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Expectancy theory of motivation, which was first created by Victor Vroom, has become a widely accepted theory for explaining how individuals make decisions regarding different behavioral alternatives.
According to Vroom (1964), an individual will act in a certain way "based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual."
The expectancy theory deals with internal processes that an individual goes through in order to decide whether they want to put forth the effort to achieve a specific goal. According to Vroom, three important elements must be considered when determining motivation.
The first of these elements is "valence," which describes the desire an individual has to obtain a goal or fulfill a need. The second of these elements is "instrumentality," which relates to the belief that if an individual puts in a certain amount of effort, then…
Baron, J.N. & Cook, K.S. (1992). Process and outcome: Perspectives on the distribution of rewards in organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 191-197.
Brown, E. (29, May 2000) Loving P & G, leaving a dot-com.,"
Byrne, R. (1983). Inservice programs-What are the essentials for making them effective?. NASSP Bulletin, 67, 1-7.
g., they need self-confidence); B2 only works if the employee really fundamentally trusts that "their performance will lead to expected outcomes"; and B3 is successful only if the outcomes truly will satisfy her or him (Green, p. 3-4).
Has the expectancy theory been supported by the research?
Certainly there is a great deal of research that has gone into the expectancy theory and the research available for this paper reveals the theory is seen as believable and is well-supported. For example, Andrew J. DuBrin, Professor of Management in the College of Business at the Rochester Institute of Technology, writes in his book that thanks to the expectancy theory employers have at their disposal several courses of action vis-a-vis getting employees motivated. The theory "helps pinpoint what a manager must do to motivate group members and diagnose motivational problems," the professor asserts (DuBrin, 2008, p. 392). ith the expectancy theory at…
Green, Thad B. (1992). Performance and Motivation Strategies for Today's Workforce: A Guide
to Expectancy Theory Applications. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group.
DuBrin, Andrew J. (2008). Essentials of Management. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Liao, Hsiu-Li, Liu, Su-Houn, and Pi, Shih-Ming. (2011). Modeling Motivations for Blogging:
Expectancy theory is a main theory for the explanation of how people are motivated. Victor H. Vroom, is one of the leaders that best explain the theory and holds that the main motivation behind reaching a goal for any individual, is a person seeing and experiencing the worth of the goal, believing and witnessing what they are doing will lead to achieving said goal. “people’s motivation towards doing anything will be determined by the value they place on the outcome of their effort, multiplied by the confidence they have that their efforts will materially aid in achieving a goal” (Koontz, Weihrich, & Weihrich, 2007, p. 293).
Essentially, the anticipated worth created the product (motivation) that can then be applied to certain tasks, to achieve an objective. Confidence plays a role in this. The equation Vroom used for this was Force = valence x expectancy. Force equals the degree of an…
The workers have a right to unionize; however, the boss wants to do everything possible to divert people away from the union because the union will drive up costs for company. The ethical issue is that the boss wants to undermine the union’s influence by firing union leaders, hosting events that pull people away from union meetings, and offering promises to workers that it likely won’t keep.
The basic arguments for taking extreme measures to fight unionization efforts are rooted in ethical egoism, which posits that the ends justify the means (Holmes, 2007): the ends here being to keep costs low. This is put in terms the workers can understand by saying that if they want to keep their jobs they better not unionize—otherwise jobs will be sent overseas to defray costs. The argument against taking extreme measures to fight unionization efforts is that workers should be…
Holmes, A. (2007). Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Motivational theories certainly have their time and place. Beyond that, they probably work better for some people than others and the situation and context is obviously relevant. What motivates people obviously depends on their feelings, preference, environment and reactions to what is happening around them. Even so, there are several theories that will be reviewed in this report and they shall be reacted to in terms of how effective they might or could be. Beyond that, there will be a number of examples personal to the author and what has been experienced by that person. To be sure, not all motivational ploys work in all situations and the person doing the motivating and what they bring to the table in terms of experience and reputation certainly matters a great deal in the grand scheme of things. While some motivational theories are generally effective, assuming that this could or would be…
Benson, D. (2015). The five fundamental tasks of a transformational leader. Physician
Leadership Journal, 2(5), 58 -- 62. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com .
" (Scholl, 2002) in contrast, equity theory stresses that when workers feel that their behavior is being fairly or equitably rewarded, they will excel, and profit sharing is likely to increase subjective factors such as organizational loyalty because profit sharing upon the part of a rich company is fair.
On a practical level, equitable forces in increasing employee motivation tend to be more difficult to measure in the short-term, unlike performance and productivity increases. and, although fairness is an important consideration, a sense of fairness is additionally often more difficult to systematize, unlike a schema of reward and punishment. Unlike equity theory, which must be holistic and organization-wide as a fair supervisor may have to enforce an unfair and inequitable corporate policy, in contrast, expectancy can be more carefully controlled and managed between an individual manager and employee, and encourages employees to exceed their own expectations of their own range…
Scholl, Robert. (12 Oct 2002) "Expectancy Theory." Motivational Processes. Retrieved 2 Jul 2005 at http://www.cba.uri.edu/scholl/Notes/Motivation_Expectancy.html
Path Goal Theory
THEOY AND PACITCE: PATH GOAL THEOY
DEFINITION OF PATH GOAL THEOY
Path Goal theory is reported to be about "how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals." (Northhouse, 2010, p.125) Path Goal theory is reported to have first been written early in the decade of the 1970s "in the work of Evans (1970), House (1971), House and Deasler (1974) and House and Mitchell (1974)." (Northhouse, 2010, p. 125) The goal of this theory of leadership is reported to enhance of performance and satisfaction of employees through a focus on motivation of employees. (Northhouse, 2010, paraphrased) eported as the basis for Path Goal theory is that which is gained from "expectancy theory, which suggests that subordinates will be motivated if they think they are capable of performing their work, if they believe their efforts will result in a certain outcome, and if they believe that the payoffs for…
Northouse, P.G.(2010) Leadership Theory and Practice, 5th edition, Sage Publication. Read the chapter 7 on Goal Path theory.
Instead, it can provide an important springboard for future investigation in order to better understand the communication paradigms and expectations of cultures other than those in the United States. This, in turn, can lead to further nonverbal theorizing.
