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Instead of passively accepting the circumstances of others and surrendering control, an existential therapist might focus on the question, "Although you have lived with certain patterns thus far in your life, now that you recognize the consequences of some of those patterns, are you willing to discuss creating new ways of dealing with life's situations?"(Ibid).
On the positive side, existential therapy offers a relatively easy introduction to psychotherapy for most counselors. It stresses self-determination, the acceptance of personally responsibility, and provides perspective for understanding the role and value of anxiety and guilt. It is positive and proactive in that it encourages the individual to embrace life's journeys -- birth, evolution, death -- and to become comfortable making personal decisions based on their needs, without "needing" others (Schneider, 2007).
Conversely, existential therapy lacks a complete statement of principles and practices that can be delineated within the profession. Often, practitioners, because of…… [Read More]
This does not mean that there are no general principles or guidelines established for care, however, and I intend to compensate for the lack of a codified structure in existential therapy by reading extensively on techniques and methodologies both for existential therapy and other psychological therapies. By maintaining a wide arsenal of theories and techniques, I will always be ready to adapt my method of care for an individual patient, and will be constantly opening myself to new ideas and avenues by which to pursue therapy. This ability to readily adapt should make up for the shortcomings of not having an established system of procedures and recommendations to follow.
Every branch of psychological theory has some insight to offer on the workings of human minds and emotions. For me, existentialist theory offers the best approach to treating patients professionally. The underpinnings of the theory align most closely with my personal…… [Read More]
My personal reflections on these existential givens will impact my practice as an existential counselor. Although the influence of my personal views is significant to me, they will not inhibit the progress made by a client. Sharing a sense of commonality with the client, including the questioning of life's significance, will better assist with having insights into their feelings (Geller 2003).
The aim of existential psychotherapy is to reflect upon and understand life as each person experiences it in order to overcome problematic circumstances to achieve resolution (Deurzen & Kenward 2005). Existential therapy considers the views of the person in relation with fundamental and difficult factors of existence. By focusing on the client's struggle with human existence and acceptance of the confines of the human condition, it empowers the individual to better reflect on their situation, cope with their dilemma, face their circumstances, and think for themselves (Deurzen 1997, pp.…… [Read More]
C. Philosophical aspects of existentialism as applied to psychology and therapy.
D. Kierkegaard and German existentialism.
E. Sartre and French existentialism.
F. Religious aspects of existentialism.
G. Humanistic aspects of existentialism.
II. Tenets of Christian therapy
A. Historical origins of Christian therapy.
B. Relationship of Christian therapy to Jungian therapy.
C. Function of Christian therapy.
1. Reconciliation of Christian beliefs and daily stressors
2. Reconciliation of Christian advocacy of selflessness and modern capitalist society
D. Goals of Christian therapy.
III. Intersection of existential psychology and modern Christian thought.
A. Exploration of ways in which Christian thought and humanistic discourses intersect
B. Exploration of the ways in which the practice of Christian therapy and humanistically-based modes of therapy intersect.
C. Expectations of Christian clients.
1. Will Christian clients feel that they are being appropriately served by existential psychology given its roots in humanistic and philosophical traditions rather than in Christian doctrine?…… [Read More]
Existential Counseling Case Study
The given case is an adequate account of a life of an individual in an unlikely situation. The case speaks about a thirty eight years old woman Michelle. Life and the given history of Michelle form an impression that she is in a stable situation and has enjoyed a highly satisfying career path. Unlike many other she has a successful married life with her partner Dave and has enjoyed life at its most. The most primitive adjectives that bombards the mind once we consider a successful individual in the western setting are the; professional stability and the emotional stability. It has been for this reason that the case draws the ideology that Michelle is a stable and a successful person in life. Yet the very factor that determines the stability of emotions and thoughts in an individual are the aggregate sum of the normal behaviors exhibited…… [Read More]
Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).
Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural…… [Read More]
There are more similarities than differences between Gestalt and Existential theories and both are based on the self. The client knows himself better than anybody else in the world. Therefore, one should start to understand the client's needs and personality along with the careful definitions of these two approaches. Gestalt Therapy takes a holistic approach to human experience by stressing individual responsibility and awareness of present psychological and physical needs (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/232116/Gestalt-therapy). The term of holistic approach should be the center of the therapy. In this approach the client needs to be evaluated analyzing his physical image, his mind, his emotions, and his environment. Although, existential approach is also concentrated on clients' needs, it can be summarized in the components of the life; death, freedom, and meaningless (http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm). Death would be explained by human's limits against the nature or life whereas freedom refers the responsibilities and boundaries. Meaningless is…… [Read More]
he class text makes mention in one of its chapters about existential psychotherapy. his treatment style seems to be yet another tool in the proverbial toolbox that psychiatrists and therapists can use or advocate along the same lines as cognitive behavioral therapy, EDMR and so forth. he author of this report will review how it came to be, what it is comprised of and how/why it may work for many or at least some people. he author will also offer thoughts and feelings about how promising and relevant this topic seems to be. While some therapeutic techniques are more widely known and/or ostensibly effective than others, it is also true that any method that garners good results for even a subset of patients is worth exploring or leaving aside as an option should the need arise.
As was made clear by the text, the people behind…… [Read More]
ahman's session with Daniel was fascinating for me to read. Because my own goal in pursuing this degree is to work as a life coach, the fact that Daniel is approaching therapy not because of serious behavioral disturbances but because he is interested in exploring and thinking about the direction his life is taking made him seem precisely relevant to the sort of work I hope to do. His presenting symptom admittedly appears to be anxiety, but it seems like a sort of anxiety we have all experienced, and Daniel's problems sound like ordinary problems. In some sense, the mystery is why someone in Daniel's position wants to seek therapy in the first place. ahman lists his goals as "to be more altruistic, to be open to inspiration, and to be more organized and peaceful." These are all admirable goals in therapy, but I do think it's worth…… [Read More]
Crisis Counseling and Therapy
The precipitating events that are brought forward in the movie "Girl Interrupted" are the attempted suicide of a young girl on nineteen years. It concerned her parents that she failed to go forward and receive her high school diploma in a prestigious northeastern community. They also got to find out that their daughter was involved with an affair with one of their friend's husband. This involved the granting of sexual favors. She is depressed and also lacks a direction in life even after finishing her high school education in fact she does not want to go to college but instead wants to become a writer. She makes an attempt to get rid of her delusions and does this through the taking of vodka in combination with aspirin even though she denies and fails to consider her actions as being a suicide attempt rather she saw it…… [Read More]
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…… [Read More]
For example, Jones and Charlton note that it is possible to develop appropriate problem-solving techniques in the following four major areas:
1. Identifying the goal which is appropriate and achievable;
2. Identifying exceptions to the usual pattern of problems;
3. Measuring the student's progress towards achieving the goal; and,
4. Providing useful and positive feedback.
Finally, SFBT can be used either as a "stand-alone" counseling approach or in tandem with other techniques. For example, Linton (2005) emphasizes that SFBT ". . . can operate as a stand alone approach or in conjunction with traditional models of treatment. Solution-focused mental health counselors do not view SFBT and traditional models of treatment as incompatible. Collaborating with clients to create counseling goals, be they directed towards abstinence, self-help group attendance, changes in thinking errors, or some other goal of the client's choosing, selves to enhance motivation to change" (p. 298). Likewise, Jones and…… [Read More]
1. The term “depth psychology” is appropriate for referring to psychoanalysis, but not for all types of psychotherapy. Any psychotherapy that involves in-depth self-assessments through the exploration of unconscious or subconscious urges, dreams, or childhood memories can be considered depth psychology. As the term suggests, depth psychology presumes that psychological issues have deep roots, requiring a process of systematic digging. Self-awareness is only possible through an understanding of all psychic content that has been and still is being repressed or suppressed (Axelrod, 2012). Depth psychology is therefore important for persons who experienced childhood traumas, or people seeking to understand the causes of their lingering anxiety or depression. Other therapeutic models like cognitive-behavioral therapy or positive psychology do not focus on the subconscious or unconscious but mainly on manifest behaviors.
According to Firestone (2009), depth psychology has its detractors because of the long periods of time required to complete the therapeutic…… [Read More]
Both Existential and Transpersonal psychologies have this in common, a respect for and utilization of Eastern techniques to reach a state of stress-free maintenance of human psychological health.
