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I am a registered nurse from Westmoreland County Community College in Youngwood, Pennsylvania and currently taking up a achelor of Science in Nursing at Waynesburg College. At present, I am a nurse case manager at the Mercy Home Health in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania where I extend nursing care of clients at home and attend to their educational requirements in collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team and physicians. I also coordinate with the staff on patient care and document reimbursement requirements. I likewise function as a disease case manager at the McKesson Health Solutions in roomfield Colorado. In discharging this function, I education health plan members on the disease process and management, document and input findings into their health plans, make referrals and coordinate individual needs with treatment providers and the health plan.
From 1989 to 2004, I was a worker compensation case manager at the AIG/HDI in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; a…
1. Kelly, C. (1997). David Kolb, The Theory of Experiential Learning and ESL. The Internet TESL Journal, volume III number 9. http://teslj.org/Articles/Kelly_Experiential
2. Kirby, E. (2003). Ray L. Birdwhistell. Emuseum: Minnesota State University. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/abcde/birdwhistell_ray.html
3. New York University. (2005). Claude Shannon. http://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610003/shan.html
4. Plattsburgh. (2005). Berlo Therapeutic Theory. http://www2.plattsburgh.edu/acadvp/bibinfo/library/er/nur350r11.pdf
In addition, the use of a collaborative online environment for producing educational videos was shown to be an effective approach to promoting experiential learning. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that as educators gain more experience with online educational programs, there will be further integration of experiential learning opportunities that will draw on the multimedia-savvy strengths of today's learners.
Aragon, Steven R. Facilitating Learning in Online Environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
Imperatore, Catherine. (2009, May). "Moving into the Future with MUVES." Techniques 84(5):
McCarty, Jeanne E. (1999). "Cyberjunctions: Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace."
The Journal of Experiential Education 22(2): 74-76.
McPherson, Maggie and Miguel Baptista Nunes. Developing Innovation in Online Learning: An
Action Research Framework. London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2004.
Kennedy, Mary Lee and Angela Abell. (2008, January). "New Roles for Info Pros." Information
Outlook 12(1): 25-26.
Kolb, David a. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source…
Aragon, Steven R. Facilitating Learning in Online Environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
Imperatore, Catherine. (2009, May). "Moving into the Future with MUVES." Techniques 84(5):
Experiential Learning in the Exploration of Diversity: Getting Out of the Comfort Zone
The objective of this study is to select an activity that places one outside of the normal environment. For the purpose of this study chosen was a wheelchair and the public setting chosen was a city zoo. For the purpose of this study, the writer of this work pretended as though blind and unable to see but only to hear and sense what was going on in the surroundings of this study.
Description of Activity
The writer of this work had a friend accompany the writer to the zoo and to push the wheelchair that the writer was in during this experience. The zoo was chosen because of the many different sounds, smells and other stimulating input that the writer would receive from the setting.
What Was Observed
The writer of this work observed that many individuals…
Some of the main strategies that can be used to measure if I have achieved my objectives are as follows;
1. For better communication skills, conversation will be asked with peers, teachers and friends in order to analyze if the required goal has been achieved, if the main concept of the talk has been talked and the aim of the conversation has been achieved.
2. For the testing of the decision making and problem solving skills, it is important that whenever there is a need to make decision, either in the study career or in the family matters, decisions are made without the help of others but taking into account the advices and ideas of others. When the decisions are made, these are to be discussed with the elders as teachers, and parents.
3. In the case of computer-based skills, it is important all important assignments that are assigned by…
Avis, M. 2010. Effective Time Management Skills for Everyone. CreateSpace.
Biga, A., and University of South Florida. 2007. Measuring diversity management skill: Development and validation of a situational judgment test. ProQuest.
Brezina, C. 2008. Great Decision-Making Skills:Work Readiness. The Rosen Publishing Group.
Cadwell, K., and Turner-Maffei, C. 2004. Case studies in breastfeeding: problem-solving skills & strategies. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
experiential learning theory. This will be accomplished by focusing on how these ideas are incorporated into their thinking, the way it is influencing the individual and the application of key concepts. When this happens, specific insights are provided showing how this will impact the person's ability to recall them in the future.
Introduction of experiential learning
Experiential learning is the process of comprehending ideas based the experiences of the individual to understand the material. It focuses on how these factors and the practices of the teacher could provide a broader understanding of what is occurring. This means using different observations and interactions combined with instruction to enhance the student's ability to recall key idea. In many cases, internships and on-the-job training will involve utilizing these ideas to enhance the person's capacity to remember and apply important concepts on their own. (Wilson, 2006) ("Motivational Theory," 2013)
When this happens, they can…
Motivational Theory. (2013).
Ernst, J. (2013). Impact of Experiential Learning. Journal of Technology Education, 24 (2), 31 -- 39.
Kolb, D. (2013). Concrete / Reflective / Abstract / Active. Western Reserve University. Retrieved from:
Progressive education can fail to build upon past frameworks of student knowledge, according to Dewey, because of its scattered syllabus, based on student whims of the moment, while a student was still gaining self-knowledge and self-mastery.
Progressive education has some other inherent structural problems, such as the difficulty of evaluating and assessing the learner. If the student sets the terms of the learning process, how can the teacher evaluate whether the student is right or wrong? Students may also have very unbalanced interests. Dewey's dislike of dualism may be linked to his opposition of pure progressive education -- what about a student who does not like math, for example, and would not learn her multiplication tables unless compelled, preferring to use the time to do striking and brilliant art? The teacher could miss a critical window of learning opportunity, and it is necessary to learn certain basic skills to function…
Neill, James. "John Dewey, the Modern Father of Experiential Education."
Experiential Learning. January 26, 2005. November 20, 2008. http://wilderdom.com/experiential/ExperientialDewey.html
Neill, James. John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Experiential Learning. January 26, 2005. http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
A young, dark-haired woman who loudly introduces herself as Nicola arrives to begin my computer-based training program -- COSSFIE -- the central student database, scheduled for 3 o'clock, at the university. I introduce myself, as well, accepting the training guide she proffers. Nicola, once again in the same loud tone, tells me that we will get started once she logs me in. Her loud volume has me wondering whether she is experiencing nerves or not. After having organized a couple of chairs, I feel rather disappointed when the trainer decides to take the driver's chair. I feel I should be able to log myself on and know how the screens look. I've lost the opportunity to point that out, however, since she's logged in already, and has taken off like a jet. After reclaiming the manual, she attempts to show me two extra pages of information, while her…
References Committee, Inquiry into small business employment matters, Submission no 84,. Retrieved from Australian National Training Authority: ww.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/eet_ctte/smallbus_employ/submissions/sublist.htm
Hailstone, P. (2008). How to Write a Kolb Paper. www.researcheditwrite.com.au.
Quarry, P. (1992). Coaching on the Job. Seven Dimensions.
Sofo, F. (1999). Human Resource Development: Perspectives, Roles and Practice Choices. Business & Professional Publishing.
Experiential learning is a type of education in which the learner stops being a passive recipient of information and becomes an active participant by doing. It is not a new theory of education but rather one that has been in existence for at least a century. One of the best points of this theory of learning is that it promotes active learning, which is facilitates a deep-down acquisition of knowledge that can help students retain information more completely and build on skills to develop a more robust tool set for the future. This paper will discuss experiential learning and compare and contrast it with three other learning theories—self-directed learning, transformation learning, and cognitive and non-cognitive learning. Finally, it will provide my own general thoughts and personal theories on how humans learn and how facilitators of adult learning use knowledge of experiential learning to inform and influence their practices.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. Kappa Delta Pi.