Furthermore, Burgoon's theory can also provide an important platform for more modern types of communication such as digital communication, for example (Littlejohn and Foss, 2009). Nonverbal cues are also inherent in this type of communication, although the assumption tends to be that this type of communication is primarily verbal. This is a very exciting development for communication studies. Currently, online communication has seen little in terms of formalizing theoretical findings. Because this communication medium is becoming increasingly important not only in personal interaction but also in the business world, it is becoming vitally important to provide theories of interaction by means of which such communications can most effectively be conducted. This can…
Littlejohn, S.W. And Foss, K.A. (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory. Sage Publications.
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Sage Publications.
Jacob, a. (2008). Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) of Judee Burgoon. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/ajacob/expectancy-violations-theory
Kalman, Y.M. (2010). Online Pauses and Silence: Chronemic Expectancy Violations in Written Computer-Mediated Communication. Retrieved from: http://www.kalmans.com/evt.pdf
The Behavior Valence and the Communicator Reward Valence together help show the range of G's response to my expectancy-violating behavior. However, as Burgoon and Hale state, many factors other than nonverbal expectancy violation may have contributed to G's response to my actions. For example, setting may have easily been a factor: libraries are for study and work, not for jocular embraces and easy-going times; secondly, had his friends been around and I included in their circle, such diminishment of space and embracing may have been deemed appropriate if the circumstances and the timing were right -- then again, perhaps not; thirdly, G having the type of personality he has, there is no guarantee that even someone with whom he desires to be on a more intimate footing would have received an overall positive valence from G. G may insist upon presenting himself ambiguously in all situations so as to resist…
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is perhaps the most commonly known theory of motivation, which is likely due to the broad applicability of the theory. Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs as part of his research on human potential and a component of positive psychology he termed self-actualization (Maslow, 1943; 1954). Maslow believed that human motivation is heightened when people seek fulfillment through personal growth and discovery. Self-actualized people are fully engaged with their potential, in an ongoing, lifelong effort to create meaning in their lives through highly personalized, positive endeavor (Maslow, 1962).
Doubtless, employers would enjoy not having to be concerned with motivating their employees if, in fact, their employees would "self-actualize" through their work. Indeed, some people do experience self-actualization when they are engaged in their paid employment. But, perhaps more often than not, people who become self-actualized are able to spend time either playing or laboring…
Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-96.
Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Maslow, A.H. (1962). Towards a Psychology of Being. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company.
Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354.
A 2006 study of nurses cited "unsupportive management structures, autocratic and dehumanizing management styles…lack of autonomy in the workplace, professional jealousies...sub-optimal physical working conditions and shortage of staff…lack of opportunities for promotion or continuing one's professional education…inaccurate systems of performance…compounded by favoritism and racism" (King & McInerney 2006). While poor pay was an additional complaint, it was not the primary complaint. Although some of these stressors are institutional, others suggest that the intrinsic motivations of these workers, such as a desire for more education, were not satisfied.
Expectancy theory or the theory that individuals live up to expectations, seems to be supported by this data: when the nurses were solicited for input and treated like competent professionals with valuable skills and knowledge, they were more likely to live up to these ideals. The expectation that workers have the resources to manage stress and conflict becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Moreover, in…
Bell, EA & BD Bart. (1991, March-April) Pay for performance: Motivating the chief nurse executive. Nursing Economist, 9(2):92-6, 104.
King, LA & PA McInerney. (2006, November). Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban metropolitan area.
Paulson, Amanda. (2009, March 18). Change pay, change performance?
The employees will alter their behavior accordingly, depending on which behavior they feel will have the most positive outcome.
Clearly the correct course of action for the company is to amend the reinforcement mechanisms. This can be done either through positive reinforcement or negative. Passing the course is mandatory, but passing the first time could receive a reward. The company could also reduce the benefit of taking the course. It probably will need to be paid time, but the company could avoid running the course at a nice hotel, instead using normal meeting rooms that do not convey any sense of reward. Make the course as horrible as possible so that employees will want to pass it as quickly as possible.
As well, the company could use negative reinforcement mechanisms. Employees could be punished for failing to pass the course the first time. There are legal limits as to what…
Glass, M. (2010). How can managers use reinforcement theory to motivate employees? Houston Chronicle. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-managers-use-reinforcement-theory-motivate-employees-18559.html
Mathibe, I. (2010). Expectancy theory and its implications for employee motivation. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal. Vol. 6 (3) Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://www.academicleadership.org/article/expectancy-theory-and-its-implications-for-employee-motivation
Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she received a Master of Science in management.
Professionally speaking, Fiorina occupied various secretarial positions; she was also a teacher of English in Italy and a receptionist. Her fruitful career began in 1980 when she joined at&T, where after various positions, came to be the company's Senior Vice President. In 1999 she joined Hewlett-Packard as Chief Executive Officer, but was forced to leave in 2005. After her departure from HP, Fiorina engaged in personal and political actions, such as the edition of her book Tough Choices: A Memoir, or campaigning with presidential candidate John McCain (Jacoby, 2008).
Carly Fiorina possesses numerous skills which qualify her for the leader's position. First of all, she has extensive knowledge and expertise, backed…
Adams, K., 2009, McLaren Boss Retires, Classic and Performance Car, http://www.classicandperformancecar.com/news/octanenews/233620/ron_dennis.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009
Williams, R., December 22, 2007, Why Mosley is Happy with the Season that Had Everything, the Guardian
Wolff, a., June 12, 2007, 'Better than Sex' That's how Formula One Phenomenon Lewis Hamilton Described Winning His First Pole, Sports Illustrated
2007, the FIA's McLaren-Monaco Statement in Full, Formula 1 Website, http://www.formula1.com/news/headlines/2007/5/6178.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009
Business Psychology/consulting/Industrial Psychology
Business Psychology/consulting/industrial Psycholog
Transformational leadership plan is a process moving leadership positions from one person to another or from one generation to another. Two major theories in relation to leadership transition plan are contingency theory and behavioral theory. Contingency theory emphasizes that there is no leadership style, which can stand alone as a proper leadership style. From the internal and external environmental factors, a leader should adapt to any given situation because leading has no redefined path. Behavioral theory emphasizes that great leaders are not born but made. The theory states that any leader can be more effective through teaching, experience, and observation. The theories can be applied in case of a sudden departure, for strategic leadership succession, and a possible planned departure (Ismail & Yusuf, 2011).