But the differences lie in their origins. While Transpersonal psychologies are related to the Eastern or Western indigenous epistemologies, Existential-Humanistic psychologies have a Freudian origin, coming through Freud and his descendents. While Transpersonal psychology is considered to be a "fourth force" in psychology, psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanistic psychologies are outside of the "transegoic" elements, ignoring insights from the world's contemplative traditions in both Eastern and Western religions. Labeled "Western," Existential and Humanistic psychologies are focused mainly on prepersonal and personal aspects of the psyche.
Existential and humanistic psychologies are based on the writings not only of Freud, but Kierkegaard, Nietzche, Heidigger, Sartre, Camus and other European intellectuals who had experienced European wars and chaos during the twentieth century. Important to them were…… [Read More]
The therapist, who withholds judgment and criticism, ceases to be perceived in the mind of the prisoner like an adjunct of the guard or police, but as a facilitator of positive changes in the lives of the prisoners (p. 102).
Correctional practitioners often speak of "getting back to basics." eality Therapy and Choice Theory, which is an excellent tool for either classroom or self-study, is about just that. In the mid-1970s as a young juvenile correctional officer, I was trained in reality therapy as it was the cornerstone of treatment at the New Mexico Girls School. Since that time, many new approaches have been implemented, but if one closely examines all the "innovative juvenile treatment approaches," reality therapy is a basic component of each, and to this day, is the cornerstone of the most effective methods of working with youths. This process teaches youths to stop placing blame on others…… [Read More]
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…… [Read More]
From the basis of psychoanalysis and existential therapy, I will then listen for any problems relating to attitudes that can be driven by repressed emotions. I will use dialogue in order to gain an understanding of how the clients see their problems, and what they think is needed to help.
In the dialogue session, I will provide the client with my own insight on how I believe the best progress will be made in future therapy, and also on how long I estimate such therapy to take. I will however emphasize that I will not terminate therapy if the clients feel in any way that they will not benefit from such termination. Dialogue and collaboration means that I should be able to modify my approach according to input from my clients. If a client for example disagrees with an approach I am using, we will discuss various options of changing…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]
He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest and raise his level of energy along with it. y developing a genuine human relationship with the patient, the therapist or doctor can re-establish the basic form of social interest, which the patient can use in transferring it to others. oth therapist and patient must realize that the latter's ultimate cure can come only from him.
Adler's approach has similarities with that of Socrates (Stein 1991). Socrates exhorted others to "know thyself," while Adler urged that people should think for themselves (Meyer 1980 as qtd in Stein 1991). Like Socrates, he would lead the person or patient through a series of questions to a contradiction within himself as revealed by his own answers. oth philosophers were committed to the search for…… [Read More]
Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).
The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."
Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.
Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or…… [Read More]
The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.
The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…… [Read More]
Counseling Theory: Postmodern Approaches
Counseling orientation has experienced paradigm shifts over the decades from traditional pioneering theories such as cognitive theory, psychoanalysis, and humanism to the postmodernist theory. The rationale for the progression to postmodernism has been the evolving notion of a multiplicity of reality, a shift from modernist empiricism to constructivism (Shurts, 2015). The traditional counseling theorist considered counseling as a true mapping of the psychic phenomena depicting an accurate depiction of human psychological processes (Hansen, 2015). Contrasting with the modernistic approach that assumes a knowable reality, postmodernism assumes that observers create realities. Hansen (2015) notes postmodernism is grounded on the premise of anti-essentialism where observers always infuse phenomena with meaning as opposed to the true knowledge of phenomena being revealed by through objective observation. Postmodern therapy is anchored on the principle of collaborative and consultative stance between the patient and therapist as opposed to the unidirectional and authoritative…… [Read More]
The knowledge that if he were caught would 'release' him from the prison of middle-class respectability he inhabits is not just a Freudian notion but also symptomatic of an existential longing for meaning.
What signs of empathy did you see? Give at least 5 explicit examples.