Emotional Intelligence Powerpoint. (n.d.). Salovey & Meyer.
Experiential Learning Powerpoint. (n.d.). Kolb, Boud and Usher.
Experiential Learning: Cognitive Apprenticeship and Anchored Instruction Powerpoint. (n.d.). Cognitive Apprenticeship and Anchored Instruction.
Freire’s Theory Powerpoint. (n.d.). Freire’s theory.
Gray, P. & Feldman, J. (2004). Playing in the zone of proximal development: Qualities of self-directed age mixing between adolescents and young children at a democratic school. American Journal of Education, 110(2), 108-146.
Mezirow’s Transformational Learning Theory Powerpoint. (n.d.). Transformational learning.
Multiple Intelligences Theory Powerpoint. (n.d.) Multiple intelligences.
" The advantages of such a curriculum is that the material stays with the student longer than mere memorization; the students experience prevails over the teachers (thus the student teaches themselves); and the information learned is customized to the needs of the individual learner. Disadvantages of such an approach is frustration on the part of the student for their being a lack of a "right and wrong answer (or instant gratification); there is immense responsibility on the individual student and therefore requires a certain level of maturity; and there is not defined start and finish to the learning process.
However, Bonoma cites numerous examples of case studies, in both administrative and health care situations, in various fields where the statistics show a higher level of learner comprehension of the subject. Bonoma then concludes his paper by laying out instruction on how to set up, implement, run and evaluate a marketing-based…
Choosing the most effective style that relates to one's individual personality is very useful in terms of increasing one's learning strengths. I have personally found that in reality most people combine a number of learning styles in developing their unique approach to learning. From my perspective I have found that a combination of both imaginative and analytical learning styles best suits my needs. The emphasis in my approach is however on the imaginative style as I am more comfortable with a learning style that explores various sources and views of reality in a discursive and open-ended way. At the same time the more considered and careful analytical approach is also useful in that it tends to 'ground' one in reality.
Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.
etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a
Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203
Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.
Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a
Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203
Guild, P. (1994, January). Making Sense of Learing Styles. School Administrator, 51, 8. Retrieved February 26, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002522655
The theory of Honey and Mumford, describes the styles and learning strategies. It incorporates much of the theory of Kolb's learning cycle, making it more intelligible.
It is important to discuss these strategies with students. (Marsick and atkins, p132-51) hile this allows the teacher to become aware of the need to vary their teaching because they do not exist in universal, it also allows learners to realize that everyone learns differently.
So its dominant learning strategies can influence its working methods and student personnel can then optimize them. It may also become more self-confidence. Honey and Mumford (1986) take away from Kolb (1984) the idea of an experiential learning model in four stages they call: experience, the return on experience, drawing conclusions and planning. (aring and Evans, p117-28)
According to them, each phase has specific behaviors and attitudes and is important to successfully complete the learning process itself.…
Lam, Y.L. Defining the effects of transformation leadership on organization learning: a cross-cultural comparison: School Leadership & Management, 2002, pp 439-52.
Marquardt, M. Action learning in action: Transforming problems and people for world- class organizational learning. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 1999, pp45-49.
Marsick, V.J., and Watkins, KE. Demonstrating the value of an organization's learning culture: The Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2003 5, pp132-151.
Evans, C. And Graff, M. "Exploring style: enhancing the capacity to learn?," Education & Training, Vol. 50, 2008, pp. 93-102.
Naturally, visual learners do not enjoy reading books as auditory learners would, as written information is mostly processed in the mind's ears rather than by visualizing the text. Finally, a Kinesthetic or Tactile learner will predominantly learn information through touch and movement. In other words, kinesthetic learners would enjoy hands on laboratory session more than a routine class lecture. They also like to simulate events to understand them better. [Marcia L. Conner, pg 47]
Advantages of Knowing the Learning Style
Now that we have seen the domination of different modalities resulting in different learning styles among students, it is pertinent to understand the implications of such differences in context of their academic performance. Several studies have attested to that fact that only 20% of students learn through their auditory modality while 80% are either visual or kinesthetic. [Donna Walker, pg 16] However, in stark contrast, most of higher education is…
1) Marcia L. Conner, (2004) 'Learn More Now: 10 Simple steps to Learning Better, Smarter and Faster',
2) Richard M. Felder, (2005), 'Understanding Student Differences', Journal of Engineering education, 94(1) 57-72, available online at, http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf
3) Donna Walker Tileston, (2005) 10 Best Teaching Practices: How Brain research, Learning Styles and Standards Define Teaching Competences', Published by Corwin Press.
4) Steve Garnett, (2005), 'Using Brainpower in the Classroom: Five steps to accelerate Learning', Published by Routledge
learning can be categorized into three distinct groups: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorism refers to the student's interaction with the environment and focuses on the external aspects of learning and on that which encourages learning such as positive reinforcement on the one hand and punishment on the toehr. Cogntivism, on the other hand, focuses on attitudes, motivation, and ideas and refers to the brain's interaction with the academic environment and with subject taught. Finally, constructivism represents and describes the situation where the learner actively builds new ideas or constructs learning situations.
Other approaches include humanism (where the focus is placed on respecting and motivating the individual student as encouragement to learning) and social / situational (namely those situational / social constructs interact in shaping a student's motivation and classroom attitude.
Behaviorism believes that external actions and manner dominate if not replace cognition. adical behaviorists believe that mind / cognition…
Brown, B. & Ryoo, K (2008). Teaching Science as a Language: A "Content-First" Approach to Science Teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 45 (5): 529 -- 553.
Charles, C. (2005). Building classroom discipline. USA: Pearson Pub.
Baron, R.A., Byrne, D., & Branscombe, N.R. (2006). Social Psychology (11th Ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.
Benson, N.C. (1998). Introducing Psychology. U.K: Totem Books.
Learning & Memory
The Accuracy of Memory
The research I completed for this assignment was fairly straightforward. Upstairs in my living room on a day in which I had yet to leave the house, I tried to imagine my front door. I did so without having looked at it for at least 14 hours -- since I had arrived at home the evening before. Once I was able to visualize the door, I then wrote down all of the details that I could conceive of related to its physical appearance. My annotations on this subject included the fact that the door is white and is at the base of approximately 20 steps which lead to the main unit of the domicile. In this tall foyer, the white of the door stands out against the creme color of the walls around it (I was able to see this same color on…
Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.
Dehon, H., Laroi, F. "Affective valence influences participant's susceptibility to False Memories and Illusory Recollection." Emotion. 10 (5): 627-639.
Gallo, D.A. (2010). "False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of DRM illusion." Memory & Cognition. 38 (7): 833-848.
Lindsay, D.F., Read, D.J. (1994). "Psychotherapy and memories of childhood sexual abuse: a cognitive perspective." Applied Cognitive Psychology. 8: 281-338.
learning experiene. The writer demonstrates how to put together a prior learning and prior experiene portfolio for the purpose of demonstrating urrent knowledge due to that prior experiene.
A omprehensive look at the management of one's personal finanes; overs budgeting, use of and ost of redit, life and property insurane, inome and state taxation, housing, wills, trusts, estate planning, and savings and investments.
You must reall and write one or more "learning events" for eah of the key terms listed on the ourse desription you have obtained. By using Kolb's model to guide your storytelling, you will assist your faulty assessor, the person who will evaluate your PLA portfolio for redit, to loate and appreiate your learning outomes.
In short, your task in writing your PLA portfolio essay is to address all listed ourse ontent areas and to do so via speifi stories told in terms of the Kolb Model.…
cited in Tennant 1996) highlights, there is a need to take account of differences in cognitive and communication styles that are culturally-based. Here we need to attend to different models of selfhood - and the extent to which these may differ from the 'western' assumptions that underpin the Kolb and Fry model.
