Existentialism Essays (Examples)

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Sartre Bad Faith and Freedom

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47520725

Existentialism and Humanism

Sartre's theory on bad faith and freedom emphasizes the relationship between these two concepts as being a paradox. The French philosopher believed that perspective is a significant element in determining whether or not a person does the right thing. As a consequence, he believed that while some people choose to take on particular attitudes, one might have a limited understanding of feelings fueling these individuals and can thus fail to observe the positive aspect of their actions.

A person is likely to act in disagreement with his or her principles in an attempt to put across socially-acceptable behaviors. hile it might seem that this person is certainly not free, the reality is that he or she chose to act in this way and can thus be considered to act on account of his or her freedom to choose. Sartre's idea of bad faith is strongly related to…… [Read More]

Works cited:

"Existentialism Is a Humanism," Retrieved July 20, 2014, from https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/sartre/works/exist/sartre.htm
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Biblical World View Contrast the

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2755128

In this way, it has a consistency since, not measuring itself against fluctuating essences such as physics, biology, psychology, and the other sciences; it asserts that existence can be gauged only by the human's reaction and response to his own existence. And that each human has to work out for himself how to live his life (Flynn, 2006).

On the other hand, existentialism can be inconsistent since, history seems to indicate that it has often followed the fashion of the moment and country. There have been times when existentialism has been more Christian (such as with Kierkegaard) and times when it was not only atheistic but contra- religious too (e.g. Nietzsche). These moods seem to correspond with the religious mood of the moment. 'Authenticity' it seems has been defined by the social, historical, and political aspects of the country and moment. In that way, existentialism could become Christian (Kierkegaard or…… [Read More]

Sources

Flynn, T., 2006. Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harrison, P., 2004, Elements of Pantheism; Religious reverence of nature and the universe, Coral Springs, Florida: Llumina Press, 2nd edition.

Kuhn, T (1962) the Structure of Scientific Revolutions 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
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Psychology - Personality Psychoanalysis Humanism

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46548720

Humanism takes the position that the human intellect is sufficient to deduce moral principles and that all human beings have the same natural right to dignity and personal autonomy.

The humanistic perspective does not absolutely reject the underlying principles of psychoanalytical theory, but places more focus on conscious self-reflection than on any assumption that the roots of all human conduct is necessarily a function of repressed trauma, sexual urges, and unresolved psychological conflicts. Humanism also rejects anthropocentrism in that it does not consider human life to be different in kind from other biological life forms, but only different in degree of development and complexity.

Existentialism:

Existentialism rejects many of the same concepts as humanism in the realm of religious or supernatural sources of human morality. Whereas humanists start with an assumption that human beings are inherently good and that the prosperity of human societies is necessarily good, existentialism recognizes no…… [Read More]

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Skepticism Is Defined as a School of

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32274438

Skepticism is defined as a school of philosophical thought where a person doubts the beliefs of another person or group. hile one person might believe wholeheartedly a certain political perspective or believe completely the dogma of a religion, a skeptic would have doubts about these beliefs or about the stories related to religion. Not only do they doubt organized religion, they also doubt the validity of socially constructed morals and laws. Sometimes they doubt the world as they witness it because they are unsure of the truth of reality as they perceive it through the senses (Butchvarov 1998). Like many philosophies, skepticism has origins in Ancient Greece. Pyrrho of Elis is credited with founding the philosophy, a branch of which was later named Pyrrhonism in his honor. The philosophy was expanded into countries throughout the known world, up to and including the early modern world. During the Enlightenment, skepticism branched…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baird, F.E. & Kaufmann, W. (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Prentice Hall.

Butchvarov, P. (1998). Skepticism about the External World. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Cuneo, & Woudenberg. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid.
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Free Will as Expressed by

Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93141750



Hence, "transcendence" a denial of the self at the core of Sartre's philosophy. Human beings are condemend to be free in that no religious or political doctrine is inherently or intrinisically correct in every situation. No schema can accord for every possible situation fo being or existance. All schemas that attempt to make a claim for their totality of their state of correctness at all times are thus acts of "bad faith," as they attempt to put artificial constraints on human freedom. Rather, for Sartre, life is simply what we make of it, diferent human existences bump up against one another in a random fashion. However, it should also be remembered that for Sartre, a state of human freedom also corresponded to responsibility to the world. Even free existances, not essences (i.e., human beings) are still responsible for the world, the horizon of meaning in which all free beings operate.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flynn, Thomas. "Jean-Paul Sartre." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2004 Edition). Edward N. Zalta, Editor. URL =  http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2004/entries/sartre/ .
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Kierkegaard Gabriel Marcel and Jean

Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42588791



The first principle of existentialism is subjectivity, in the sense that existence is subject to every man's desire. There are things which man can not control in his life, but he can assume his past and change himself if what he is does not correspond to his scale of values. Man is the only creator of himself and therefore, his own possessor. Which also makes him the only one who is responsible for his life. Subjectivity is to be understood from this perspective