Pat is a professional, trained therapist and part of her training includes the ability to show empathy or understanding of James' perspective. When James announces he is a thief she is not shocked: rather, she allows James to elaborate upon what he means. Pat is also tolerant rather than horrified by James' sexual fantasizing, given that she knows that transference and counter-transference is part of the therapeutic process. She also admits that she finds James attractive to herself.
Pat understands James' need to be trusted and the fact that he sometimes 'tests' her, such as when he does not have the money to pay…… [Read More]
, 2006). Soliciting client's self-report may be another helpful practice (Landry et al., 2009).
To deal with both attrition and ethnicity factors in conjunction with an adolescent or school-aged client, the counselor may be well advised to consider the fact that the client may better benefit from a school counselor's intervention rather than from her own. Studies (for instance Cummings, 2009) have shown that "schools may be the best setting in which to provide mental health services if the objective is to reduce the unmet need for mental health care among adolescents living in disadvantaged and/or ethnically diverse communities." (Cummings, 2009, 1).
At times, the counselor may have to deal with trauma-related matters. Since trauma may traverse several generations and is comprised of complex issues, Goodman and West-Olatuni (2008) recommend a transgenerational trauma recognition and assessment approach as well as historical and contextual knowledge of the trauma.
Of particular interest…… [Read More]
" (1) Fearing its potential competition with Biblical modalities of understanding, some Christian patients may initially fear, even consciously avoid the modern practice of psychotherapy, seeing it as a mere scientific reductionism of the uniqueness of the human animal. Or, conversely, some may uncritically embrace counseling it as a better way of understanding the mind than the biology of the natural sciences, especially approaches as person-centered theory and transactional analysis.
However, the authors advocate a more critical, theologically informed appropriation of psychotherapy in relation to faith, suggesting therapy's compatibility with orthodox Christianity through the conscious and flexible integration of psychology and theology, and present the author's justification of what they call responsible eclecticism, endeavoring as they do to understand psychology on its original terms, and then to examine how such precepts relate to Biblical narratives and moral behavior.
One of the most important challenges or concepts offered by this book's…… [Read More]
Keller and Helton (2010) explore the "application of a strengths-based empowerment approach in the delivery of counseling. A case study is the research design chosen for this exploratory research.
The research question examined in this work is: How can specific counseling theories be utilized in accordance with specific Appalachian cultural values for client assessment and empowerment? The case study was conducted involving a 28-year-old female. The woman was divorced and at the time was living with her two sons on the west side of Cleveland. The researchers examined the life of the case through observation and in-depth interviews. The data were subsequently analyzed using a strengths-based empowerment framework. The strength-based empowerment framework allowed the researchers to examine existing theoretical frameworks such as feminism, existential therapy and solution focused therapy in addition to others.
The case study demonstrated that strength-based counseling approaches could be used successfully with clients from the Appalachian…… [Read More]
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…… [Read More]
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…… [Read More]
CBT integrates theory, i.e. The tenets of psychotherapy, with practical, behavior modification exercises. This, in turn, creates real tangible results. As Cooper writes, "If, on the one hand, you look at the particular therapies that have been shown to be effective for particular psychological problems -- as advocates of empirically supported treatments have done -- there is no question that the evidence base is strongest for CBT. hile, for instance, there are scores of high quality controlled trials demonstrating the effectiveness of CBT for depression17, there are just a handful of studies demonstrating the same thing for person-centred therapy. And while CBT has been shown to be effective for numerous psychological difficulties -- such as phobias, panic, PTSD, bulimia, sexual problems and deliberate self-harm -- there is little equivalent evidence for the vast array of non-CBT practices18 (2008).
CBT is an approach that has been empirically proven to be successful…… [Read More]
self-therapy in the context of what needs to be done to elevate the healing process in life. The therapy that is often used to treat is that which people rely on to practice self-treatment. In this paper, Art Bohart's talk on self-healing is will be used to manifest what is best-used means of conducting self-therapy. In this paper, the general supportive treatment of stress and other psychological ailments will be covered. The aim is to reach out to the diverse sections of the therapy and how it may be of use to the people. The paper also discusses the relevance of this program in the treatment of emotional challenges that people face. Finally, the paper will discuss whether the lessons learned from Art Bohart's talk can be integrated into real life. The focus extends to include the texistential-humanistic therapeutic interventions and the benefits associated with their use on patients.
