policing, because stress and the perception of danger naturally detracts from decision making. Repeatedly exposing officer candidates and cadets to simulated tactical situations in training ensures the…… [Read More]

References

McCauley, R. (2005). "Use of Force and High-Intensity Tactical Police Flashlight: Policy Concerns." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74

No.11. Montgomery, D. (2005). "Perspective: Excessive Force 101." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74 No.8. Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E, Miller, C. (2007). "The Deadly Mix: Officers, Offender, and the Circumstances that Bring them Together." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin;Vol. 76 No.1. Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice: Introductory Text for the 21st Century.

Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
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Public Admin the Ideal of

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92008463

Though it is not often popular to say, it must be acknowledged that certain jobs in law enforcement -- specifically police and corrections officers -- attract personalities with control issues or problems with aggression. This is not meant to suggest that all or even most people who occupy these jobs have these issues, but the appeal of these jobs to people who do have these qualities should be obvious. The essence of such jobs is to maintain order, and in the case of corrections officers it is to exert control over a population of usually compliant but unwilling individuals. For those with an axe to grind, whether consciously or not, this can look like an appealing outlet for aggressive behaviors in a scenario where these behaviors are often required and will seldom, it is assumed, lead to reprimand or punishment.

The fact that the problem has been allowed to persist…… [Read More]

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Corruption in Sheriffs' Departments

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26580969

efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?

Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).

What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?

Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

DeCrescenzo, D. (2005). Early detection of the problem officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,

74(7), 14-17. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/204141156?accountid 

=87314.
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Managing Risks Associated With Stress Describe How

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34927360

Managing Risks Associated With Stress

Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress

Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.

Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.

Officers with…… [Read More]

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Ethics Terrorism and the Future of Policing

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33398920

Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing

The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…… [Read More]

References:

Baker, Al. (2012) Independent agency gets new powers to prosecute New York police officers. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/28/nyregion/civilian-complaint-review-board-gets-new-powers-to-prosecute-new-york-police.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=police%20abuse%20of%20power&st=cse

Foster, C., Cordner, G., Frakes, K., Collins, P., & Mayberry, L. National Institute of Justice, (2005).The impact of terrorism on state law enforcement. Retrieved from The council of State Governments and Eastern Kentucky University website:  http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf 

Nalle, D. (2011). Repeal or revise. Retrieved from http://www.rlc.org/2011/01/31/repeal-or-revise-the-problems-with-the-patriot-act/

Rayman, G. (2010). New york's finest cover-up. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com/2010-10-13/news/nypd-cover-up-cabbie/
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Criminal Justice - Abuse of

Words: 1392 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14488587



Adverse circumstances and heated verbal attacks by angry citizens sometimes triggers a (natural) response on the part of police officers to respond in kind, or, at the extreme, with verbal abuse in the form of threats to use their lawful powers of arrest for intimidation purposes where, in fact, any such use of arrest powers is unlawful under the given circumstances.

Typical examples with potential to trigger verbal abuse by police would include responding to members of the public who are indeed complying with a lawful order to disperse, or to vacate a specific area, but who do so while expressing their verbal disagreement or displeasure with the officer's command. They may even choose to insult the officer personally, but provided their actions do not constitute a threat to the officer or a refusal to obey his lawful orders, and as long as their manner of expression does not constitute…… [Read More]

References

Geeting, J. (2005) the Badge: Thoughts from a State Trooper.

Indian Wells: Mckenna

McCauley, R. (2005) Use of Force and High-Intensity Tactical Police Flashlight: Policy Concerns; the FBI Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No.11 Montgomery, D. (2005) Perspective: Excessive Force 101; the FBI Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No.8 Schmalleger, F. (1997) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Roles of a Police Psychologist in an

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32674037

Roles of a Police Psychologist in an Investigation

The following paper describes the roles played by a police psychologist in an investigation of a situation in which a former police officer has been killed. The police force constantly takes risks to save the lives and belongings of the people they serve. This force is known for its bravery and courage but when a situation involves the homicide of a former member of their own group, they are faced with extra trouble as their own safety becomes a concern for them. In addition to that, the pressure from media exacerbates the problem for the police force. In this case, the police force needs psychological support which is given to them by a police psychologist.

Introduction

Police offers face severe stress in their day-to-day routine. They risk their lives and their families in order to fulfill the duty assigned to them. Their…… [Read More]

References

CR, V. (2010). Psychological Autopsy -- A Review. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 10 (2), 101 -- 103.

Mayhew, C. (2001). Occupational Health and Safety Risks Faced by Police Officers. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. pp. 1-2.  http://aic.gov.au/documents/E/D/9/%7BED946A67-E4C8-4C46-A294-9B982325EF4D%7Dti196.pdf  [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].

Mitchell, J. (n.d.). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. College Park: University of Maryland. pp. 1-3. www.info-trauma.org/flash/media-e/mitchellCriticalIncidentStressDebriefing.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].

Scrivner, E. (1994). Controlling Police Use of Excessive Force: The Role of the Police Psychologist. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. pp. 1-10. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/150063NCJRS.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
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Fourth Amendment Concerns

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64885383

Public Safety vs. Individual Rights

The balance between public safety and individual rights is a delicate one. Assuring public safety as well as privacy and freedom from unnecessary harassment and security procedures is usually not all that hard to pull off but there are situations and instances where it can be very dicey. Easy examples that come to mind are political events, DUI checkpoints and so forth. Some say all the stops should be pulled out in such events and/or that no better options exist. Other people decry and condemn anything that infringes upon the rights or convenience of those that are not doing anything wrong. While not the cleanest solution, the balance that must be struck is somewhere in the middle and it is rare that all sides are placated and left with no complaints.

Analysis

One dimension of the public safety vs. personal rights debate is the question…… [Read More]

References

Crime Doctor. (2014, July 2). CRIME DOCTOR. Use of Force, Security Guards, use of force, Chris McGoey, security guards expert. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from  http://www.crimedoctor.com/use-of-force.htm 

Nolo. (2014, July 2). Search and Seizure Principles - Nolo.com. Nolo.com. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/search-seizure-principles

Nolo. (2014, July 2). Your Employees' Right to Privacy - Nolo.com. Nolo.com. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/employee-privacy

OGE. (2014, July 2). Statutes. U.S. Office of Government Ethics. Retrieved July 2,
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Reducing Citizen Complaints a Growing

Words: 3696 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49002943

g. A Police Office in a large metropolitan area like New York will have different duties and dangers than a County Sheriff in a rural Oklahoma area) (Barlow, 2000).

Rightly so, modern society has a certain level of expectations for its military and law enforcement branches. While it is known that both must, at times, deal with the underside of society, it is also assumed that the group will rise above base and animalistic reactions and upload both the law and a sense of compassion -- coupled with self-preservation and safety. Officers are often in danger of infectious disease, motor vehicle fatalities, apprehension of persons under substance abuse, and line of duty deaths are not uncommon. For instance, approximately 200 police officers die per year in the United States, with over half of those deaths from direct assaults from suspects or criminals (Robert, 2008). Still, individuals are sociologically drawn to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Amnesty International, (2007), Amnesty International Report 2007. Cited in:

http://archive.amnesty.org/report2007/

Baker, T. (2005), Effective Police Leadership, Looseleaf Law Books.

Barlow, D. (2000). Police in a Multicultural Society. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
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Policing Services and Programs Even as Policing

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89219509

Policing Services and Programs:

Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…… [Read More]

References:

Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,

Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt

Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing

Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
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Police Officers Are Faced With

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9418985

Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). According to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West African street vendor, Amadou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the American public that the police are out of control.… [Read More]

All of this is not to say, of course, that police officers never engage in acts of brutality and the use of excessive force, but it is to say that little attention is paid to the millions of police-citizen encounters that take place every year in the United States where law enforcement authorities would be justified in using force -- even deadly force -- but refrain from doing so at their own personal risk based on their high regard for citizens' rights and the sanctity of human life. This precise point is made by Elicker (2008) who emphasizes that the statistics bear out just how restrained the police departments across the country are in their use of force at all. According to Elicker, "Despite the way mass media presents the subject of police brutality, the occurrences of police use of force cases are not all that common" (2008, p. 33).

Citing the results of a 1999 study sponsored by the United States Department of Justice based on the statistics from more than seven thousand arrests made by six different law enforcement agencies in urban settings wherein statistics had been collected concerning the use of force by and against police officers, Elicker reports that, "There were only 52 cases (or .07%) where police officers used weapons in the arrest. The use of weapons includes stick, knife, handgun, chemical agent, rifle/shotgun, motor vehicle, canine, and other" (2008, p. 34). The results of the Department of Justice study also showed that police officers used one or a combination of weaponless tactics to effect the arrest in 15.8% of the cases (Elicker, 2008). According to Elicker, "Weaponless tactics include grabbing, arm twisting, wrestling, pushing/shoving, hitting, kicking, biting/scratching, use of pressure hold, carotid hold, control hold, and other tactics. Grabbing was, by a vast margin, the most used weaponless tactic (12.7% or 954 cases), followed by arm twisting (3.7% or 281 cases), and wrestling (3.1% or 233 cases)" (2008, p. 34).

