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Experimental and One Non-Experimental Almanda
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59455997
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As such the research investigator is obliged to set for a research question that asks whether or not the application of a treatment will affect the outcome of a selected measurement variable. The stated research purpose of the Blanzola investigation was to determine whether or not a nursing internship program at a U.S. naval hospital would effect the core competencies of those nurses who attended the internship program vs. those nurse who did not attend. Although the purpose of the study was clearly defined the authors failed to format the research purpose into a well-defined research question followed by a properly stated testable null hypothesis. Blanzola and her two co-authors, in following best-fit research protocol should have stated the research question as follows: To what extent will participation in a naval hospital internship program affect the level of core competency attainment by those nurses who participate in the internship program…

research in education qualitative quantitative
Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19336558
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Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…

Research Summary
Words: 1249 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37510181
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Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.

The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.

Statement of Purpose

For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.

In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…

Reduced treatment mistakes and patient falls, together with patient perceptions of being better informed during shift change, was witnessed by researchers. The intervention incorporated a 3-hour nursing pupil handoff practicum, 2-hour clinical staff training, and a formative student assessment and feedback in the course of clinical experiences all through the 3rd semester. The pupil practicum was integrated into clinical orientation and clinical lab experience. Best practices in bedside hand-offs were addressed as well. All through the course of the practicum, emphasis was placed on the handoff receiver's active participation in safety communication (Avallone & Weideman, 2015). Numerous favorable results were recorded with regard to combined bedside nurse shift reporting practice, with a small number of downsides. Nursing outlook towards reporting during final data acquisition proved to be more favorable as compared to their outlook at the start of program implementation. If put into proper practice, bedside nurse reporting may improve patient safety results and nurse and patient satisfaction. But it is imperative to ensure nurse involvement in practice implementation and to continually check both report format uniformity and process support on nurses' and patients' part (Jecklin-Sand & Sherman, 2014).

Avallone, M., & Weideman, Y. (2015). Evaluation of a nursing handoff educational bundle to improve nursing student handoff communications: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 65 - 75.

Jecklin-Sand, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2854 - 63.

Research Approaches in Education
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A2 Coursework Paper #: 40594305
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Education

Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.

In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…

References

Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (n/s). Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research. Retrieved from University of South Alabama website:  http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.htm 

Ndunda M. (2004). Introduction to Educational Research. Retrieved from College of Charleston website:  http://www.cofc.edu/~ndundam/NOTESSPRING2001/635chapt1.htm 

Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Different Research Methods. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from  https://explorable.com/different-research-methods

Experimental Method Design Project
Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46919650
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Experimental Method Design Project

Impact of different types of support systems on postpartum depression in women

he research question under study is the degree to which support structures can affect the severity of the symptoms of postpartum depression. Other questions that may be considered include whether certain support structures are more valuable than others, such as the father of the child vs. family members and friends, or formal, professional supportive structures such as through a hospital or school.

Selection

he first difficulty of studying women with postpartum depression is finding women who can be the object of study. Not all women suffer from postpartum depression, so a generalized study of pregnant women is not sufficient. he most appropriate methodology would be to study women currently identified as suffering from postpartum depression. Subjects could be contacted through physicians and also through soliciting volunteers through advertisements on parenting-themed websites. hey could also…

The women in the study will be subjected to a 'follow up' series of interviews within six months, after the initial series of interviews. This will allow the research to be contextualized in terms of the women's recovery or trajectory of the illness, to assess the impact of support after identification and treatment in the long-term.

Reference

Borgatti, Steve. (n.d). Introduction to grounded research. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at  http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm

Experimental Theater Trends in Globalism
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 55643526
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To uncover these commonalities, my thesis will focus on three of the most influential forms of alternative theatre: Grotowski's Poor Theatre, Joseph Chaikin's Open Theatre, and Richard Schechner's New Theatre. These three alternative approaches represent a dramatic departure from conventional theater, using techniques that have as their central goal the development of intimate interaction between the audience and the actors. The central technique for this is to remove barriers and social conventions / traditions that typify traditional productions.

To adequately establish the social role that alternative theatre uses in constructing a performance, I will use a comparative study of these three alternative forms of theatre.

Since Grotowski had the most significant influence on the development of nonconventional theatre, I will begin by examining the actor-audience relationship in three contexts: psycho-physical, psycho-analytic language and the physical arrangement methods used to stage performances with the Polish Lab Theatre.

These three elements will…

Experimental Critique You Have Just Answered an
Words: 1678 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19385851
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Experimental Critique

You have just answered an advertisement to participate in an experiment from researchers at Yale University. You enter a professional looking building and are met by a professional looking man in a white lab coat. You have been paid $4.50 (which would have easily filled up your gas tank in 1961) to participate in a memory and learning experiment. The experiment requires that you play the role of "teacher" and another volunteer plays the role of "learner" (at least you think that he is a volunteer). The goal is to teach the learner to learn and recall a list of words. Sounds pretty simple, does it not?