Part…… [Read More]
psychology, theories of personality abound. Two of the most significant theories of personality include psychodynamic and humanistic/existential theories. Although these two theories share some features in common, they are based on widely different assumptions about human nature and human behavior. Each describes the way personality impacts human behavior under certain situations. However, psychodynamic theory presumes that human personality is static and less likely to change. Humanistic and existential theories are built on the assumption that human personality is dynamic. The differences between psychodynamic and humanistic theories of personality also have an impact on their approaches to treatment interventions and therapy.
Psychodynamic theories of personality are based on the theories of Sigmund Freud, who believed that human personality is determined by subconscious factors and the person's psycho-sexual nature. The personality is divided into three main and immutable components according to the psychodynamic worldview. Those three components include the id, ego, and…… [Read More]
Behaviorism focuses almost exclusively on the outward manifestations of mental illnesses. Underlying emotions, childhood memories, and dreams are trivialized in order to focus on bad habits or dysfunctional behaviors. Behavioral therapy employs methods based on classical and operant conditioning including systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning. Talking therapy is not an integral part of behavioral interventions.
Cognitive therapies may, however, combine both talking therapy with behavioral techniques. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a specific subset of cognitive psychology and includes interventions like rational-emotive therapy. The methods used by cognitive-behavioral therapists encourage the client to address and change faulty thoughts, irrational beliefs, and other underlying cognitions. The ultimate goal is to change behavior as well. Cognitive psychologists may focus more exclusively on altering negative thought patterns such as guilt and self-hatred. The therapeutic intervention acknowledges the role that childhood upbringing and repressed anxiety plays in the creation of mental illness. However, cognitive psychologists are…… [Read More]
Frankl proposes that "he who can cling to no end point, to no time in the future, to no point of support, is in danger of allowing himself to collapse inwardly." 
However that point might alter as the person grows. It happens and should happen in the process of living because no one can cling to just one meaning all his life. Meaning when realized alters and take on another shape and that forms the crux of Logotherapy. The role of the therapist in this regard is only to facilitate the process. he/she cannot give a person meaning to a life that is lived by the patient. The therapist must help resolve any past issues which are retarding the personal growth of the individual. He should try to untie the spiritual or philosophical 'knots' that have developed to help the patient become healthier.
What is needed here is to…… [Read More]
theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.
In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating…… [Read More]
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…… [Read More]
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…… [Read More]
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…… [Read More]
Ludwig Wittgenstein is particularly interesting because in Philosophical Investigations (PI) he repudiated all of his earlier work in logical positivism and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP), along with much of what was traditionally thought of as philosophy, and took a radically new track in the last twenty years of his life. Young Wittgenstein was more certain that he had solved all major philosophical problems, while the older Wittgenstein had completely lost all such certainties. There were even hints in his earlier work of this later, more explicit existential despair, pessimism and even cynicism about the limits of philosophy, which certainly became more profound over the years. He was no longer able to view the world as consisting of facts that were logical representations of objects that really existed or at least had the potential to exist. Thoughts and ideas formed pictures that were models of reality, while everything outside of…… [Read More]
bio-psychosocial model to assess a 70-year-old adult (referred as Mr. X) suffering from mental retardation and makes appropriate recommendations regarding a treatment plan. However, before we make a medical diagnosis of Mr. X, it is important that we briefly review the "mental retardation" ailment. "Mental retardation is not something you have, like blue eyes, or a bad heart. Nor is it something you are, like short, or thin. It is not a medical disorder, nor a mental disorder. Mental retardation is a particular state of functioning that begins in childhood and is characterized by limitation in both intelligence and adaptive skills. Mental retardation reflects the "fit" between the capabilities of individuals and the structure and expectations of their environment." Taken from (http://www.aamr.org/Policies/faq_mental_retardation.shtml).
