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Hillel is "remembered not for his inspired exegesis but for his rationalistic exegetical techniques," (Brewer 219). These rational exegetical techniques have been codified into the Seven Rules of Hillel, which many claim predate Hillel himself ("The Seven Rules of Hillel"). Regardless of when, how, and with whom the Seven Rules of rabbinical exegesis emerged, it is clear that Paul relied on these rules when conveying the teachings of Jesus Christ to the Jews. As Cohn-Sherbok points out, Paul's use of rabbinical interpretation and exegesis was deliberate and methodical. It has also been suggested that Paul used the Seven Rules of Hillel himself. There may be some historical basis for this presumption: "Paul was certainly taught these rules in the School of Hillel by Hillel's own grandson Gamliel. hen we examine Paul's writings we will see that they are filled with usages of Hillel's Seven Rules," ("The Seven Rules of…… [Read More]
To understand 2 Corinthians as a letter, one must first understand the context in which it was written. This was Paul's second letter to the Christian church at Corinth. His first letter had been less than kind, admonishing the Corinthian church for what Paul saw as many deficiencies in their manner of living and worship. As might be expected, the original letter was not exactly welcome by the Corinthians, and he found, upon questioning his friend Titus in Macedonia, that this first letter had caused division within the Corinthian church. Some church members there took what Paul said to heart and were striving to live and worship as he commanded. Others were not so generous, and began to believe in a different version of the gospel than the one Paul taught. In fact, some Corinthians were outright rejecting Paul's teachings (Mills 1996).
Naturally, this did not please Paul, a…… [Read More]
Exegesis on Job
SERMON/EXEGESIS ON JOB
"There's always someone playing Job." Archibald Macleish wrote back in the 1950s. "There must be thousands...millions and millions of mankind Burned, crushed, broken, mutilated, slaughtered, and for what?"
This is a sentiment we can all identify with today. This last month the world was rocked by a serious of disasters. There are almost 40,000 people dead from the killer tsunami, and many of these we can be sure were good, dedicated Christians who had put their faith in God. Missions work in those countries has led to a very strong converted church in many areas. Still, thousands were killed. People lost their children, their spouses, all their belongings... Killer mudslides in California, war and terrorism in the Middle East... we have to sit back and wonder: where is this God who controls the wind and the waves? It's easy to understand when humans cause…… [Read More]
The passage asserts that if works or obedience to the law were the measures of righteousness, then faith would be useless. Because "law brings wrath," or punishment, salvation and/or redemption though works and the law is truly salvation through fear, and this another things this passage sets itself against that might perhaps resonate more with modern readers. This reading of the passage suggests that the route to redemption should not be viewed as a narrow and restrictive path, but that a faith in God is all that is truly necessary for justification.
The debate over the source of justification has been quite prominent at certain points in the development of Christian theology. The Puritans of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries had similar beliefs about justification; this passage was key to the concept of the covenant of grace, where Jesus Christ's sacrifice was enough to bring redemption to all of the…… [Read More]
A parable: an earthly story with a heavenly meaning Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and ord Search for parabol? (Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and ord Search for parabol? )
Stacy reports that in the pseudepigraphical document known as the Book of Enoch that the following story, conspicuous parallel to the parable in Luke occurs, which may predate Jesus' account.
oe unto you who gain silver and gold by unjust means;
you will then say, "e have grown rich and accumulated goods, we have acquired everything that we have desired.
So now let us do whatever we like;
for we have gathered silver, we have filled our treasures [with money] like water,
And many are the laborers in our houses.
Your lies flow like water.
For your wealth shall not endure but it shall take off from you quickly for you have acquired it all unjustly, and you shall be given over…… [Read More]
Exegesis of Luke 4:1-13
According to John Hayes and Carl Holladay, exegesis is an exercise in "leading" -- which is to say that a Scriptural exegesis acts as a kind of interpretation, helping people to understand more fully the ord of God (1). This paper will provide an exegesis of Luke 4:1-13 in which Jesus is tempted thrice by the devil, and it will also show how each temptation helps to clarify for Christians the exact mission of Christ (Fitzmeyer 509).
Luke was a Gentile by birth and by profession a doctor. (According to tradition he was also an artist and is still revered by many today as a patron of both doctors and artists). An early companion of St. Paul, Luke can be said to have been influenced by the Apostle. Indeed, Luke's writings are filled with a similar zealousness found in Paul's letters. hat makes Luke's Gospel unique…… [Read More]
Exegesis a Passage
Greet people all God's in Christ Jesus
The brothers and sisters send greetings who are with me people send greetings,
All God's here you especially those who belong to Caesar's household.
especially who are of Caesar's household.
The grace be with your spirit.
of the Lord Jesus Christ
Analyzing the Paragraph
Theme of the paragraph: Every one is equal through Jesus Christ (in Christianity).
(Main theme): Greet everyone the same.
(result) Christ with you all.
(introduction) Greet every saint.