This is the basic premise for one of the classic experimental studies in psychology: Stanley Milgram's (1963) Behavioral Study of Obedience. Milgram was influenced by the trials of Nazi war criminals, particularly Adolf Eichmann, who had claimed that they had only…

References

Haney, C., Banks, W.C., & Zimbardo, P.G. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69-97.

Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral Study of Obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67 (4), 371 -- 378

Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York: Harper Collins.

Packer, D.P. (2008). Identifying systematic disobedience in Milgram's obedience experiments: A meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 301-304,

Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design
Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33133730
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gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…

References

Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:

 http://guides.temple.edu/groundedtheory 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

 http://www.jbhe.com/2012/03/the-gender-gap-in-african-american-degree-attainments/

Philosophy of Research Is Basically Related to
Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24825043
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Philosophy of research is basically related to the fact that there is no overarching, generally accepted truth. Statements about reality are based on assumptions and mankind has continuously researched into the world around basing this research on assumptions. The quest to understand has thus also led to a philosophy of research.

There are several philosophical justifications for the experimental research method in sociology. The idea of experimental research is founded on the principle of observation. The coordinator of the experiment is manipulating a variable or variables in order to obtain a certain manifestation from another variable. The latter is monitored in order to better understand a particular sociological group for which the respective variable is representative.

The philosophical justification in sociology is that experimental research emphasizes the causal relationship between variables. By reducing sociological realities, particularly the relationships between individuals, to variables and almost statistical information, one can better ensure…

Effect of TV Adverts on Children Using Quasi Experimental Design
Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37393538
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Quasi-Experimental Design on the Effect of TV Adverts on Children

This study carries out the evaluation of a research titled "A quasi-experiment assessing the effectiveness of TV advertising directed to children" (Goldberg, 1990 p 445). The paper examines the extent the research hypotheses have been able to address the study. The paper also examines the research dependent variables and independent variables. Moreover, the study investigates the extent the author has adhered to both external and internal validity for the research.

esearch question the study Addresses

Goldberg, (1990) carries out the experimental research to investigate the potential impact of television advertising on children. Although, the author does not provide the research questions, nevertheless, the author tests two hypotheses using the quasi-experiment to assess the effectiveness of television advertising that has been directed to children.

ationale for the study

The rationale of the study is to assess whether children exposed to higher…

Reference

Goldberg, N. (1990). A Quasi-experiment Assessing the Effectiveness of TV Advertising directed to Children. Journal of Marketing Research JMR, 27 (4): 445

Khandker, Shahidur R., et al. (2010). Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices, World Bank, Washington, D.C: 53-103.

Morgan, G. A. (2000). Quasi-Experimental Designs. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: pp. 794-796.

Shadish, William R., et al. (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston: 103-243.

Introduction to Research Methodologies
Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83884595
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represented by different methodologies, describing the purpose of every methodology and providing an example of a research problem for every methodology. The ideas that will be discussed in this paper include exemplifying what encompasses a research problem and also making comparisons and contrasts between qualitative research and quantitative research with respect to their strengths and weaknesses.

Matrix

Experimental esearch

Correlational Study

Grounded Theory

Ethnography

Quantitative

Quantitative Study

Quantitative Study

Qualitative Study

Qualitative study

Qualitative study

To enable the researcher manipulate one variable while measuring other variables and therefore making it possible to examine cause and effect of research problems

To measure the relationship or correlation that exists between two variables

To question and interrogate a massive group of people regarding their philosophies and standpoints on a certain phenomenon

To develop a theory or theoretical model where none exists in the literature in relation to the sample

To describe and interpret…

References

Bryman, A. (2007). The Research Question in Social Research: What is its Role?" International Journal of Social Research Methodology 10: 5-20.

Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage.

Higher Ed Action Research in
Words: 2859 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17119347
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Indeed, it may be argued that action research is uniquely suited to the conditions within the classroom. So reports the text by Ferrance, which indicates that "action research is a process in which participants examine their own educational practice systematically and carefully, using the techniques of research. It is based on the following assumption. . . teachers and principals work best on problems they have identified for themselves." (p. 1)

The implication here is that the constant state of flux revealed by day-to-day activities within a course and in interaction between professor, students, content and other entities justify the use of a research framework which is similarly mutable. As the source by Ferrance argues, the improvement of one's own practice of education may well be based on the ability of the instructor to evolve in harmony with an evolving understanding of the community systems, social networks, cultural inclinations and academic…

Works Cited:

Dick, B. (2000). A Beginner's Guide to Action Research [Online]. Available at  http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide.html 

Ferrance, E. (2000). Action Research. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.

Post-Tenure Review Research Ethical Concerns
Words: 306 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 11286126
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However, some identifying information is necessary to evaluate the length of time the subject has spent at an institution, their department, professors' publishing records, and other issues that arise when conducting the review process of professors and evaluating teaching records.