The idea of stages or steps does not sit well with the reality of thinking. There is a problem here - that of sequence. As Dewey (1933) has said in relation to reflection a number of processes can occur at once, stages can be jumped. This way of presenting things is rather too neat and is simplistic - see reflection.
Empirical support for the model is weak (Jarvis 1987; Tennant 1997). The initial research base was small, and there have only been a limited number of studies that have sought to test or explore the model (such as Jarvis 1987). Furthermore, the learning style inventory 'has no capacity to measure the degree of integration of learning styles' (Tennant 1997: 92).
The relationship of learning processes to knowledge is problematic. As Jarvis (1987) again points out, David Kolb is able to show that learning and knowledge are intimately related. However, two problems arise here. David Kolb doesn't really explore the nature of knowledge in any depth. In chapter five of Experiential Learning he discusses the structure of knowledge from what is basically a social psychology perspective. He doesn't really connect with the rich and varied debates about the nature of knowledge that raged over the centuries within philosophy and social theory. This means that I do not think he really grasps different ways of knowing. For example, Kolb focuses on processes in the individual mind, rather than seeing learning as situated. Second, for David Kolb, learning is concerned with the production of knowledge. 'Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it' (Kolb 1984: 41). Here we might contrast this position with Paulo Freire. His focus is upon informed, committed action (praxis).
Given these problems we have to take some care approaching David Kolb's vision of experiential learning. However, as Tennant (1997: 92) points out, 'the model provides an excellent framework for planning teaching and learning activities and it can be usefully employed as a guide for understanding learning difficulties, vocational counselling, academic advising and so on'.
Integrating Learing Theories
Integrating Learning Theories
In adult education, there are number of theories utilized to influence the tools educators are using to connect with students. To fully understand them requires looking at the different ones. This will be accomplished by focusing on simulating the ideal teaching philosophy, current research in adult theory, comparing / contrasting them and analyzing those which integrate with our personal teaching philosophy. Together, these elements will highlight the best techniques for reaching out to adult learners.
Simulate the ideal teaching philosophy
The ideal teaching philosophy is one that connects to individuals using their unique learning styles and has a way of reinforcing them. This involves having a combination of active classroom discussion, group work and hands on training. During this process, they will utilize technology to enhance their understanding of key concepts and focus on meeting important objectives in the course. When this happens, the…
Davis, D. (2011). The Adult Learner's Companion. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
Jacobs, F. (2010). The Adult Learner's Guide. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Robert, P. (2013). Adult Education. New York, NY: Routledge.
Ross, J. (2011). Research on Adult Learners. Peer Review, 31 (1), 53- 61.
Personal Learning Styles
After completing the VAK questionnaire, I have learned that out of the four types of learners, I have strong tendencies for three out of the four types. I am mostly a visual and read/write learner with equal scores in both areas. Furthermore, with a score very close to the first two categories, I am also a kinesthetic learner. Lastly, with the lowest score, I am an aural learner. Compared to how I perceive my own learning styles outside of this questionnaire, I mostly agree. I think I am mostly a visual and kinesthetic learner.
I do learn by reading and writing, as well as aurally, but not as much. They are not so much my preference for learning, but I cannot deny that those aspects assist my understanding. Some people are not the best at public speaking or giving instructions, and that is why I…
Advanology. (2012). The Visual-Spatial Learning Style. Web, Available from: http://www.learning-styles-online.com/style/visual-spatial/ . 2012 October 02.
LangVid Language Training. (2010). Studying Style: Tactile-Kinesthetic Learners. Web, Available from: http://www.studyingstyle.com/tactile-kinesthetic-learners.html . 2012 October 02.
The Study Gurus. (2012). Study Advice for Reading and Write Learners. Web, Available from: http://www.thestudygurus.com/read-write-study-tips/. 2012 October 02.
3). Review the other learning styles: visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic, and multimodel (listed on the VARK Questionnaire Result page). 4). Compare your preferred learning strategies to the identified srategies for your learning style. 5). Appraise how this will change your way of stuying, if any. In a paper (750-1,000 words), summarise your analysis of this exercise. include the following: 1). Provide a summary of your learning style. 2). List your preferred learning srategies. 3). Compare your preferred learning strategies to the identified strategies for your preferred learning style. 4). Appraise any changes you need to make in your study habits.
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).
Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…
Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.
Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.
Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.
Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
The author of this report has been asked to offer a treatise on the subject of study skills. The dimensions and facets of studying skills that shall be covered include some reflection, the five learning outcomes for the model in question, the author's feelings about the matter, the evaluation of the same, an analysis of the overall progress and framework in question and an overall action plan. Study skills are often over-hyped or overly minimalized. However, to dismiss their importance or wield them improperly is a recipe for disaster when it comes to both the work and educational spheres. While incessantly drilling and covering subjects over and over can lead to burnout and wasted motion, being under-prepared is less than optimal and can lead to setbacks that are hard to recover from.
Study skills, of course, refer to the manner by which people work from an academic…
Cottrell, S. (2013). Study Skills Handbook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: Contents. [online] gdn.glos.ac.uk. Available at: http://gdn.glos.ac.uk/gibbs/ [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].
KCL, (2016). Using Gibbs -- ™ Reflective Cycle. [online] King's College London. Available at: https://www.kcl.ac.uk/campuslife/services/disability/onlineresources/Studyguides/Using-Gibbs-Reflective-Cycle-in-Coursework.pdf [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].
Silberman, M. (2007). The handbook of experiential learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Adult Learning: Andragogy
Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).
Adult Learning Principles
Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…
Chen, I. (2008). Constructivism. College of Education: University of Houston. Retrieved on June 6, 2011 from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichn/ebook/et-it/constr.htm
Corley M.A. (2008). Experiential learning theory. California Adult Literacy Professional
Development Project. CALPRO: California Department of Education. Retrieved on June 13, 2011 from http://www.calpro-online.org/documents/AdultLearningTheoriesFinal.pdf
Kolb, D.A. et al. (1999). Experiential learning theory. "Perspectives on Cognitive
Any potential barriers that might prevent agreement from occurring are discussed, such as strategic behavior that is displayed through hard bargaining. Wheeler defines bargaining power as the strength or weakness of one company's BATNA. He uses the example of Iranian hostage negotiations to describe how power could possibly be turned upside down in negotiations. In this example, bargaining power is the reflection of both knowledge and skill.
Finally, the article discusses the element of ethics, or what the right thing to do in each situation is. For example, candor, moral reasons and equity may be discussed in this aspect. For example, force with weapons is illegal, just as unethically tying a parties hands to something that is morally wrong should be done. Another issue that arises is the impact of the negotiation on bystanders, and how fair the negotiation process is to those directly affected by the potential agreement. One…
Analysis of Learning Methods and the Impact of Computer-Based Training (CBT) Programs
Compare and contrast the four differences in learning styles. Propose ways a trainer can help each type of learner.
The four differences in learning styles are often characterized by convergers, divergers, assimilators and accommodators (Mumford, Honey, 1992). There are significant differences between each, and the intent of this analysis is to compare and contrast them with each other. The converger learning style typifies learners who rely on conceptual learning including visualization and abstract learning, supported by active experimentation. It is comparable to the assimilator learning style in that both rely on abstract conceptualization of learning materials and concepts, in addition to a reliance on theoretical models. The converger learning style differences from the other four in its intensity of focus on taking information and intelligence and turning it into pragmatic thought (Mumford, Honey, 1992). The other learning…
Bedwell, W., & Salas, E.. (2010). Computer-based training: capitalizing on lessons learned. International Journal of Training & Development, 14(3), 239-249.
