844+ documents containing “excessive force”.
Analysts worry that the imagery of "terrorist" and "immigrant" will be a potent source of increased uses of excessive force (Bai and Tang 2002).
Finally, the fact that juries rarely convict police officers for use of excessive force indirectly contributes to this culture. The police officers accused in the Diallo killing and the Rodney King beating, for example, were acquitted. Author and former prosecutor Scott Turrow wrote about the difficulty of even indicting officers who had patterns of abuse. In one case, the jury returned a hung verdict against a known "hitter," despite the baton marks on the back of the victim. Even more disturbing, members of the jury joined the defendant at the celebration party, held after the trial (Turrow 2000).
These systematic biases make it difficult for the media to devote adequate coverage to instances of police brutality. The entrenchment of the use of force in police culture means….
Amnesty International. 2005. Excessive and lethal force? amnesty international's concerns about deaths and ill-treatment involving police use of tasers. Retrieved Jun. 29, 2005, from Amnesty International USA Web site: http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/usa/document.do?id=1A01E91E134A327080256F190042408D .
Bai, Jane and Eric Tang. 2002. "The War at Home: National Targeting of Noncitizens Takes on New Dimensions," ColorLines, vol. 5, Spring, page 28.
Muwakkil, Salim. 2002. "Equating police brutality with domestic terrorism; the blatant harassment of unarmed citizens by law enforcement officers needs top priority." The Chicago Tribune. July 29: 13.
Novick, Michael. 1999. "Police Killings and the Media," Turning the Tide, vol. 12, Summer, pp. 2-3.
If the suspect's injuries required medical attention, though, the use of force might be considered excessive. Each case is considered on an individual basis. Such elements as the officer's size, the suspect's size, the severity of any injury incurred, and the severity of the crime under question will all be taken into account.
When defining "excessive force," uninvolved officers who are considered to be reasonable and prudent will provide a personal and professional framework for judgment. This personal perspective must be as objective as possible, rooted in common sense, moral decency, and professional standards. A reasonable, prudent officer cannot make decisions that are blurred by any personal connections with the officer or suspect in question.
In most cases, the use of force can be clearly classified as being either excessive or as reasonable. All officers receive training on the proper way to conduct arrests, and when defining excessive force, such training….
Excessive Use of Police Force in the State of California
Excessive Force in California
The objective of this study is to examine the use of excessive force by police officers in the State of California. Toward this end, this study will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The work of Wiley (2011) entitled "Excessive Force Claims: Disentangling Constitutional Standards" reports that "excessive force claims seem to be reported in the news constantly." (p.1) Wiley states that the Constitution "and in particular the ill of Rights, were of course written in part to protect citizens from governmental abuse in its most evident form." (2011, p.1) There are reported to be four different standards used to determine what comprises the use of excessive force on the part of the government. These four standards are reported to be "variously grounded in the 4th, 8th and 14th amendments to the United States….
Burris, John L. (2012) Excessive Force/Brutality. Retrieved from: http://www.johnburrislaw.com/CM/CivilRightsViolations/Excessive-ForceBrutality.asp
Shouse Law Group (2012) Police Misconduct and Civil Rights Violation. California Rights Attorneys. Retrieved from: http://www.shouselaw.com/police-misconduct.html
Wiley, Greg (2011) Excessive Force Claims: Disentangling Constitutional Standards. 12 Jul 2011. Retrieved from: http://mnbenchbar.com/2011/07/excessive-force-claims-disentangling-constitutional-standards/
Since September of 2011, "federal prosecutors are targeting a rising number of law enforcement officers for alleged brutality" (Johnson, 2007). Statistics report that there have been increases in "cases in which police, prison guards and other law enforcement authorities have used excessive force or other tactics to violate victim's civil rights," estimates put it at approximately 25% (Johnson, 2007). Given the increase in excessive force by police, it inevitably leads to the question: why is this happening?
Excessive force is a concept that does not have a concrete definition; but there are some levels of force by cops that are thought to be excessive based on the circumstances that they are confronted with. "Excessive force," according to AC news, is a "slippery metaphor" and "experts say it's any force beyond what's necessary to arrest a suspect and keep police and bystanders safe" (Segan, 2011). From 1994 to 1998, there….
Johnson, K. (2007, December 18). Police brutality cases on rise 9/11. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-12-17-Copmisconduct_N.htm
Scrivner, E. (1994, January 9). Controlling police use of excessive force.. Retrieved from http://www.uplink.com.au/lawlibrary/Documents/Docs/Doc37.html
Segan, Sascha (2011, July 14). What is Excessive Force? ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./story?id=96509&page=1 .