While some observers might suggest that there is no place in modern law enforcement for "biting/scratching" or the other weaponless tactics used by the police in the Department of Justice study, the fact that they were used at all when other, more harmful methods were readily available makes it clear that even when their lives are on the line, police officers can and do resort to using their training and discipline rather than simply pulling out a gun and shooting a criminal suspect. In this regard, Elicker concludes that, "To some, these statistics could be shocking. They
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Urban Riots Often Indicate Underlying

Words: 1812 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34954982

The Rodney Kind riots resulted in 50 deaths, 4000 injuries, 12,000 arrests, and $1 billion in property damage ("The Los Angeles Riots, 1992").

While riots give a voice to the oppressed, it remains questionable whether they create meaningful structural change. Ten years after the Rodney King riots, "South Central remains one of the city's poorest neighborhoods. Unemployment remains well above 20% even after the boom of the 1990s," ("The Los Angeles Riots, 1992"). Riots reflect poorly on their communities, frightening away potential investors, social service institutions, and other means of community enrichment.

However, cities and their governments can learn from these four significant events in American urban history. Law enforcement officials must be trained to anticipate riots. Police departments should eliminate racial profiling and more vigorously prosecute officers using excessive force. Minorities should become well-represented at all levels of city government including law enforcement and criminal justice but also in…… [Read More]

References

The 1965 Watts Riots." Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/watts.html

Herman, M. (nd). "Newark Riots-1967." The Newark and Detroit Riots. Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.67riots.rutgers.edu/n_index.htm

Los Angeles Riot Still Echoes a Decade Later." (2002). CNN.com.

The Los Angeles Riots, 1992." Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/la_riot.html.
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Torts That Have Been Developed in Order

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37955106

torts that have been developed in order foster the understanding of various civil wrongs when one is engaging in a business practice. These include the intentional, strict liability, and negligence torts. The torts have been classified according to the contextual framework by which they were committed. The following definitions have been widely accepted to define the different types of torts in business law.

An intentional Tort

An intentional tort is a civil wrong that is said to be conducted by an offender who did the act intentionally leading to damage of another person or party. This may include torts like striking a person in a car, which may be termed as a battery tort (Allen, 2011).

Negligence Tort

Negligence tort is a civil wrong involving a person engaging in a civil offense due to negligence. In many cases, it involves a person engaging in a careless act that led to…… [Read More]

References

Allen, D. (2011). The Evolution of Criminal Law and Police during the Pre-modern. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, v. 27, Issue 3, pp. 540-67.

Dempsey, F. (2011). An Introduction to Policing. London: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Lloyd, L. (2005). Introduction to Policing & Police Powers. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Lynch, E. (2012). Business Law. New York: Newnes.
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Profiling an Effective Tool for Law Enforcement

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84541360

profiling an effective tool for law enforcement to use in policing society?

Racial profiling is the practice of law enforcement officers in stopping an individual of a certain race or ethnicity and investigating them based on their ethnicity. Such practices may occur in traffic routines or in matters connected with security. Racial profiling is forbidden in most states and in fact, as the article "RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED" (2012) by Keating, Christopher shows the Senate recently strengthened the state's racial profiling law.

On the one hand, as stated in Harcourt (2004), many of the people involved in traffic incidents do seem to be of a similar race. We have the same occurrence with security matters where, over and again, it seems to be most frequently people of Islamic extraction who perpetrate terrorist activities against the West. More so, Fundamentalist Islam has come out overtly against the West threatening the West…… [Read More]

Sources

Harcourt, BE (2004) Rethinking racial profiling…. Univ. Chicago Law Review, 71, 4

Keating, C (2012) RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED Hartford Courant
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Kansas City Gun Experiment and

Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98213657



4. Do some police departments still engage in the "aggressive preventative patrol" strategies that led to the urban riots of the 1960s and the publishing of the 1968 Kerner Commission Report? Are there any similarities or differences between those strategies and the strategies used in the Kansas City Gun Experiment?

One could argue that on other issues, any sting operation, such as those conducted on specified geographic locations for street prostitution or drug enforcement or even electronic crime stings is a model similar to this, as the officers are focusing specifically on one issue and are not required, during operations to answer traditional patrol calls. Though, this model is more a future deterrent model than a prevention model. Riots occur as a result of whole groups of individuals feeling particularly targeted, rather than protected by police. Harassment is a highly interpretive concept and issues such as, racial profiling or random…… [Read More]

References

Brezina, T., & Wright, J.D. (2000). Going Armed in the School Zone. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 15(4), 82.

Conforti, J.M. (1973). Newark: Ghetto or City?. In Ghetto Revolts, Rossi, P.H. (Ed.) (pp. 59-86). New Brunswick, NJ E.P. Dutton.

Louden, R.J. (2005). Policing Post-9/11. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 32(4), 757.

Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
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Everyday Ethics for the Criminal Justice Professional

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78125698

policing in 18th and 19th century England and that of the colonies during that period

Policing in England was very similar to that practiced in the colonies. Both England and the colonies practiced what was referred to as 'kin policing', where citizens were taken as their brothers' keeper and were thus responsible for crime control in their communities. At first, the policing role was practiced by individual citizens who volunteered to keep watch and ensure that law and order was upheld in the community. This, however, proved ineffective, and was replaced with the frankpledge system, where the role of policing was still carried out by citizens, but rather than have individual volunteers, young men would form groups of ten and elect the group leader, known as the sheriff. The group members would carry out policing activities, and the sheriff was responsible for overseeing the smooth flow of the same. Differently…… [Read More]

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Improving Police Accountability in Law Enforcement

Words: 1184 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52940650

law enforcement agents do better?

The key to improving the efficacy of law enforcement agents is changing the organizational culture to one built on accountability. Walker and Archibold offer a new and potentially revolutionary framework for police accountability. The new vision for law enforcement centers on the PTSR model, in which policy, training, supervision, and review are the core parts of organizational change. The current organizational culture of law enforcement has several dysfunctional features, values, and norms. Viewing police culture from anthropological and sociological perspectives, as Kappeler, Sluder and Alpert suggest, shows how norms, values, structures, and institutions create dysfunction, misbehavior, and corruption. Problems like excessive use of force and abuse of power can only be controlled through systematic changes in the organizational culture of policing.

Changing organizational culture requires more than just altering departmental policies and procedural guidelines. After all, most departments will have codes of ethics and guidelines…… [Read More]

References

Kappeler, V.E., Sluder, R.D. & Alpert, G.P. Forces of Deviance. 2nd edition. 1998.

Miller, L. & Tolivier, J. Implementing a body-worn camera program. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2014.

Sklansky, D.A. The persistent pull of police professionalism. New Perspectives in Policing, March 2011. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/232676.pdf

Walker, S. & Archibold, C.A. The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. Kindle Edition, 2014.
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Policing Social Control and Prison

Words: 1962 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78804299



Many unintended consequences have resulted from this "war." Research on legitimate medical uses of banned substances, such as marijuana, have been hampered by legal road blocks. Violence stemming from drug-trade disputes has become an international problem. The onset of the AIDS in the 1980s hit addicts who injected illegal drugs particularity hard since the virus it passed through bodily fluids. Some governments were moved to initiate needle exchange programs in part because "slowing the spread of a fatal disease for which no cure exists was the greater moral imperative" (Nadelmann, 1998, p. 115).

Practically speaking the cost of exchanging needles is considerably less than the expense of treating patients with the AIDS virus. Nonetheless, exchange programs in this country have been held back by political issues and moral judgments.

Conclusion

If we were to muster the political and moral courage to reexamine this issue in another light many of the…… [Read More]

References

Drug War Chronicle. (2005, October 28). Feature: Drug war prisoner count over half a million, U.S. population at all time high. Drug reform coordination network. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from  http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle-old/409/toohigh.shtml 

Micucci, a.J. & Gomme, I.M. (2005, September/October). American police and subculture support fot the use of excesive force. Journal of criminal justice. Vol. 33, Issue 5, 487-500. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/results?sid=c58a1da27a12-4795-bf9b-7b85bef0ad30%40sessionmgr12&vid=2&hid=7&bquery=American+police+and+subcultural+support+for+the+use+of+excessive+force&bdata=JmRiPWFwaCZ0eXBlPTAmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl

Nadelmann, E.A. (1998, January/February) Commonsense drug policy. Foreign affairs, Vol. 77, Issue 1. 111-126. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=193d35d7-25d7-4473-a347-540e2acb7f16%40sessionmgr11&vid=5&hid=24

Pager, D. (2003, March). The mark of a criminal record. American journal of sociology, Vol. 108, No. 5. 937-975. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from http://www.princeton.edu/~pager/pager_ajs.pdf
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Democratic-Republican National Convention DRNC Case

Words: 1664 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77276516

The decision as to which protests should be permitted needs thorough evaluation in this particular case.