Khan, B.H. (2001). A framework for Web-based learning. In B.H. Khan (Ed.), Web-based training. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Alice Y Kolb, & David A Kolb. (2005). Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 193-212.
Lakshmanan, A., Lindsey, C., & Krishnan, H.. (2010). Practice Makes Perfect? When Does Massed Learning Improve Product Usage Proficiency? Journal of Consumer Research, 37(4), 599.
It does not happen overnight; 3) eflective practice occurs best when learners work with role models; 4) as noted by Fink, instruction needs to be learner-centered, of interest to the learners and long-lasting; 5) the institution in which the nurses learn must be supportive of reflective learning.
The PICOT is a useful format for developing a clinical research question. It helps to answer questions and decrease uncertainty and determine the appropriate choice of action. In this case, the PICOT is the following:
Nursing student population
Provide long-term knowledge to make reflective decisions
Traditional learning situations
eflective practice offers several benefits over traditional learning
Time frame (optional)
Fink, L.D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Loughran, J. John (2002) "Effective reflective practice: in search of meaning in learning about teaching." Journal of Teacher Education 53(1): 33+.
Osterman, K. (1998) Using…
Fink, L.D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Loughran, J. John (2002) "Effective reflective practice: in search of meaning in learning about teaching." Journal of Teacher Education 53(1): 33+.
Osterman, K. (1998) Using Constructivism and Reflective Practice to Bridge the Theory/Practice Gap. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, April 13-17, 1998) ED425518 ERIC
Peters, M. (2000). Does constructivist epistemology have a place in nurse education? Journal of Nursing Education, 39, 166-172
The issue involves one institution awarding PLA credits, and when a student then transfers to a similar program at another institution or applies to a higher level program after graduating, the second institution may not recognize the PLA credits. The concern exists predominantly in the gap between program levels, for example a diploma graduate applying to a baccalaureate program, a baccalaureate graduate applying to a master's program. It is thought that if this is left unaddressed, increasing PLA practices may well lower a barrier at one educational level, while raising a barrier at the next (Advancing PLA in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009).
Another problem that has been associated with PLA is institutional funding for both human resources and operations. There is a concern among institutions about being required to implement or increase their PLA practices without additional government funding to support it. Most institutions currently do not have…
Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan. (2009). Retrieved July 22, 2010, from Web site:
Applying education and skills to real employment opportunities. (n.d). Retrieved July 22, 2010,
from State of Washington Web site:
Some constructivists have gone so far as to suggest that the "collaborative character of learning" means that learning can be defined as "shared meaning making" (2.3 Learning as shared meaning making, 2004, Educational Symantic eb). Although learning is still individual in the sense that the learner learns for him or herself, "meaning making is not understood as a psychological process which takes place in individuals' minds" but as an "essentially social activity that is conducted jointly - collaboratively -- by a community, rather than by individuals who happen to be co-located" (2.3 Learning as shared meaning making, 2004, Educational Symantic eb).
Rather than viewing knowledge as the privilege of the old, disseminated to the young, constructivist theorists stress that learning in a technologically-advanced society is more of a dialogue between student and teacher. The knowledge-creation metaphor of learning focuses on innovative learning and means that "learning is seen as analogous…
2.1 Acquisition and participation metaphor of learning (2004). Educational Semantic Web.
Retrieved March 20, 2009 at http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/2/allert-2004-2-disc-04.html
2.4. Concepts of learning. (2004). Educational Semantic Web. Retrieved March 20, 2009 at Retrieved March 20, 2009 at http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/2/allert-2004-2-disc-03.html
Gentry, James W., John R. Dickinson, Alvin C. Burns; Lee McGinnis, & JuYoung Park. (2006).
actual. The sample size is so small and concentrated that it is possible that intra-respondent bias was also present. Finally, the results provide support for the Internet in general and social networking applications specifically supporting appreciative, expressive and creative abilities yet fails to actually define how these strategies can be attained based on the research. The result is a study that reflects more of a consensus across the teaching profession than a rejection or critique of rote memorization and the embracing of scaffolding as a teaching strategy. It is disappointing that the research is not more robust and focused on getting past the obvious conclusions, stating instructors need to sharpen their online teaching skills. The most critical questions of how to create effective scaffolding strategies for each student using the new tools available from Web 2.0-based technologies goes unanswered. There is also the lack of charting and analysis of the…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36-42. 1 Aug. 2008
Derrick Huang, Ravi S. Behara. "Outcome-Driven Experiential Learning with Web 2.0. " Journal of Information Systems Education 18.3 (2007): 329-336. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 2 Aug. 2008.
Chin-Chih Lin, Chien-Chung Lin. "Instructional Strategies and Methods of e-Learning for Nurturing Appreciative, Expressive, and Creative Abilities." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 13.1 (2008): 199-207. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.3 Aug. 2008
Mehdi Najjar. "On Scaffolding Adaptive Teaching Prompts within Virtual Labs. " International Journal of Distance Education Technologies 6.2 (2008): 35-54. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 3 Aug. 2008
In addition, the classic version of problem-based learning "requires students to collaborate, formulate learning issues by determining factors that may contribute to the cause or solution of a problem, identify relevant content, and generate hypotheses. Most problem-based learning models also contain student reflection components as a means of self-evaluation" (Knowlton & Sharp, 2003, pp. 5-6).
Although the positive effects of using a problem-based learning approach have been documented in a number of studies, the findings of other studies have indicated that problem-based learning may not compare favorably with more traditional teaching methods with regards to student's knowledge base, technical skills, or the resources expended; however, Dadd (2009) suggests that the benefits of using a problem-based learning approach justify the additional resources this method requires. Moreover, Simons et al. (2004) report that students using a problem-based learning approach "tend to develop more positive attitudes toward learning than students in more traditional…
Alavi, C. (1999). Problem-based learning in a health sciences curriculum. New York:
Albion, P.R. (2003). PBL + IMM = PBL2: Problem-based learning and interactive multimedia development. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11(2), 243-244.
Dadd, K.A. (2009). Using problem-based learning to bring the workplace into the classroom.
Computer assisted learning (CAL), once a novel concept, is a staple in numerous classrooms across the country, from the primary education to the university level. Computer assisted learning offers both students and teachers a daunting and near-limitless education supplement. However, this paper will examine examples where computer assisted learning is more or less effective and why. It will be revealed that computer assisted learning programs that are most effective are the ones which place precedence on interactivity. A particularly successful program, the Interaction Multimedia Computer Assisted Instruction Theory, will be examined carefully in regards to the strategy and concepts used in order to make such a learning program as successful as possible.
Educators and pedagogues have known for years the wealth of benefits that computer assisted learning can offer the student. Certain educational software programs equal a dissemination of difficult concepts and/or an illumination of intricate ideas. For example,…
Azer, S. (2008). Navigating problem-based learning. Marrickville: Elsevier.
Banerjee, A., Duflo, E., & Linden, L. (2004). Computer-assisted learning project with pratham in india.Poverty Action Lab, Retrieved from http://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/computer-assisted-learning-project-pratham-india
Greenhalgh, T. (2001). Computer assisted learning in undergraduate medical education. British Medical Journal, 322(7277), 40-44.
