Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is perhaps the most commonly known theory of motivation, which is likely due to the broad applicability of the theory. Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs as part of his research on human potential and a component of positive psychology he termed self-actualization (Maslow, 1943; 1954). Maslow believed that human motivation is heightened when people seek fulfillment through personal growth and discovery. Self-actualized people are fully engaged with their potential, in an ongoing, lifelong effort to create meaning in their lives through highly personalized, positive endeavor (Maslow, 1962).
Doubtless, employers would enjoy not having to be concerned with motivating their employees if, in fact, their employees would "self-actualize" through their work. Indeed, some people do experience self-actualization when they are engaged in their paid employment. But, perhaps more often than not, people who become self-actualized are able to spend time either playing or laboring in a field for which they have a special talent or an intense and all-consuming interest. Maslow (1962) believed that self-actualization was manifested -- and could be measured -- by peak experiences...
Maslow described self-actualization as a "person's desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially." (Maslow, 1943, p. 382). Sadly, experts estimate that less than two percent of the population are self-actualized (Maslow, 1962). Modern social scientists Tay and Diener (2011) argue that human needs are not hierarchical since all of them are important, but their extensive analysis seems to split hairs. While it is true that many now famous artists lived in poverty, they still were able to meet their basic needs on some level and had relationships with other people to varying degrees of success.
Herzberg's (1959) Two Factor Theory took a reductionist approach to motivational theory and asserted that there are two types of factors that affect motivation through different paths. In an odd choice of terminology, Herzberg claimed that hygiene factors can be a source of dissatisfaction -- hence, motivational -- if people consider them to be inequitable or inadequate. If hygiene factors -- such as salary, working conditions, or job security -- are perceived as good or adequate, they do not have motivating power. Herzberg was apparently less inspired when he labeled the second set of factors, calling them simply motivators. These factors were considered by Herzberg to be intrinsic and include achievement, personal growth, recognition, and responsibility.
Motivational theories are broadly categorized…
A 2006 study of nurses cited "unsupportive management structures, autocratic and dehumanizing management styles…lack of autonomy in the workplace, professional jealousies...sub-optimal physical working conditions and shortage of staff…lack of opportunities for promotion or continuing one's professional education…inaccurate systems of performance…compounded by favoritism and racism" (King & McInerney 2006). While poor pay was an additional complaint, it was not the primary complaint. Although some of these stressors are institutional, others
Healthcare We can compare the healthcare workplace to what is seen by a person when he/she looks through a kaleidoscope: since there are numerous different patterns that appear as the moments pass by. The shortage of nurses which has been publicized widely and the high turnover rates amongst the nurses are some of the unwanted patterns which have occurred. The dependence of healthcare institutions on the nurse-managers for the retention and
Motivation in Health Care Desire is inbuilt in man. Our life and its furtherance through breeding are dependent on desire. Achievement of desire is what motivates us. On different levels, one might consider motivators and incentives. Often, the expeditious and efficient completion of a project is associated with a bonus. Motivation theory is a field of study that has established formalism for one important aspect of human behavior -- fulfillment of
MASLOW'S THOERY VS. HULL'S THEORY Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive Reduction Theory Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set
care in the situation of Mr. and Mrs. P would be holistic in nature, grounded in a philosophy of caring. There are serious existential issues at stake, as Mr. P has wondered why God has not "taken him" already, while Mrs. P may be suffering from depression given her inability to leave the house or handle the life affairs like paying the bills. Therefore, a recommended treatment plan would
For effective fulfillment of duties by health care professionals which will, in turn, give a quality service to patients under their care, there is a need for effective inter-professional communication among personnel in a hospital environment. While the concept of territory exists within a sector, that, however, should not be a barrier to a fluid collaboration among health workers of different backgrounds. There is a need to formulate a working