Merger transition plan is a process where two or more companies joined such that they can benefit on large capitals,…
Bass, M.B. (1990). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Leaning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics. Volume 18, Issue 3: 19 -- 31
Cohen, A. & Golan R. (2007). Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions by past absenteeism and work attitudes: An empirical examination of female employees in long-term nursing care facilities. Career Development International, Vol. 12 Iss: 5, pp.416 -- 432
De Dreu, C.K. W & Weingart, L.R. (2003). Task vs. relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 88(4), Aug 2003, 741-749. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.741
Emery, M. (2010). When the Cure is the Cause: the Turnover and Absenteeism Problems. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 15(1), Article 6: 1-17
Performance Management Theories and Practices
Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.
The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…
Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/866083571/50E9B56B076C4E25PQ/1?accountid=39364
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
ork Motivation Assignment
Describe the Equity Theory.
Equity theory is a theory regarding the fairness and justice of material allocation between individuals. It is where workers believe they are being rewarded accordingly or not. If he or she is over or under awarded, a notion of anguish is created. In the end, further efforts must be committed to restore appropriate worth. The theory is basically about whether or not both parties are receiving proper and just shares of deserved resources. The value of equity is determined by measuring the amount of aid and contribution between each party. However, the former does not mean fiscal or emotional, and the latter excludes investment in time and effort. The balance in the equity theory and between the two parties means as long as they both exert similar efforts, a balanced ratio has been achieved. The theory suggests and predicts that a worker or…
"Adams Equity Theory Powerpoint." Docstoc. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. .
"Equity Theory." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. .
"Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn (5)." SlideFinder. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. .
Redmond, Brian F., and Dillon JL Chong. "Equity Theory." WikiSpaces. Atlassian Confluence, 15 Feb. 2011. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. .
The constant battle with violent crime is a perplexing problem for those designated to solve these types of problems. This frustrating cycle of failure and success seems to adopt the mantra, "one step forward, two steps back" in its purest sense. As gains are made it is important to understand the root causes of these results in order to better adapt the ever changing environment that creates new problems in this type of battle.
Zimmerman's (2007) case study investigated this struggle within the city of Boston, MA. In this research he described a story of great success through the help of community involvement as violent crime rates and homicides drastically reduced when this method was applied. Unfortunately, the gains were soon lost after a distorted strategy led the leadership awry.
The purpose of this essay is to explore this case study, and apply the research to the current…
Travis, L.F., III. (1983). The case study in criminal justice research: Applications to policy analysis.Criminal Justice Review (Georgia State University), 8(2), 46 -- 51. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=14236432&site=eds-live
Wahyuni, D. (2012). The research design maze: Understanding paradigms, cases, methods and methodologies.Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 10(1), 69 -- 80. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=76405928&site=eds-live
Scott, E., & Zimmerman, P. (2007). Revisiting gang violence in Boston.Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Available from http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/web/product_detail.seam?E=3458242&R=HKS329-PDF-ENG&conversationId=192877
Motivational Theories for Various Employee Groups
The force that initiates certain behavior in a person is also called motivation. Motivational theories have been developed by researchers using various mechanisms like state of mind, basic needs, desires and goals of a person.
Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)
The two-factor theory was published in 1959 by Herzberg after doing a research on the job attitudes for five years. Two different factors affect job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, as the theory states. Thus, dissatisfaction and satisfaction should not be measured using the same continuum. The two motivating factors of the theory are motivation and hygiene factors. Motivation factors produce positive satisfaction to an employee, they are mainly intrinsic conditions e.g. responsibility, recognition, challenging work and achievement. Hygiene factors are extrinsic job conditions and absence of these results in job dissatisfaction e.g. working conditions, company policies, pay, supervision, job security, status and fringe benefits Sutaria, 1980()…
Gagne, M., & Deci, E.L. (2005). Self-Determination Theory and Work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-362.
Gratton, L.C. (1980). Analysis of Maslow's Need Hierarchy with Three Social Class Groups. Social Indicators Research, 7(1/4), 463-476.
Shore, T., Sy, T., & Strauss, J. (2006). Leader Responsiveness, Equity Sensitivity, and Employee Attitudes and Behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(2), 227-241.
Sutaria, R. (1980). Personality, Needs and Two-Factor Theory of Work Motivation. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 16(2), 219-232.
( Place security above other factors-to reiterate increased pay seemed to be the primary motivational factor in improving work and this was rarely and option, so security was a primary concern but responsibility was not sought. Most lacked the confidence to attempt to obtain higher levels of responsibility. Ultimately most simply followed the rules to ensure they would still have their job on the next pay period.
The X theory aspects served as an introduction to work for many people. Teaching them the boundaries of the work environment as well as work ethic they may not learn otherwise. This transitional type job is an essential one in any capitalistic society as it shows people why they should seek higher order actions and thoughts, while it allows a place for those who never recognize this.
Theory Y Setting
Conversely, I have worked in settings were skilled individuals were sought to perform…
Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2008). Organizational Behavior: Motivation Concepts. Washington DC: PHI.
Shah, K. & Shah, P.J. (2008). "Theories of Motivation." Referenced 18th February, 2010 from: http://www.laynetworks.com/Theories-of-Motivation.html
Mind Tools (2010) "Theory X and Theory Y: Understanding team member motivation" Referenced 18th February, 2010 from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY
Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology
Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory
Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set of processes, which induce, direct, and maintain actions towards an objective. It is not similar to job performance, but it is a contributor to job performance (Linder, 1980). Motivation is a crucial component in the workplace, which explains why organizations are borrowing concepts from the motivation theories. There are many motivational theories, but they either fall under the content or process categories. Content theories assume that individuals have similar needs, and process theories emphasize the importance of…
Brewer, E.W., & McMahan-Landers, J. (2003). Job satisfaction among industrial and technical teacher educators. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(2), 65.
Benson, S.G., & Dundis, S.P. (2003). Understanding and motivating health care employees:
integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology. Journal of nursing management, 11(5), 315-320.
Jensen, R. (2006). Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: Needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks. Behavior analysis fall, 29(2), 187-209.
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…
Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from http://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/4173/1/Choice-and-Free-Will-Beyond-the-Disease -
Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/psy337DrugAddiction/theorydrugaddiction.htm
Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/addiction_disease_model.asp
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
There are many different theories pertaining to the development of one's personality. While our personalities develop, we adopt different habits over the years. Some of the habits stay with us for the rest of our lives, while the others we abandon either because of social pressure or because our personality is evolving continuously and therefore our habits change. One of my habits that I would like to analyze in this paper that I have a habit of making 'things-to-do -- list."