The most important words that are found in Philippians 4: 21 are "greet" and, "Christ." In Philippians 4:22, the most valued word is "God's." In verse 23 of this chapter the most noteworthy word is "grace." It is essential to realize that some of the words identified in certain verses are repeated in others, such as the term "greet" and "Jesus Christ" -- which underscores…… [Read More]
Exegesis of Genesis 2-3
The pre-modern interpretation of the fall of man was primarily explained by Augustine and Calvin and was accepted as fact. In this exegesis, Adam and Eve, prior to the fall, walked with God and communed with Him, but after God discovered that they had disobeyed Him, cut off this communications and they entered what many have believed was a depraved state. Calvin says that man "became entirely changed and so degenerate that the image of God, in which he had been formed, was obliterated (Calvin, 2001, 41). This is the basis of his doctrine regarding the total depravity of man. This interpretation has also been at the forefront of much modern exegesis which, though not completely dismissing older theologians such as Calvin, looks deeper into the how the wording can be reinterpreted using this and other parts of the Bible.
The modern interpretation looks at the…… [Read More]
The people of the kingdom, seeing nothing wrong with this, built their own altars throughout the land. aal and Ashteroth were worshiped openly, sanctified by King Ahab and his wife, Jezebel. Sacred prostitutes were part of this new idolatry. It was one of these that Hosea took as a wife, and then utilized this imagery of God's love for Israel, in that he would rescue them by buying them out of a kind of slavery to which they did not even know they were enslaved.
In Chapter 11 of the ook of Hosea, God charges Israel with having abandoned Him, of running away from God's loving care. The hypocrisy and false idol worship that Israel has turned to in order to enjoy the pleasures and luxuries they found around them had lured them far from the sheltering arms of God. Hosea was warning them that they had gone too far,…… [Read More]
They are curious.
Philip is a bit unsure of himself, so he consults with Andrew, and together they lead the Greeks to Jesus.
Jesus spoke to his disciples, not minding the others, and this was a critical announcement of his final hour. There have been inferences before, but this passage is very clear cut about the final hour.
He uses the lesson of the grain of wheat dying in the grouind, so that many grains would spring up. He is clearly referring to himself, and the greatest sacrifice of all: to give one's life for the benefit and salvation of others.
Jesus made a point of warning his servant-disciples that this path would lead to the suffering of the cross, but because of their sacrifices, they would be amply honored and rewarded by God the Father.
There is also an emphasis that those who are centered on selfish needs…… [Read More]
Lines 1-17 present a deep examination of the nature of false and real accusations, and also of personal responsibility. Joseph has the stewards accost the brothers for wronging him and of stealing; interestingly he does not accuse them directly. It seems as if Joseph is testing them to become a better judge of their character, but the story also illustrates the social hierarchies extant at the time the book was penned. In any case, Benjamin's reaction is curious; first he protests his innocence, obviously lying. His eventual submission leads to an honorable act of forgiveness. Again the nature of familial ties is underscored in this passage, for Joseph treats his brethren with mercy and respect rather than with hatred and scorn. Thus, this passage is not a moral injunction against stealing; that would be too simple an interpretation. Rather, Genesis 44: 1-17 reads as a story of love…… [Read More]
Exegesis of Psalm 142
Is complaint against God a valid form of prayer? This seems to be a valid reading of Psalm 142. Bernhard . Anderson classifies Psalm 142 as one of the Psalms of "individual lament" (223). This distinguishes it from those psalms which express collective lament, a sense of communal complaint to God on the part of the Jews. But in Psalm 142, the lament is by one man only, David. An exegetical close reading of Psalm 142 will demonstrate that David's lament here indicates that prayer need not be a form of unqualified praise of God only: complaint to God, or complaint against God, is in itself a valid form of worship. The paradox of prayer is that it may contain doubt.
e must begin with the descriptive heading for Psalm 142: "A maskil of David. hen he was in the cave. A prayer." The specific Hebrew…… [Read More]
Usually introduced by formula, "I am against you"
Aftermath or restoration oracle
Reversing judgment formula, "I am for you"
Especially "Son of man, set your face ...
"Woe" oracle of indictment
Usually containing "because ... therefore" clauses
IN which popular proverb is recited and then refuted by prophetic discourse (e.g., "sour grapes" proverb)
18:1-20; cf. 12:22-25
Introduced by "wail"
Riddles, parables, allegories
E.g., parable of the vine Allegories of the eagle and cedars, lion, boiling pot etc.
Chaps. 17, 19, 23, 24, 27
lenkinsopp, J. Ezekiel. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1990.
lock, D. The ook of Ezekiel, Volume 2. Erdmans, 1998.
occaccini, G. Roots of Rabbinic Judaism: An Intellectual History. Eerdmans, 2001.
Cooke, G.A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the…… [Read More]
The term conversion would be etymologically closer (Blenkinsopp 84)
By the charge of acting without principle (verses 25 and 29), the Israelites accused God of punishing the innocent along with the guilty. Implicit in his rejection of the charge is Ezekiel's belief that all deserved the punishment that had come upon the nation. The opportunity for each generation to live or die according to its own behavior is now extended to each individual within his life time. The possibility of the righteous dying because they turn to sin may seem harsh; but the opportunity for the wicked to leave past guilt behind is all the more significant for Ezekiel's sweeping condemnation of Israel elsewhere. The oracle of verses 30-32 is the climax of the chapter, commanding response to the possibility of attaining life that had just been declared.