Mental retardation ailment of Mr. X has had two fundamental and noteworthy impacts. The first is the intellectual performance that is considerably below normal standard and…… [Read More]
For mental health professionals, working with patients can be challenging. This is because they will have issues that could be directly associated with their condition. In the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, it is discussing these problems. To fully understand how this relates to crisis theory and intervention requires comparing different scenes from the film that are relevant. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the precipitating event, identifying the type of crisis, examining the material / personal / social resources available, studying the different perspectives, looking at how it was handled by the protagonist, suggesting coping skills, discussing referral sources that are available and biblical perspectives. Together, these elements will provide specific insights as to the way it is illustrating crisis theory and intervention challenges.
Identify precipitating events
The main event is when andal Patrick McMurphy is sent to a mental hospital from the state prison.…… [Read More]
life is an issue that has been plaguing thoughtful people since the first Cro-magnons evolved into modern homo sapiens with the power to think rationally and creatively, and most importantly, self-consciously. Aside from humorous attempts to explain the meaning of life such as Monty Python's movie The Meaning of Life, the question is a serious one. It cuts to the core of every human life, causing the individual to question his or her purpose and mode of living. Many people look to religious guidance as a means of discovering meaning in life, and religion remains the most effective way of providing people with a roadmap. Even if the absolute meaning of life is not revealed, we can at least learn to accept that God has a plan and that plan is inherently meaningful. Philosophers, however, have debated the efficacy of religion's ability to provide life with meaning. Existentialism is the…… [Read More]
Framwork for Practise and Presentation
Sociology -- Social Work
There are several factors that contribute to seeming intractability and complexity of social issues. We cannot retrieve an actual picture of any problem considering a single issue. The root causes of social issues are related to individual circumstances and some are beyond the individual control. Central goal of social work profession is the social justice. Social workers can better serve all the needs of the service users if they will have the tools that are required to analyze the existing social policies and problems. This term paper is based on the ideology and the theories embraced by social workers; also their practice strategies and inclusiveness of cultural diversity is discussed in detail.
FINAL PAPE -- FAMWOK FO PACTISE AND PESENTATION
We find several social issues in our surroundings. Every social issue does not depend on a single cause rather there are…… [Read More]
However, after several internal conflicts with the Wisconsin psychology department, Rogers became disillusioned with academia and left the field.
In 1964, after being selected "Humanist of the Year" by the American Humanist Association, Rogers moved to La Jolla, California where he joined the Western ehavioral Sciences Institute as a researcher. In 1968 Rogers went on to found the Center for Studies of the Person. Rogers devoted the later part of his life to applying his theories in the areas of international and national social conflict, focusing on the Northern Ireland and South African conflicts. Along with his daughter, Rogers also conducted a series of residential programs on the Person-Centered Approach throughout the United States, Europe, and Japan. These workshops focused on such things as cross-cultural communications, personal growth, self-empowerment and social change.
Carl Rogers' primary contribution to society was his development of the person-centered approach to psychotherapy. Rogers and his…… [Read More]
My reasons for seeking a counseling degree are that I grew up with a desire to help others. I have myself been counseled, as a child, by therapists whom, I noted, attempted to streamline me according to particularistic beliefs. Wondering whether it were possible for psychotherapy to be objective, I read a lot on the subject and observed people who were therapists. At the time I naively thought counselors to be wonderful, and considered them almost as though they were God's second-in-command. I was later to read that psychotherapists do project that image, which is partially what renders the profession of psychotherapy to be somewhat controversial (e.g., Dawes,1994).
Gradually it dawned on me that these people were playing with people's lives: That I and presumably many other individuals are either compelled to 'visit' these deities of fate, or they 'visit' them out of their own volition. It was…… [Read More]
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…… [Read More]
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…… [Read More]
It was argued by Epicurus that the souls and body could only interact if the souls are material.
Amicus, C. Ante Oculos - Epicurus and the Evidence-Based Life. Cassius Amicus, 2010.
Amicus, C. Lion of Epicurus - Lucian and His Epicurean Passages. Cassius Amicus, 2010.
Amicus, C. A Life Worthy of the Gods - the Life and Work of Epicurus. Cassius Amicus, 2011.
Amicus, C. The octrines of Epicurus -- Annotated. Cassius Amicus, 2011.
Benatar, . Life, eath, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.
Fish, J., and Sanders, K.R. Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Greer, H.T., and Lewis, G. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004.