Additionally, if subjects are considered to have been given a negative post-tenure review by faculty members or students, the professors might have an alternative view they wish to share with the researches. Allowing professors, students, and administrators to give anecdotal evidence to add context to the statistics compiled about departments that conduct post-tenure review and those departments that do not is essential. But the selected interviews must be balanced demographically so that a variety of views and voices are representative. Subjects must be assured that their results are confidential and any obvious identifiers are not recorded in the report, otherwise they may be less than candid.

Bio-Statistics Research Activities Whether Clinical Trial Based
Words: 2419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3118141
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Bio-Statistics

esearch activities, whether clinical trial based, experimentally designed, or product oriented, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. To this end the researcher must catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done. The first step in the attainment of the desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward that which is being investigated. A requirement within the scientific approach best-fit format that is oftentimes misunderstood, and consequently wrongly applied, is that of sampling.

In a rather philosophical approach to sampling Ohlson (1998) states that sampling is " ... But part of the whole. Check to make sure I fairly represent my larger connection " (p. 27). With these words Ohlson is informing the research enthusiast that sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error into statistical processes, and violate the empirical premise under which the research investigation…

References

Ferguson, Geroge A. 1966. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:

McGraw-Hill Book Company

Ohlson, E.L 1998. Best-Fit Statistical Procedures, ACTS Testing Labs. Chicago Thompson, David M., Kozak, Sharon E. And Sheps, Sam (1999). Insulin adjustment by a diabetes nurse educator improves glucose control in insulin-requiring diabetic patients: A randomized trial. CMAJ, 161(8):959-62

Van Dalen, Debold B. (1966). Understanding educational research. New York: McGraw-Hill

Leadership and Research Methods
Words: 1155 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50098989
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Summary and Analysis of The Forgotten Followers Contingency Model of Leadership and Follower Self-leadership by Seokhwa Yun and Jonathan Cox and Henry P Sims Jr.

This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of leadership and follower attributes on follower self-leadership.  The abstract provides a clear summary of the study in terms of its purpose, research methodology, findings, implications and limitations of the study, practical implications, and originality/value of the study.  As shown in the abstract, the purpose of the study was to assess the effect of leadership and follower attributes and follower self-leadership.  The researchers found that the impact of leadership on follower self-leadership was dependent on follower need for autonomy.

As part of conducting the study, these researchers introduce several concept beginning with the idea that, “Not everyone wants to be empowered!”  The statement basically highlights the two major differences in people’s response to self-leadership opportunities i.e. some people…

Psychology- Social How Is the Research Described
Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 18911549
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Psychology- Social

How is the research described in your chosen article an example of social psychology?

Social psychology is often seen as the study of how people's feelings, outlooks, and behaviors are influenced by the definite, likely, or indirect presence of others. In this study the authors believe that people think that they communicate with people who are close to them better than they do with strangers. This is an example of social psychology because they are looking at how the behavior of communication is influenced by friends or strangers.

What was the study's main hypothesis? Explain (i.e., tell me more than yes/no) whether or not it was supported.

The researchers hypothesis was that people take part in active observation of strangers' different viewpoints because they know they have to, but that they let down their guard and rely more on their own viewpoint when they communicate with a friend.…

References

Savitsky, Kenneth, Keysar, Boaz, Epley, Nicholas, Carter, Travis and Swanson, Ashley. (2010).

The closeness-communication bias: Increased egocentrism among friends vs. strangers. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47 (2011) 269 -- 273.

Barriers Exist in the Development of Research
Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71618145
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barriers exist in the development of research in the classroom environment. First and foremost, the issue of confidentiality of the children must be respected. Secondly, the research must be designed to serve the children. Children cannot be used as 'test subjects' in experiments. The school district has an obligation to educate its students and cannot create 'control groups' that do not receive the benefits of education, to contrast with the experiences of children who are receiving a particular intervention. Although some 'experimental groups' can be created, the interventions must be relatively limited, so as to not impede the educational process of either the children in the experimental group or the control group. There is an additional ethical question of what should be done if it is discovered that there are serious problems at the school, regarding the student's education: do the researchers have an obligation to intervene?

Parents must also…

Qualitative Doctoral Business Research Role of Theory
Words: 1109 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71154706
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Running Head: QUALITATIVE DOCTORAL BUSINESS RESEARCH ANALYSIS 1
QUALITATIVE DOCTORAL BUSINESS RESEARCH ANALYSIS 5

Analysis Role of Theory in Context of Qualitative Doctoral Business Research
Introduction
Models and theories produce the basis upon which empirical inquiries are built. Empirical research is not only concerned with data variations (with respect to what is going on in the globe) but also with testing whether such data is in conformity with the theory or model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). It is also our intention to progress existing theories or even come up with new ones on the basis of existing ones and on the basis of freshly acquired empirical evidence. Generally two strategies for carrying out quantitative research exist. The first strategy involves formulation of hypotheses by researchers based on previous research information and testing those hypotheses against available empirical data through a process called confirmatory research. Confirmatory research is used to…

Edr What Is Environmental Design Research Design
Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23184673
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Edr

What is Environmental Design Research?