In contract to the earlier promise of the people's spontaneous renewal by…… [Read More]
Exegesis of Jer.1 vs1-10
Jeremiah, the son of Hikiah was a priest who lived close to the city of Jerusalem in the town of Anathoth. An important religious writing is represented by the book who bears his name. It is believed that he is the author of the book. The present paper will analyze and interpret the first ten verses.
Verses one to three give information regarding the identity of the author and also some coordinates which allow the reader to better understand the context in which the verses were produced. " The words of Jeremiah the son of Hikiah, of the priests who were in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin." Since Jeremiah is the first thing to be mentioned, one can easily understand that he is the subject of utmost importance. His identity is defined through the belonging to his family. This is why the name of his…… [Read More]
This is the same in our lives, because if we remain steadfast in out faith, our suffering can only serve to further God's work in our lives. Paul's example also highlights our responsibilities to each other, because through our own example we can help other Christians that might be facing the same kind of difficulty as us.
In the next few passages, Paul goes on to discuss something that has undoubtedly crossed the mind of any Christian facing extreme difficult, which is the idea that it might just be better to be done with the world and live eternally in heaven. Paul says that "for to me, living is Christ and dying is gain," to the point that "I am hard pressed between the two: my desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better, but to remain in the flesh is more necessary for you"…… [Read More]
7I bought male and female slaves, and had slaves who were born in my house; I also had great possessions of herds and flocks, more than any who had been before me in Jerusalem. 8I also gathered for myself silver and gold and the treasure of kings and of the provinces; I got singers, both men and women, and delights of the flesh, and many concubines.*
9 So I became great and surpassed all who were before me in Jerusalem; also my wisdom remained with me. 10 hatever my eyes desired I did not keep from them; I
kept my heart from no pleasure, for my heart found pleasure in all my toil, and this was my reward for all my toil. 11 Then I considered all that my hands had done and the toil I had spent in doing it, and again, all was vanity and a chasing after…… [Read More]
Jesus warns not just Peter but all of "them" about not boasting about the messiah in Mark, Matthew, and Luke too. Jesus's warning comes immediately after the miraculous healing of the blind man (Mark 8:30; Matthew 16:20; Luke 9:21). Interestingly, the Gospel of Matthew is more emphatic about Peter's future role as the "rock" of the Church of Christ: "And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven," (Matthew 16:18-19). In the Gospel of Matthew, the author is ultimately concerned with the establishment of a new and formal covenant with God. The seeds of Christianity have been planted in the soil…… [Read More]
Unless the author's typological approach is appreciated, the interpreter may wrongly assume that the author is making literal statements about the salvation-historical significance of Christ.
The fact that Hebrews was originally written in Greek does not provide any substantial or definitive help in the search for author or audience. During the time period in which Hebrews had to be composed, Christians in Rome spoke Greece. In fact, Hellenism had much of Western Europe and the modern-day Middle East familiar with Greek. This familiarity would have been even more likely among educated groups, and is highly unlikely that uneducated people would have had the ability to read or write. While there was some early suggestion that Hebrews was originally written in a language other than Greek, it seems highly unlikely that that was the case:
That the Letter to the Hebrews was originally written in Greek is suggested by the fact…… [Read More]
exegesis and demonstrate what is needed in order to do a proper exegesis of a passage of scripture. In doing so name at least three different methods of scriptural criticism and explain how they assist in the exegetical task.
In a strictly definitional sense, according to the American Heritage Dictionary, to conduct an "exegesis" merely means to embark upon a critical explanation or analysis of a text. (American Heritage Dictionary, exegesis, 2000) However, this neutral term contains, within its innocent sounding syllables, contains a long history of contentiousness, regarding scriptural interpretation. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "exegesis" within the context of scriptural criticism is the branch of theology that investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture. (Catholic Encyclopedia, "exegesis," 2001) The true sense is not merely understood, even by the devout, as a unified study, however.
To conduct an appropriate exegesis one must first understand the literal meaning…… [Read More]
Exegesis of Psalm 1:1-6
1 Blessed is the one
who does not walk in step with the wicked
or stand in the way that sinners take
or sit in the company of mockers,
2but whose delight is in the law of the Lord,
and who meditates on his law day and night.
3That person is like a tree planted by streams of water,
which yields its fruit in season
and whose leaf does not wither—
whatever they do prospers.
4Not so the wicked!
They are like chaff
that the wind blows away.
5Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment,
nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous.
6For the Lord watches over the way of the righteous,
but the way of the wicked leads to destruction. (NIV, 2018)
Cultural information of the book
The old testament of the Holy Bible holds some of the most inspiring and historically…… [Read More]
For the early Christians, the Holy Spirit was experienced as a real power in their lives
. The Holy Spirit empowered them to continue the work of Jesus. When a person received the Holy Spirit, they experienced a difference in their lives -- and others noticed it. That is still true today.Although all Christians receive the Holy Spirit through Baptism, God's Spirit works in many
ways in the world, in both Christians and non-Christians. Yet the experience of being 'baptised in the Spirit' is a time of entering a deeper spiritual dimension.Those who experience this deeper infilling, or new outpouring, of God's Spirit usually begin to discover new spiritual gifts
. The gift of prophesy or that of speaking tongues given to the reborn disciples imparts them with the ability to sense what God is saying to a group or an individual, and to pass on that message. This…… [Read More]
Book of Revelation is a unique portion of the New Testament. Unlike the other Books found in the latter part of the Bible, the Book of Revelation is not presented as a historical document or an instructional discussion, but is essentially a prophetic book, intended to deliver a glimpse of upcoming history that affects the happenings of the church. Also more mystery and disagreement surrounds the Book of Revelation than any other part of the New Testament. hy is this so? One reason why there is so much disharmony in the interpretations of the Book of Revelation is that there are different perspectives from which this apocalyptic book could be understood. The magnificence of revelation is apparent in its intersection of shared imagery, language and style. It is often beneficial to read revelation alongside the Old Testament. Bible scholars have found up to 500 references from the Old Testament in…… [Read More]
hat does this passage say about the relationship with God?