The Amnesty International protest proves to be at a safe enough distance from the convention and is also a more secure situation, where police and other law enforcement can better keep suspicious bags and packages from entering the area. However, there could be a number of legal claims if the Committee grants a permit to Greenpeace to conduct a protest at the shopping mall. There is a possibility that protesters might spill into the roadway adjacent to the American Airlines Arena, where the Conference is taking place. Due to the fact that it is so close, it would be difficult to keep people from entering that area from the protest, which could be a danger to all the attendees and politicians inside. If the permit is granted, police can not lawfully conduct pat downs…… [Read More]

References

ACLU. (2011). Bystander sues the city of Pittsburgh over pain and hearing loss caused by the use of Long-Range Acoustic Device at G-20 protest. Press Room. Web. http://www.aclupa.org/pressroom/bystandersuespittsburghove.htm

ACLU North Carolina. (2012). Right to protest. Democrats.com. Web.  http://www.democrats.com/right-to-protest 

Knoxville News-Sentinel. (2004). First Amendment Zones restrict free speech. Common Dreams. Web. http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0125-02.htm

McKechnie, Douglas B. (2011). Don't daze, phase, or lase me bro! Fourth Amendment excessive-force claims, future nonlethal weapons, and why requiring an injury cannot withstand a constitutional or practical challenge. Kansas City Law Review, 60(2011), 139-192.
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Function of Schools Subtler and

Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91608207

In order to affect the formation and exercise of conscience, the church had to create, convince, and project an image of benevolence of itself to the world. This image, finely contructed, was then used to define its institutional mission in terms of some universal moral imperative that the church had assumed responsibility for serving..

The writer mentions the "doctrine of original sin" as a means to create this moral dilemma which provided the church the moral innitiative that it needed to fuel hysteria and therefore fear into the masses. The more fear the masses felt, the more susceptible they were to change that would benefit the church. This is much in the same way as the present day war on terror. The church however did not pretend to be able to provide people with grace itself, only the manner in which to achieve it. People could only achieve this goal…… [Read More]

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Values in Justice System Organizations

Words: 2521 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77204422

The courts retooled by a generation of conservative judicial appointments and crazed case law now function as social abettors, in which the poor and the dark skinned are shunted off to a concrete hell with industrial efficiency. Left behind are broken families, more addiction, more disease, more illiteracy, and thus a more docile society" (Parenti, 2001).

There are different changes being made in the system to reflect new and evolving values. For example, recommendations have been made that all police interrogations be video taped, so that juries have access to the process of confession and not just a typed end-product. This way police can ensure the values of integrity in the confession process. The increasing use of DNA testing, where possible, is also a way of helping to ensure that only the guilty are punished and justice is upheld.

The main purpose of police department is to provide services to…… [Read More]

References

Parenti, C. (July 2001). The "New" Criminal Justice System: State Repression from 1968 to 2001. Monthly Review. 539(3): 19.

Platt, a. (2001). Social Insecurity: The Transformation of American Criminal Justice, 1965 -- 2000. Social Justice. 28(1): 138.

Wright, K. (1999). Leadership Is the Key to Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies. Criminal Justice Ethics. 18(2): 2.

Townsend, P. (September 2005). Detention Redemption: In One California County, Progressive Leaders and Law-Enforcement Officials Are Transforming a Troubled Juvenile-Justice System. The American Prospect. 16(9): 20+.
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Ppe Personal Protective Equipment on the Job

Words: 2060 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47967432

PPE (personal protective equipment) on the job.

Research shows that Personal protective equipment (PPE) actually denotes to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other clothes or gear intended to protect the wearer's body from damage. The dangers that are addressed by protective equipment have to do with the following: physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter (Sakaguchi, 2010). Protective equipment is normally worn for job connected occupational health and safety purposes, in addition to for sports and other recreational actions. "Protective clothing" is useful to traditional groups of clothing, and "protective gear" has something to do with for instance guards, shields, pads, or masks, and others. With that said, this paper will discuss the how important it is to have the PPE protection

Purpose

The main purpose of personal protective equipment has a lot to do with reducing employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not…… [Read More]

References:

Deborah, B.P. (2002). Profiles of rural nurses' use of personal protective equipment: A cluster analysis. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 17(8), 34-45.

Sakaguchi, H.W. (2010). Maintenance of influenza virus infectivity on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing used in healthcare settings. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 15(6), 344-349.

Visentin, L.M. (2009). EM ADVANCES: Use of personal protective equipment during infectious disease outbreak and nonoutbreak conditions: A survey of emergency medical technicians. CJEM: Journal of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, 11(1), 44-56.
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Criminal Violations

Words: 1253 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81294426

Criminal Violations Committed by Police/Correction Officers:

The work of law enforcement and correctional officers revolves a slippery slope or the likelihood of slow worsening social-moral inhibitions and perceived view of permissibility for deviant conduct. Generally, law enforcement or police officers are mandated with the task of maintaining law and order in the society through dealing with crime and criminals. On the other hand, correctional officers help in incarceration and rehabilitation of convicted criminals as they serve the respective sentences for their offenses. As a result, law enforcement and correctional officers are expected to carry their work with extreme professionalism and without any deviant conduct. While the general public has huge expectations from these professional, they tend to forget the slippery nature of their work. Actually, the criminal justice work involves dealing with situations that are usually below the usual comfort levels. The nature of the work has contributed to the…… [Read More]

References:

Barnhart, T.E. (2010, February 15). Deviance and Corruption. Retrieved November 30, 2013,

from  http://www.corrections.com/news/article/23579-deviance-and-corruption 

Bayley, D. & Perito, R. (n.d.). Police Corruption -- What Past Scandals Teach about Current

Challenges . Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/SR%20294.pdf
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Ruiz v Estelle A Study

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12392626

Building more prisons (only 15 of the 112 current Texas prisons are private) cost the taxpayers money, money that, given the current economic climate is begrudgingly spent. Indeed, Dick J. Reavis, of the Texas Monthly, believes that the prisons of 20 years ago were much more cost-effective, and also much more effective in their job of rehabilitation, than prisons who now operate under the guidance of the PLRA (Prison Litigation Reform Act) signed into law by President Clinton in 1995. He states the previous prison system: "was a more efficient but no less ugly system because things were that way. Texas prisons were places where, in defiance of law, prisoners were punished by assault, by kicks and blows from guards and their convict allies, the building tenders. Men were thrown into darkened cells and kept incommunicado and wasting away on a diet of bread and water." (Texas Monthly) Was this…… [Read More]

References

No. CIV.A. H-78-987. (1999) "David Ruiz, et. al., Plantiffs, v. Gary Johnson, Director, TDOC et. al.,

Defendants. U.S. District Court of Texas, Houston Division.

Reavis, Dick J. (1985) "How They Ruined Our Prisons." Texas Monthly. www.texasmontly.com

Rubac, Gloria. (2005) "Historic Prison Activist David Ruiz Dies." Worker's World, www.workers.org.
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Convicted Felons Return to the

Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20169695



Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.

Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).

How then, can Maslow's…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Facts About the U.S. Prison System." (October 2007). Retrieved from: http://webb.senate.gov/pdf/prisonstwopager.html.

Project Return -- Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from:

Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
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Young Minds and the Television

Words: 1935 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80962086

Television on Children and Youth

As one of the most easily accessible, affordable entertainment forms, television is one thing people everywhere in the world have in common. Regardless of the way television has been described over the decades since television has entered regular people's houses, anyone who has witnessed children watching TV knows that it captures children's and adolescents' attention with excessive force and it holds the power to keep them glued to the screen. Even today, in 2014, when the internet claims a good portion of the viewing time dedicated to television in the past, television is reported to have kept a good deal of its influence. Parental control is thus crucial to the way television influences children's minds and shapes their development.

According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, children in the United States watch an average of three to four hours of television a…… [Read More]

Works Cited page:

The American School System. Grades, School Hours and Terms. Available at: http://www.justlanded.com/english/United-States/USA-Guide/Education/The-American-school-system retrieved: Oct. 7th, 2014

Ferguson, Christopher J. 2013. Adolescents, Crime, and the Media: A Critical Analysis. Springer Science & Business Media

PMC. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

National Institutes of Health Impact of media use on children and youth. 2003. Paediatrics Child Health. 2003 May-Jun; 8(5): 301 -- 306. Available at:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792691/#b1-pch08301  Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014
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Switzerland a Federal Republic in

Words: 4841 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12721053



The Army XXI program for major military transformations has been in progress since 2004 (U.S. Department of State 2009). Last year's goals were consolidation and improvement of quality. The parliament approved Development Stage 08/11 for military reforms for 2008-2011 in 2007. The overall aim was to reduce military size while maintaining high quality of knowledge and equipment standards. At the same time, Development Stage 08/11 aimed at increasing military personnel for overseas deployment, such as for peacekeeping and disaster relief. In 2007, the Swiss parliament approved an increase of Peace Support Operations from 250 to 500. Increased cooperation with civilian authorities could also be anticipated, such as with the police and the border watch corps (U.S. Department of State).