Design and art can accept scientific principles

Environmental Design Research (EDR) = the study of the mutual relationships between human beings and the physical environment at all scales, and applications of the knowledge thus gained to improving the quality of life through better informed environmental policy, planning, design, and education. (passive and active definition)

EDR is related to many other areas of the social sciences

EDR is NOT:

building science or structural engineering

Design practice

Eg. An architect does research to apply to a single building project, but EDR applies research to things like job satisfaction and other measurable results that advance the whole field.

EDR Is:

Basic Research (generation, discovery of knowledge)

Applied Research (answering specific questions related to specific social policy or context)

Research Applications (apply research to policy, plans, designs)

**Must communicate results to policy/professional applications

EDR = Environmental Psychology =…

The Scientific Method and Its Importance to Research
Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98038350
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scientific method in the doctoral research process.

The scientific method has long been the preferred means of conducting research in most fields, including both social sciences and hard sciences. Because the scientific methods "demands that the procedures be objective," as well as clearly stated in research papers, bias is minimized (Stangor, 2012). Moreover, the statement of procedures allows for replication of experiments, something that is integral to the peer review process. eplication is crucial for the validation of scientific research at the doctoral level and beyond.

Doctoral students might develop cogent hypotheses in their research, and those hypotheses when proven over time may evolve into widely accepted theories in their field. However, repeated testing is the only means by which to solidify theories (Harris, n.d.). The doctoral student must be relatively detached from the results of research, and the scientific method enables detachment by highlighting ways the theory can be…

References

Babbie, E. (1990). The essential wisdom of sociology. Teaching Sociology 18(4): 526-5.30

Babbie, E. (2012). The Practice of Social Research. Nelson.

Harris, W. (n.d.). How the scientific method works. Retrieved online:  http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/scientific-experiments/scientific-method9.htm 

"Introduction to Scientific Research," (n.d.). Chapter One. Pearson. Retrieved online:  http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205701655.pdf

Experimental Method Otherwise Known as Quantitative Research
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 16390965
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experimental method, otherwise known as quantitative research or laboratory study, is to formulate a hypotheses, to collect the data, and test this hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct, as carefully as possible, bias, and then to analyze this data using statistical measures. The experimental method uses random sampling as part of its discourse.

Practical considerations usually limit the amount of control we have in structuring experiments, for instance we cannot always hope to randomize; we sometimes (more usually) often have to make do with the sample of participants given. This is when quasi-experimentation is employed.

This particular study is a quasi-experiment

Levels of measurement of the variables

There were two levels / conditions: (1) inquiry-based science curriculum and (ii) an inquiry-based science curriculum and reading strategy instruction

Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results

Three types of relevant psychological instruments were used to measure science…

References

Fang, Y. & Wei, Z. (2010) Improving Middle School Students'Science Literacy Through Reading Infusion The Journal of Educational Research, 103:262 -- 273,

Hough David L. & Schmitt Vicki L. (2011) An ex post facto examination of relationships among the developmental designs professional development model

Middle Grades Research Journal, 6(3), 163 -- 175

Experimental Text on Charismatic or
Words: 6356 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93708303
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A number of daily newspapers reports tales concerning leaders who have failed to deliver the anticipated results. Many people are delighted by leaders who produce the desired results. Moreover, these leaders are frequently commemorated because of their exemplary work. These successful leaders are often imitated by several people. In addition, several people perfect on the conduct of these successful leaders. The daily newspapers and even radio and television stations makes it a habit of sharing vital information regarding a successful leader who has just passed on. Those individuals in a society who usually compel others to attain certain objectives within a society are usually listened to and respected by others. Many articles in newspapers are usually designed to offer worthwhile information concerning how well individuals can become effectual leaders in the society. The main information includes how an individual should be attentive and how s/he ought to unite with his/her…

References

Adams, J., & Kirst, M. (1999). New demands and concepts for educational accountability:

Striving for results in an era of excellence. In J. Murphy & L. Seashore (Eds.), Handbook

of Research on Educational Administration. 2 nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Barbuto, J.E. (2005). Motivation and transactional, charismatic, and transformational leadership: a test of antecedents. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11(4), 26-40.

Research and Theory in Criminal Justice
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58637443
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Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…

Research Literature
Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94602895
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.....contemporary, there is a great deal of dynamism and competition, and therefore it is fundamental for organizations to produce newfangled ideas of high quality to develop or sustain their competitive edge. Customarily, an approach of generating ideas has been verbal brainstorming, which encompasses a practice where groups of individuals, commonly in the similar space, work in tandem to form and interchange notions (Stevens et al., 2009). The design of the user interface of a system is vital and fundamental to the success of the software. The presentation and unveiling of concepts through an information system interface can play a significant part in facilitating and encouraging the integration of conceptions in the electronic brainstorming system (EBS), which as a result can give rise to enhancing the level of productivity. In delineation, EBS is a computer-based system that simplifies and enables brainstorming between the group members. The aspect in this case is…

Experimental Film
Words: 2578 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86966137
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Maya Deren: An Experimental Life

Maya Deren, born Eleanora Derenkowsky on April 29, 1917 in Kiev, Ukraine, has been referred to as "the high priestess of experimental cinema." (1) Even though she was a dancer, choreographer, poet, writer and photographer, she is still considered a pioneer not only in experimental filmmaking, but also a voice for the feminist film community.