Hindson, E., and Caner, E. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the…… [Read More]
The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).
The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.
Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…… [Read More]
If Freud, in his Psychoanalysis Theory, believes that each person - from infancy - represses impulses or desires, which its parents reject - and shuts these unwanted impulses out into the unconscious. These are what he calls repressed thoughts. He suggests that, since this process happens throughout life, that infant grows into adulthood, doing things out of the command of those repressed impulses and desires in the unconscious mind. He concludes that the only way a person with overwhelming repressed material can be cured is for an expert therapist to access his unconscious and bring these repressed material to his conscious awareness. And because it is not conscious, and therefore not within the conscious control of the person, he cannot be responsible for what he does from the irresistible command of his unconscious. This makes Freud a determinist in that he believes that human nature, rather than reason, determines…… [Read More]
Five Forces & Value Chain
NxStage is a medical equipment manufacturer specializing in hemodialysis products for use in the home. Their main flagship, NxStage SystemOne, constitute two-thirds of the company's revenues. The product has been on the market for several years, but NxStage has never been able to turn a profit, nor has it been able to develop a viable second major product. This has created a strategic dilemma for the company as to how best to enhance shareholder value going forward.
The external environment is generally challenging, especially in light of regulatory changes that aim to drive down the cost of medical care, not necessarily good for a company like NxStage that has a differentiated product. There is some demand for the product, but also substitution from dialysis clinics, which can be offered at a lower total…… [Read More]
The heart-rending autobiographical, Antwone Fisher, portrays Fisher’s (who is the movie’s scriptwriter) obsession for a family life, and spells of extreme melancholy and loneliness. The character of Antwone Fisher, an African-American sailor, is portrayed as volatile and uncontrollable. This nature makes way for compulsory psychiatric sessions with Dr. Davenport, after Fisher has a violent spell, leaving a peer bearing the brunt of his temper. Initially, Fisher doesn’t cooperate and remains silent for several weeks; the two clash. According to naval rules, three therapeutic sessions are imperative, beginning from when the client starts speaking. However, ultimately, the real reasons underlying Fisher’s anger issues surface: childhood abuse and the constant fear of abandonment. (Skomormj, 2003). The conversation initiated between client and therapist sheds light on the heart of Fisher’s problems. The tale commences with an ordinary day in navy workers’ life but ends leaving spectators heartbroken. The client’s tale may be counterpointed…… [Read More]
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…… [Read More]
Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process.
Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics
To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former…… [Read More]
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…… [Read More]
The Rogerian Model
This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).
This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…… [Read More]
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]
Frankl, many people seek therapy because of the "feeling of the total and ultimate meaningless of their lives," (p. 62). Frankl mainly refers to the "super-meaning" or to the ultimate meaning of life from a general existential or cosmological perspective -- not the personalized meaning in one individual's purpose in life, which is a different question (p. 74). A state of meaninglessness is the inability to move forward and progress through pain, not just in spite of pain and suffering but because of it. Meaningless is a "feeling of emptiness," and an "existential vacuum," (p. 143). Meaninglessness is the inability to learn from suffering, and thereby transform suffering into something that is meaningful. According to Frankl, meaningfulness cannot be located in the propagation of the species because one must find meaning whether or not one procreates. Meaning comes from feeling useful, and feeling useful needs to arise independently of external…… [Read More]
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…… [Read More]
Axelrod, S. D. (2012). "Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340–357.
In “Executive Development and Psychoanalytic Therapy,” Axelrod (2012) focuses on the singular concept of self-awareness, from a psychoanalytic point of view. Self-awareness, or self-knowledge, is a traditional and established goal of the psychoanalytic therapeutic process. Through psychoanalysis, the client gains insight into his or her own psyche, thereby initiating a self-driven change that has the potential to transform lives. Related concepts include self-monitoring, which can be used outside of the therapeutic relationship, as well as in therapy. Self-monitoring requires the invocation of an executive self, an aspect of the ego. Self-reflection is presented as a process that promotes self-awareness, but which is ideally promoted, guided, and enhanced by the therapist.
Axelrod (2012) focuses on emotional awareness, which can be connected to emotional intelligence. The author takes the research a step…… [Read More]