However, the concept under discussion is a bit wider. It also refers to the fact that human nature is a limit for the human. People can not go beyond their own nature and capacity to build the world and ultimately themselves. When creating himself, man will obey certain criteria. Naturally, he will want for these criteria to be universal. That is, while man has the power to…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

"Existentialism" in the Stanford Encyclopaedia of philosophy. Available from http://www.libs.uga.edu/ref/turabian.html, accessed March 26, 2009

Kaufman, Walter. Existentialism from Dostoyevsky to Sartre. Meridian Publishing Company, 1989 (Philip Mairet translator)

Kierkegaards, Soren. Either/or: A fragment of life. Penguin classics, 1992

Marcel, Gabriel. The philosophy of existentialism. Citadel, 2002
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Myth of the Cave ' Why

Words: 2081 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42184922

Existentialism takes the human subject -- the holistic human, and the internal conditions as the basis and start of the conceptual way of explaining life. Taking idealism From Descartes, Kant, and Hegel, then building upon it, existentialist thinkers strip away the external and look at questions that surround human existence, and the conditions of that existence, rather than hypothesizing or dreaming of different forms of being. Thus, the inward philosophical emotions, angst, dread, self-doubt, self-esteem, etc. are experiences of the historical process, and the process of learning and moving through "existence" into a less fragile, more concrete, way of self-actualization. The existentialist concept of freedom is the manner in which internal values are set and interact with external historical trends. ather than humans being primarily rational, they make decisions when and if they find meaning (Solomon)

Existentialism asserts that people actually make decisions based solely on the meaning to them…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ankrom, S. "Existentialism." 27 January 2009. About.com. November 2010 .

Beiser, F. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel and 19th Century Philosophy. Cembridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Brickhouse, T. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Plato and the Trial of Socrates. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Cross, E. "Branches of Philosophy." September 2009. Elliottcross.com. November 2010 .
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Post World War II Art

Words: 2450 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79520631

Artists Since 1945

hat are the influences and events that caused Abstract Expressionism to develop? hat are the two modes of Abstract Expressionism? Compare and contrast these two modes and specially discuss the work of two artists from each mode. Share why you chose these four artist.

During and after orld ar II, artistic expression was destroyed in Europe. This is because, the onslaught of the Nazis created an environment of persecution. In some cases, these activities were based upon artists using their expressionism as a form of criticisms and social critiques. hile at other times; a host of individuals were persecuted because of their race or nationality. The result is that they fled to locations such as New York to be able to continue with their work. This played a major role in determining how Abstract Expressionism developed by taking a different approach that questioned and challenged the status…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Ellen. After the Rain. Ann Arbor: Proquest, 2007. Print.
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Continental Philosophy With the Objective

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41232653

Nietzsche's ideas center on the will-to-power to escape the triviality of the society. Nietzsche argued against the "slave mentality" that permeates society causing the people to live lives devoid of joy and grandeur (ibid).

Phenomenology

Phenomenology, on the other hand, focuses on the "essential structures found within the stream of conscious experience -- the stream of phenomena -- as these structures manifest themselves independently of the assumptions and presuppositions of science" (faxed material, date, p. 174).

Edmund Husserl, who is considered as the first great phenomenologist, developed transcendental phenomenology which very purpose is to investigate the phenomena of the world without making assumptions. This requires the exclusion of one's presupposition about the existence of the external, physical, and objective world. Phenomenology's end is to be able to describe the conscious experiences of human's "lifeworld" (ibid).

Heidegger, having heard Husserl's call for a need to develop a philosophical system which understands…… [Read More]

References

Faxed material author. (date). Title of the book. Location: Publisher.

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2008a). Idealism. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575556/Idealism.html on April 4, 2009

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2008b). Dialectic. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761551873/Dialectic.html on April 4, 2009

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2006). Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hegel / on April 4, 2009.
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Western Civ V The Philosophes

Words: 1913 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57432668

) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.

c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?

There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source

Documents, History 100.

Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.

Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
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Educational Philosophy

Words: 1333 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88237488

Educational Philosophy

Although not old in years and experience, my educational philosophy is fortunately commensurate with the institution I am presently working for as a teacher. This institution is committed to one of the oldest and most respected academic traditions in existence, that of the Jesuit Catholic tradition of rigorous, questioning inquiry in education. It also stresses a strong community service tradition, along with the Catholic faith tradition. It combines justice education with academic excellence. It stresses that students must take pride in their African-American identity, and show pride and respect for themselves and their community by applying themselves to their studies with intellectual engagement as well as with a sense of duty.