In 1922, the Derenkowsky family fled the threat of anti-Semitism in the Ukraine, arriving in New York where they changed their name to "Deren." The family, though, was frequently unhappy and at odds. As an adolescent, Maya was sent to Geneva to attend The League of Nations International School while Maya's mother, Marie Deren, studied languages in Paris and her father, Solomon Deren, practiced psychiatry in New York City.

After attending school in Geneva, Deren studied journalism and political science and became active in student politics at Syracuse University. She…

4. P. Adams Sitney, Visionary Film: the American Avant-Garde 1943-1978, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979, p.10

5. Nichols, Maya Deren and the American Avant-Garde, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001, p.5

6. Deren, p. 33

Research Approaches in Education
Words: 1763 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84885030
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Educational Leadership

Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.

Introduction

The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…

References

Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.

Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.

Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.

Experimental Psychology Zimbardo Prison Study
Words: 2123 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95692907
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In fact, during the study, the guards became more sadistic when they thought no one was watching them. Zimbardo notes, "Their boredom had driven them to ever more pornographic and degrading abuse of the prisoners" (Zimbardo). This may be the same reason guards at Abu Ghraib tortured and humiliated their charges, and the study seems to indicate this could happen in just about any prison anywhere, if the guards have enough power. The world should pay more attention to this study and its implications. As another writer notes, "The young men who played prisoners and guards revealed how much circumstances can distort individual personalities -- and how anyone, when given complete control over others, can act like a monster" (Alexander). This is what happened at Abu Ghraib, and chances are it is happening all around the world as well. In an interview about Abu Ghraib, Zimbardo notes the prison environment…

References

Alexander, Meredith. "Thirty Years Later, Stanford Prison Experiment Lives On." Prisonexp.org. 22 Aug. 2001. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.prisonexp.org/30years.htm

Bronstein, Phyllis A., and Kathryn Quina, eds. Teaching a Psychology of People: Resources for Gender and Sociocultural Awareness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1988.

Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.

O'Toole, Kathleen. "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful After All These Years." Stanford University. 8 Jan. 1997. 9 Jan. 2007.  http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html

research design issues in education dual credit
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The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Problem Statements
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…

Experimental Understanding and Enganging Patient S Inelligence
Words: 3073 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75375065
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self-therapy in the context of what needs to be done to elevate the healing process in life. The therapy that is often used to treat is that which people rely on to practice self-treatment. In this paper, Art Bohart's talk on self-healing is will be used to manifest what is best-used means of conducting self-therapy. In this paper, the general supportive treatment of stress and other psychological ailments will be covered. The aim is to reach out to the diverse sections of the therapy and how it may be of use to the people. The paper also discusses the relevance of this program in the treatment of emotional challenges that people face. Finally, the paper will discuss whether the lessons learned from Art Bohart's talk can be integrated into real life. The focus extends to include the texistential-humanistic therapeutic interventions and the benefits associated with their use on patients.

Part…

References

Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). What Do We Mean By The Client As Active Self-Healer? In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 3-23). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-001

Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Research Results That May Surprise You -- How Do We Know the Client is an Active Self-Healer? In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (pp. 25-55). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-002

Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Self-Healing Without a Therapist. In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 57-84). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-003

Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Self-Healing With a Therapist. In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process Of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 87-104). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-004

Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal
Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 90647310
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Descrptive Design

esearch Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods…

References

Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from  http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf 

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.

Lancet, 359, 145-149.

Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.

Goal of This Research Is to Identify
Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48679248
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goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.

Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…

References

Blakstad, O. (n.d.). Research designs. Retrieved online:  https://explorable.com/research-designs 

De Vaus, D.A. Research Design in Social Research. London: SAGE, 2001; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.

Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Case study research design. Retrieved online:  https://explorable.com/case-study-research-design

Ethics in Research for Organizations of All
Words: 1204 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 83305104
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Ethics in esearch

For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).

Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…

REFERENCES

Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.

SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm

Network Research Encountering -- and
Words: 2984 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96557868
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The behavior of both botnets and worms in peer-to-peer networks have been empirically examined and models or simulations of their behavior have been attempted, and the manner in which different nodes in peer-to-peer networks develop in and of themselves and in terms of their relationships with other nodes -- the very architecture of the network itself, in other words, which is necessarily dynamic in a peer-to-peer network -- makes it easier for these threats to spread and evolve undetected due to this architecture and to the patterns of information flow over such networks (Fan, 2011; Xu et al., 2011). When it comes to worms propagating in peer-to-eer networks, the activity of the worm itself has been demonstrated to be the most necessary knowledge in terms of tracking and preventing the continued spread and damage of such a threat, while botnets generally show more "robustness" an are better impacted by shifts…

References

Ahmad, N. & Habib, M. (2010). Analysis of Network Security Threats and Vulnerabilities by Development & Implementation of a Security Network Monitoring Solution. Blekinge Institute of Technology (thesis).