Robert Imperato observes that "Matthew connects Jesus repeatedly to Jewish prophecy throughout the text" (17). The point he emphasizes, however, is that the Jews had a special relationship to God, through the Mosaic covenant contained in the Old Testament.
Yet, Jesus makes it clear, according to Imperato, that He is giving "a new interpretation of the Law" (17). In fact, Jesus is fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies, identifying Himself as the Son of God, and the Messiah in whom the prophets must place their trust if they seek salvation.
Therefore, Christ sets out the guidelines for the new relationship with the Lord that all must have who do indeed wish to cry out, "Lord, Lord." The Lord, through Christ, is showing that the way to salvation is not through legalism, or through adherence only to the Old Law,…… [Read More]
An Exegesis of John 15:1-27
John 15:1-27 recounts Christ's last words to His disciples the night before His execution on Calvary. Beginning with His identification of Himself with the "true vine" and ending His exhortation that His disciples "bear witness," Christ both states clearly and explicitly what union with Him is like and what those who are in union with Him can expect from the world. This paper will give a line-by-line exegesis of John 15:1-27.
Leon Morris (1989) notes that "in the Old Testament the vine is often a symbol of Israel, sometimes of degenerate Israel" (p. 120). Thus, when John relates a scene in which Jesus says, "I am the true vine, and My Father is the Vinedresser. Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit, He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit, He prunes it so that it may bear more fruit"…… [Read More]
164-72). Though this dramatization is rather simple, it is still quite deeply meaningful and profound, according to Block; the depiction of Jerusalem that Ezekiel is commanded to draw on the tablet, his rigidly controlled dietary intake, and the lying in two directions signifying his lamentation are all effective means of making more visceral and more physical the siege of the city and the collapse of the Hebrew people due to, according to the prophecies, the evils of their ways and their abandonment of God (Block 1997, pp. 171-86). Though highly symbolic, Ezekiel's actions can also be interpreted as a series of direct and concrete reenactments of what occurred between God and his people.
While this direct interpretation is certainly possible, it is not the only means of understanding and interpreting Chapter 4 of the Book of Ezekiel. It has been noted that one of the rhetorical strategies that Ezekiel employs…… [Read More]
Exegesis of Psalm 91:1
Hayes and Holladay (2007) state that exegetical works are an exercise in "leading" readers of Scripture, in the sense that they act as interpretive signposts designed to assist readers in comprehending the Word of God (p. 1). This paper provides an exegetical analysis of Psalm 91:1-16 and discusses how the writer of the Psalm shows that God favors those who show complete faith in His ability to look after His faithful sons.
The Book of Psalms is a poetic collection of songs written by David, the shepherd boy who grew up to be a king, chosen by God to rule over His chosen people. The psalms are hymns expressing a range of thoughts, prayers, joys, pains, gladness and wonder. David's life was filled with such range -- from his slaying of Goliath, to his persecution by his family and friends, to his triumphant guidance…… [Read More]
The enemy at the gates comes because Israel is unprepared militarily, but also because it has forgotten that the land is a gift from God.
Deborah acts as a spur to the new men of Israel, to become willing warriors again and to defend older values. She is a mother of the new Israel, giving birth to a new era. Deborah's expression of her mission evolves as a poem of praise to the Lord, in which she uses both her own femininity and righteousness as a rallying point and call to arms. According to Deborah, the men of Israel have refused their obligation, not raising a shield of defense or a spear of attack when their city gates are threatened. But hope is still offered, as Deborah, as a mother of Israel, can give birth to the nation's full potential, provided that Israel's princes follow her heart. Interestingly, Deborah does…… [Read More]
Fighting fair, Tom still shines despite his aggression, particularly in light of Alfred's cowardly stone throwing when Tom's back is turned.
This first chapter in Tom's adventures is of cleverly constructed form; sharing all key elements needed to know in order to follow the story, identify with the protagonist, despise the multiple antagonists, and fondly recognize the doddering aunt as a 'straight man' to Tom's antics. The reader is immediately engaged in the story because Twain's style opens with dialog - known as a 'hook' in publishing parlance. The reader is instantly curious; why is this person named Tom being so vocally pursued? Who is doing the shouting? Why is this Tom character not responding?