This stress upon the great works of the religious tradition may seem to connect the school to the academic tradition and philosophy of perennialism. This educational philosophy advocates the use of original, translated but not abridged, great…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Educational Philosophy." (2004) Free Dictionary.

 http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Educational%20philosophies 

'Existentialism." (2004) Free Dictionary.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Educational%20existentialism
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French Lieutenant's Woman Book &

Words: 1111 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96249540



Karel Reisz' 1981 motion picture The French Lieutenant's Woman is based on the novel and the director also seems to be appreciative in regard to postmodernism and existentialism when considering the elements that he introduces in the film. Reisz created his film by designing a story within a story as he presents viewers with an account involving the actors playing Victorian characters. The director is not apparently concerned about criticizing a Victorian society, as he apparently wants audiences to think about how dilemmas present in the nineteenth century could also emerge in the 1980s. Reisz was well aware that he needed to address existentialism in his film, and he knew that he needed to do so by combining concepts contemporary to him and elements originating in Victorian England.

While Fowles used the narrator's voice with the purpose of intervening at different moments in the novel, Reisz has characters in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Lynn Dodson, Mary, "The French Lieutenant's Woman: Pinter and Reisz's Adaptation of JohnFowles's Adaptation," Literature/Film Quarterly 26.4 (1998)

Mahmoud, Fowles, " Mary Lynn Dodson, "The French Lieutenant's Woman," Random House, 2010.

Salami, Mahmoud, "John Fowles's fiction and the poetics of postmodernism," Associated University Presse, 1992

Dir. Reisz, Karel, The French Lieutenant's Woman. United Artists, 1981.
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Soldiers Came Back From World

Words: 1493 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72116941



Westerns soon developed into a staple of TV land. The independence and strength of the characters epitomized the ideals that made America so unique. Families sat down with their TV dinners to watch such shows as " Gunsmoke," the Lone Ranger," the Rifleman," Have Gun, Will Travel," and " Maverick." You were not anybody unless you could sing the theme songs of each show.

Moviegoers were also being drawn into the theaters by the monster/science-fiction movies. About 500 film features and shorts were produced under this broad theme in the 1950s and early 1960s, explains the 50s B-Movie website. ne might argue convincingly that never in the history of motion pictures has any other genre developed and multiplied so rapidly in so brief a period. As Paul Michael comments, "n a sheer statistical basis, the number of fantasy and horror films of the 1950s... has not been equaled in any…… [Read More]

Our American Century: The American Dream, the 1950s.. Editors of Time Life. Richmond-Virginia, Time Life, 1997.

Ross, Kelly. Existentialism. 2003. Retrieved from website April 19, 2005.  http://www.friesian.com/existent.htm 

Western Movie Encyclopedia. Western Movie. Retrieved from website April 18, 2005. http://www.localcolorart.com/search/encyclopedia/Western_movie
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Teaching a 2002 Study of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65012326

141).

Even the most idealistic young teacher will quickly realize that while the dog did not eat the student's homework, something stopped the student from completing the assignment. eality will seep in, and the teacher will have to adapt to that reality. Existentialism may assist the good teacher in that adaptation process. The teacher that assimilates existentialism into the classroom can help the students understand that they must take responsibility for their own actions, their own deeds, and the homework or project that was (or was not) completed is solely due to their own efforts or lack thereof. The student that learns (and the teacher that teaches) the truths of distractions will both be rewarded accordingly. Distractions can be the cause of anger, anxiety, despair and boredom and if the unlucky student falls victim to those distractions or the underlying emotions brought on by those distractions, then more than just…… [Read More]

References

Esi, M. (2010) Promoting the human values beyond prejudice and stereotypes, Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti Bulletin Educational Sciences Series, Vol. 62, Issue 1A, pp. 140-146

Moore, A.; Edwards, G.; Halpin, D.; George, R.; (2002) Compliance, resistence and pragmatism; the reconstruction of schoolteacher identities in a period of intensive educational reform, British Educational Research Journal, Vol. 28, Issue 4, pp. 551-565
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Rastafarian Dread Politic There Are

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47531111

It is from this cultural paradigm that emerged the concept of "dread." This term was used as synonymous to "God-fearer," to describe the adherents to Rastafarianism. According to Rastafarian mysticism, JAH (God) was immediately present within each dread.

In European existentialism, the concept appears to be diametrically opposite to that within African philosophy. According to teven Kreis (2006), for example, existential dread is the result of the perceived absence of God or indeed any spirituality or deeper meaning in life. Whereas the Rastafarian dread immerses the soul within the consciousness of God, the existentialist searches for meaning in the very lack and absence of God. Like Rastafarianism, however, the existentialist concept provides meaning within itself: human life is meaningful because it is meaningless: meaning is found within physical and perceived existence.

ources

Arrayed Roots Media (2002). Rastafarian Cultural Page. http://www.geocities.com/arrayedroots/ARCul.html

Kreis, teven (2006). Lecture 12: The Existentialist Frame of Mind.…… [Read More]

Sources

Arrayed Roots Media (2002). Rastafarian Cultural Page. http://www.geocities.com/arrayedroots/ARSCul.html

Kreis, Steven (2006). Lecture 12: The Existentialist Frame of Mind. The History Guide

http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture12.html
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Freedom Transcendence Being for Others

Words: 2034 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10122292

Jean Paul Sartre and Simone De Beauvoir on Freedom, Being-for-Others, And Sartrean Despair

Simone de Beauvoir and JP Sartre were two famous existentialists that converged and diverged on various concepts. These included the existentialist concepts of freedom, being-for-others and transcendence or despair. Their converged and divergences will be addressed in this essay.