Analysis of my habit
From the very beginning, since I was a child, I have been very organized. I always make sure that all my tasks are completed and done on time. As I grew up and life became complex and busier, some of the things that I had to do would get missed every now and then. Also, I would feel very confused as to what I…
Cherry, Kendra. (2013). "Theories of Personality - Personality Psychology Study Guide." About.com Guide.
Sincero, Sarah M. (2012). "Social Cognitive Theories of Personality."
In reaction, diabetes research looks into pharmacological options and changes in lifestyle to contain the trend. Recent findings point to the need for healthcare professionals to empower diabetes sufferers to take recourse in self-management as the best option at the moment (Kumar).
The purposefulness of a plan and its implementation in assisting a client with diabetes helped fill in her self-care deficit (Kumar 2007). The interpersonal relationship between a nurse and her client minimizes the stress experienced by the latter and her family. This enables the client or patient and her family to act more responsibly in health matters. An assessment and plan of care may use Orem's client-related concepts -- of self-care, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand and self-care deficit --, the concepts of nursing agency and nursing system and the basic conditioning factors. Integrating these concepts into other theories on health promotion and family systems may guide effective…
Aldridge, V. (2005). Self-monitoring of blood, glucose invaluable in managing diabetes. 3 pages. Journal of Diabetes Nursing: SB Communications. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOMDR/is_10_9/ai_n27865119?tag=content;col1
Aliha, J.M., et al. (2006). Relation between self-care behavior and self-care needs in patients with heart failure.2 pages. Southern African Journal of Critical Care: South African Medical Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/article/mi_6870/is_1_23/ai_n28450856?tag=content;col1
Bruce, E., et al. (2008). Dorothea Orem's theory of self-care. 38 pages. SlideShare, Inc. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://www.slideshare.net/jben501/dorothea-orem-theory
Cook, a., et al. (2006). Self-care needs of caregivers dealing with stroke. 9 pages.
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at http://www.cognitivetherapy.com/learning.html Accessed on February 15, 2005
Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/cognitive.htm . Accessed on February 15, 2005
Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"
Motivational Theories / Teamwork
Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.
The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on Max Weber's ideas of charisma and transformational leadership. This theory -- when implemented successfully -- creates trust in the leader, a "high commitment to the leader," high levels of "performance among followers," and a high "overall organizational performance" (Kirkpatrick, 2011). The visionary leader must have acute insight into the needs and values of his/her staff. The vision of the leader positively influences and motivates the followers. The visionary leader must have a "long-range vision of what his or her organization should become in ten, twenty, or more years in the future" (Kirkpatrick, p. 1616).
The leader must not only have charisma but also be able to "engage in several rhetorical techniques" that will motivate followers. Those techniques include…
Dyer, W. Gibb, Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Dyer, William G. 2013. Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. John Wiley & Sons: Santa Barbara, CA.
House, Robert J. 1996. 'Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory.' Leadership Quarterly, vol. 7, 323-353.
Kirkpatrick, Shelly A. 2011. 'Visionary Leadership Theory', Encyclopedia of Leadership. SAGE Publications. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://knowledge.sagepub.com .
Koontz, Harold, and Weihrich, Heinz. 2006. Essentials of Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education: Mumbai, India.
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…
Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.
OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…
Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain
Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.
Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction
Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
Dorothea Orem Nursing Theory
A theory is related concepts, and propositions used to guide a professional practice. Moreover, nursing theory serves as the interrelated concepts, predictive in nature, statement explanatory that assists in understanding the nursing phenomenon, which helps to explain and predict the nursing outcomes. Nursing theory is an organized body of knowledge used to explain the phenomena and supporting the nursing practice. Moreover, the nursing theory is defined as a set of definitions, concepts, assumptions, and relationships or propositions that are derived from the nursing model. However, the nursing theories consist of grand and middle-ranged theory. The middle ranged theory is the testable theory, limited in scope, limited in a variable, and used for the clinical research. More importantly, nursing theory serves as the body of knowledge that assists in carrying out the nursing research.
The objective of this study is to use the Dorothea Orem theory to…
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. Retrieved May 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/
Maria, O. (2015). Application of Dorothea Orem's Theory of Self-Care to the Elderly Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal 41(5): 495-498.
Roussel, L. (2013). Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators, Sixth Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Wong, C. L., Ip, W. Y., Choi, K. C., & Lam, L. W. (2015). Examining Self-Care Behaviors and Their Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls With Dysmenorrhea: An Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(3), 219-227. doi:10.1111/jnu.12134
However, in the case of Sudan, it may be said that none of the above theories applies. This is largely due to the fact that there are specific internal factors which determine the orientation of the economy in a certain direction. These are most of the times related to the historical evolution of the country under discussion.
In the Sudanese case, the end of the war and the independence from the British rule marked the slow evolution of an autonomous economic system. However, the lack of experienced personal and the poor investment plans made these attempts fail. Also, the internal turmoil and conflicting situation between the North and the South aggravated the rift between the two regions of the country. Therefore, a sustainable development plan could not have been set in place because there was no cohesion both at the level of the political authority and the social one. (Country…
BBC. Country profile: Sudan. BBC World. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/820864.stm#facts
CIA. The World Factbook. Sudan. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html#Intro
CIA. The World Factbook. United States. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Country Studies. Sudan: Agriculture. N.d. Retrieved 4 September 2007, at http://www.country-studies.com/sudan/agriculture.html
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
Global Positioning Satellites
The History of Global Positioning Satellites
The First Global Positioning Satellite
Transmission Functions of the Global Positioning Satellites
eception of Information from Global Positioning Satellites
Advantages of the Global Positioning Satellites System
Introduction to the Global Positioning Satellites
As the name suggests, the global positioning satellite system is based on satellites. It is a navigational system that comprises of a complex arrangement of satellites that orbit round the earth. Twenty-four in all, these satellites are eleven thousand nautical miles far in space. There are six dissimilar orbits wherein the satellites continually keep revolving. It takes these satellites twenty-four hours to complete two orbital revolutions round the Earth. Upon calculation, the revolutionary speed of these satellites is computed to be around 2,600 meters per second (JA-GPS.com).