Iskander, M. (2008). Innovative techniques in instruction technology, e-learning. Brooklyn:
Expectations and Significance of Group Facilitation Learning Outcomes
Humans are notoriously difficult subjects to analyze, understand, motivate and lead, and while some group counselors appear to possess a natural ability to facilitate effective group interactions, others struggle to cope with the exigencies of a group setting. Despite the challenges that are involved, the importance of developing the requisite skills needed for effective group facilitation means that counselors must draw on the entire range of group dynamic theories and proven strategies to achieve this goal. In order to gain further insights into these areas, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify relevant expectations from learning about group dynamic theories and strategies, followed by a discussed concerning various aspects of applying these concepts in real-world settings. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the paper's conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Expectations concerning application of…
Clark, A.J. (2002). Scapegoating: Dynamics and interventions in group counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 271-272.
Furr, S.R. & Barrett, B. (2000). Teaching group counseling skills: Problems and solutions.
Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(2), 94.
Zinck, K. & Littrell, J.M. (2000). Action research shows group counseling effective with at-risk adolescent girls. Professional School Counseling, 4(1), 50-52.
Human resources (H) departments today have to confront many issues that are related to an individual's learning styles and preferences. Not only does the consideration of an employee's learning style have a range of compliance issues that can be related, but it is also advantageous that organizations use this information to effectively create training and professional development programs so that employees are better equipped to handle the tasks required of them. An effective training strategy can empower an employee with new skills that can make them more effective in their daily routine. Thus overcoming any challenges to career development can significantly improve the organization as a whole.
In this specific case, John has a prominent learning style that is defined as tactile/kinesthetic. The online course that was suggested for him to take might not be the best avenue for his career development education. Furthermore, he has requested accommodation…
Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. (2005). Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education . Academy of Management Learning & Education, 193-212.
Lee, B. (2015). EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles. RELC Journal, 147-163.
McLane, D. (2011). Connecting learning styles with training styles in learning ADA compliance. Gradworks, 75.
Kolb's model of adult learning explains how learning in adults occurs. According to the model, adult learning occurs in four stages (Kolb, 2015). The first stage is the experience of an event or situation (concrete experience). In the second stage, the learner reflects on the experience (reflective observation). The learner then -- in the third stage -- draws from theories and concepts to gain a deeper understanding of the experience (abstract conceptualization). In the fourth stage, the learner uses the experience as a basis for responding to similar occurrences in future. In this paper, I describe an experience I extremely felt motivated. I then analyze the experience based on Kolb's model.
At my place of work, the department I work in recently got a new manager. The new manager was recruited after his predecessor retired following two decades of service to the organization. The previous manager had over…
Literacy in Secondary School in Ireland
The literacy curriculum in secondary school in Ireland is based on a strategy of language-related lesson modifications, identified by Peregoy and Boyle as good methods of ensuring that differentiation occurs in the classroom. This strategy allows for the use of "visuals, concrete objects, direct experience, and other nonverbal means to convey lesson content" alongside the main lesson taught by the teacher in the classroom (Peregoy, Boyle 86). In my area, this is consistent with what we experienced in school, and differentiation is a huge part of the cycle -- as much of what is centered on literacy is done so with direct relation to experiential learning, the use of visual aids, and the expression of ideas identified in readings via nonverbal means, such as drawings, videos or performance in the classroom. At the same time, there is a notable urgency among literacy leaders and…
Department of Education and Skills Press Release. Education.ie, 2011. Web. 1 June
Gottlieb, M. Assessing English Language Learners. CA: Corwin Press, 2006. Print.
Peregoy, S., Boyle, O. Reading, Writing and Learning. MA: Pearson, 2013.
The natural environment provides students with a calm and quiet place to unwind from the noises of the classroom. It nurtures and supports animal-life all year round. This is critical for areas where commercial and residential development is reducing most natural areas. Wildlife especially needs help during the cold and snowy months. Students can also see how it benefits the environment. It also helps connect students to the world of nature. Increasingly, because children are spending more and more times indoors, they are losing touch with nature.
Humans, because they spent their first 14,000 years in nature, have a special bond with the outdoor world. When they are taken away from this environment, through cities, lack of parks, no outdoor play, there can be psychological affects. When taking time to enjoy nature, children will feel better about themselves and the world at large.
We are also going to put a…
Besecker, I. (June 11, 2000). Greensoboro News and Record. Insanity of Testing Mania.
Bredderman, T. (1985). Laboratory programs for elementary school science: A meta- analysis of effects on learning. Science Education, 69(4), 577-591.
Carpenter, R. (1963). A Reading Method and an Activity Method in Elementary Science Instruction. Science Education, April.
Hake, R. (1992). Socratic Pedagogy in the Introductory Physics Laboratory. The Physics Teacher 30(9), 546-552
auditoy leanes), motivation and pesonality such as extovesion vs. intovesion, although the aticles' authos suggests that tailoing mateial to expessed leane pefeences ae not always the best ways to achieve positive outcomes. Leanes ae not always clea as to thei tue leaning oientation and leane styles ae not 'fixed' but may vay accoding to the type of media used and the subject mateial. Using a vaiety of media may be a moe effective appoach fo educatos, and thinking in tems of 'appoaches' that can change, athe than fixed student leaning styles.
One fequent fustation expessed by online instuctos is the absence of immediate feedback fom thei students. Undestanding individual students can help the teache modify instuction, even without the immediate esponse povided by eye contact in the classoom. It is essential that moments exist within the online pocess when students can communicate that they do not undestand, while in the…
references alone but must keep a real-world and virtual ear upon the students to shift his or her learning strategy. Understanding overall learning process required of the subject material and the need to modify the learning approaches to meet the unique demands of the instruction in its particular venue and format is essential. Simply knowing a learning 'style' of a student is not enough, and a label can be misleading. As more students must learn independently, greater knowledge of how the learner functions and the use of different settings are required, and the article calls for more extensive into how to create a more effective learning environment that uses a diversity of approaches to convey content.
As an analytic method it varies from the syntactic syllabus in simliar way as the practical and procedure syllabi, particularly in the supposition that the learner learns best when using language to converse about something. TBLT also is different from the two other logical curricula in a lot of ways. It differs from the procedural syllabus in that it stresses the importance of carrying out a needs analysis prior to instruction.
Identifying likely bases of task complexity certainly is an essential precondition for making ethical choices regarding the grading and sequencing of functions, upon which many of the worth of the TBLT will rest. Grading and sequencing of pedagogic errands is certainly a chief test for the task-based syllabus creators.
Principles and features of task-based language teaching.
Prabhu's observations, stated at the beginning of the project, guide to the first belief of task-based interaction that "language is a basically just…
Alex, J., 2001. Recognizing Task Designs. Journal of Education, 2(5), pp. 23-34.
Breen, M., 2004. Process syllabus for the language classroom.. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Breen, M., 2005. Learner contributions to task design.. Chicago: Penguin.
Candlin, C.N., 1984. Syllabus design as a critical process, ELT Documents. Cambridge: Pergamon & the British Council.
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
Mobile phones can also be used to create 'experiential' classes: "Images can be captured and uploaded to the Web through mobile weblogs (moblogs)…a team from Umea University in Sweden moblogged Jokkmokk's 399th Annual Sami Winter Market. Students applied their academic learning about the Sami to the real world, interviewing participants, conducting follow-up digital research on the fly, and uploading and expanding on commentary online" (Alexander 2004). The classroom spilled out conference, and all students in the class participated simultaneously, in a way they could not, had they traveled through the conference as a group or reported back to the classroom as individuals.
m-Learning thus has several demonstrable benefits. The first is its ease of access, where updated information and alerts can be sent immediately. It also offers options to pace a student's study so it is compatible with the student's other lifestyle demands. A student can learn while on the…
Alexander, Bryan. (2004, September/October). Going nomadic: Mobile learning in higher education. EDUCAUSE Review. 39. 5-28 -- 35. Retrieved January 19, 2010 at http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Review/EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume39/GoingNomadicMobileLearninginHi/157921
The 2009 Horizon Report. (2009). Retrieved January 19, 2010 at http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2009-Horizon-Report.pdf , pages 1-10.