Sartre was one of the most famous existentialists of all times. For him, existence did not base itself on an ethos of God-ordained morality nor did it have any transcendental meaning. ather meaningfulness of life -- or liberty / freedom -- depended on the meaning that one arbitrarily accorded life and he claimed that man is "what he makes of himself," or in other words "in the end one is always responsible for what is made of one" In this way, Sartre's philosophy integrated both optimism and despair: optimism in the belief that one can resolutely make something…… [Read More]

References

Fullbrook, Kate & Edward. Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre: The Remaking of a Twentieth-Century Legend. New York: Basic Books: 1994.

Jean-Paul Sartre mythosandlogos.com/Sartre.html

Vintges, Karen. Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir. Translated by Anne Lavelle. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

de Beauvoir, Simone. The Ethics of Ambiguity. New York: Citadel Press, 1976. Print.
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Murkiness of Love Tenderness Can Lead How

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42097396

murkiness of love tenderness can lead?" "How many times we will kill for love." "The rare thing herself felt in her breast a warmth that might be called love. She loved that sallow explorer. If she could have talked and had told him that she loved him, he would have been puffed up with vanity." All these settings represent different definition of "love."

The Smallest Woman in the World provides a poetic, at times poignant, perspective of love. Looking closely at the first quotation where the lady felt such perverse tenderness for the smallest of the African women claiming that an ounce of prevention being worth a pound of cure. She was upset all day, almost as if she were missing something. Here, the woman seemed to have been concerned about the vulnerability of the Little Flower. Her words points at the need for companionship for the Little Flower, and…… [Read More]

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Future of Education Can Schools

Words: 777 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52057179

Certainly, there are implications of idealism, realism, pragmatism, and even existentialism in teaching models; but when it comes to what works in the classroom, one can use a model based on utilitarianism with a constructivist bent and find their way through what has become a mire of philosophical argument. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing one can do is any action that will maximize the happiness within an organization or society. Actions have quantitative outcomes and the ethical choices that lead to the "greatest good for the greatest number" are the appropriate decisions, even if that means subsuming the rights of certain individuals. It is considered to be a consequential outlook in the sense that while outcomes cannot be predicted the judgment of an action is based on the outcome -- or, "the ends justify the means." Deontology is similar, arguing that there are norms and truths that are…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Barone, T. (2000). Aesthetics, Politics, and Educational Inquiry. Peter Lang Publishers.

Dougiamas, M. (1998, November). "A Journey into Constructivism." Retrieved from Dougiamas.Com: http://dougiamas.com/writing/constructivism.html

Eun, B. (2008). "Making Connections: Grounding professional Development in the Developmental Theories of Vygotsky." The Teacher Educator, 43(2), 134+.

Kim, S. (2005). "The Effects of A Constructivist Teaching Approach." Asia Pacific
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Existential Analysis of a Man

Words: 1742 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32877302

This is a journey that requires the utmost steadfastness and the ability of face the truth. In existentialist terms, the world and all experience is essentially absurd and the more one questions the meaning of existence, the more the irrationality and absurdity of existence is revealed. However, this reality must be faced with acceptance and equanimity.

In the case of the protagonist of this short story, he is embedded in ordinary, everyday existence and refuses to acknowledge the absurdity of existence. Ziegler, like most people, is comfortable to hide behind a wall of logic and scientific rationality; the life of non-authentic existence. However, this illusion is destroyed by the alchemist's pellet that that undermines the illusion that the world is rational or structured in an orderly way.

What the author of this story is attempting to say is that the reality of existence must be faced in the existential journey…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hesse, H. A Man Named Ziegler. Place of publication: publisher (1908).
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Philosophy While There Is Plenty to Criticize

Words: 3858 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51871612

Philosophy

While there is plenty to criticize in the work of Descartes, Locke, and Hume, one cannot justifiably claim that Jose Vasconcelos criticisms of traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge apply to these theorists if only because Vasconcelos' criticisms do not really apply to anything, as his criticisms are largely based on straw men. This is not to say that traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge should be free from criticism, but rather that the problems with these traditional views are more fundamental than Vasconcelos realizes, to the point that Vasconcelos suffers from many of these same issues. Essentially, both Vasconcelos and the previously mentioned authors suffer from a simply ignorance regarding the functioning of the human brain, the nature of consciousness and memory, and the evolutionary processes by which organisms and ideas evolve, with this ignorance born out of an implicit or explicit maintenance of…… [Read More]

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My Mortality and the Meaning of My Life