The radius of every orbit of the global positioning satellites is approximately 25,000 kilometers from the center of the earth, making them…
Federal Radio Navigation Plan (FRP). (1994) USNO NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. www.tycho.usno.navy.mil
Hobbs, Mike. Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) and Dirt Bikes. www.off-road.com
JA-GPS.com. Johnny Appleseed GPS: The Theory and Practice of GPS. www.ja-gps.com.au/whatisgps.html
PBS. (May, 21, 1998) Online News Hour: Global Positioning Satellites. You Are Here. www.pbs.org
The author of this report is put in a case study situation where a patient is aging and encountering some health issues. The patient is grumbling that her immediate family has not had the health problems that she has had. Those health problems include a heart attack within the last week, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. She is doing this grumbling while her hygiene is being attended. For the purposes of this story, it is the author of this report that is providing the hygiene and thus must give answers to these grumblings based on the perspective of an informed caregiver. The author is also charged with including the biologic aging theory in the overall answer and the patient's overall care plan. While genetics is indeed a major precursor for many major health issues, it is far from being the only one and this patient…
Jin, K. (2010). Modern Biological Theories of Aging. Aging And Disease, 1(2), 72. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995895/
Worcester, A. (2015). Social Gerontology: The Biology of Aging. Trinity.edu. Retrieved 28 September 2015, from http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/ger-biol.html
Employment otivation and Engagement: How to Recruit and Retain Top-Quality Talent in a Competitive arketplace
Because employee performance and productivity are closely aligned with corporate profitability, there has been a great deal of research over the years concerning optimal approaches to motivating people in the workplace. The analysis of what motivates people to perform to their maximum effort, though, has becoming increasingly complex as the result of a growing number of theories concerning the antecedents of motivation and optimal job performance and motivational methods to achieve it. While the debate concerning which motivational approaches produce the best results continues, there is a consensus among organizational behavior researchers that pay ranks among the top factors that include employee motivation, perhaps the overarching factor in most cases. Despite these findings, studies have shown time and again that money talks when it comes to employee motivation. When people become convinced that their efforts…
Murphy, C., Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. & MacCurtain, S. 2006, July 1. Organizational Justice Perceptions and Employee Attitudes among Irish Blue Collar Employees: An Empirical Test of the Main and Moderating Roles of Individualism/Collectivism. Management Revue, 17(3), 329.
Merit wage increases are awarded to employees for their ability to meet stated goals.
4) Because employees define their own goals and deadlines, they may not be appropriately aligned with organizational goals and employees may set them too low just so they can meet them. Equity is part of the salary increase process, but comes only after allocation of merit. This could mean that serious inequities in pay go unresolved. Employees are rebelling against the system, as evidenced by overrides of dates and resistance to entering goals.
5) Management should work more closely with employees to set goals and the notion of team goals should be incorporated into the system to foster team work. Equity should not take a back seat to merit; adjustments should be made to resolve inequities, particularly those that may be related to gender, race or age. Once employees have submitted goals, they should be frozen…
In addition, Maslow's theoy allows manages to undestand the significant needs active fo specific employee ensuing motivation.
In summay, Maslow's hieachy of needs theoy has geate motivation to employees compaed to the expectancy theoy. Although they compae in some aspects, the significantly diffe in othes. These two theoies compae in Maslow theoy ceating a base fom which expectancy theoy develops fom, both enabling a peson to modify his/he input depending on the impotance they have on the expected esult afte pefoming a task, as well as allowing an individual to establish which esults ae most likely to motivate them o othes. Contay to the similaities, expectancy theoy concentates on the needs athe than the esults on a paticula task whee else Maslow's theoy focuses on how the diffeent needs associate with themselves and what it calls fo to satisfy them and allows manages to undestand the significant needs active…
references in German and the U.S.A. New York: Springer
Hassard, J. And M. Parker, 1993. Post modernization and organization. London, UK: SAGE
Yeatts, D. And C. Hyten, 1998. High-performing self-managed work teams: a comparison of theory to practice. London, UK: SAGE
job design," called "job redesign" focusing improve quality employee satisfaction increase employee productivity ? 2. What "Equity Theory?" How a tool managers? 3. Many people "perception reality.
The job design refers to the efforts of the managerial team to pin point to the specific tasks assigned to each position. They also place increased emphasis on the standards to completing the tasks, the time frame to completing the tasks as well as the priority in completing the tasks assigned to a position (Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety).
The primary scope of job design is that of clearly defining the responsibilities of each and every position so that the company is efficient and performant in its efforts to attaining its objectives. Still, aside from this, job design cam also generate a more salient impact -- that of increasing the satisfaction and productivity of the staff members.…
Expectancy theory, Quick MBA, http://www.quickmba.com/mgmt/expectancy-theory / last accessed on January 25, 2012
Job design, Business Dictionary, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-design.html last accessed on January 25, 2012
Job design, Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety, http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/job_design.html last accessed on January 25, 2012
I recently discovered that a female employee was being paid more than I even though we were both hired at the same time. The reason (as I discerned it) was that they had to pay her more because she was needed for a project that required at least one female on the team. However, I was doing most of the work and getting paid less than her. This made me angry, and as I remember it, made her feel guilty. She knew that I was more qualified but that did not matter to the employer, instead I was informed that I should just live with it. Reacting to this situation was a classic response according to the equity theory. I felt less like doing the work, and more apt to take a more casual approach to the project itself. My performance was still okay, but could have been much…
Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual.
One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security, while another teacher may be more motivated by the idea of changing children's lives. This means that different strategies must be deployed in motivating people within the same organization or within different professions: a salesperson may be motivated by different things than a professor. "According to David McClelland's an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power" (McClelland's theory of needs,…
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
McClelland's theory of needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
Most retail environments are plagued by high turnover. While some of this has to do with a lack of motivation, much of the problem lies in the company's inability to create high-performance teams capable of taking on challenges and making decisions with peers to help solve problems within the company (Janis, 1972). In any environment, when a successful team is lacking, so too is motivation and consistency of performance. None of these traits are evident however, within the Container Store's case study.
Escalation of commitment - the Container store adopts the ideal of escalation of commitment as stated by the store's managers who follow the McGregor Theory Y This theory suggests that employees are not by nature "lazy" and will often perform in the best manner possible and commit to the company if given an opportunity to feel empowered to make decisions without the need to "check in" with members…
Ahlfigner, N.R. & Esser, J.K. (2001). Testing the groupthink model: Effects of promotional leadership and conformity predisposition. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 29(1): 31-42.