Barth, W. (2008). Nagios: System and Network Monitoring. San Francisco: Open Source Press.

Bejtlich, R. (2004). The Tao of Network Security Monitoring: Beyond Intrusion Detection. New York: Pearson.

Cao, J. & Liu, Z. (2012). A Distributed Trust Model in Unstructured P2P Networks. Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering 126: 635-41.

Recreation Proposed Quantitative Research Outdoor
Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 2636582
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Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.

The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.

This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…

References

Brown, P.; Sutterby, J.A. & Thornton, C.D. (2002). Dramatic play in outdoor play environments. Parent Teacher Organization Today.

Burberry, J. & Learoyd, B. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .

Montessori, M. (1986). The Discovery of the Child. 4th. New York: Ballantine Books.

Office of Communications (Ofcom). (2004). Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Office of Communications. Online at  http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/food_ads/ .

Quasi-Experimental Quantitative Pilot Study Into
Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40805814
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As a result, only one-third of the participants actually fulfilled their role during the course of the year (Melin & Lenner, 2009). Typically, parents failed to appear at previously arranged joint meetings with the nurses and their children; likewise, two-thirds of the subjects failed to complete all of the elements of the program as expected. Second, the fact that the subjects grew and developed physiologically during the period of the study complicated reliance on BMI as a measure of outcomes. Third, the prospect of stigmatization associated with participation proved to be a barrier to full participation. In that regard, most of the student subjects reported negative responses on the part of classmates and peers (Melin & Lenner, 2009).

esults, elevance, and Implications

Overall, those subjects who adhered to the entire program did exhibit positive results by reducing their BMI after factoring in their normal physiological growth (Melin & Lenner, 2009).…

Reference

Anna Melin and Ragnhild Arvidsson Lenner. "Prevention of further weight gain in overweight school children, a pilot study." Scandinavian Journal of Caring

Sciences, Vol. 23; (2009): 498 -- 505.

Collect Information for Your Research Qualitative Quantitative
Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63354510
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collect information for your research (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods)?

I will use a mixed methods approach. To allow me to sample a large number of parents regarding their choices about vaccination, I would use an initial quantitatively assessed survey, submitting questionnaires to a statistically diverse sample of parents inquiring about their children's immunization history and why they have made the choices they have regarding their child's immunization. I will also ask them questions about their children's health history regarding specific major and minor childhood illnesses. All information will be anonymous. However, to add more personal nuance to my research, I will also conduct qualitative interviews of several parents who have made different decisions about their children's immunization.

What statistical methods will be used to analyze the data? Why?

Given that the primary focus of the statistical research will be a comparison between two groups, ANOVA seems to be the…

References

Crossman, A. (2013). Purposive sample. About.com. Retrieved from:

 http://sociology.about.com/od/Types-of-Samples/a/Purposive-Sample.htm 

Neutens, J.J., & Robinson, L. (2010). Research Techniques for the Health Sciences (4th ed.).

San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings

Abundant Research Conducted on Humans
Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 14425263
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From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).

Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…

Sources

Brewer, B.W, & Karoly, P. (1989). Effects of attentional focusing on pain and perception. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 193-203.

Gentle, M.J. (2001). Attentional shifts alter pain perception in the chicken. Consciousness, cognition and animal welfare, 10, S187-S194.

Hackett, G., & Horan, J.J. (1980). Stress inoculation for pain: What's really going on? Journal of Counseling Psychology

Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 615.

Mixing Methods Within Research Projects
Words: 1908 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84083495
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(Niglas, 2004)

Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:

(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?

(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;

(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)

ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:

(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…

Bibliography

Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at:  http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf 

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf

Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at:  http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf 

Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at:  http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html

Population for My Proposed Research Will Be
Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93320509
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population for my proposed research will be college students ages 17-22 at three different educational institutions. The purpose of the cross-sectional study will be to survey the study habits of college students and the effect of those study habits on student's grades. Students will be asked to identify themselves on the questionnaire in terms of their age, gender, ethnicity, college major, whether they are the first member of their family to attend college full-time and their GPA. They will then be surveyed upon a variety of study habits, such as what time of day they study, where, how frequently, if they study alone or in a group, if they study with music playing and for how long.