Words: 1926 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41629505

life is an issue that has been plaguing thoughtful people since the first Cro-magnons evolved into modern homo sapiens with the power to think rationally and creatively, and most importantly, self-consciously. Aside from humorous attempts to explain the meaning of life such as Monty Python's movie The Meaning of Life, the question is a serious one. It cuts to the core of every human life, causing the individual to question his or her purpose and mode of living. Many people look to religious guidance as a means of discovering meaning in life, and religion remains the most effective way of providing people with a roadmap. Even if the absolute meaning of life is not revealed, we can at least learn to accept that God has a plan and that plan is inherently meaningful. Philosophers, however, have debated the efficacy of religion's ability to provide life with meaning. Existentialism is the…… [Read More]

Reference

Baggani, J. (2004). Revealed -- the meaning of life. The Guardian. Retreived online: http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2004/sep/20/features11.g2

Colls, T. (2011). Does science have all the answers? BBC. Retrieved online:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_9410000/9410486.stm 

Frankl, V. (2006/1959). Man's Search for Meaning. Boston: Beacon.

'How Andrea Yates Lives, And Lives with Herself, a Decade Later," (2012). The Atlantic. Retrieved online:  http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/03/how-andrea-yates-lives-and-lives-with-herself-a-decade-later/254302/
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American and Japanese Early Childhood

Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63412707

Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Franz Kafka and Modernism Franz

Words: 2674 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62021753

His mother Julie Kafka belonged to one of the leading families in the German-speaking, German-cultured Jewish circles of Prague. (Franz Kafka 1883-1924) His relationship with this father was not good and "...Hermann Kafka was a domestic tyrant, who directed his anger against his son." (Franz Kafka 1883-1924) There are many of his stories which can be related to the antagonism and conflict between father and son. This conflict is often translated into scenes where there is a "...scorned individual's pleading innocence in front of remote figures of authority."

Franz Kafka 1883-1924) Kafka's home life was therefore filled with tension and this was also compounded by the fact that he a member of the Jewish minority. " Kafka grew up in an atmosphere of familial tensions and social rejection that he experienced as a member of Prague's Jewish minority." (Franz Kafka 1883-1924)

Kafka was also alienated in many other ways in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Existentialism. 10 March 2007.  http://www.answers.com/topic/existentialism 

Existentialism and Franz Kafka. 10 March 2007. http://www.dividingline.com/private/Philosophy/Philosophers/Kafka/kafka.shtml

Franz Kafka. 10 March 2007.  http://www.answers.com/topic/franz-kafka 

Franz Kafka and his Metamorphosis. 10 March 2007. http://wotan.liu.edu/~sanderson/kafka/page2.html
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Four Educational Philosophies

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77827298

Educational Philosophy

The four Educational Philosophies

Essentialism

Essentialism argues that a common core of knowledge needs to be passed to learners in a disciplined and systematic manner. The concentration in this traditional viewpoint is on moral and intellectual standards that academic institutions should educate. The curriculum focuses on knowledge, skills, and academic rigor. Although this academic viewpoint is similar in some ways to Perennialism, Essentialism accepts the idea that this core curriculum may change. Education should be realistic, preparing learners to become useful people in the society. It should concentrate on facts and "the fundamentals," training learners to speak, write, read and think clearly and rationally. Schools must not try to set or influence guidelines. Students should be trained self-discipline, respect for authority, and hard work. Instructors are to help learners keep their non-productive intuition in checks, such as mindlessness or aggression. This strategy was in response to progressivism techniques…… [Read More]

References

Barnes, W. (2008). The Philosophy And Literature Of Existentialism. Woodbury, N.Y: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.

Bigge, M.L. (2012). Educational Philosophies For Teachers. Columbus: Merrill.

Segall, W.E., & Wilson, A.V. (2004). Introduction To Education: Teaching In A Diverse Society. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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Personality Theories Personality vs Situation Personality Refers

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45035209

Personality Theories

PERSONALITY VS SITUATION

Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).

Existentialism vs. Humanism

Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media

Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://allpsyc.com/personalitysynopsis/humanistic.html

Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,

2001 from http://webspac.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
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Kierkegaard vs Camus in the

Words: 2617 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20450300

If dread enters as the knowledge that there is no knowledge from which to derive a decision, yet decision is all there is, then we reach a complicated idea of what comprises the individual. If there were a concrete and appreciable version of each person, ready at any time to assess, then the concept of dread would have less terrible implications. The fact is, when penetrated by the nothing of pure possibility, the reach of this nothing is beyond almost all conception. There never really is an individual, just some ongoing process of change. The nothing alienates the individual further than from mere others and the world. The nothing of dread brings into its fold, the individual. The individual supports this nothing and yet must determine itself on such grounds. hereas before, we had the Kierkegaardian maxim of individual as truth, we now have no grounds for determining anything. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus: And Other Essays. Alfred A. Knopf, 1955.

Translated by Justin O'Brien.