Janis, I.L. (1972). Victims of groupthink. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Vroom, V.H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley
Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of emotion and motivation, New York:
Drawing from Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Shank's old boss failed to fulfill the needs of both esteem and belonging. Belonging is related to making sure employees are comfortable and feel that they are part of the team or group. Although esteem is making employees feel a sense of accomplishment. Shank has described the former boss as being non-motivating, having no relationship with employees and having told employees that they are just a number in the organization. During the tenure of the former boss, motivating employees was not a prime factor. The former boss ran the company on the bottom line of getting things done, making profit, efficiently and effectively. If things were not done in the right manner, the boss would replace the employees. Since the boss is operating at a twofold level of the Maslow's hierarchy of needs (security and physiology), its top priority must be to motivate…
Tricia the new store director, and her three new assistants are on a mission to restructure the store. Each assistant was given a task, and a job, which made the retail store run more effectively. There was structure, organization, and a peaceful work environment about the four ladies. Tricia held daily contest, making it fun to come to work, showing more motivation with the sales going up. Performance -- to-outcome was most affected. When all four ladies where on the same page, working to achieve a goal, and having team members who were more like family made everyone want to work, this created motivation within the team members . Sales started to go up, production was seen on the sales floor, and organization in the back room with retail made it possible to locate items for the customer .
4. Using the 5 different styles of reacting to conflicting (avoiding,…
Despite their supposed differences, all of the foregoing organizational management techniques and approaches share some common themes involving getting a better handle of what is actually being done in companies and how better to manage these things. Unfortunately, another common theme these management approaches share is the inappropriate or misapplication of these approaches by managers who either do not understand how they work or by rabid managers who insist on absolute conformity with these processes and procedures without any room for flexibility according to the unique needs of the organization. In fact, according to Mills (2003), "Analysis of the data suggests that the implementation of organizational change, particularly selected change programs such as Culture Change, TQM and BP, does not follow the rational, orderly decision-making processes indicated by advocates" (p. 2). Nevertheless, some of the more recent management approaches do provide a more comprehensive analysis of what can reasonably be…
Ashkenas, R.N. (1994). Beyond the fads: How leaders drive change with results. Human Resource Planning, 17(2), 25-27.
Bailey, J. (1996). After thought: The computer challenge to human intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Bennis, W. & Mische, M. (1995). The 21st century organization: Reinventing through reengineering. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
(Cherrington, 1973) These types of rewards are referred to as contingent rewards. The theory is that employees are willing to put forth extra effort if they know they will be rewarded accordingly.
Cherrington and his colleagues surmised that no inherent link between satisfaction and performance exists. Instead, satisfaction and performance are dependent upon performance-contingent awards. (Cherrington, 1971) Three types of rewards can be found in an organization. They are random, positively contingent, and negatively contingent. andom awards are given regardless of performance. High and low performers are rewarded equally under this system. Next, positively contingent awards are given only to high performers. Low performers are given nothing. Finally, negatively contingent awards are given to low performers while the higher performers receive nothing. (Cherrington, 1971) Cherrington's findings place power on the reward itself. In another study on performance-contingent rewards, Jacobs and Solomon confirmed the finding of Cherrington. The connection between job…
Cameron, Judy, & Pierce, David W., (April 30, 2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey.
Cherrington, David J. & Cherrington, J. Owen. (1973). Contingent reinforcement in budgeting and performance appraisals. Retrieved from http://www23.us.archive.org/stream/contingentreinfo107cher/contingentreinfo107cher_djvu.txt
Cherrington, David J., Reitz, H. Joseph, & Scott, William E. (1971). Effects of Contingent and Non-Contingent Reward on the Relationship Between Satisfaction and Task Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55, 531-536.
Gagne, Maryle'ne, & Deci, Edward L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362. DOI: 10.1002/j.322
This theory also suits me well as I believe that the greater the effort and intensity, the higher the probabili8ty of attaining ones' objectives. There is also the element of continual learning, both at work and school to interpret and when applicable, use the lessons learned. Expectancy theory also is well-suited for accounting for environmental factors that can at times be uncontrollable yet capitalized on, leading to the attainment of objectives in the future. Finally, expectancy theory also concentrates on how the concepts of valence, or strength of a person's preference for a given outcome, when combined with instrumentality and expectancy, can accurately predict the attainment of objectives over time. The concept of linking effort and results is appealing.
6. What are the common characteristics of charismatic and transformational leadership? Compare Colin Powell and Osama bin Laden as charismatic or transformational leaders. Would your answer differ if you were sympathetic…
For instance, LaFleur and Hyten (1995) suggested that performance of hotel banquet staff improved when staff members received monthly bonuses function of their ability to meet accuracy and timeliness goals in setting up banquet functions (cited in Ambrose & Kulik, 1999).
Implementing these strategies should be facilitated by the fact that the two strategies complete each other. Establishing clear goals and their attainment is facilitated by the incentive, which may increase goal commitment, motivation, and thus, performance.
Incentive media kit (2005), etrieved from site: http://www.huttonmedialimited.com/images/pdfs/Incentive-rates-Production2005.pdf
Ambrose, M.L., & Kulik, C.T. (1999). Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25(3), 231-292.
Steven H. Appelbaum, ammie Kamal (2000). An analysis of the utilization and effectiveness of non-financial incentives in small business. Journal of Management Development, Volume: 19 Issue: 9 Pp. 733-763
t Hon. Andrew Smith MP. "Making a difference - motivating people to improve performance," etrieved…
Incentive media kit (2005), Retrieved from site: http://www.huttonmedialimited.com/images/pdfs/Incentive-rates-Production2005.pdf
Ambrose, M.L., & Kulik, C.T. (1999). Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25(3), 231-292.
Steven H. Appelbaum, Rammie Kamal (2000). An analysis of the utilization and effectiveness of non-financial incentives in small business. Journal of Management Development, Volume: 19 Issue: 9 Pp. 733-763
Rt Hon. Andrew Smith MP. "Making a difference - motivating people to improve performance," Retrieved from site, http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/Documents/Public_Spending_and_Services/Public_Services_Productivity_Panel/pss_pspp_makingadifference.cfm ?
The vertical differentiations are associated with the components of abstraction that permit individuals to determine both their intentions and their behaviors. The horizontal differentiation is associated with different intentions including the completion of the project.
Tubbs and Eckeberg (1991) assert that understanding the intentional model has implications associated with understanding the effects of goal setting. The authors argue that the intentional behavior model explains the cognitive effects of goals which is rarely seen in research pertaining to work motivation. The authors posit that the research is important because it is the first time that research has sought to determine the impact that goals have on people.