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is a snapshot of reality with which all readers can identify; it is not necessary to live in the backwaters of Mississippi to recognize sincere affection and security, sneaky…… [Read More]
For comprehensively understanding the meaning of Jesus's message to this specific church, it is necessary to first know and comprehend the church, together with its culture. This book's writer is a messenger from the divine who has taken it upon himself to convey a serious message from Christ. Although the book is directly targeted at the First Century Laodicean church, the advices therein may be applied to Christians in all eras[footnoteRef:1]. The work's literary examination reveals that this church's moral nature apparently reflects its socioeconomic context. That all distinguishing aspects of the city contradict the church symbolizes failure, and not success. [1: Gary Cohen, Understanding Revelation]
The city of Laodicea was proud of its affluence among all 7 cities, and famous for its exquisite manufactured clothing of local black wool and a medical institute that made an eye-curing salve. Its affluence and pride may be seen from its…… [Read More]
Socio-Historical Background: Book Of Philemon
The epistle of Paul to Philemon has often been called a captivity epistle because it was written when Paul was imprisoned because of his Christian faith. The frequent references to the Church and to Philemon's house underline the fact that Paul likely intended this to be a public, instructive letter, not simply a private document conveying information (Witherington 54). Philemon is usually studied in conjunction with Philippians, Colossians, and Ephesians (Witherington 1). Although the authorship of Ephesians is in doubt, the majority of Biblical scholars believe that Paul is likely the author of Philemon.
Unlike the so-called Pastoral Epistles, Philemon can thus be viewed as relatively likely to be an account of Paul's own views. What we know of Paul is that he was originally a Pharisee, allegedly once persecuted Jesus (according to Acts, a less reliable account not by Paul himself) and that "Paul…… [Read More]
Gospel of Mark 1:29-39
The first chapter of Mark's Gospel places Christ in the city of Galilee, where he visits a synagogue and heals a man with an unclean spirit by casting the demons out of him with the power of his speech. Mark proceeds to narrate of Christ's healing of a sick woman, followed by the healing of many citizens of Galilee in 1:29-39. The message that this passage of Mark's Gospel conveys is that of Christ's power and willingness to heal, the universality of his love and generosity towards humankind.
The passage begins by describing the condition of Simon's mother-in-law. Her extreme illness is clearly documented within the passage as she is dependent upon her daughter's family to be cared for. Marie Sabin performs a curious analysis of the passage and notes the significance of the healings that Jesus performs in Mark,
It cannot be fortuitous that Mark,…… [Read More]
Exegesis of Luke 14:14-21
Luke 14:14-21 is situated within the larger context of the Messiah's time teaching the Pharisees and attempting to get them to understand why He would "eat with sinners" (Luke 15:2) and spend time in their company. It is connected to His overall Divine Mission, and MacArthur notes that this mission can be found in Scripture, where one sees the whole of the Will of God.[footnoteRef:1] The main idea of the Parable of the Great Dinner in Luke 14, however, is that the Pharisees are the original invitees -- they are of the chosen people; yet they do not wish to accept Christ's invitation. Their reason is rooted in pride, which is why Christ emphasizes the need for humility (Luke 14:11). [1: John MacArthur, How to Study the ible (IL: Moody), 62.]
This exegesis will show why those who reject Christ are like those invited to the…… [Read More]
An Exegesis of Daniel 9:24-27
Various approaches to Daniel 9:24-27 reveal a iblical prophecy that divides iblical scholars upon the matter of exact meaning. The most common understanding from the days of early Christianity to modern times has been that the text is one that prophecies the coming of Christ; but other interpretations, like the eschatological interpretation, view the prophecy as one that concerns the end times. This paper will show how a synthesis of the traditional interpretation and the eschatological interpretation provides what may be called a fuller, or perhaps more complete, view of Daniel 9:24-27.
As Francis Gigot notes, "linguistics, the context, and the ancient translations of Daniel are most of the time insufficient guides towards the sure restoration of the primitive reading"; however, exegetes are able to form a limited idea of a possible meaning to Daniel 9:24-27 by familiarizing themselves with the ook of…… [Read More]
Customization and Standardization: A View of Cloud and Grid Computing
Sequencing a genome, storing vast video libraries, or utilizing a non-essential application for occasional use are all functions performed within the realm of information technology. Meeting a particular task need was once the challenge of the end user or organization to ascertain their current and future use to guide their technology purchases. In the not so distant past, limitations of hardware or budget constrained the application of technology. Networking information technology proved one solution to sharing resources and boosting capabilities, while at the same time allowing for centralized governance models to facilitate access and protect privileged information.
As the capabilities of technology advance in computational power, storage, and connectivity, new uses emerge to enhance the capabilities of science, business, and individuals. Scalability, the matching of correct resources to a particular need in time, both up and down, has…… [Read More]
260). This cosmological discussion is one reason Origen is said to have "created, indeed embodied, the first model of a scientific theology;" his approach to the notion of metempsychosis, like nearly all of his theological work, is rooted in a steadfast determination to distinguish "between the dogmata of the church tradition and the problemata which were to be discussed" according to reason, logic, and a prototype of the scientific method (Kung 1994, pp. 48-49). As will be seen, Origen's focus on not-yet-determined points of Christianity would ultimately contribute to his condemnation as a heretic, because could be considered genuine, innocent investigation in the third century would rapidly become dangerous propaganda to the Church's ruling powers.