Kieregaard, Soren. "Dread and Freedom." Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre:

The Basic Writings of Existentialism. Trans. Walter Kaufman. New York.
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Existential Givens Ever Since Humans

Words: 2611 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73835185

My personal reflections on these existential givens will impact my practice as an existential counselor. Although the influence of my personal views is significant to me, they will not inhibit the progress made by a client. Sharing a sense of commonality with the client, including the questioning of life's significance, will better assist with having insights into their feelings (Geller 2003).

The aim of existential psychotherapy is to reflect upon and understand life as each person experiences it in order to overcome problematic circumstances to achieve resolution (Deurzen & Kenward 2005). Existential therapy considers the views of the person in relation with fundamental and difficult factors of existence. By focusing on the client's struggle with human existence and acceptance of the confines of the human condition, it empowers the individual to better reflect on their situation, cope with their dilemma, face their circumstances, and think for themselves (Deurzen 1997, pp.…… [Read More]

References

Avila, D.T. (1995), 'Existential psychology, logotherapy & the will to meaning', Available at:

http://www.dotcomtoo.com/exist.html

Deurzen, E. (1997), Everyday Mysteries A Handbook of Existential Psychotherapy. 2nd ed.

Routledge, London.
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Student Centered Teaching Progressivism Social

Words: 6624 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55418377



Now we have examined two extremes in educational thought that have developed over the past century. Teacher centered and student centered philosophies differ significantly in their approach to the student-teacher relationship. Teacher centered philosophy does not depend on the student's wants and needs at all. Teacher centered philosophy uses antiquated methods, such as rote learning. However, these methods are quickly being replaced by a more student-centered approach. Student centered approaches to learning are an important part of the new technologically advanced society. The following will explore the role of student-centered philosophies in the emerging technological tends

Teaching Philosophies and the Changing Society

The emphasis of essentialism and perennialism is on standardization and the learning of material. This style of learning is authoritarian and disciplinarian. The study is acted upon and has no choice or preference in the material or the method by which they choose to learn it. They are…… [Read More]

References

Aretakis-Fredo, a. (2003).

Literacy Review. Retrieved June 14, 2007 from  http://ashleyfredo.tripod.com/Social%20Reconstructivism.htm .

Bagamery, B., Laslik, J.J., & Nixon, D.R. (2005). Determinants of success on the ETS business major field exam for students in an undergraduate multi-site regional university business program. Journal of Education for Business 81 (1), 55-59.

Bondy, a (1999) Visually us: Validating the curriculum for MA-ori students. Unpublished MEd thesis. VUW.
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Human Beings Make Sense of Things in

Words: 3786 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29364579

Human Beings Make Sense of Things

In the early-1900s, Edmund Husserl sought to provide psychology with a truly scientific basis, not by copying the physical sciences but through the description of conscious experiences. This would be a truly humanistic psychology, grounded in human life and experience rather than materialistic and mechanistic theories like functionalism and behaviorism. Karl Jaspers called for a psychology that would describe phenomena such as "hallucinations, delusions, dreams, expressions, motor activity, and gestures" for the "person as a whole" (Churchill and Wertz, 2001, p. 247). This holistic or Gestalt psychology is dedicated to the search for the authentic self, and to heal the "hollow' men and women of our time who have lost touch with themselves" (Churchill and Wertz, p. 248). Intentionality is one of the key assumptions of phenomenological psychology in which "experience must be grasped holistically and a relationship in which the subject relates to…… [Read More]

REFERENCE LIST

Churchill, S. And Wertz, F. (2001) "An Introduction to Phenomenological Research in psychology: Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Foundations," in K.J. Schneider, J .F .T. Bugental, & J.F. Pierson (Eds.) The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 247-62.

May, R. (1958). "The Origins and Significance of the Existential Movement in Psychology" and "Contributions of Existential Psychotherapy" in R. May, E. Angel and H. Ellenberger (Eds.), Existence. New York: Basic Books, pp. 3-36; 37-91.

Heidegger, M. (1971)." Building, Dwelling, Thinking," and "The Thing" in Poetry, Language, Thought. (A. Hofstadter, Trans.). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 145-61; 165-86.

Heidegger, M. (1955, 2003)."Memorial Address," in Stassen, M. (Ed). Martin Heidegger: Philosophical and Political Writings. Continuum International Publishing Group, pp. 87-96.
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Aleister Crowley an Existentialist in the Same Vein as Nietzsche

Words: 3061 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9541570

Existentialist thought is not a particularly easy or simple concept for the aspiring philosopher to apply generally while promoting universal principles. Frederick Nietzsche is considered by most as the purest form of an existential philosophical author. Nietzsche's works, although extremely aesthetically pleasing, are also a practical but mystical approach to metaphysics and the inner workings of the mind. In another example, Aleister Crowley, in his own and unique voice, echoed many of the existential thought processes Frederick Nietzsche emotionally and effectively created in his brilliant works of philosophical writings. The purpose of this essay is to promote Aleister Crowley as an existentialist thinker in the same vein as Nietzsche. I will describe and highlight Frederick Nietzsche most prominent and distinguishable traits that significantly align with those of Crowley's to demonstrate this relationship in order to promote and create new applications towards understanding and relating important information in an academic setting.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crowley, Aleister. The Diary of A Drug Fiend. Adoni Publishing 2002. Web.