Finally Latham and Pinder (2005) discuss Work Motivation Theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The author point out that interest in motivational theories has not waned since they first begin to surface. According to the authors, work motivation represents a…
Klein J.I. (1990) Feasibility Theory: A Resource Munificence Model of Work motivation and Behavior. Academy of Management Review. 15 (4) pgs. 646-645.
Latham G.P., Pinder, C.C. (2005) Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Annual Review of Pyschology. 56: 485-516.
Tubbs M.E., Eckeberg S.E. (1991) Academy of Management Review. 15(1) pgs. 180-199.
globalization that diversified cultures and backgrounds have converged and are working together in collaboration. Considering the scenario of today's world, the rapidly changing demographics have played a critical role in the emergence of new styles of leadership. The definition of competitiveness and the qualities associated with a leader have also changed in the current times. And among all the qualities the two most prominent qualities that every leader must possess is related to the consideration of equity of gender, and equity of diversified cultures.
Different cultures suggest different roles for males and females based on their unique value system. The mindsets, couture, and eating habits of almost all the cultures are traditionally unique. Countries belonging to a particular geographical area behave in a certain way, so do the organizations and leaders belonging to those areas. Their attitude and approach is derived from their cultural values. Some countries have common cultures…
Fiedler, F. (1972). Predicting the effects of leadership training and experience from the contingency model., Journal of Applied Psychology, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/56/2/114/
Fiedler, F. (1972). The effects of leadership training and experience: A contingency model interpretation, Administrative Science Quarterly, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2393826
Fiedler, F. (2005). CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP, Essential theories of motivation and leadership, retrieved April 25, 2011 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8yo2Fp6UAEMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA232&dq=fiedler%27s+leadership&ots=2YX-FkEKy0&sig=WEtmbDIw5HZywNFFIi5Z1zYYkTw
Harris, P. & Moran, R. (1996). Managing cultural differences, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.angelfire.com/nj4/ambass148/Harris_ch7.doc
Identification of the problem
The company has decided to create an intermediate position in the company, somewhere between the management team and the employees. In this new position, the person that will be occupying it will report directly to the owners and will have a free hand conducting performance reviews for the managers involved in the respective system.
The main issue in discussion here is whether to choose between two of the company's employees, Mrs. Lee or Mr. Washington, who have both applied for this position. This is a serious issue, as it is most likely that the future performance of the company and the way this system is likely to work in the future will depend on the person's abilities to cope with the challenge, to conduct performance reviews and, at the same time, report to the owners.
The new position has become a necessity…
However, when an employee sees that his or her employer is stepping up and trying to do something that the employee wants or needs, instead of just what is good for the company and not the employees, motivation can result. People need to feel that they matter to their employer. Few people are content with only receiving monetary compensation for the work that they do for their boss. They are all individuals and they have a desire to be recognized. They have goals that do not match up with the goals of the organization for which they work, but they may also have goals which are similar in nature to those of the company by which they are employed. Has anyone asked them what they really want to do with their lives and how the company can help facilitate those dreams? Companies that are concerned about the health and…
Austin, J. & Carr, J.E. (2000). Handbook of applied behavior analysis, New York: Context Press. 2000. Understanding the behavior of individuals in the workplace and in other areas of daily life can be very difficult. However, it is vital that an employer or anyone who is in charge of people focus on learning about the behavior of the individuals of which he or she is in charge. It is not possible to properly motivate people for employment or any other reason without being clearly aware of what motivates those people and what they are focused on in their careers and in the rest of their lives. Gaining information on how to analyze the behavior of those individuals is a way in which leaders can see more success.
Bedeian, A.G. (1993). Business owners (3rd ed.). New York: Dryden Press. Owning a business may sound enjoyable because there is no "boss" to which to answer. However, having a business of one's own is more complicated than most people think. This is especially true in the hiring of employees because there are so many different areas to consider. Reading up on how a business operates and the kind of information which is needed to successfully run a business is something that all leaders should do, even if they are not the head of the business in which they are working. Those who are high up in management are particularly susceptible to not realizing the needs of other people, and that can start them down a slippery slope of not doing what is right by their employees -- and those employees will leave, causing the business to struggle if it cannot quickly find good help.
Bowen, B.E., & Radhakrishna, R.B. (1991). Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: A constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (2). 16-22. No matter what kind of business a person operates or what kind of career that person has, job satisfaction is a big issue. Some people assume that they are capable of handing any job as long as they are well-paid, but this is often not really the case. People who are paid well but not treated respectfully quickly tire of their jobs. By focusing on one type of job it is possible to see just how diverse a group of workers might be and just how significant it is that these workers all get what they need in order to feel satisfied at their job. There is much more than money involved where the satisfaction with one's career is concerned. Strong businesses are aware of this, and work to make sure their employees are satisfied with what they are doing for the company.
Brethower, D. & Smalley, K. (1998). Performance-based instruction: Linking training to business results. Pfeiffer; Har/Dis edition. 1998. How a person is trained when he or she begins a job can have a large influence on whether that person continues to perform well. Getting a job is not always difficult, but enjoying that job and performing well in it are other areas where employees may not succeed. If an employee is properly trained, he or she will statistically perform better at the job to which he or she has been assigned. One of the best ways to train an employee properly is to make sure that employee learns on the job.
theories on motivation that relate to an employee switching from salary to commission. The Maslow "Hierarchy of Needs" theory is applicable and appropriate; Maslow believed that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs first, then they move on to other needs. He presents five levels in his hierarchy of needs and the first is "physiological needs": these are survival needs -- food, water, air to breathe and sleep. The motivation to earn more money covers the ability to buy food and to have fresh water. The second level of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is the most applicable to the switch from salary to commission; that second on the hierarchy are "security needs" -- steady employment, access to healthcare, a safe place to live and shelter from the environment. The other needs (social, esteem, and "self-actualizing") fit into the change from salary to commission, but of those "self-actualizing" is particularly germane…
Cherry, K. (2014). Hierarchy of Needs. About.com Psychology. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com .
University of Cambridge. (2009). Vroom's Expectancy Theory. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk .
He let them know truthfully and honestly what was expected of them, that the journey would be difficult, and that they would all be in the situation together. He was honest about the impending Civil War when he first took office, and he was honest with his cabinet about the difficulties they would face. This path-goal theory of management helped create a very supportive environment that is necessary when people are facing extremely difficult problems, such as Civil War. The leader must be strong and mature, but he must also be extremely supportive and nurturing, and Lincoln was, which commanded respect among just about everyone he dealt with. He worked very closely with his generals during the war, and he set specific goals for them, another aspect of the path-goal theory -- offering specific leadership advice and goals, and expecting the followers to take the appropriate action. He was supportive,…
Elshtain, J.B. (1999, November). Abraham Lincoln & the last best hope. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 43.
Gienapp, W.E. (2002). Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A biography. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kumuyi, W.F. (2007, August/September). Seven communication tips an effective leader must have. New African 22+.
Rawley, J.A. (2003). Abraham Lincoln and a nation worth fighting for. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Equity Theory argues that workers will engage in comparison with one another for rewards to help determine their level of effort (Barnet, 2010). In this instance, workers for the poor managers can see that not only do they not receive reward for their efforts at all, but they are treated more poorly than other workers. The supervisor may even take all of the credit for the success of the organization. Under such situations, employees will not have a high level of motivation and therefore will have lower productivity levels than their peers. At Flagler, employees did not explicitly state comparisons, but it is reasonable that some workers such as those in the two warehouses or in the back office departments will make such comparisons.
Reinforcement Theory as espoused by B.F. Skinner underscores the situation at Flagler as well. It can be intimated that the good managers, by virtue of having…
Dreyfack. R. (2004). Personalizing productivity. Supervision. Vol. 65 (5) 20-22.
Silva, S. (no date). Motivation theories -- the foundations to employee motivation. Articles Base. Retrieved June 24, 2010 from http://www.articlesbase.com/human-resources-articles/motivation-theories-the-foundation-to-employee-motivation-768923.html
Barnet, T. (2010). Motivation and motivation theory. Reference for Business. Retrieved June 24, 2010 from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Mar-No/Motivation-and-Motivation-Theory.html
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008
2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008
The U.S. Of se intrinsic motivators, such as challenging work loads, to increase both responsibility and ownership of the work (ashaway-Bokina 2000). This was seen as a strong motivator even in the context of students (Gottfried & Gottfried 1996). Thus, money does not always have to be the end result, but the concept of overcoming the challenge and truly owning one's work can be enough of a motivator, especially in the case of unpaid interns where financial compensation is out of the question.
Elliot, A.J. & Church, M.A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 72:218-322.
Gottfried, A.E. & Gottfried, A.W. (1996). A longitudinal study of academic intrinsic motivation in intellectually gifted children: children through early adolescence. Gifted Child Quarterly. 40(4):179-182.
ashaway-Bokina, Nancy. (2000). Recognizing and nurturing intrinsic motivation: a cautionary tale. Roeper Review. 22(4):225-227.
azenby, Scott. (2008). How…
Lashaway-Bokina, Nancy. (2000). Recognizing and nurturing intrinsic motivation: a cautionary tale. Roeper Review. 22(4):225-227.
Lazenby, Scott. (2008). How to motivate employees: what research is telling us. Public Management. 90(8):22-25.
Locke, E.A. & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: a 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist. Vol. 57:705-717.
The leader must ensure that both parties clearly determine exactly what outcomes constitute acceptable performance and those results which do not.
The leader must understand that for many followers, the expenditure of effort on the part of the follower leads to satisfaction on the job (Isaac et al.).
While the debate over nature vs. nurture continues as it applies to leadership, it is clear that although not everyone can be a charismatic leader that possesses the natural attributes to engender this level of motivation and commitment among their subordinates, it is possible to develop those management skills that can help motivate others to superior performance in a sustainable fashion. According to ogoff, Lee and Suh (2004), "Discovering which factors or practices lead to business success and which lead to failure is a primary, and as yet unfulfilled, purpose of business research" (p. 364). To help address this deficiency, these researchers…
Byham, W.C. (2002). 14 leadership traps: Why many CEOs don't have the leadership bench strength they need. T&D, 56(3), 56.
Isaac, R.G., Zerbe, W.J. & Pitt, D.C. (2001). Leadership and motivation: The effective application of expectancy theory. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13(2), 212.
Maddock, R.C. & Fulton, R.L. (1998). Motivation, emotions, and leadership: The silent side of management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Rogoff, E.G., Lee, M.S. & Suh, D.C. (2004). Who done it? Attributions by entrepreneurs and experts of the factors that cause and impede small business success. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(4), 364.
ita's problem is Bob Antice. Bob, an employee of Powerful, was a star who brought his reputation to the company but is not living up to the changing times nor changing along with them. Still a legend in the recording history, friend and mentor to generations of performers, a legendary speaker, enthusiastic, imaginative, and the most successful salesman in the company's history, Bob seems to be losing his edge and not realizing it. Most importantly, he is delusional about his current performance and optimistic that the company is succeeding when it actually is not, and ita is faced with pressure from colleagues to fire him.
A key-contributor to Powerful success, Bob is not 'living' in the 21st century. Computer have taken over -- ipods, Shazam, LiveNation and so forth- sales had declined to more than 20% in 2009, and as Klein, Powerful's CEO noted, Bob was still in sales excepting…
Purpose of the discussion ics that will be discussed
Definition of Reward Systems and expectancy theory
Reward Systems that are Effective in business
Internal and External Rewards
Reward Systems for teams
Reward Systems and Organizational Performance
Reward systems that are Effective in education.
Reward systems for teachers and administrators
Reward systems for students
Reward Systems play a pivotal role in the world that we live in. Reward systems are used in many different facets including; the business world, the educational system and in the disciplining of children. The purpose of this discussion is to explain what makes rewards systems effective. Our discussion will examine effective reward systems in business, and the educational system. Let's begin by defining reward systems and the expectancy theory.
Definition of Reward Systems and Expectancy Theory
The use of reward systems is directly correlated to the expectancy theory. The expectancy theory asserts…
Allen, R.S., & Helms, M.M. (2002). Employee Perceptions of the Relationship between Strategy, Rewards and Organizational Performance. Journal of Business Strategies, 19(2), 115+..
This journal article contains empirical research pertaining to the impact of reward systems in the workplace.
The author provide readers with a glimpse into the human resources and f=how reward systems are used to motivate employees. This article was instrumental in understanding which reward systems are effective in business.
Bafile, Cara (2003) Reward Systems That Work: What to Give and When to Give It!