Jacob, Seibu Mary & Biju Issac. (2007, June). Mobile learning culture and effects in higher
Education. IEEE Multidisciplinary Engineering Education Magazine. 2.2: 19-21
Elder Learning Service
By taking part in "Elder Learning Service," one can learn much from the experience. In fact, this is becoming a growing phenomenon both academically and within the community itself. All the research points to the positive impact of how much it empowers individuals into becoming better citizens by becoming self-aware of those that are in need. A service learning service was designed for high school students entitled, "Carrying on the Legacy of San Juan's Elders." Many conclusions arose as well as project outcomes for one to consider for any future project.
Service Learning: High School Students Engaged in their Community
The district in which I teach allowed me to do a service learning project with my high school students upon asking permission from the principal of the school. These were my goals when working with each of them. 1) Promote student and elderly intergenerational communication; 2) Improve…
Brown, L.H., & Roodin, P.A. (2001). Service-learning in gerontology: An out-of-classroom experience. Educational Gerontology, 27(1), 89-103.
Furco, A., & Root, S. (2010). Research demonstrates the value of service learning. Phi Delta
Kappan, 91(5), 16-20.
Getahun, Linde J. (2006) Reflections on service learning with the aged. Academic Exchange
Among the last advantages of cooperative learning in the classroom is the increase in competition that every student experiences as s/he collaborates with other students/teammates in the process of accomplishing a particular task or activity. There is one caveat, however, in stating this observation about cooperative learning: increased competence is induced only in learning processes wherein information used by students are similar or identical with each other (uchs, 2004:310-1). An increase in the competitive nature of learning using the cooperative learning technique stimulates students' greater desire to perform better, and to outdo other students in accomplishing the task at hand.
While there are advantages to cooperative learning as a teaching and learning tool, there are also disadvantages that can become impediments or hindrances to the students' further learning and the teacher's role as a moderator or to serve as the students' guide to learning.
Among the enumerated disadvantages to cooperative…
Bandiera, M. (2006). "Active/cooperative learning in schools." Journal of Biological Education, Vol. 40, Issue 3.
Buchs, C. (2004). "Resource interdependence, student interactions, and performance in cooperative learning." Educational Psychology, Vol. 24, Issue 3.
Coke, P. (2005). "Practicing what we preach: an argument for cooperative learning opportunities for elementary and secondary educators." Education, Vol. 126, Issue 2.
Laatsch, L. (2005). "Cooperative learning effects on teamwork attitudes in clinical laboratory science students." Clinical Laboratory Science, Vol. 18, Issue 3.
Technical tasks are preferred over people and interpersonal details. They also enjoy experimenting, simulating, and working with practical applications.
When there are too many people with one learning type over another in the same organization, there may be a deficiency in a particular type of strength which could prove to be valuable to the organization. For instance, if the organization does not have any accommodators, but rather has several convergers, divergers, and assimilators, then the organization may be in need of an individual whom can work quickly and whom can figure something out without a given set of procedure or directions and whom perhaps can derive conclusions based upon his/her gut instinct. If an agency has a balance of learners and the agency is aware of the strengths and weaknesses within the organization, then groupings may be done so that each group has an individual representing a particular learning style.…
Osland, H., Kolb, D.A., & Rubin, I. (n.d.). Organizational Behavior (8th ed.).
archetypal scene of the educational process is for most of us a child and a teaching sitting next to each other, their heads bowed together intently over a book. It is an island, in this high-tech world in which we live, of the low-tech: A world that depends upon communication and human interactions rather than machines and gadgets. Education seems to be one of those realms in which it is still possible to believe in and practice the humanistic arts.
But this idealized picture of the teaching process is, like so many idealized pictures, not exactly accurate - as well as being a little out of date. Education has, in fact, always made use of technology in our human attempt to pass onto each new generation what the generation before it holds to be important. Slate boards and books were high-tech in their own time - and most children now…
Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism, 3rd ed. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Blevins, D. (2002). Personal communication.
California State Code, Education Code, Section 305-306.
Florida Department of Education, http://www.firn.edu/doe
..set of critical stages for normal psychologic development." (2001) Kandel relates that prior to formal studies being conducted on material deprivation: "...a few anecdotal examples of social isolation were collected by anthropologists and clinicians. From time to time children had been discovered living in an attic or a cellar, with minimal social contact, perhaps spending only a few minutes a day with a caretaker, a nurse or a parent. Children so deprived in early childhood are often later found to be speechless and lacking in social responsiveness." (Kandel, 2001) According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities in the work entitled: "Issues in Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Diagnosis": Diagnosis, assessment and treatment must be in the nature of 'differential diagnosis' in making identification between varying disorders, syndromes and other factors that impact the acquisition of the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing reasoning or mathematical abilities." (National Joint Committee…
Kamhi, a.G. (1984) Problem Solving in Child Language Disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School Journal. Volume 15. October 1984.
Federici, R.S. (1999) Neuropsychological Evaluation and Rehabilitation of the Post-Institutionalized Child. Presented at the Conference for Children and Residential Care, Stockholm, Sweden May 3, 1999. Neuropsychological and Family Therapy Associated.
A de Valenzuela, JA (1999) the Social Construction of Language Competence: Language Socialization in Three Bilingual Kindergarten Classrooms. University of New Mexico. Dissertation Synopsis.
Thanasoulas, Dimitrios (2001) Language and Disadvantage - Article 70 - the Weekly Column. 2001 August.
The efforts of a collective group of people can often transcend that of an individual; teams have been a functional part of the business culture for over twenty years with the goal of accomplishing just this feat. While "system thinking," "mental models" and "team communication" continue to hold great importance in the synergy of multi-contributor accomplishment, it hasn't proven to be quite enough.
Working teams accumulate an almost infinite amount of experiential knowledge. At the operations level, this accomplishes the ultimate goal: people are dramatically more effective at accomplishing their collective and individual goals and achieve a greater sense of satisfaction in the accomplishment. These teams, however, operate under a much larger canopy - that of the larger collective - the organization.
The enterprise - as a whole - has been largely overlooked when regarding the distinguishing characteristics of the institution. If the ethos of the entity…
Student success a - endeavor. The student give 100% instructor provide students a 100%. The student responsibility prepared learn material assigned, turn assignments time, pay attention taught discussed, questions needed.
I agree that the process of education is a dialogue, not a monologue. Although an educator may have a plan about what he or she wishes to teach, the teacher must respond to student input. The students may not understand the material in the manner in which it is initially presented; they may be bored or ill-prepared; they may have probing and unexpected questions; or they may have different learning styles.
Using different approaches is particularly essential in healthcare education, given that new scientific knowledge builds upon old knowledge. emediation is successful because it ensures students have knowledge of the foundational concepts early on, before the student becomes completely left behind. Given the nursing shortage the nation is facing, finding…
Smith, A. (2010). Learning styles of registered nurses enrolled in an online nursing program.
Journal of Professional Nursing, 26(1):49-53. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2009.04.006.
Some of the pedagogical methods in the Group Approach are: " team tasks and group problem solving; creative group activities (e.g. brainstorming); group case studies; group critical analyses; group role play; collective games; dialogues and debates; forum discussions and chat; joint projects and research; multipoint videoconferences. The appropriate technology and a moderator with appropriate skills and knowledge combined with enough time make the efforts of e-learning successful.