-. The Book of Law. Thelmapedia.org. Viewed on April 15, 2011. Web

-. Eight Lectures on Yoga. The Equinox, 3 1919, pp 1-61. Print.

"Existentialism." The American Heritage Dictionary, 5th ed.2007. Web
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Analyzing the Good Life

Words: 2570 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90291729

Good Life

What is Good Life?

The Consequentialism Debate

Utilitarian reasoning is regarded as "consequentialist." The other approach of human actions' analysis is called "deontologist" reasoning. Utilitarian and deontological reasoning have very little in common. They are similar only in the sense that they both attempt to establish which human actions are appropriate and which ones are not. Apart from that, there is no other similarity. The differences arise in their adopted approaches in attempting to establish and distinguish the right actions and behavior from what is wrong (van Staveren, 2007).

As the term implies, judgments of "consequentiality" are founded on the consequences of an individual's actions. Here, an action is categorized as right or wrong based on the results of actions. Its ethics have nothing to do with whatever the individual intended to do. Taking an extreme case, assume that I am driving and I notice a person I…… [Read More]

References

Adams, R. M. (2006) A theory of virtue, New York: Oxford University Press.

Annas, J. (2011) Intelligent virtue, New York: Oxford University Press.

Baier, A. (1994). Moral Prejudices: Essays on Ethics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Clark, G. (1992). Can Moral Education be Grounded on Naturalism?," Essays on Ethics and Politics, Jefferson, MD: The Trinity Foundation, 7-8.
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Educational Philosophies Richard D Mosier

Words: 1516 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61437982

Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873

Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html

Moser, .D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104

Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: eframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742

Neil, J. (2005, January). John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Experimental learning. Wilderdom.com. etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html

Sternberg, J., & Zhang, L. (2005, Summer). Styles of thinking as a basis of differntiated instruction. Theory into practice, 44(3), 245-253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=111&sid=4dc68d17-580a=4983=af18=762283ca50ef%40sessionmgr114… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, D.B. (2003, March). Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873

Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from:  http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html 

Moser, R.D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104

Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: Reframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
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World War II Book Review

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34700032

It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.

Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…… [Read More]

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Viktor Frankl Psychotherapy Viktor Frankl's

Words: 2242 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35799335

Frankl proposes that "he who can cling to no end point, to no time in the future, to no point of support, is in danger of allowing himself to collapse inwardly." [15]

However that point might alter as the person grows. It happens and should happen in the process of living because no one can cling to just one meaning all his life. Meaning when realized alters and take on another shape and that forms the crux of Logotherapy. The role of the therapist in this regard is only to facilitate the process. he/she cannot give a person meaning to a life that is lived by the patient. The therapist must help resolve any past issues which are retarding the personal growth of the individual. He should try to untie the spiritual or philosophical 'knots' that have developed to help the patient become healthier.

What is needed here is to…… [Read More]

References

Frankl, oral communication, 1971.

Frankl, the Will to Meaning (Cleveland, O.: New American Library, 1969), p. 21.

V. Frankl, "Self-transcendence as a Human Phenomenon," Journal of Humanistic Psychology (1966) 6:97-107.

Frankl V.E. (1976). Man's Search for Meaning. New York: Pocket Books. 78.
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Philosophies of Education

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55140928

Educational Philosophies

Pragmatism

Pragmatism emerged from the writings of John Dewey who believed that experimentation was the best approach for educating young minds. For example, pragmatists feel that field trips, educational excursions etc. are more effective in teaching students about the world instead of audio-visual aids. Pragmatism includes such as thoughts as futurism, and educational humanism and econstructionism. Pragmatic education philosophy doesn't assign a traditional role to the teachers who are only seen as guides and not exactly more knowledgeable beings. George . Knight in his book on education philosophies explained that pragmatism focuses on real life experiences as the main source of knowledge and education. They gives the example of field trips as he says that for a child to learn about dairy products, its better to take him to a barn and let him experience the whole thing himself instead of showing him a movie on the subject.…… [Read More]

References

John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916)

Knight, George. Philosophy & Education, An introduction in Christian Perspective, Berrien Springs, Michigan: Andrews University Press. 1989

Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre, Edited by Walter Kaufmann, The World Publishing Company, 1956
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Clinicians Have Always Been Reminded

Words: 4252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33632219

He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest and raise his level of energy along with it. y developing a genuine human relationship with the patient, the therapist or doctor can re-establish the basic form of social interest, which the patient can use in transferring it to others. oth therapist and patient must realize that the latter's ultimate cure can come only from him.