The Swiss Military and the Citizens

The Swiss armed forces are a civilian-controlled militia of able-bodied males intended for universal military service (BDHRL 2004). Apart from training cadres and a scattering…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2004. Switzerland: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. U.S. Department of State: USA.gov. Available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2003/27867.htm

Heatwole, C. 2009. Switzerland, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, Microsoft

Encarta. Available at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761571795/Switzerland

Michaud, L. 2004. Swiss Armed Forces and the Challenges of the 21st Century,
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Rapists Between 2002 and 2003

Words: 1716 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30142556

Further, while the rapists themselves have been identified as anger rapists, rapists with inferiority complexes, rapists with the Madonna-Prostitute Complex, sadistic rapists, and abusive rapists, there are certainly perpetrators whose personalities and crimes indicate either a combination of these traits, or entirely different traits.

In all cases, however, rapists appear to be motivated by anger, a need for control, and a complete disregard for the life of the female. It is through understanding some basic tendencies that researchers can eventually determine a course of action to combat these horrific crimes, and women can find ways to protect themselves against these acts. It is only by attempting to understand the motives and minds of rapists that society will prevail.… [Read More]

References

Bancroft, Lundy. Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men. New York: Berkley/Penguin, 2002.

Catalano, Shannan M. "Criminal Victimization, 2003." National Crime Victimization Survey. NCJ 205455. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Justice, 2004.

Groth, A. Nicholas. Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.

Langevin, Ron. Sexual Strands: Understanding and Treating Sexual Anomalies in Men. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983.
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Iraq War Criminal Justice &

Words: 2201 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92104559

"The United States engaged in a pattern of conduct beginning in or before 1989 intended to lead Iraq into provocations justifying U.S. military action against Iraq and permanent U.S. military domination of the Gulf.

2. President Bush from August 2, 1990, intended and acted to prevent any interference with his plan to destroy Iraq economically and militarily.

3. President Bush ordered the destruction of facilities essential to civilian life and economic productivity throughout Iraq.

4. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed civilian life, commercial and business districts, schools, hospitals, mosques, churches, shelters, residential areas, historical sites, private vehicles and civilian government offices.

5. The United States intentionally bombed indiscriminately throughout Iraq.

6. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed Iraqi military personnel, used excessive force, killed soldiers seeking to surrender and in disorganized individual flight, often unarmed and far from any combat zones and randomly and wantonly killed Iraqi…… [Read More]

Bibliography

John Ashcroft's April 1, Testimony (2003) TalkLeft: The Politics of Crime 2003 April 5. Online available at http://talkleft.com/new_archives/002337.html.

Pillar, Paul R. (2006) Intelligence, Policy, and the War in Iraq. Foreign Affairs. March/April 2006. Council on Foreign Relations. Online available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060301faessay85202/paul-r-pillar/intelligence-policy-and-the-war-in-iraq.html.

Tremblay, Rodrigue (2006) War Crimes and Responsibility of the Bush Administration. After Downing Street. Online available at http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node/13670.

Skelly, James M. (2006) American Soldiers and War Crimes in Iraq. Open Democracy. June 9, 2006. Online available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/democracy-americanpower/iraq_warcrimes_3627.jsp.
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How Is Bad Behavior Dealt

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48275799

Internal Disciplinary Practices

How bad behavior is dealt with Critique the criticism of internal disciplinary practices. Discuss which criticism seems illogical and why? Building on this, discuss the external methods of police accountability and consider which monitoring strategy seems the most reliable and why.

Because of the internal culture of the police department, it is argued that effective self-regulation and discipline is very challenging, because police officers will always sympathize with fellow officers. Issues pertaining to police misconduct are rarely clear-cut, and the natural impetus is to give the officer, rather than the civilian, the benefit of the doubt. Officers know the tremendous strain involved in police work, and are inclined to give fellow officers some leeway so they are able to be as safe as possible when enforcing the law.

Having external internal affairs departments that are separate from the rest of the police force is one way to…… [Read More]

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Transfer of Maxillomandibular Relationship From

Words: 9027 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93499892

The understanding of TMJ anatomy as well as its function is very important to generate stable as well as healthy intercuspation. TMJ consists of condyle, disk, muscles and ligaments. It connects the lower jaw to the temporal bone in the skull in both sides and has two movements (Rosenstiel and Land, 2001). The TMJ along with muscles stabilization is the starting point to get the ideal maxilla-mandibular relationship in the centric relation. There is no way to register and transfer an accurate interocclusal record if patient has TMJ or muscles dysfunction. The patient with this dysfunction should be treated first before final restoration, cementation or construction. The conservative management of unstable joints and muscles via appliance therapy is the most common modality of management (Capp and Clayton, 1985).

4.2 Occlusal vertical dimension:

Perhaps one of the toughest and most intricate recuperative experiments for dentists in today's world is directly related…… [Read More]

References

Bansal S. Critical evaluation of various methods of recording centric jaw relation. J of india prosthet society2008;8(4):185-191

Boudrias, P. Anterior Guidance: Some Important Points. Journal dentaire du Quebec Volume 42 Janvier, 2005.

CP Owen. Occlusion in complete dentures. Available at: http://web.wits.ac.za/NR/rdonlyres/4E1BC14E-9BC1-4221-AA4D-15A337579384/0/occlusion.pdf

Capp N.J., and Clayton J.A. Technique for evaluation of centric relation tooth contacts. Part II: Following use of an occlusal splint for treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. J Prosthet dent 1985;54 (5): 697-705.
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Deploying Law Enforcement Resources the

Words: 1664 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96013164



Of particular focus is the situation of the deployment of forces in a case of national security such as the floods and fires which have affected the territory of the United States. In these situations, volunteers and reserves are also part of the intervention forces, aside from the police patrols. More precisely, in the most recent floods from Iowa the help of Red Cross volunteers were asked for in order to be able to resist the natural disaster and in time to rebuild the territory. A similar situation occurred in New Orleans as well when non-specialized aid was asked for because the police was overwhelmed by the situation. However, it can be said that in situations such as these, the discussion is no longer related to the issue of law enforcement but rather to that of human solidarity. Nonetheless, the presence of volunteers and reserves is crucial in such moments.…… [Read More]

Reference List

America Civil Liberties Union. (1997) Fighting Police Abuse: A Community Action Manual. Accessed 5 July 2008, at http://www.aclu.org/police/gen/14614pub19971201.html

Downs, a., et al. (1969) "Round Table on Allocation of Resources in Law Enforcement." The American Economic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 504-512.

Frisbee, W.S. Jr. (n.d.) "Patrolling." Accessed 5 July 2008, at http://www.military-sf.com/Patrols.htm

Gallo, J.N. (1998) "Effective Law-Enforcement Techniques for Reducing Crime." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol, 88, no. 4.
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Criminal Justice Forensics Undercover Is a

Words: 11198 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97252031

However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. By understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).

By examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.

Definition of Terms

Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.

Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html

Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.

Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.

Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
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Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining

Words: 1835 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53458873

A written policy regarding sexual misconduct is imperative, as is stringent hiring practices including applicant screening, adequate supervision, training, and a structured investigative process regarding allegations of sexual misconduct (Abner et al., 2011). Addressing Sexual Offenses further states that it is necessary to clearly outline the consequences for sexual misconduct as a means of deterring it (Abner et al., 2011). Additionally, Addressing Sexual Offenses outlines other strategies which need to be employed to eliminate the possibility of police sexual misconduct including videotaping all officer interactions, requiring strict time reporting, and implementing unannounced spot checks on officer's electronic devices and communication devices (Abner et al., 2011).

Specific strategies, policies, training, screening, and supervising must be employed to eradicate sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers. Obviously, sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers is a reality and has far reaching implications within a society. Only by eliminating the behavior, will it be possible…… [Read More]

References

Abner, C., Clark, D., Dahmer-Farris, T., Di Pino, B., Gamble, a., Gibbs, T… Firman, J.

(2011, June). Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law

Enforcement:

Executive Guide. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from website:
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A concise Analysis of Research Project

Words: 1906 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84695133

police officers should follow to stop people for questioning.