II. Teaching Methods
There must be more than a simple provision of learning materials made available in e-learning. The design of an education course or subject in distance education requires definitive goals and objectives be stated in advance. Considered as well in this learning initiative is the participant's previous knowledge and skills, as well as expectations and motivations of participants must be considered as well as the knowledge and skills which the participants seek to acquire. Further addressed should be the measures that…
Experiential Exercise: Observing and Reporting Surroundings at a VA Medical Center
To satisfy the requirements of this assignment, the author recently volunteered at a local Department of Veterans Affairs medical center (VAMC) and the results of this experience are related below.
Date and address of where the experience took place
October XYZ, 20XX, in Anytown, Ohio.
Length of time you were there
Four hours (including lunch).
Brief description of the setting
The VAMC visited for this assignment is a major tertiary healthcare facility that provides medical, surgical, dental and mental health services to eligible veterans in its catchment area. The volunteer services department is located on the VAMC's first floor, immediately inside the main entrance. A young female receptionist behind a glass window greets volunteers with and without appointments, but a sign below the window recommends making an appointment to ensure volunteers' services are needed on a specific date. Besides…
Learning in theory and practice: Vygotsky’s ZPD and physical education in primary education
Age-graded schooling is one of the most common and conventional features of today’s academic environment. For younger learners in the primary education levels, this separation of young children from adolescents may seem on the face of it like a common sense approach to education—yet, as Gray and Feldman (2004) point out, separation such as this actually is more restrictive to the educative experience than it is facilitative. The reason is found in Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) theory. Vygotsky was an early 20th century Soviet thinker who articulated the idea that individuals learn most effectively when they are aided by other skilled individuals who know how to perform a certain task. Child learners can benefit, for example, from being placed in a zone of proximal development: alone or confined to a sphere in which they…
Personal Traits That Contribute to Learning
There is both scientific and social research that shows that learning is possible at all stages of life, yet there are some stages where learning comes more easily and effortlessly than others. Age is one of a few qualities the paper will discuss regarding the influence of personal traits that affect learning. Certainly, it is culturally accepted common knowledge that it is easier for very young children to learn than adults. Children are more like blank slates, especially when they are very young, and they absorb information at different rates and with different forms of attention than with adults. Adults have more experiential knowledge and social intelligence than children, and therefore, experience a different kind of learning or growth than say, a three-year-old child.
Personality may be the most significant factor with respect to learning. If a person is motivated or lacks motivation,…
Bune's constuctivist theoy and the conceptual paadigms of Kolb's Expeiential Leaning theoy dawing on the associated theoies ae Kinesthetic and Embodied Leaning. As also noted in the intoductoy chapte, the guiding eseach question fo this study was, "What ae the caee paths fo teaching atists seeking to deploy into the field of community at and development?" To develop timely and infomed answes to this eseach question, this chapte povides a eview of the elevant pee-eviewed and scholaly liteatue concening these theoetical famewoks to investigate the diffeent caee paths teaching atists seek to deploy into the field of community at and development, including ceative community building and adult community centes such as woking with Alzheime's Disease and stoke victims.
Adult Leaning Theoies
Kolb's Expeiential Leaning Theoy. Thee ae a wide aay of theoetical models that can be used to identify and bette undestand teaching and leaning pefeences by educatos and students,…
references to improve coaching and athletic performance: Are your players or students kinesthetic learners? The Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(3), 30-34.
Fowler, J. (2013, March). Art rescue in a troubled world. Arts & Activities, 153(2), 36-39.
Kerka, S. (2002). Somatic/embodied learning and adult education: Trends and issues alert. ERIC
Kessler, R. (2000). The soul of education: Helping students find connection, compassion, and character at school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…
Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."
Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.
Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.
Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
manager." The introduction describe " -development important a manager mix a bit coaching theories ( I a coaching I techniques Kolb' learning cycle techniques fuore managers improve ), I a part body essay real life examples managers coaching techniques -development successful ( describe techniques ).
The importance of self-development in becoming a manager
Self-development is defined first and foremost as an overall holistic desire to find one's freedom and the desire to connect with one's self and own sense of worth, integrity and happiness so as to enjoy abundant happiness both at home and at work. Self-development in simpler terms is that amazing quest / journey that a person embarks on; a point of realization when all the pieces of a person's life fall together and they finally remove their own self limitations and inhibitions that hinder or stop any person more so a manager from achieving greatness. This definition…
BRUCE, H.A. 1938. Self-development: how to build self-confidence, a handbook for the ambitious, New York, Three Sirens Press.
BRUCE, H.A. 2010. Self-Development: A Handbook for the Ambitious, Whitefish, Kessinger Publishing, LLC.
BYNUM, W.F.A.P., R. (ed.) 2005. Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, London: Oxford University Press.
CLELAND, D. & IRELAND, L. 2006. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation, New York, McGraw-Hill.
Still others must actually undergo the experience of trying to perform procedures themselves under guidance to learn effectively.
Looking back at some of my clinical experiences, I can recall instances where I took an approach to patient education that was based mainly on my convenience and preference rather than on an assessment of what teaching approach would be most beneficial to patients. More recently, I have tried to incorporate adult learning theory into patient education in connection with post-surgical follow-up self-care and wound care, among other areas. For example, I have recently begun asking patients whether they would prefer to have informational resources in printed form, or whether they would prefer to observe demonstrations. When patients indicate their desire to observe clinical procedures, I also offer them the opportunity to try the procedures under my guidance, taking advantage of the fact that some of them may learn best from experiential…
Brookfield, S. (1995). Adult learning: An overview. In The International Encyclopedia of Education (Ed. A.Tuinjman). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137 -- 159.
Clardy, A. (2005, August 1). Andragogy: Adult learning and education at its best. Online Submission, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED492132). Retrieved
August 27, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC database)
Adults, especially seniors need a place where they can learn new things and express themselves. Sometimes seniors go to a senior community arts program where they learn to paint and create things for themselves and for their loved ones. Art theory in the field of physical therapy is a very helpful and useful way of integrating varied learning and complex tasks all while promoting growth and renewal. For anything to flourish, especially a program like a senior community arts program, it needs to integrate lessons and objectives that promote the growth and learning of its participants.
Therefore, it is important to understand and analyze prior and current research that not only offers a different perspective, but also assures the teacher that what they are instructing has been proven to succeed and assists the people learning, to achieve certain pre-planned objectives. This paper is a literature review of six scholarly research…
Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult Learning - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Adult_Learning
Dzubinski, L., Hentz, B., Davis, K.L., & Nicolaides, A. (2012). Envisioning an Adult Learning Graduate Program for the Early 21st Century A Developmental Action Inquiry Study.Adult Learning, 23(3), 103-110. doi:10.1177/1045159512452844
Edwards, C., Gaden, C., Marchant, R., Coventry, T., Dutton, P., & Scott, J.M. (2011). Delivering extension and adult learning outcomes from the Cicerone Project by comparing, measuring, learning and adopting'. Animal Production Science, 53(8), 827-840. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN11322
Longenecker, C., & Abernathy, R. (2013). The eight imperatives of effective adult learning: Designing, implementing and assessing experiences in the modern workplace. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(7), 30-33. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17100953&show=abstract
Appoximately one in six students enolled in a college o univesity, o ove 3 million individuals, paticipated in one o moe online couse in 2004. This was despite the fact that a leveling off was expected.