Adler's approach has similarities with that of Socrates (Stein 1991). Socrates exhorted others to "know thyself," while Adler urged that people should think for themselves (Meyer 1980 as qtd in Stein 1991). Like Socrates, he would lead the person or patient through a series of questions to a contradiction within himself as revealed by his own answers. oth philosophers were committed to the search for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adler, A. (1932). Mind and Body. What Life Should Mean to You. Unwin Books. http://www.marxists.org/references.org/subject/philosophy/works/at/adler.htm

Boeree, G. (1997). Alfred Adler. Shippensburg University. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/adler.htm

Holmes, L. (2002). Clinicians' Personal Theories Influence Diagnosis of Mental Disorders. Mental Health Resource: Vanderbilt University. http://mentalhealth.about.com/library/sci/1202/blscdx1202.htm

Center for Existential Depth Psychology. (2004). Philosophical Forerunners of Existential Psychotherapy. Louis Hoffman. http://www.existential.therapy.co/Key%20Figures/Philosophical_Forerunners.htm
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Piaf Pam Gems Provides a View Into

Words: 46193 Length: 125 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73251446

Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets. On…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786

Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260

Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.

Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
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Educational Theory and Philosophy in

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]

References

Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
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Existential Psychology and Christianity Existential

Words: 496 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25849263



C. Philosophical aspects of existentialism as applied to psychology and therapy.

D. Kierkegaard and German existentialism.

E. Sartre and French existentialism.

F. Religious aspects of existentialism.

G. Humanistic aspects of existentialism.

II. Tenets of Christian therapy

A. Historical origins of Christian therapy.

B. Relationship of Christian therapy to Jungian therapy.

C. Function of Christian therapy.

1. Reconciliation of Christian beliefs and daily stressors

2. Reconciliation of Christian advocacy of selflessness and modern capitalist society

D. Goals of Christian therapy.

III. Intersection of existential psychology and modern Christian thought.

A. Exploration of ways in which Christian thought and humanistic discourses intersect

B. Exploration of the ways in which the practice of Christian therapy and humanistically-based modes of therapy intersect.

C. Expectations of Christian clients.

1. Will Christian clients feel that they are being appropriately served by existential psychology given its roots in humanistic and philosophical traditions rather than in Christian doctrine?…… [Read More]

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Pessoa the Philosophies Embodied in

Words: 6419 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41477784

" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)

One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cravens, Gwyneth. "Past Present." The Nation 13 Nov. 1989: 574+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Cullenberg, Stephen, Jack Amariglio, and David F. Ruccio. Postmodernism, Economics and Knowledge. London: Routledge, 2001.

Gabriel, Markus. "The Art of Skepticism and the Skepticism of Art." Philosophy Today 53.1 (2009): 58+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Gibbs, Raymond W. Intentions in the Experience of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
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Collapsing Certainties Theme of Collapsing Uncertainties the

Words: 4291 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52689917

Collapsing Certainties

Theme of Collapsing Uncertainties

The Collapsing Birth Rate in the Developed orld

Human beings perceive events, individuals, and objects in different manners in relation to the circumstances and understanding. This is vital towards the development of concept of reality with the aim of continuous leadership, caring, and forms of goodness. This is an indication that human beings believe in whatever they see and purport to be ideal thus generation of meaning and form of understanding or knowledge for the purposes of guidance and leadership. Various personalities have focused on the examination of the concept of collapsing uncertainties. Some of these personalities include Timothy Eves, Plato, and Sartre. Sartre focuses on the examination of the concept of hell or the world of darkness through integration of the No Exit play. This is ideal for effective understanding and development of the forms of goodness in relation to reality and knowledge.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kirk, John T.O. Science & Certainty. Collingwood, VIC: CSIRO Pub, 2007. Print.

Heidegger, Martin, and Ted Sadler. The Essence of Truth: On Plato's Parable of the Cave

Allegory and Theaetetus. London: Continuum, 2002. Print.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma:A Natural History of Four Meals (New York:
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Distortion of the American Dream

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75502826

Disillusionment and the Harlem enaissance and Post-Modernism

Distortion of the American Dream

The American dream has been as old as the American constitution. From the text, there is a highlight of the American dream and its distortion over years. It is presented as an old dream, which is as old as the Constitution of the United States of America. According to the text, those who framed the American dream were engaged the country in a state where everyone will gain the good as from working hard. Through working hard, people will be able to make it possible to attain different levels of their fulfillments. Nonetheless, today many things have changed with the changes in time (Hemingway, 2013). With the aspects of capitalism and materialism taking root in every society, the dream has been distorted. The possible supports for a statement that many of the people live within their required states…… [Read More]

References

Hemingway, E. (2013). Hills Like White Elephants: Short Story. Toronto: HarperCollins Canada.

Wicks, R. (2003). Modern French Philosophy: From Existentialism to Postmodernism. Oxford: One world Publications.
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Psychology Models Since Sigmund Freud

Words: 2736 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77173873

Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.

Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.

Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.

Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253

Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42