Origen's description of an ultimate, total reunification should not be taken to mean that he is arguing that the actions one takes within the temporal world is meaningless, since everything will ultimately be united once…… [Read More]
Therefore, we may conclude that the speaker has some cognitive function from the structure of the speech, even if it is based on a very basic set of language rules (Samarin 1972 120).
Three major linguistic traits emerged from other research into the subjec. Regardless of the geographic area, educational level, or age of the individual, glossolalia consists of:
Verbal behavior that has a certain number of consanants and vowels.
There seem to be a limited number of syllables that are reorganized into larger units.
These units are then rearranged using variations in pitch, volume, speed and intensity (e.g. A "word" group spoken with different inflections).
The "words" put together seem haphazard but emerge as word and sentence like because of the use of realistic timbre, rhythm, and melody (Samarin 1972).
Other research confims that glossolalia shows an oddly definitive syballant commonality with the particular spoken language of the speaker.…… [Read More]
defination of "elder" and "deacon," and the biblical requirements for each office. It then discusses whether a woman be an elder or a deacon. It concludes by outlining contributions women make to theology, leadership, and management in the local church.
The Role of omen in the Church
According to the New Testament, the elders are overseers who are charged with the responsibility of governing the church (New International Version, Acts.20.28). The Bible requires an elder to be one who is
"blameless, married to one wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, 3 not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money. 4 He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him, and he must do so in a manner worthy of full respect. 5 (If anyone does not know how to manage his own family, how can he…… [Read More]
Carl ogers was probably the most important psychologist and psychotherapist of the 20th Century apart from Sigmund Freud, and his humanistic, person-centered approach has been applied to many fields outside of psychology, such as education, business, nursing, medicine and social work. Many of the basic textbooks in all of these fields reflect his influence, including the concept of learner-centered education and the use of the term 'clients' instead of 'patients'. He wrote over 100 academic books and articles, the most famous one being On Becoming a Person (1961) which clearly describes his main ideas and is summarized below. Originally trained for the ministry and then in Freudian psychoanalysis, ogers gradually broke with this school of psychology as a result of his work with abused children and his study of phenomenology and existentialist psychology. Central to his theory was the development of a healthy self-concept that was open, expressive and spontaneous…… [Read More]
James 2: 8-11
Prior to examining the meaning of the text in James 2: 8-11, it is necessary for one to gain an astute understanding of the specific words employed within this passage. Doing so will add substantial value to an explication and exegesis of this passage. Additionally, a word analysis will indicate to the reader what some of the most important concepts in this passage are. Therefore, a word analysis will be conducted in order to further the overall comprehension of this particular text, both within the context of the book of James as well as within the Bible itself. Doing so proves that this passage functions as a warning.
In James 2: 8, the most important words are "royal law," and "Scripture." In James 2: 9, the best words to analyze include "favoritism," "sin," and "lawbreakers." In verse 10 of this passage the most important words are "stumbles,"…… [Read More]
The real question is not which party is right or wrong, but rather, what lessons can be learned and applied to modern man.
The Warnings in Genesis 7: 21-24
In these verses, we learn that God tried to warn his children, but on the day of the flood, they were still eating and drinking without abandon. They did not heed the final warning. This demonstrates that God was not set on his resolve to destroy humankind. He was acting the part of the father, giving his children one last time to change their ways. God gives his children many chances to repent. It is clear that he wishes them to repent, rather than to destroy them. First, he gives them 120 years, then a final week, and then on the day set for the flood to occur, he gives them one final chance. They can save themselves at any point…… [Read More]
William F. Albright
A Study of W.F. Albright and How iblical Archeology Helped Shape His
William Foxwell Albright was first and foremost a believer in the religion of Christianity, a fact that greatly influenced his role as a iblical archeologist, or "historian of religion," according to critical scholars like J. Edward Wright and David Noel Freedman.
Yet Albright himself never claimed to be anything more than dedicated to interpreting "the unfolding scroll of history," in which he saw the Revelation of Christianity -- the fulfillment of the prophets of the Old Testament.
Or, more appropriately, as Albright himself wrote in 1940, the purpose of his work was "to show how man's idea of God developed from prehistoric antiquity to the time of Christ, and to place this development in its historical context."
In other words, Albright sought to illustrate in a real, contextual way the truth of the Christian…… [Read More]
Bible esoteric and dated. Fee and Stuart in How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, however, show the applicability of the Bible and provide readers with the tools of applying the Bible to their contemporary lives. For them there is no "then and there" to the text, rather than "then and there" of the text can equitably be applied to the "here and now" of contemporaneous living. The authors in effect build two bridges; there is the bridge between Church and lay man and the bridge between Church and exegetical scholar. Whilst the exegetical scholar approaches the text from the past trying to see 'what it meant," the author tell us that the text is far more than that: it is applicable not only for the "then" but also for the "now" and, therefore, people should approach it with the intent of 'what does it mean" and "what…… [Read More]
He considers that one would be an ignorant if he were to declare himself a true Christian without being acquainted with parts of the Old Testament.
It would be wrong if someone were to interpret the Old Testament on the basis of the information in the New Testament. This would mean that the New Testament is the perfect interpretation of the Old Testament. However, the truth is that the more recent text is only one of the interpretations that people can make when relating to the Old Testament, thus meaning that the older document can be interpreted in a series of ways, each being different from the other. The New Testament is however one of the most accurate interpretations made by people with regard to the Old Testament.