Anothe epot fo 2005 by Sloan showed that 850,000 moe students took distance couses in the fall this yea than 2004, an incease of nealy 40%. Once again the slowing o leveling did not come. Many seconday schools ae putting consideable esouces towad online leaning, in expectation that this appoach will be moe economical than taditional classes and also expanding thei each.
In addition, a suvey by the consulting and eseach fim Eduventues found 50% of the consumes who planned to enoll in a highe education pogam stated they would instead like to take some of thei couses online. About 80% of online students ae undegaduates, but ae nomally olde and moe apt to…
references when there is a contingency change. The relative response strength is changed by differential reinforcement of alternative courses of action. It is then that behaviors change. It is possible to conclude that adult students' observations about educational technology will change when the contingencies toward participation are strengthened. The clientele of higher education, its students, now enroll in college with expectations of learning about and to learn with technology (Green 1999).
How students deal with change and their ability to accept it has much to do with their observed satisfaction of the course that implements the most up-to-date technologies.
Merriam and Caffarella (1991) say that the more that is known about adult learners and the changes they go through and how these changes motivate and interact with learning, the better educators will be able to develop learning experiences that respond and stimulate development. This is an essential factor in adult learning and requires additional research regarding the implications for quality educational programs. This present research acknowledges the influence of the adult learners' attitudes and observations toward change. However, so that the emphasis remains on learning styles, no data will be collected to measure change in attitudes and perspectives.
Tools for Measuring Distance Education Courses
It is essential that there is an evaluation of educational curricula to determine what is and is not efficient in relationship to learning style. Technological courses have altered the evaluation process due to the additional factors of equipment, cost and knowledge of using technology. It is critical to keep in mind, however, that educators control technology, since technology is only one of many different tools. Technology is easy to assess; one knows immediately if an software does not work. It is necessary for instructors to spend more time considering the educational experience that they want to create and what is not working properly in terms of education results. Are students interested and engaged? Are they communicating with one another? Do they find the information challenging and productive? Are they receiving enough feedback from the instructor? Ultimately, an effective evaluation tool will help the teacher recognize if the conditions for quality learning are present or need improving and that the instructors and students feel their use of technology was considerably helpful.
... led me to suggest, as an alternative to assimilation, the value of being asimilao.
IV. eminders to Help
Kim & Lyons (2003) report that games can be successfully used to instill and enhance individuals' abilities to succeed in a multicultural firm. Game playing possesses numerous characteristics which could enhance the learning of competencies areas of skills, attitudes and beliefs, and knowledge. Games which include low-risk potential can increase a sense of safety, reduce vulnerable feelings, while also, and enhancing multicultural awareness.
For example, the use of games can balance out the inherent hierarchy between the trainees and the instructor (i.e., it levels the playing field) and potentially lead to an increased sense of safety on the part of the trainees" (Kim & Lyons, 2003). Increasing an individual's sense of safety can work tom eliminate prejudices and allow students and trainees to more readily examine their personal norms; cultural values;…
Chang, C.Y. (2003). Chapter 5 Counseling Asian-Americans. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 73-92). New York: Brunner-Routledge. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91054568
Cunningham, M.J. (2001). B2B: How to Build a Profitable E-Commerce Strategy. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000786585
Diversity or Diversion? Experts Express Their Views about the Effectiveness of Diversity Programs and Offer Suggestions on How to Improve Them. (2002, July). Black Enterprise, 32, 82+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14677163
ules & Ways of Knowing
The author of this report is asked to answer several questions as they relate to the current nursing classes that the author is taking. The first question is the role of scholarly during an APN/DNP program. The second question asks the author to discuss the interest the author has in the selected role and degree in question. A sub-section of that question is whether the role in question meets the APN consensus statement, what professional organizations offer certification in the applicable certification role and what the criteria are for any applicable industry exams. Next up will be a selection and explanation of an APN conceptual framework for practice. After that will be an explanation of the ways of knowing and how they influence the author's current practice. What will follow that is an identification and explanation of the author's preferred paradigm. Last will be a…
BCEN. (2014, June 3). Get Certified CEN ®. CEN BCEN. Retrieved June 3,
2014, from http://www.bcencertifications.org/Get-Certified/CEN.aspx
Duke. (2014, June 3). FAQ's. Duke School of Nursing. Retrieved June 3, 2014, from https://nursing.duke.edu/academics/programs/dnp/faqs
MUN. (2014, June 3). Conceptual Model. School of Nursing. Retrieved June 3, 2014,
A person working in a professional position often handles several large projects at once and supervises the activities or output of others. A working professional needs reliable time management tactics to manage time effectively for not only the quality and efficiency of work but for personal health and stress management as well. There are three steps that one can take in order to improve their time management skills.
Step 1 - One should plan each day, week and month by prioritizing tasks in order of importance and deadline. It is not possible to tackle projects competently without first evaluating the most significant tasks and the order in which they should be completed. One should separate projects that slow down their efficiency. Then, rearrange their schedule or delegate tasks to others in order to assure that they are not hung up on a project that is costing valuable hours of focus.…
Amulya, J. n.d. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.itslifejimbutnotasweknowit.org.uk/files/whatisreflectivepractice.pdf . [Accessed 7 July 2012].
Archer, J. 2012. [ONLINE] How to Improve Time Management Skills for a Professional Role. Available at: http://work.chron.com/improve-time-management-skills-professional-role-3009.html . [Accessed 7 July 2012].
Importance of Information Technology. 2012. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/importance-of-information-technology.html . [Accessed 7 July 2012].
Reflection and Reflective Practice. 2010. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/reflecti.htm . [Accessed 7 July 2012].
EBP Project: Will Every Two Hour Turning and Positioning Decrease Pressure Ulcers in the Eldery Bed Bound Population in Nursing Homes?
Practicum: Clinical rotations with preceptor; serving patients with acute, chronic and new medical issues.
One of the things I have discovered during my recent experiences with both academic and clinical education and an EBP project is that there are numerous and effective ways of learning, presenting, and communicating. Each method, however, has one critical thing in common -- it must be a two-way path and none are effective unless there is clear communicative understanding on the part of the receipient, patient, family or colleague. Aristotle, for instance, once commented that "For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them." Experiential learning targets certain brain chemicals and allows a more personal approach to the individual's own particular brain chemistry. Because the individual…
Beard, C., et.al. (2006). Experiential Learning: A Best Practice Handbook for Educators and Trainers. Kogan Press.
Hyrkas, K., et al. (2010. Leading Innovation and Change. Journal of Nursing Management. 18 (1): 1-3.
Moon, J. (2004). A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. New York: Routledge.
Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing Up Digital: The Rise of the Next Generation. New York: McGraw Hill.
Adult Education and the Internet
Higher Education, the Internet, and the Adult Learner
The concept of using the Internet in the pursuit of higher education is not exactly new. Indeed, the institution of "distance learning," has been in full swing since the heyday of late night Sally Struthers correspondence-school commercials. What has changed, however, is the increasing legitimacy and widespread use of the Internet in the pursuit of higher education -- from the research of traditional college students, to the complete education of students enrolled in "online universities" and courses.
Adult students face unique challenges when they utilize the Internet as part of their education in ways that mirror the issues they face within other instructional modalities.
In seeking to understand just how adults learn, these issues must be viewed collectively, for general adult learner/adult education studies must be considered as a whole along with the added factors arising out…
Kerka, Sandra. Distance Learning, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed395214.html
Imel, Susan. Ethical Practice in Adult Education. http://www.ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed338897.html
Brockett, R.G. "Ethics and the Adult Educators." In ETHICAL ISSUES IN ADULT EDUCATION, edited by R.G. Brockett. New York: Teachers College Press, 1988a.