¶ … Learning Styles According to Ruble and Stout (1990) the four modes of learning seem to be relatively independent constructs rather than bipolar opposites so. Cornwell, Manfredo and Dunlap (1991) and Cornwell and Manfredo (1994) question the validity of concept of bipolar dimensions, advocating more of a four-factor model. Fortin, Chevrier and Amyot (1998) abound in the same direction as previous studies. According to them, the four-factor model corresponding to the theoretical model of Honey and Mumford (1986, 1992) appears the most appropriate model.
The theory of Honey and Mumford, describes the styles and learning strategies. It incorporates much of the theory of Kolb's learning cycle, making it more intelligible.
It is important to discuss these strategies with students. (Marsick and Watkins, p132-51) While this allows the teacher to become aware of the need to vary their teaching because they do not exist in universal, it also allows learners to realize that everyone learns differently.
So its dominant learning strategies can influence its working methods and student personnel can then optimize them. It may also become more self-confidence. Honey and Mumford (1986) take away from Kolb (1984) the idea of an experiential learning model in four stages they call: experience, the return on experience, drawing conclusions and planning. (Waring and Evans, p117-28)
According to them, each phase has specific behaviors and attitudes and is important to successfully complete the learning process itself. But most people, through the successes and failures of their behavior in their attempts to learn, develop preferences that make them "love" certain specific phases of the process. (Marsick and Watkins, p132-51)
To the extent that these phases are preferred by individuals, they define four learning styles, each corresponding to "a description of attitudes and behaviors that determine a preferred way of learning by an individual" (Honey and Mumford, 1992). The four learning styles according to Honey and Mumford (1992) are the current style, thinking style, style theorist and pragmatic style. The active style describes the behavior of the person who favors the attitudes and behaviors specific to the phase of experience, style reflected those of the return phase of the experiment and the theorist style, those of the formulation phase conclusions, and pragmatic style, those in the planning phase. (Waring and Evans, p117-28)
People who have a strong preference for the style reflected like to step back and think about situations and examine different points-of-view. They gather data firsthand, and find other sources; they choose to sift through the internal reflection before drawing a conclusion. (Marquardt, p45-49)
The important thing for them is their exhaustive data collection and analysis, decision making is deferred to final maturity as distant as possible. They are essentially conservative. They love to explore all sides of an issue and consider all possible implications before doing something.
They prefer to stay away in meetings and discussions, taking pleasure in watching people in action. They listen carefully to others and expect to know where they are coming from before issuing their opinions. They tend to be discreet, quiet, calm and tolerant. When they occur, their act is set in a context that takes into account the present and the past, their views and those of others.
The style theorist
People who have a strong preference for the style theorist organize their observations and integrate them into systems theoretical complex but logical. They address the problems vertically, following logical steps which are chained. (Lam, p439-52)
They combine disparate elements to coherent theories. They tend to be perfectionists and are satisfied when they have managed to organize the elements of their research and to insert them into a rational scheme. They like to analyze and synthesize. They are interested in basic assumptions, principles, theoretical models and systems of thought. (Waring and Evans, p117-28)
For Kolb (1984) the four modes are based on two bipolar dimensions, concrete-abstract and active-reflective, each involving a tension, a conflict between these two poles: the pole concrete (immersion in the concrete experience) versus the pole abstract (abstract conceptualization), the pole reflexive (thinking about the experience) versus the active pole (active experimentation). Learning style is the result of this preferred choice of one of the two poles on each of two dimensions. (Marquardt, p45-49)
Thus, theoretically, the four poles, in pairs, can define four possible learning styles: convergent, divergent, assimilation and accommodation. The individual style converge (abstract / active) uses abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. The individual style differ (concrete / reflective) favors concrete experience and reflective observation. The individual style assimilator (reflective / abstract) tends to use reflective observation and conceptual abstraction. The individual style accommodation (active / concrete) favors active experimentation and concrete experience. (Kozhevnikov, p464-81)
Challenges and advantages of being a mature learner!
The person who dwells in the conceptualization little (do not think, do not think) is usually perceived as being very intelligent and even stupid. Teachers can play a leading role in encouraging him to understand complex situations, by questioning the links it does, the rules, the principles it can release. The learner could be given the opportunity to question the logic, reasoning behind the methodology, to look for contradictions, oppositions in an argument, to identify and analyze the reasons provided.
Emphasize the relevance of his reading of the facts, tell him how it is articulated, nuanced, intelligent, believing that it has such resources although she makes little use are just some examples of interventions that can strengthen behavior learning desired and even produce changes in self-image. (Waring and Evans, p117-28) The deployment of such attitudes and such behavior could contribute to this attraction to rise to new experiences and allow the learner to confront their core beliefs.
The person who avoids taking action (not acting), experimenting, and experiencing anxiety as it can carry out the project. At the thought of displeasing or face a failure, it stops. It can be convinced that it must be perfect to be loved, it can not in any way make mistakes or be wrong, and it must do more than what is required. Remind him clear expectations for the business, help it to be realistic and less demanding to understand the gap between expectations and what is required, encourage her to reflect on what applications 'she has learned about the benefits of implementing a specific action plan are some ways to encourage action. (Vermunt, p78-79)
While adopting the idea of Kolb model of experiential learning into four phases, Honey and Mumford (1992) do not posit any underlying bipolar dimension. Learning style is designed as a tendency to focus differentially behaviors and attitudes at each stage of learning (Honey and Mumford, 1992). The four learning styles, corresponding to four phases of experiential learning, are active, reflective, theorist and pragmatist.
Honey and Mumford (1986, 1992) described the four basic styles and the learning environment of their own. What characterizes the person who favors the active mode is the open mind, enthusiasm for everything that is new, his taste for teamwork, the person who has a strong preference for the method is distinguished by its thoughtful step back persons and things, by his need to listen and take a distance the person has a profile of learning theorist is one who loves go further reflection, she likes to analyze, synthesize, explain, follow a logical approach, the person with a profile pragmatic interest in the practical application and testing ideas and theories.
The world is perceived as dangerous, he fears the criticism of people, humiliation, and rejection. In his mind, the slightest error can cause the worst scolding. It feels very difficult to trust, which prevents the new undertaking of the unpublished. There is not much room for individual differences, seeing them as threatening. To help the learner, it is important to first create a good atmosphere of trust and to spread the learning experiences according to his ability to handle stress resulting from its level of involvement. For example, such a student could be asked to consider the learning opportunities that present themselves to him. (Marquardt, p45-49)
The teacher might even suggest to him: start conversations in a group to volunteer for presentations, break the routine by varying activities (Honey and Mumford, 1986). In classroom, it could seek to involve the offering to share an idea, a feeling, a point-of-view; it could add value to the smallest apertures (I appreciate that you give your views on this subject) and recognition of his participation in activities, so short they are. Its closer relationship with the learner, it might invite him to consider progress and cut short his comparisons to others.
Honey and Mumford & Kolb: being a mature learner
Honey and Mumford learning styles saying that theorists like to think through problems in a step-by-step manner, and they tend to not get emotional in their thinking. They learn best when they are confronted with complex situations and how to handle questions about ideas and concepts. (Vermunt,…
According to Ruble and Stout (1990) the four modes of learning seem to be relatively independent constructs rather than bipolar opposites so. Cornwell, Manfredo and Dunlap (1991) and Cornwell and Manfredo (1994) question the validity of concept of bipolar dimensions, advocating more of a four-factor model. Fortin, Chevrier and Amyot (1998) abound in the same direction as previous studies. According to them, the four-factor model corresponding to the theoretical model of Honey and Mumford (1986, 1992) appears the most appropriate model.
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