Similar to how the information in the New Testament offers little to no occasions to be fought, right's book contains numerous solid…… [Read More]
Bible in the Life of the Church Today
Today, the Holy Bible remains the mainstay of Christian churches around the world, but there remains a debate over its precise role in the life of the church. To help determine the facts in this debate, this paper reviews a series of selected essays surrounding the nature of the Bible and its use in the modern Christian church. This review includes a synopsis and description of the structure of each article, the main points of interest and an analysis concerning the extent to which the authors succeeded in conveying these main points. Finally, a description of the author's methodology and an assessment concerning the validity of each author's arguments is followed by an evaluation of their effectiveness in communicating their main themes and a summary of the research and important findings regarding the main themes addressed in these articles are provided in…… [Read More]
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]
" The gatekeepers are thus attempting to protect the fortress by expressing to those who attempt to tear at it that He who dwells inside will have none of it.)
The purpose of this action, as the next verse tells us, is to bring down a "person of prominence." Prominence is thus granted to that individual from without, through his trust in God. ut the word "prominence" is also etymologically linked with "highness, height," which is why translations of this verse refer to the person as being in a "high place." Perhaps that high place that the person belongs to, that gives them prominence, is the fortress of the second verse - the fortress whose walls the perpetrators are attempting to knock down.
Verse four ends with the following characterization of the perpetrators:
They take pleasure in falsehood; they bless with their mouths, but inwardly they curse.
This calls to…… [Read More]
In his exegesis, Cullman associates what he deems an "exact" parallel between Matthew 16:17-19 and Luke 22:31-34.
He finds that this is evidenced by Peter's solemn vow that he will go with Jesus to prison and onto death, the prediction of Peter's betrayal, and Jesus' command to Peter to encourage conversion.
Opposing debate comes from Robert undry, who contests that parallel is neither direct nor intended.
undry makes this point by saying that while Luke is blessed by od, he is not done so by the divine act of blind devotion that encapsulated the Matthew account of Simon Peter.
Additionally, if not more importantly, Luke warns of the coming three-fold betrayal of Christ by Peter, while Matthew only speaks of his blessing.
"The major objection by Cullman against Matthew's narrative framework fails to recognize that Jesus' congratulatory words refer to the bare confession of Jesus' messiahship -- apart from misconceptions,…… [Read More]
Nancy Jean Vyhmeister and Terry Robertson
Quality Research Papers, 3rd Edition, provides updates to the 2nd Edition book on how to perform research in religious and theological studies. The aims of the book are four-fold: first, to promote and develop the ability of students to perform research work; second, to teach students how to better express themselves in their research writing; third, to help students achieve their academic goals; and fourth, to act as an overall how-to with detailed descriptions of step-by-step procedures in performing research.
The book is divided into three sections, not including the introductory section which defines research. The first main section is on the different kinds of theological education research, from exegeses to doctoral dissertations. The second section deals with the process of carrying out research, from critical thinking and choosing a topic to using the Internet and organizing the different parts of the research paper.…… [Read More]
Though the figure and invocation of God is of course central to the power and purpose of Ezekiel's prophecies against the foreign nations, and indeed in all of his prophecies as a whole, there is also necessarily a great deal of personal power in the voice and words of the prophet. Without this, his exhortations and condemnations would not be heard or heeded. This leads to a third possibility for the essential purpose of his prophecies against the foreign nations -- that of strengthening his position within the community of exiled Israelites.
Despite the commonality of oracles and prophecies condemning and predicting the downfall of foreign nations in the prophets of the Old Testament, it is highly unlikely that these words ever reached the leaders or the people of these foreign nations, or that the prophets or writers of these texts ever intended them to (Tuell 2009, pp.…… [Read More]
This point-of-view makes sense. Stuart and Fee have already suggested that the point of iblical interpretation is not to look for a novel or unique interpretation, but to really try to understand the point of the passages being studied. Therefore, their idea that people should feel free to consult commentaries, so that they can understand how other people have interpreted the texts, is a good one. Moreover, they suggest that people own multiple commentaries, with their ownership of each commentary geared toward the specific books being studied. Again, this is an excellent suggestion. Much like reading multiple versions of the ible, reading multiple commentaries on specific books is likely to stimulate intelligent analysis of the books in question.
Stuart and Fee do a very good job of helping guide people on how one should approach the ible. In fact, their book would be helpful for novices as well…… [Read More]
In Chapter 2, verses 1-11, of St. Paul's letter to the Philippians, the Apostle exhorts his followers to be faithful to Christ. Christ is, as always, the point of the Pauline letters -- and arriving at Christ, whether through exhortation, logic, works, or affection and charity, is the sole aim. Paul points the finger in all matters to the divine Son of God, thanks Him for all things, and for Him suffers all things. What makes the letter to the Philippians especially meaningful is the robust affection that these disciples maintain for their teacher, Paul. As Joseph Frey tells us, "The church at Philippi was St. Paul's first foundation on European soil…The occasion of [the letter's] composition can be gathered from the Epistle. Learning that St. Paul had been cast into prison, the church at Philippi, in order to assist him, sent Epaphroditus with a sum of money…… [Read More]
With St. Paul, Luke traveled to several different destinations including Samothrace and Philippi -- where he appears to have lingered to guide the Church. The duo then reunite in Troas and Luke is with St. Paul during the latter's stay in a oman jail. As Paul says: "Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:11).