Situation

"High-crime zones" are recognized by constitutional law: people in such areas have Fourth Amendment safeguards, distinct from those within different areas of those towns, states or cities. This step is representative of a big shift from equality of constitutional protections of every citizen. In some cases, regarding the Fourth Amendment, ranging from Adams v. Williams to the Illinois v. Wardlow case, the U.S. Supreme Court has considered neighborhood's character as one of the aspects in finding "sensible suspicion" in order to stop an individual. The neighborhood's character is not a sole validation criterion for stopping someone, but it has given two factors as the required circumstances: "high-crime zone" and 'unwarranted' running away from the police (Ferguson and Bernache, 2008). Lower level courts have also allowed high-crime zones and other otherwise innocent deeds to be considered reasonable enough suspicion to stop…… [Read More]

References

Casebriefs - Law Cases & Case Briefs for Students. (n.d.). Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada - Casebriefs. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-procedure/criminal-procedure-keyed-to-weinreb/the-fourth-amendment-arrest-and-search-and-seizure/hiibel-v-sixth-judicial-district-court-of-nevada/

Ferguson, A., & Bernache, D. (2008). The "High-Crime Area" Question: Requiring Verifiable and Quantifiable Evidence for Fourth Amendment Reasonable Suspicion Analysis. AMERICAN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW, 57(6). Retrieved, from http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=aulr

Language selection -Department of Justice / Selection de la langue - Ministere de la Justice. (n.d.). What You Need to Know About Making a Citizen's Arrest. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/other-autre/wyntk.html

Rice. (n.d.). Legalzoom: Start a Business, Protect Your Family: LLC, Incorporate, Wills, Trademark, Legal Advice. When Can the Police Stop and Frisk You on the Street? - legalzoom.com. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.legalzoom.com/articles/when-can-the-police-stop-and-frisk-you-on-the-street
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Justice and Security Free Balance in the

Words: 2493 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70449647

Justice and Security

Free Balance in the Administration of Justice and Security

Justice and Security policies have always been at the center of international politics, but their nature has changed due to the advent of nuclear weapons and their proliferation, economic interdependence, the end of the Cold War, environmental problems, technological advancements and vulnerabilities, as well as other material and cultural developments typically linked to globalization. This paper will talk about the evolution of justice security and balance rights freedoms that protect citizens a free society, respecting constitutional guarantees and individual rights. Further we will review the cumulative issues concerning the legal environment in which justice and security administration operates and also evaluates the changes in technology and mass communication that effects the justice and security areas. Last but not the least, we will talk about the issues that involved with individual rights vs. The needs of the justice system…… [Read More]

References

Booth, K. (Ed.). (2005). Critical security studies and world politics. Boulder. CO: Lynne Rienner.

Deudney, DH (2006). Bounding power: Republican security theory from the polis to the global village. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kaldor, M. (2007). Human security. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Lipschutz, R. (Ed.). (2005). On security. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Law Enforcement Response and Other Family Violence Related Crimes

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47550895

Federal and State Legislation

Domestic Violence Legislation at the Federal and State Level

Domestic violence is considered any violent act taken against someone involved in an intimate or family relationship (Eulich, 2013). It is a serious problem with countless victims each year. In 1994, Congress passed the United States Crime Bill which gave power to the federal government to help combat domestic violence, in particular violence against women and children. Specifically, the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) was created to address this problem which is considered to not only hurt victims, but also damage families, children and society as a whole (Eulich, 2013). The Act mandates that such crimes may be prosecuted by the Department of Justice and that the Gun Control Act (that existed as part of the federal Crime Bill) be extended to include issues related to domestic violence crimes. This VAWA gives the federal government a platform…… [Read More]

Reference

Eulich, W. (2013, February 13). In U.S., big strides in reducing domestic violence. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG.
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Michael Brown's Shooting

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97702648

Brown's Shooting And Organizational Deviance

Michael Brown was fatally shot dead by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri on August 9. While the circumstances surrounding the shooting remain under investigation, the incident contributed to several days of protests and conflicts between citizens and law enforcement officers that have been covered extensively by the media. During the time of the shooting, Michael Brown was shot six times and murdered despite presenting no threat to the life of the officer or any other individual. Therefore, the use of deadly or brutal force by the police officer was not immediately necessary to enforce the arrest of the suspect. The series of protests in the aftermath of the incident was fueled by the fact that the police officer presumably killed an innocent individual and endangered the lives of others by discharging his weapon several times in an area with a high population.

Given the…… [Read More]

References:

Alba, M. (2014, September 5). Ferguson Police Force Faces Civil Rights Investigation. NBC

News. Retrieved September 8, 2014 from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/michael-brown-shooting/ferguson-police-force-faces-civil-rights-investigation-n196236

Pazzanese, C. (2014, August 21). The Fumbles in Ferguson. Retrieved from Harvard University

website:  http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2014/08/the-fumbles-in-ferguson/
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Racism in the Criminal Justice

Words: 1566 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18653002

The cases only took approximately four to five minutes implying to an unseen assembly line of justice. The study also brought to light the fact that minority cases from outside New York were listened to by an all white jury (Ingram, 2009).

The other part of the criminal justice system that witnessed high levels of racial prejudice is the correctional departments. Discrimination has been witnessed in the way prisoners of colour have been treated. Black inmates are less likely to get early release date compared to the white prisoners as they find it hard to find acceptable addresses that is crime and drug free. Whites have several options of where to stay compared to blacks thus a black prisoner is forced to stay longer in prison waiting for final release date. Convicts from minority groups have stiffer penalties for having conflicts with white convicts than with fellow blacks. This is…… [Read More]

References

Banks, C. (2004). Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. london: SAGE.

Ingram, D. (2009). Law: key concepts in philosophy. New York City: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Prison Activist Resource Center (2002). No date. Racism Fact Sheets: "African-Americans and the Criminal Injustice System." See

Schmid, T (2008).Definition of Racism. Journal of Applied Philosophy
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Project Duration

Words: 2543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53677576

legal system of the United States of America rests on the Constitution, including the Bill of Rights? The answer is that this is not completely true; the Constitution, when it was initially developed, did not enable authorities to cope successfully with all the disputes that would arise in a basic human society. As the country started to grow and develop, it became more complex, and many issues started to arise, when initially there were none. The need for these problems to be addressed and answered adequately also became important, and finally, it was understood that the only way in which to obtain all the required answers would be the English Common Law. Common Law can be defined as a body of enforceable rules that have grown because of the disputes and arguments that take place all the time within any particular country, and this body of common law in fact…… [Read More]

References

Fighting Police Abuse: A Community Action Manual. December 1, 1997. Retrieved From

http://www.aclu.org/PolicePractices/PolicePractices.cfm?ID=5009& c=25

Accessed on 28 July, 2005

Former CNN Producer Jack Smith confirms we have a secret army and are a step away from Secret police. Retrieved From  http://www.cuttingedge.org/news/n1190.cfm
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United States' Task of Setting Policy With

Words: 2510 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38461137

United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html

Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm

Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm

Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
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Evidence and Analysis The National Guardsmen Violated

Words: 4614 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50702392

evidence and analysis: "The national guardsmen violated the Students right of assembly at Kent State University on May 4, 1970." The paper will describe the evidences and circumstances of May 4, 1970 in details, the analysis and the observation of the relative facts will be included in the paper so that the readers can gain effective information regarding the day in which the nation lost four lives. The paper will initially describe the Kent State University, its formation and the relative subjects, which the university offers to the students.

THE INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIVERSITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE:

Kent State University, among top colleges and universities, offers educational opportunities ranging from certificate programs, associate's, bachelor's, master's, educational specialist and doctoral degrees. Kent State, located in Northeast Ohio, is the second largest among Ohio universities. Kent State, regarded as one of the nation's top 90 public research universities, serves more than 36,000…… [Read More]

Works Cited

As retrieved from The May 4th Deaths: Kent State 30 Years Ago by Murray Polner http://www.antiwar.com/orig/polner.php?articleid=1856On May 18,2004

As retrieved from THE MAY 4 SHOOTINGS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY: THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY BY JERRY M. LEWIS and THOMAS R. HENSLEY http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/LEWIHEN.htm. On May 18,2004

As retrieved at http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/lewihen.htm. THE MAY 4 SHOOTINGS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY: THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY BY JERRY M. LEWIS and THOMAS R. HENSLEY On May 18,2004

As retrieved from May 4th, 1970 - General Information
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Criminal Gang Enhancements in Sentencing

Words: 3593 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19512086

S. Senator Dianne Feinstein. The legislation makes the provision of over $ billion in funding "for gang prevention, intervention and law enforcement programs over five years and establishes new crimes and tougher penalties to deter and punish members of illegal street gangs." (Feinstein, 2007) the legislation proposed by Feinstein would make illegal participation in a criminal street gang a federal crime. The legislation criminalizes violent crimes in furtherance or in aid of criminal street gangs and creates a new criminal offense for murder and other violent crimes committed in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. Under the present law, "a felon's criminal street gang involvement can be treated at most as a sentencing enhancement, adding no more than 10 years to a sentence. This bill establishes far higher penalties for violent gang crimes, including the possibility of life imprisonment without parole for murder, kidnapping, aggravated sexual abuse, or maiming. If…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Matthews, D. And Ruzicka, K. (2000) Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime. Capital Center for Government and Law Policy - California Initiative Review. March 2000 initiatives - Proposition 21. Pacific McGeorge School of Law. Online available at http://www.mcgeorge.edu/government_law_and_policy/california_initiative_review/march_2000/ccglp_cir_march2000_prop_21.htm.