Excessive Force Liability
The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).
Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified in discharging….
Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .
Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).
Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the researchers….
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
police management affect the way police officers use force?
The Force Continuum
Style of Leadership and Management
Proper Management of Police esources
Innovations in Excessive Force Training
Protection of its citizens is the fundamental mission of any government. And on the forefront of this mission are the law enforcement officers who are in fact the most visible arm that the government utilizes to protect the citizens and also to preserve public order ("Police Use of Excessive Force: A Case Study of Lethal (Deadly) Force," 2016).
And to achieve these missions, the police are given authorities that are unique in civil governments as well as granted by the society - authority to control the behaviors of the citizens with the ultimate aim of protecting them from harm. Hence in a manner that is most direct, the behavior of the members of the society are controlled and managed by the police personnel and the officers on a….
Atherley, L., & Hickman, M. (2014). Controlling Use of Force: Identifying Police Use of Excessive Force through Analysis of Administrative Records. Policing, 8(2), 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/police/pau003
Banker, R., Chang, H., & Pizzini, M. (2004). The Balanced Scorecard: Judgmental Effects of Performance Measures Linked to Strategy. The Accounting Review, 79(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2308/accr.2004.79.1.1
Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA [etc.]: Sage Publications.
Belasen, A., Eisenberg, B., & Huppertz, J. Mastering leadership.
Police use of force
There is no single globally accepted definition of use of force by police officers. The National Institute of Justice, which is a subsidiary of the Justice Department concurs with this. This leaves the approximately 18,000 police agencies in America with the leeway to formulate their own policies regarding the use of force. Some agencies may address the issue while some may not. The Justice Department has however provided a use-of-force continuum. This refers to a step-by-step manner in which the police officers can act in order to calm a situation. As such, a police officer can first present himself at the scene, resort to verbal warning if his mere presence is not enough, then use unarmed control, say grabbing the offender, proceed to use less harmful weapons such as tear gas and batons, and finally use excessive force (Vera, 2018).
This order of attack is quite important bearing….
One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.
Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:
Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312
Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna
Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886
Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Five forces' analysis (Porter 1980)
Five Forces Analysis of Competitive Structure
Michael Porters Five Forces Analysis of Competitive Structure is a paradigm for competitive position, which states that overall a company's profitability may be determined as a measure of the industry it is competing in and its strategic position within that industry (Strategy4u, 2004). According to the model some industries by nature will have a higher profit potential than others, primarily because they have a stronger competitive position and are placed within a more profitable industry.
Porter's Model also suggests that profitability is assessed via several factors, including the following: buyers/customers power, supplier's power, and rivalry among competitors, threat of new entrants into the market, and the threat of substitute products (Strategy4u, 2004). The company or industry will have a greater profit potential the less influential each of these items are. For example, if a company sells a product for which there are….
Business Insight. "Michael Porter's Five Forces Model." 2003. Available: http://www.businessplansoftware.org/porter.asp
Devine, Donald. "Pols Dare Not Challenge Giveaway to Media Gods." Insight on the News, Vol. 13, May 1997. p. 1
Economics A-Z." Economist.com. Retrieved March 27, 2004. Available: http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?TERM=PROFIT
Fellner, W. "Competition among the Few: Oligopoly and Similar Market Structures." New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949, pp. 55-59
Sources of Information for a Porters Five Forces Analysis on Kraft Foods
To undertake a Porters Five Forces analysis it is necessary to identify potential sources of information that will give the required information. The Five Forces analysis will require an assessment of the five areas; degree of rivalry among competitors, threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of customers, and availability of substitutes. This process can be examined by looking at the sources which may be used for a Porters Five Forces analysis of Kraft Foods, a firm that competes in the food industry. Each of the forces will be considered separately.
Degree of rivalry among competitors
Source 1; CSI Market; UL is http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KFT
This is a very useful web site which has the primary aim of providing information to potential investors. The page on Kraft Foods is particularly useful in assessing the firm's position in the context of rivalry….