All of the categories will be narrowed down in the final statistical analysis, for ease and clarity (such as noting if their major is in the humanities, social sciences, or natural sciences). GPAs…

Reference

Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Considerations Before Research Begins
Words: 782 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12615008
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Operational Definitions in order carry research, researchers define variables terms actual procedures measure manipulate . Operational definitions provide details procedures needed measure a variable written precisely, increase

Variables and operational definitions

The independent variables for the topic social media and technology are availability of technology, social media access, and availability of internet. Technology availability is vital for someone to access and use social media. Without technology, the subjects would have to rely on traditional methods for communication, and the results would differ from those who have technology access. The popularity of social media sites available is independent since it determines the level of access and usage. Internet availability is critical because without internet connectivity it would not be possible to connect on social media with others. The dependent variables are sense of community, and enjoyment. Subjects who have access to social media and technology are bale to connect with their…

References

Cozby, P., & Bates, S. (2011). Methods in Behavioral Research. 2445 McCabe Way: McGraw-Hill Education.

McKenzie, D., Stillman, S., & Gibson, J. (2010). How important is selection? experimental vs. non-experimental measures of the income gains from migration. Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(4), 913-945.

Rucker, D.D., Preacher, K.J., Tormala, Z.L., & Petty, R.E. (2011). Mediation analysis in social psychology: Current practices and new recommendations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(6), 359-371.

Broadbent's Research on Attention Donald Eric Broadbent
Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58968673
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Broadbent's esearch On Attention

Donald Eric Broadbent an influential English experimental psychologist who was the first person to pull together the mass of diverse work on information theory that gave the area the coherence it lacked. In his experimental work he demonstrated that there was a possibility of studying attention rigorously. The data he used was from behavioral experiments to make inferences on the functional stages of processing and their order of occurrence. In a nutshell he invented the modern study of attention with an experimental approach to it (Driver, 2001).

He brought about a revolution on how research on mental processes was conducted. He put emphasis on how psychological theory and research could come from putting into consideration practical problems. He truly bridged the gap that existed between the laboratory and field. He regarded all theories as temporary accounts of the current information, likely to need revision and improvement…

Reference

McLeod, S.A. (2012). Experimental Method. Retrieved from  http://www.simplypsychology.org/experimental-method.html 

Driver, J. (2001) A selective review of selective attention research from the past century. British Journal of Psychology. Retrieved October 16, 2012, from www.icn.ucl.ac.uk/attention/pubs/Jon%20Driver/Author/Original%20Research%20Papers/2001/Brit%20J%20Psychology%2092%2053%2078

Rules Was the Research Conducted
Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A2 Coursework Paper #: 67946209
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These need to be selected carefully in order to ensure the reliability and validity of the data obtained. Although the study by Segal and Cover is not experimental, the dependent variables in question relate to the availability of Supreme Court justices. The set of independent variables were therefore the publicly available votes cast by the justices. However, the dependent variables were reliant on the time period selected for the focus of the study as well as the source of variables selected, in the form of newspaper editorials in four major newspaper during the time of focus within the study. These variables are therefore dependent on the specific viewpoint held by the newspapers and their editors at the time, and could affect validity and consistency. Nevertheless, this problem is generally mitigated by the number newspapers and editorials selected.

Maximising Concreteness

To maximise concreteness, the researchers focused on a specific time and…

Dependent variables differ from independent variables in that they are manipulated either by the experimenter or by the situations surrounding them. These need to be selected carefully in order to ensure the reliability and validity of the data obtained. Although the study by Segal and Cover is not experimental, the dependent variables in question relate to the availability of Supreme Court justices. The set of independent variables were therefore the publicly available votes cast by the justices. However, the dependent variables were reliant on the time period selected for the focus of the study as well as the source of variables selected, in the form of newspaper editorials in four major newspaper during the time of focus within the study. These variables are therefore dependent on the specific viewpoint held by the newspapers and their editors at the time, and could affect validity and consistency. Nevertheless, this problem is generally mitigated by the number newspapers and editorials selected.

Maximising Concreteness

To maximise concreteness, the researchers focused on a specific time and area of study; civil liberties cases between 1953 and 1987. I am not, however, sure that the dependent variable selection is entirely conducive to maximum concreteness. Surely there were more than four newspapers reporting on the Supreme Court decisions of the time. Also, smaller newspapers might have provided valuable and comparable insights into the political views of the justices concerned. In order to obtain as high a level of concreteness as possible, it might therefore have been a better decision to include more data, especially as these data are dependent upon the viewpoints espoused by the specific papers involved rather than upon verifiable sources.

Loans Envisioned Research Methodology Association Loans Association
Words: 4859 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 84889499
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Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology

Envisioned research Methodology and Design

Methodologies Considered

Quantitative Methods

Correlation

Experimental Study

Qualitative Methods

Descriptive Research Methods

Interviewing

Focus Group

Mixed Method

Research Designs Considered

Convergent Design

Explanatory Sequential Design

Exploratory Sequential Design

The Embedded Design

Research Validity and Reliability

Strengths and weaknesses

Method of Data Collection

Primary Data Collection

Secondary Data Collection

Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs

Conclusion

ibliography

Introduction:

The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…

Bibliography:

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.

Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.