McKim, J.B. And Rhor, Monica (2007) Justice by Geography (Orange County Register) 3 June 2007. Online available at http://dist08.casen.govoffice.com/index.asp?Type=B_PR&SEC=%7BE917F382-8B46-4C4E-976E-64261965F209%7D&DE=%7BCA01ACE7-2B51-4E14-8DE4-3C7CC3E4DDFB%7D

Governor Scwarzenegger Endorsees Senator Feinstein's Comprehensive Gang Legislation. (2007) United States Senator Dianne Feinstein California. 20 March 2007. Online available at http://feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=NewsRoom.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=7189577e-cc9b-d379-16f3-c9194d249b56&Region_id=&Issue_id=

Velasquez, N. (2007) L.A. City Attorney Delgadillo Establishes New Policy Regarding Gang Injunction Violations: New Policy Enables Check of Convicted Gang Injunction Violators' Residency Status. 5 April 2007. Online available at http://www.lacity.org/atty/index/attyindex56044369_04052007.pdf.
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Invisible Cities All Over the World Like

Words: 2215 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30735065

invisible cities all over the world like Ahwaz in south of Iran, that suffer through horrible tragedies and the world won't pay attention to. They are the real life invisible cities. Through literature one is able to empathize to people and situations that otherwise would never be seen or known. Calvino's Invisible City explores the imaginative world of Kublai Khan and Marco Polo.

The book discusses the descriptions of cities by an explorer, Marco Polo. The book is put together as a conversation between the aging and busy emperor Kublai Khan, a busy man with many emperors who talk to him about the state of his expanding and vast empire, and Polo, the boundless explorer. The largest percentage of the book is of short prose poems describing 55 cities, narrated by the explorer Marco Polo.

Every five to ten cities, there are small dialogues that act as transitions between the…… [Read More]

References

Invisible cities cyclopedia of literary characters, revised third edition. (2012) . Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/invisible-cities-salem/invisible-cities

Calvino, I. (1974). Invisible cities. New York: Harcourt.

(2009). Refugee review tribunal australia. DOI: www.mrt-rrt.gov.au/ArticleDocuments/89/irn35261.pdf.aspx
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Modeling and Mental Practice the

Words: 1684 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23858140

3+).

If Americans find out about government law enforcement policy primarily via media as Elias contents, it is axiomatic that we find out about international crime via media. If we cannot be bothered to read for ourselves the bills introduced to Congress that result in laws to find out what those laws really mean, we certainly cannot be bothered to read and interpret the Koran to see where the truth lies in that document.

Elias offers an insight that works equally well for the failure of America's increasingly tough stands on crime and our acceptance of Islamic murderers as martyrs, and it is this:

With few exceptions, the media have uncritically reproduced official, conservative, 'law-and-order' perspectives with little fundamental analysis of their success or failure. They have also repeatedly covered and promoted 'crime wars' and 'drug wars' which inevitably fail but which are periodically resuscitated (with the media's help) as…… [Read More]

References

Charles, R. (2005, June 2) Martyrs and language. The Washington Times, p. A18. Retrieved 11 November 2005 from www.questia.com.

Elias, R. (1994, Feb.) Official stories: Media coverage of American crime policy, The Humanist, p. 3+. Retrieved 11 November 2005 from www.questia.com.
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Plato and Machiavelli and How Their Ideas

Words: 1653 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75202322

Plato and Machiavelli, and how their ideas on leadership compare and contrast with each other. To do this, their respective works the Republic and the Prince will be used.

In addition to the works by the two main authors considered, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy will provide important insight on Machiavelli and his work. Indeed, the piece authored by Nederman (2009) contains a section that specifically considers The Prince and Machiavelli's concept of leadership. In addition, Farmer's work also contains several good chapters on leadership, ethics, and how Machiavelli's concept of these is to be understood. For Plato's work, Goethals and Sorenson (2005) provided some good insight into his ideas of leadership and what these mean for ethical leadership today.

These works provide a valuable addition to the primary works by the authors themselves, as well as how the two might be compared with each other.

Application to Ethical Leadership…… [Read More]

References

Farmer, D.J. (2005). To Kill the King: Post-Traditional Governance and Bureaucracy. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.

Goethals, G.R., Sorenson, G.L.J. (2006). The Quest for a General Theory of Leadership. Cheltenham: Edward Edgar Publishing Ltd.

Machiavelli, N. The Prince

Nederman, C. (2009, Sep. 8). Niccolo Machiavelli. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/machiavelli/
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Changing Character of War the Way That

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25605361

Changing Character of War

The way that warfare has transformed since founding of America has been dramatic. In the past, warfare existed exclusively the work and burden of men; nowadays women have a strong strategic and participatory involvement. War used to revolve around brute force and the fight against nature and topography: in recent times, technology has evolved so rapidly that things like excessive force and ideal climate or weather aren't as crucial. In the next twenty years however, the character of warfare will continue to experience a metamorphosis and tactics of war will consist of a hybrid of techniques: covert, aggressive, technological and humanitarian.

In twenty years, war will have to take on such a hybrid, multi-modal approach because terrorism will also be taking that approach. "Many defense analysts suggest that future conflict will be multimodal…This threat is frequently described as hybrid warfare where adversaries can employ unique combinations…… [Read More]

References

Ndu.edu. The Changing Character of War.  http://www.ndu.edu /inss/docuploaded/11-

GSA2009_Chpt%207.pdf (accessed July 7, 2013).

van Creveld, M. War and Technology. October 2007.

http://www.fpri.org/footnotes/1225.200710.vancreveld.wartechnology.html (accessed July 7, 2013).
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Internal Affairs Procedures for Handling Investigations

Words: 1355 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65695668

Internal Affairs

Police

Internal Affairs Procedures for Handling Investigations

All professional organizations have an ethical standard that they are required to comply with, but some occupations have a much greater code due to the reliance of the public trust. Certain medical professionals (doctors and nurses) can be held to what seems a stricter standard because lives are at stake, but they do not have stricter standards than law enforcement professionals. Whether the individual enforces the laws at a federal, state or local level, it is important that there be an exacting code of conduct, and a means of evaluating and disciplining improper actions. This paper examines the Florida state procedures with regard to internal affairs in the areas of investigation, determining findings, discipline and decertification.

The Investigation

The first step in the internal affairs process requires that a citizen or another officer makes a complaint against a police officer (Caldero…… [Read More]

References

Caldero, M.A., & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police Ethics: Corruption of Noble Cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.

Florida Internal Affairs Investigators Association (FIAIA). (2012). About us. Retrieved from  http://www.fiaia.org/index.html 

Goldman, R.L., & Puro, S. (2001). Revocation of police officer certification: A viable remedy for police misconduct? St. Louis University Law Journal, 45.

Miami Police Department. (2012). Internal affairs division. Retrieved from http://www.miami-police.org/internal_affairs.html
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Media Plan Other Information I Will Need

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43766652

Media Plan

Other information I will need to know

Apart from the above information, it is important to know whether other factors could have contributed to the aggressiveness of the natives prior to the attack. Understanding the events prior to the attack will foster effective decision-making and development of interventions for preventing future occurrences of such incidences. It will also be imperative knowing whether there have been contacting the leaders of the affected community after the occurrence of the attack. Such a circumstance will provide significant insights into the problem and allow for dialogue on the strategies that can be adopted to create understanding and peaceful co-existence between the community and the soldiers. Most importantly, it will be invaluable to know whether any leader of the crew has contacted the legal bodies and the media.

Acquiring such information will provide insights of the expected public criticism and the need for…… [Read More]

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Brady Disclosure and Police Officers

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49405964

law enforcement agencies have often struggled with officer dishonesty and the impact such an action leaves not just in the criminal justice system, but more specifically in court proceedings. When an officer lies, their credibility may be threatened due to their previous dishonest comportment. Agencies must, on a continued basis, disclose information to prosecutors concerning the issue of officer dishonesty if the officer in question must testify against a defendant. That defendant must also be made aware of the instance of officer dishonesty and if this is not done, the agencies and officers may be held accountable as well as potentially lead to dismissal of charges against the defendant. An example of this was seen in Brady v. Maryland.