Baertlein, L, (2014, Sept 30), Kraft challenged by "healthier" macaroni and cheese brands, didReuters, accessed at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/30/us-kraft-macandcheese-idUSBREA2T09C20140330
CSI Market (2014), Kraft accessed at http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT on 7th Sept 2014
Food and Drug Administration, (2004), accessed at http://www.fda.gov/Food / on 7th September 2014
K-Mart, (2014), accessed at http://www.kmart.com/en_us/grocery-pet.html on 7th Sept 2014
Complaints From Community Members
The fact that Officer Daniels has received complaints filed by multiple different members of the community in a relatively short period of time would raise immediate concerns. Whereas an isolated complaint could be the result of a misunderstanding, an unfounded act of retribution by someone for appropriate police action initiated by the officer, or the result of a single bad momentary decision, the fact that there are multiple such complaints suggests it is more likely that Officer Daniels may not be performing his duties optimally. Moreover, the fact that the complaints involve three different types of unrelated conduct suggests that there might be a common underlying issue such as psychological fatigue, burnout, or unresolved psychological trauma, as opposed to a an issue of poor or insufficient training (Miller, 2007). As a police psychologist, I would approach the situation as a possible unconscious request for help by the….
Specifically, police tactical policy must outline criteria for the use of every tool and every technique authorized for use by officers.
Effective policy and procedure management also includes indirect methods of minimizing the potential need for increased levels of force. For example, a lone officer typically faces situations that allow for fewer options in force escalation, particularly where the officer is outnumbered by subjects or suspects (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Therefore, some of the simplest but most effective administrative methods of minimizing the necessary use of force include assigning officers in pairs and establishing protocols detailing response and backup procedures corresponding to specific types of tactical situations or calls for service (McCauley, 2005). Training is essential for effective UOF control in modern policing, because stress and the perception of danger naturally detracts from decision making. epeatedly exposing officer candidates and cadets to simulated tactical situations in training ensures the….
McCauley, R. (2005). "Use of Force and High-Intensity Tactical Police Flashlight: Policy Concerns." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74
No.11. Montgomery, D. (2005). "Perspective: Excessive Force 101." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74 No.8. Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E, Miller, C. (2007). "The Deadly Mix: Officers, Offender, and the Circumstances that Bring them Together." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin;Vol. 76 No.1. Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice: Introductory Text for the 21st Century.
Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Though it is not often popular to say, it must be acknowledged that certain jobs in law enforcement -- specifically police and corrections officers -- attract personalities with control issues or problems with aggression. This is not meant to suggest that all or even most people who occupy these jobs have these issues, but the appeal of these jobs to people who do have these qualities should be obvious. The essence of such jobs is to maintain order, and in the case of corrections officers it is to exert control over a population of usually compliant but unwilling individuals. For those with an axe to grind, whether consciously or not, this can look like an appealing outlet for aggressive behaviors in a scenario where these behaviors are often required and will seldom, it is assumed, lead to reprimand or punishment.
The fact that the problem has been allowed to persist….
efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?
Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).
What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?
Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could adversely affect….
Analysts worry that the imagery of "terrorist" and "immigrant" will be a potent source of increased uses of excessive force (Bai and Tang 2002). Finally, the fact that juries…Read Full Paper ❯
If the suspect's injuries required medical attention, though, the use of force might be considered excessive. Each case is considered on an individual basis. Such elements as the…Read Full Paper ❯
Excessive Use of Police Force in the State of California Excessive Force in California The objective of this study is to examine the use of excessive force by police officers in…Read Full Paper ❯
Excessive Force Since September of 2011, "federal prosecutors are targeting a rising number of law enforcement officers for alleged brutality" (Johnson, 2007). Statistics report that there have been increases…Read Full Paper ❯
Excessive Force Liability The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum,…Read Full Paper ❯
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics…Read Full Paper ❯
police management affect the way police officers use force? The Force Continuum Style of Leadership and Management Proper Management of Police esources Innovations in Excessive Force Training Protection of its citizens is the…Read Full Paper ❯
Police use of force There is no single globally accepted definition of use of force by police officers. The National Institute of Justice, which is a subsidiary of the Justice…Read Full Paper ❯
One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and…Read Full Paper ❯
Five forces' analysis (Porter 1980) Five Forces Analysis of Competitive Structure Michael Porters Five Forces Analysis of Competitive Structure is a paradigm for competitive position, which states that overall a company's…Read Full Paper ❯
Economics Sources of Information for a Porters Five Forces Analysis on Kraft Foods To undertake a Porters Five Forces analysis it is necessary to identify potential sources of information that will…Read Full Paper ❯
Complaints From Community Members The fact that Officer Daniels has received complaints filed by multiple different members of the community in a relatively short period of time would raise immediate…Read Full Paper ❯
Specifically, police tactical policy must outline criteria for the use of every tool and every technique authorized for use by officers. Effective policy and procedure management also includes indirect…Read Full Paper ❯
Though it is not often popular to say, it must be acknowledged that certain jobs in law enforcement -- specifically police and corrections officers -- attract personalities with…Read Full Paper ❯
efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other? Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the…Read Full Paper ❯