Exactly what Luke did with Paul during this time is debated: "St. Jerome thinks it is most likely that St. Luke is 'the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches' (2 Corinthians 8:18), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth" (Knight, 2011).
Luke also brings special awareness to the importance of mercy and forgiveness, with the parable of the Prodigal Son and the tale of the woman whose sins were forgiven because she bathed Christ's feet in her tears.
But this special awareness is also…… [Read More]
DaSilva's analysis of the figure of Jesus in these tales illustrates the historical context and exegetical differences of these books, and his interpretation also implies that the fullest vision of contemporary Christianity is one that embraces all versions of Christ across all four gospel narratives. For example, an individual seeking Biblical counseling may first find psychological respite in the image of Mark of the suffering Christ, crying out in despair upon the Cross. Next, there is an attempt, as in Matthew, to tie an individual's mission, suffering, and life to a larger familial and national tradition of hope, of fulfillment, faith, and redemption, through talking and emotional healing. Then, through discussing the Jesus as presented in Luke, the heart in a less intellectual and verbal fashion is opened up, to a mission of forgiveness and hope and return to the Father anew. And finally, a greater understanding of the self…… [Read More]
Scholars such as Gerhard Ruhbach argue that Eusebius was not even a political theologian as some have argued. Instead they assert that "Eusebius had no interest in politics for its own sake; his orientation to political developments was exclusively theological and ecclesiastical. Ruhbach found that Eusebius's attitude toward God's involvement in history was fundamentally shaped by the Bible, in particular, the Old Testament (Hollerich, 1990)."
This discussion has carefully discussed the accuracy of Eusebius's account of Church history. This review has revealed that Eusebius was a scholar who had a deep affection for the church. e found that although his writings are often believed to be disjointed and incoherent, his account can be received as accurate. e can also conclude that Eusebius was merely a man sharing his view of church history based on the Old Testament and his experiences. The accuracy of his account is no more problematic…… [Read More]
Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation
Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.
Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…… [Read More]
The debate over hell is a complex one, not so different than the multi-layered aspects of the matters of the Charismatic Gifts, Christology, Providence or the fate of the non-evangelized, etc. There are different views and facets to the issue, however, what is all the fuss surrounding the concept of Hell? Is it just the possibility of such a place that makes people so uneasy? Are people afraid of ending up in hell or just confused regarding the concept? This paper will focus on a broad and accurate understanding of Hell and its image. Following are the lines of thought the paper will be pursuing while analyzing the concept of hell:
The background of Hell; a look into the history of the concept.
Words and phrases used to describe Hell's reality or as a punishment.
An analysis of the two segregated viewpoints that dictate Protestant Evangelicalism.
Final conclusions…… [Read More]
Kaiser's Toward An Exegetical Theology And Goldsworthy's Preaching The Whole ible As Christian Scripture
oth Walter Kaiser and Graeme Goldsworthy take very different approaches to the ible in their respective works Toward an Exegetical Theology and Preaching the Whole ible as Christian Scripture. The former examines Scripture using more of a syntactical-theological method, providing a framework for everything from contextual analysis to syntactical, verbal, theological, and homiletical analysis. Kaiser also covers the use of prophecy, narrative and poetry in expository preaching. His approach, in short, is more academic than that of Goldsworthy's, who comes at the subject of Scripture from the perspective of the evangelical preacher, and thus delivers a more practical approach. For this reason Preaching the Whole ible as Christian Scripture consists of two basic parts: the first, which addresses essential questions regarding preaching and Scripture; and the second, which addresses practical issues related to applying biblical theology…… [Read More]
The process of studying Scripture usually requires and involves more than reading surface text because an individual has to conduct an in-depth study. An in-depth study of text is a necessary process towards understanding the meaning of a passage from Scripture and grasping it fully. In essence, for an individual to gain a rich understanding of the meaning of a passage from a Scripture from different perspectives, it is important to conduct an in-depth study rather than just surface reading of the text. One of the most important aspects of gaining understanding of the meaning of a text is identifying who or what determines the meaning of that passage from the Bible. There are several exegetical methodologies and methods for Biblical interpretation that help in in-depth study of Scripture in order to know its meaning.
There are different methods of Biblical interpretation that are utilized to help…… [Read More]
This is celebrated after seven consecutive sabbatical years. In short, the author holds that, when unspecified or highly symbolic periods of time are at issue in the Bible, these are mostly to be interpreted as years, especially if the context appears to indicate the validity of such a view.
The author JM Gurney
also appears to favor this view over the alternative Christological one, where the final week occurs during the end of Christ's life. Gurney's main problem with the this interpretation is indeed not so much that it is literal as that it requires an interpretation of the years in question as comprising 360 days each. Only such years would among to the 32 AD requirement for the Christological view that interprets the final week as occurring during Christ's life on earth. And this is then the view upon which Gurney and other critics base their views.
The author…… [Read More]