The landmark case of Brady v. Maryland demonstrated the effects of withholding information or evidence in case proceedings by the decision of the prosecutors to not submit Boblit's confession as evidence.…… [Read More]

References

Lewis, R. & Veltman, N. (2015). The Hard Truth About Cops Who Lie. WNYC. Retrieved 16 October 2016, from http://www.wnyc.org/story/hard-truth-about-cops-who-lie/
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Los Angeles -- a City

Words: 2402 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43888960

"

Moreover, population groups "…pull up roots and seemingly go out of their way to avoid one another…" throughout Southern California, Worster writes (242). An example of the concept of "pulling up roots" is the community of Watts, which in the 1960s, Worster continues, was "an almost entirely black populace" but by the mid-1990s is "predominately Mexican-American" (p. 243). And Little Tokyo, positioned just south of Los Angeles' City Hall, is now home to a "dwindling population of Japanese-Americans" who have scant interaction with the colonies of artists "who began reclaiming and inhabiting factory and loft buildings" in Little Tokyo. Armenians that once dominated the eastern fringes of Hollywood have "relocated to suburban Glendale" and South Koreans have "settled in the Mid-Wilshire district" which has caused the "displacement of a sizable community of Central Americans," Worster explains. This movement of cultures and ethnicities around the sprawling great Los Angeles region…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berry, Mary Frances, 2000, Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality and Discrimination. DIANE Publishing: Darby, Pennsylvania.

Crash. Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. Rated R. (2005)

Erie, Steven P., Freeman, Gregory, and Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale, 2004, W (h)ither Sprawl? Have Regional Water Policies Subsidized Suburban Development? In Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of Southern California, Eds. J. Wolch, M. Pastor, and P. Dreier. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN.

Frommer, Marcos, 1992, 'An Interview with Mike Davis,' Chicago Review, vol. 38, issue 4, 21-44.
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Violent Crimes Analysis From the

Words: 1310 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18249175



The term signature aspect is used to refer to unique behavior that is exhibited by the criminal that is peculiar to that particular criminal though may not be necessary in committing the crime. One of the most common signature aspects is the calling card, or tattooing of the dead bodies, use of excessive force, leaving notes behind and many more. These are not necessary in killing of victims but are a sign of claiming the crime (John E. Douglas, 2011).

The components of crime classification that I learnt about and are central in the crime classification are finding out the defining characteristics of the crimes and the crime scenes, this will be instrumental in telling the motive behind the crime and in the case of multiple motives, the most outstanding will guide the profiling. The other component is victimology which is the complete history of the victim which will help…… [Read More]

References

Anthony Lantosca, (2006) IAFEI: The truth about Deception Detection. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from  http://www.iafei.com/deception-detection/ 

Encyclopedia of mental Disorders, (2012). Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Retrieved February 11,

2012 from http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Hare-Psychopathy-Checklist.html

Hwakins, (2012). The Baseline Killer. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/predators/baseline-killer/1.html
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Why Can't Mentally Ill Patients Receive Proper Treatment

Words: 1795 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97224520

Causes for Lack of Adequate Care: A Look at Mentally Ill Patients

The goal of this paper will be to examine the causes of inadequate care with regard to patients with mental illnesses, irrespective of the type of mental illness the patient has. Historically the care of patients with a mental illness has been minimal at best. Many patients with mental illnesses face inadequate care in today's society, particularly in the United States.

The primary causes for insufficient care of mentally ill patients include: (1) a lack of adequate healthcare coverage, (2) lack of access to sufficient and qualified healthcare professionals/providers and (3) social stigma that might prevent patients from seeking out care when needed (Mechanic, 2004; Hollingsworth, Hollingsworth & De Gruyter, 1994; Boulard, 2000). There are other reasons that patients might not receive adequate care, often associated with the primary reasons listed above. These will be described in greater…… [Read More]

References:

Boulard, Garry. "Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill." State Legislatures, 26.4: (April,

2000):12.

Boulard, Garry. "Watching Out for the Mentally Ill." State Legislatures, 26.10:

(December, 2000):12.
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Unethical Police Operations Over the

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96529109

The charges were quietly dropped against the suspect and an Internal Affairs investigation cleared them of all wrong doing. (Terruso, 2011)

Explain the outcomes of the cases. Did you agree with the outcomes? Why or why not?

The situation involving the New York City police officers is still in the court system. So far I agree with the outcome. This is because they were deliberately breaking the law by selling automatic weapons to criminal elements. Moreover, they were also working with organized crime to sell cigarettes that were stolen from the police evidence room. This can erode the confidence of the general public in the department's ability to objectively enforce the law. When this happens, it will affect investigations and their outcomes. As a result, they had to be stopped before the situation became worse. (Rashbaum, 2011)

While the case in Elizabeth, resulted in the suspect suing the department for…… [Read More]

References

2010 NPMSRP. (2010), Police Misconduct. Retrieved from:  http://www.policemisconduct.net/2010-q2-npmsrp-national-police-misconduct-statistical-report/ 

Johnson, K. (2007). Police Brutality Cases on the Rise. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-12-17-Copmisconduct_N.htm

Rashbaum, W. (2011). 8 Officers Charged with Gun Trafficking. City Room. Retrieved from: http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/25/officers-accused-of-smuggling-guns-in-federal-corruption-case/

Terruso, J. (2011). Elizabeth Police Brutality. Star Ledger. Retrieved from: http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/11/elizabeth_police_brutality_cas.html
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Shea S 2011 December 20 Chile's

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3282213

Shea, S. (2011, December 20 ). Chile's Mapuche community finds international support. Santiago Times .

This newspaper article is about a request made to the United Nation by a group of authors, artists, and academics from Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Mexico, Guatemala and the United States to help stop the violence against the Mapuche people. The letter addressed to the UN Rapporteur for the Rights of Indigenous People, sort for an immediate intervention. The Mapuche are about 600,000 in number and mainly reside in the Araucania Region of southern Chile. This is a ten-year conflict based on land dispute between Chilean government and the Mapuche Indians. The Mapuche claim ancestral land ownership and on the other hand, the government is keen on using it for development projects. In the letter, the group accuses the police of using excessive force, citing human rights abuse against the Mapuche. They accused the government of…… [Read More]

References

Carruthers, D., & Rodriguez, P. (2009). Mapuche Protest, Environmental Conflict, and Social

Movement Linkage in Chile. Third World Quarterly .

Quilodran, F. (2011, June 3). Chile court rules on case of Mapuche Indians. The Seattle Times .

Shea, S. (2011, December 20 ). Chile's Mapuche community finds international support.
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Juvenile Corrections Before the Expansion

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51190359



Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.

Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…… [Read More]

Reference List

Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.

Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Arrest -Friday May 24 2013

Words: 1273 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88667756

After continuous pleading, I realized that the officers were not going to help me, and in fact they seemed to perceive that I was mentally unbalance and were even more aggressive with me. I took it upon myself to defend my issues the only way I could -- which was to raise my voice and let the officers know I was in distress and needed help.

The officers shoved me into the back seat of the patrol car, further injuring my ribs. I was lying on my back, coughing, having difficulty breathing and still bleeding from the handcuffs. I kicked the seat and yelled that I needed to be move to a position in which I could breathe. The female officer turned around and dropped me off with one of the male officers as the Emergency Medical Team arrives. At first, the EMS team does not understand my condition even…… [Read More]

Resources/LawFactsPamphlets/Pages/LawFactsPamphlet-21.aspx

Why Breathalyzers May Not Accurately Measure Alcohol Levels. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.mcminnlaw.com/criminal-law/austin-dwi-lawyer/why-breathalyzers-may-not-accurately-measure-alcohol-levels/#top

Green, S. (January 25, 2011). Family of Man Shoved into Wall by Deputy Settles. Newsbank. Retrieved from: http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/InfoWeb-p_action=doc&p_topdoc=1&p_docnum=1&p_sort=YMD_date:D&p_product=AWNB&p_text_direct-0=document_id=(%20135099C883E81388%20)&p_docid=135099C883E81388&p_theme=aggdocs&p_queryname=135099C883E81388&f_openurl=yes&p_nbid=W4DG51RKMTM3MDIyMjU2Ny41MDU0MDU6MToxMzoxOTIuMTYwLjIxNi4w&p_multi=STIW

Jabali-Nash, N. (December 14, 2010). California Police Officers Kill Man Pointing Water Nozzle, Not Gun. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504083_162-20025657-504083.html

Mangan, D. (1996). Police Brutality: The Use of Excessive Force. Retrieved from: http://www.drury.edu/ess/irconf/dmangan.html
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Apps for Recording Police Encounters