Numerical Research That Can Be
Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31936875
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This is yet another reason we cannot assume that data is 'objective' because it is quantitative in nature. For example, when constructing an experiment "an extreme groups design (e.g., assigning participants to high or low conditions) maximizes the variances of the components of the product term, it also results in much more power with respect to the interaction effect than would the corresponding observational design" (Cortina 2002: 343). Conversely, doing an experiment 'in the field' is likely to yield a less statistically-significant impact because of the inability to control the extremity of the variables. A recent study of the statistical power of research in the social sciences revealed that only 40% of all MIS studies had adequate statistical power to ensure that the probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected correctly at all times (Baroudi & Orlikowski 1989: 87). Significance criteria, sample estimate, and effect size, can all influence…

References

Baroudi, J. & Orlikowski, W. (1989). The problem of statistical power in MIS Research.

MIS Quarterly, 13 (1): 87-106

Cortina, J.M. (2002). Big things have small beginnings: An assortment of 'minor'

methodological misunderstandings. Journal of Management, 28(3), 339-362.

Patient Access to Experimental Drugs Experimental Drugs
Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10313424
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Patient Access to Experimental Drugs

Experimental drugs are being used in treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases in the hopes that effective cures and treatments can be identified. There are however, ethical questions relating to the use of experimental drugs and this work seeks to answer the question that asks whether patients should have access to experimental drugs and to answer why or why they should not have this access.

Experimental Drugs

Experimental drugs have carved inroads to treating cancer patients and most recently; this has been reported in the form of a drug that serves to "neutralize two mechanisms cancers need to survive." (Coghlan, 2012) The new drug is Cabozantinib. This drug is reported by one individual interviewed in this study to have been used by a family member who died while taking the drug for non-small cell carcinoma in the form of lung cancer. When asked the question…

Bibliography

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=_14H7MOw1o4C&source=gbs_navlinks_s 

Coghlan, A.K (2012) New Cancer Drug Sabotages Tumor's Escape Route. 24 Feb 2012. New Scientist. Retrieved from:  http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21516-new-cancer-drug-sabotages-tumours-escape-route.html 

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:

Applying Experimental Design
Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19368814
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population sample will be a convenience one -- at least 500 individuals between ages 18 to 50 - acquired from 5 different sites in Connecticut

Inclusion symptoms will be people who experienced a minor emergency and that the respondent be cognitively able to participate, speak English, and have telephone access. Participants will be matched as to age, condition of emergency, intelligence, and gender, and effort will made to gain a diverse ethic sample.

The intervention: random sampling will be conducted on survivors of an emergency incident in an emergency unit in Connecticut. 500 individuals will be targeted. 250 will be in the experimental group and 250 will be in the control group. All will be closely matched in terms of demographics and similarity of condition necessitating their hospitalization. The nurses who will be involved in the experiment will receive a one-hour course of special training on how to provide patient-centered…

References

Ware, J., Jr., & Sherbourne, C.D. (1992) The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual Framework and Item Selection, Medical Care, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp 473-483.

 http://www.fasttrackproject.org/techrept/h/hsy/hsy19tech.pdf

Scientific Research on Coronavirus Vaccine
Words: 381 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 88455158
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Connection Between Class Learning and an Article
The development of a COVID-19 vaccine is considered critical in curbing the spread of this virus and dealing with the global pandemic. Companies like Moderna have embarked on efforts to develop an effective coronavirus vaccine. The development process involves conducting extensive research through clinical trials. These clinical trials involves using different concepts of scientific research to ensure the effectiveness of the vaccines. Grady (2020) published an article on the effectiveness of Moderna’s coronavirus vaccine based on early data.
One of the connections between the article and lessons learnt in the classroom is the use of two groups of study participants i.e. an experimental group and a control group. In this regard, the study employed a between-participants design for the experimentation to determine the difference between conditions among people who contracted the virus. The experimental group of five people were vaccinated while the control…

Reference
Grady, D. (2020, November 16). Early Data Shows Moderna’s Coronavirus Vaccine Is 94.5% Effective. The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2021, from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/16/health/Covid-moderna-vaccine.html

Social Psychology Research -- Fashion
Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23601639
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In the (control) group the professor wore the same shirt without any label attached. The shirt was unstained and fresh-looking but not new.

Finally, after the initial data collection, the subjects were advised of the genuine research topic and method in connection with a request for their consent to analyze the results participant-by-participant. Originally, they were assured of anonymity. All 20 participants granted consent to analyze their responses individually.

Experimental Hypothesis and Variables

Hypotheses

Hypothesis #1 -- the control group will characterize the professor's attire as

"Casual" or "Unprofessional."

Hypothesis #2 -- the test group will characterize the professor's attire as

"Fashionable."

Hypothesis # 3 -- the control group will characterize the professor's style as

"Tries too hard."

Hypothesis # 4 -- the test group will characterize the professor's style as

"Probably quite well."

Independent Variable

The independent variable is the presence or absence of the "DKNY" label on the…