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31174479

preponderance of abuse of power and excessive force incidence by law enforcement, it makes sense that citizens would use technologies to take back their rights. Smartphone apps offer an ideal means by which to document instances of police infringement on citizen rights, police brutality, and other issues that might be helpful for illuminating patterns of problems in communities or even in some cases, help the legal cases of victim of police abuse. Some of the apps that have been developed include CopWatch, Evidence Locker, Mobile Justice, and Police Tape. Each of these and similar apps are evolving and are designed to empower citizens thorugh the use of audio and video recording. The principles by which these apps work include alerting the user of rights regarding law enforcement stops and probable cause. Moreover, these apps include safeguards against unlawful police confiscation of the device, which is remarkably commonplace (Hess, 2012). It…… [Read More]

References

Hess, A. (2015). Justice through a lens. Slate. Retrieved online: http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/users/2015/04/copwatch_mobile_justice_and_other_apps_for_citizens_filming_police_encounters.html

Tuccille, J.D. (2012). Recording police encounters? There's an app for that. Reason. Retrieved online: https://reason.com/blog/2012/09/26/recording-police-encounters-theres-an-ap
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Greece and the 2008 riots

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12394884

Political unrest is a worldwide occurrence that manifests itself for brief or long periods in many nations. One nation Greece, witnessed political unrest due to globalization efforts. The 2016 article, "Glocal' disorder: Causes, conduct and consequences of the 2008 Greek unrest" by authors Sappho Xenakis and Leonidas K. Cheliotis examines the Athens-based political unrest and its spread to other Greek cities in late 2008. The authors sought to understand why events occurred as they did in Athens to see how local, national, as well as international arenas play a role in shaping localized incidents of chaos.

The article begins with criminological examination of social unrest and riots that have long been subject to comparative and single case studies where transitional/global dimensions of such events have barely featured. Recently however, criminology has considered global and transitional conditions as being important arenas for exploration. Riots in countries are signs of political unrest…… [Read More]

References

Xenakis, S., & Cheliotis, L. K. (2016). 'Glocal disorder: Causes, conduct and consequences of the 2008 Greek unrest. European Journal of Criminology, 13(5), 639-656. doi:10.1177/1477370816636933
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A Concise Analysis of Ethics in Policing

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69230986

Ethics in Policing

It is crucial for organizations to clearly define ethics and ethical behaviors in the workplace and to also clearly tell its employees what constitutes unethical behavior (Roufa, 2016). There is a strong push to uphold the high ethical standards set for the law enforcement community. However, without clear definition of those ethical standards, such efforts would likely not achieve any significant results.

Our understanding of ethics and ethical conduct is based on our personal and societal values. Personal values are those which are based on our personal experiences, religious beliefs, ethnic and cultural backgrounds. These values are unique to every person, which means they are not the best values to inform our professional conduct. Other values, however, are dear to the entire societies or groups. They are derived from the groups' history and understanding of ethical behavior. This is the proper platform on which to base professional…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Davis, W. A. (2014). Examining Student Perceptions: Ethics and Misconduct in Today's Police Department. The Aquila Digital Community. Retrieved from http://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1038&context=masters_theses

Roufa, T. (2016, October 12). Ethics in Law Enforcement and Policing. Retrieved from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/ethics-in-law-enforcement-and-policing-974542

Stephens, D. W. (2011, June). Police Discipline: A Case for Change. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/234052.pdf

United States Attorney's Office District of Connecticut. (2014, January 23). Former East Haven Police Officer Sentenced To Five Years In Prison For Criminal Civil Rights Violations. Retrieved from The United States Department of Justice: https://www.justice.gov/usao-ct/pr/former-east-haven-police-officer-sentenced-five-years-prison-criminal-civil-rights
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Human Trafficking

Words: 2403 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84002275

Forced labor is one of the most important and at the same time intriguing "diseases" of the 21st century particularly because it should no longer be a subject for discussion considering that the 21st century should be one of technological advancements, of improvements in the living standards, as well as it the overall consideration of human life as being essential for the well-being of our future. Yet, there are constant cases of forced labor in regions such as Africa or Asia that have questioned the ability of the state and of the human being to protect another human being from abuses.

The current research focuses on the way in which forced labor is viewed from the point-of-view of the international law, as well as through the lens of a known case study of forced labor that determined not only reactions from the state, but also an increased in the awareness…… [Read More]

References

Federal Bureau of Investigation. Man Indicted for Forced Labor and Sex Trafficking of Women Forced to Work as Prostitutes in Orange County, 2012, available at http://www.fbi.gov/losangeles/press-releases/2012/man-indicted-for-forced-labor-and-sex-trafficking-of-women-forced-to-work-as-prostitutes-in-orange-county

Holocaust Encyclopedia. Forced labor: an overview, 2013, available at http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005180

International Labor Organization (ILO) Forced Labor Convention, 1930, available at http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/subjects-covered-by-international-labour-standards/forced-labour/lang -- en/index.htm

International Labor Organization (ILO) Forced Labor, 2013, available at http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/lang -- en/index.htm
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Criminal Justice System a Manager

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44645929

Unethical behavior that a few years ago would have been considered appalling has become acceptable. Dishonesty, cheating, lying, and sexual misconduct, is not only common, but in most cases is expected" (Ramirez 2006).

In order to reduce police brutality and force the use of force matrix, criminal justice managers suggest exercise for police officers. If officers are healthier and more physically fit, this could lead to better community perception and relations, and may decrease the amount of citizen complaints against officers for verbal abuse and excessive physical force. Physically fit officers can increase the safety of themselves and fellow officers and change the public perceptions that police officers are out of shape donut eaters. Police departments can lower their medical premiums through decreased sick leave and injuries, as well as decreasing lawsuits from citizen complaints of verbal abuse and/or excessive physical force. Decreasing these lawsuits will also lower the city's…… [Read More]

Conclusion

From the evidence in this paper, it is apparent that police officers need more outlets relieve their stress in order to force ethical issues because they could eventually hurt others. Police organizations must find more help for their officers due to the fact they are in danger of the affects of chronic stress, which could permanently alter their personalities and behavior and that could add to ethical issues that criminal justice managers have to deal with. Beyond physically fitness, more effective research and funding must be put into the mental health of police officers so that they can serve and protect their communities and ethical issues can be addressed properly (Finn 2000).

Ethical Issues
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Culture and Management

Words: 2947 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67961768

Management Overview

In the discussion of cultural forces, we identified 10 fundamental person values that are often listed by individuals as central to them and the American culture. How would you rank these values in terms of their relative importance to you? What was the basis for your selection of the top three ranked values?

Ethics help in defining proper and improper behavior and these set of standards show what comportment is tolerable and intolerable. A few characterizations of proper and improper may be contingent on the viewpoint deliberating matters of principle. 4 essential forces affect ethical conduct of persons and administrations: culture, lawful and supervisory, structural and singular. To begin with, cultural values tend to become the mainstay of ethical decision-making and comportment.

Normally, persons change their beliefs to their life conditions. They promote the significance they attribute to beliefs they can freely achieve and relegate the significance of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(2009). Retrieved from mathermerketing.com:  http://www.mathermarketing.co.uk/how-not-to-go-it-alone/some-examples-of-joint-ventures.php 

Adeel, A. (2012). Ethical Communication in an Organization. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

Amadeo, K. (2011). Trade Policy. Retrieved from USeconomy.com: http://useconomy.about.com/od/tradeterms/g/Foreign-Direct-Investment-FDI-Definition.htm

Blagdon, J. (2013, March 06). Retrieved from The Verge: http://www.theverge.com/2013/3/6/4073354/samsung-boosts-lobbying-spend-by-500-percent-in-2012
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Wonderful Job Helping Session Even I Paying

Words: 2643 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36593910

wonderful job helping session Even I paying a fee services I Thank I forever grateful assistance provided a difficult time life. I ! Sincerely, Jane Since I work a Lexus Dealership, I choose "Lexus Corporation" assignment

Lexus Corporation

Impact of Lexus Corporation mission, vision, and stakeholders on its overall success

A company's mission and vision statements provide answers to questions regarding where the company is going, what the company values, and what it does Whitbred, Skalski, Bracken, & Lieberman, 2010.

They both relate to the company's main purpose and they communicate this purpose to the employees, customers, investors, and dealers who are its key stakeholders. A company that has a mission and vision that is clearly communicated, collectively shared, and widely understood perform better and are highly successful. Having a mission and vision statement that the company can refer to, has allowed the company employees who are its primary stakeholders…… [Read More]

References

Choi, S. (2011). Towards an operational model of corporate governance. [Article]. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 10(2), 165-179. doi: 10.1386/tmsd.10.2.165_1

Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE: Cengage South-Western.

Hoover, C. (2010). The Strategic Communication Plan. [Article]. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 79(8), 16-21.

Lynch, R.L. (2006). Corporate strategy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall.