1000 results for “Explanation”.
Dinosaurs Became Extinct
Why Dinosaurs Became Extinct
There are many possible explanations for the extinction of dinosaurs, and scientists have proposed many theories regarding their demise. One of the most common theories is that an asteroid from outer space collided with the earth about 65 million years ago. If a large asteroid had collided with the earth in this manner, then it is believed that such a cloud of dust would have entered the air that the sunlight would be unable to penetrate the dust cloud.
Therefore, all of the plants and animals would die, because the entire ecosystem on earth depends on the sunlight to provide warmth and energy. Without the sun, plants would be unable to produce their own food through photosynthesis, and they would die. Without plants, the herbivores would have no food supply and also perish. As a result, even the carnivores that ate other animals…
Evaluate explanations offered
Economics of MNEs, China and Exchange ates
Evaluate the various explanations that have been offered for the existence of the multinational enterprise.
China is a notoriously difficult place to do business. Explain what makes the business environment so challenging and explain the strategies a firm may use in order to overcome those challenges.
Explain how exchange rates are determined in a floating exchange rate system and identify the key causes of exchange rate movements.
Evaluate the various explanations that have been offered for the existence of the multinational enterprise.
A multinational enterprise is one which has a presence in terms of an office in more than one country, even if it does not employ itself in manufacturing in the country. As far as the explanations regarding the existence of MNEs are concerned, there are various that have been employed as the concept of multinational enterprises has…
Agnihotri, A. 2011. Obstacles Faced by Indian Firms Entering the Chinese Market. [Online] Available from: < http://www.biztechreport.com/story/1180-obstacles-faced-indian-firms-entering-chinese-market > (9 January 2012)
Barboza, D. 2011, December 7. Entrepreneur's Rival in China: The State. New York Times .
Elaine Kurtenbach. 2011. U.S. Companies in China Point out Obstacles to Business. [Online] Available from: < http://www.usatoday.com/money/world/2011-01-19-us-china-business-obstacles_N.htm > (9 January 2012)
Geert Hofstede ™ Cultural Dimensions. n.d. [Online] Available from: < http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_united_kingdom.shtml > (9 January 2012)
" (Entrepreneur, 2009)
There are seven components to a business plan as follows:
(1) Executive summary;
(2) Business description;
(3) Market strategies;
(4) Competitive analysis;
(5) Design and development plan;
(6) Operations and management plan; and (7) Financial factors. (Entrepreneur, 2009)
It is important that the individual who starts their own business determine their objectives for the business and toward this end a goals and objectives checklist should be formulated asking questions such as: (1) How determined am I to see this succeed? (2) Am I willing to invest my own money and work long hours for no pay, sacrificing personal time and lifestyle, maybe for years? (3) What's going to happen to me if this venture doesn't work out? (4) if it does succeed, how many employees will this company eventually have? (5) What will be its annual revenues in a year? Five years? (6) What will be its…
Tozzi, John (2009) a Guide to Self-Employment. Business Week Magazine. 23 Jan 2009. Online available at: http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/jan2009/sb20090123_156963.htm
10 Steps to Starting a Business (2009) Business.GOV website online available at: http://www.business.gov/start/start-a-business.html
An Introduction to Business Plans (2009) Entrepreneur Connect. Online available at: http://www.entrepreneur.com/startingabusiness/businessplans/article38290.html
Plan Your Plan (2009) Entrepreneur Connect. Online available at: http://www.entrepreneur.com/startingabusiness/businessplans/article38292.html
The specialization of the ulgarian workforce is more and more directed towards science and technology, including the it industry. Some of the companies present in the country include Hewlett-Packard, which is a positive aspect given the fact that these are also highly profitable sectors of the economy.
The second wheel of economic growth is natural resources. The country does not have significant resources of oil and gas, but it is a very important regional producer of electricity and it also boasts a specialized agriculture that includes niches in roses and cucumbers.
The third wheel is capital formation, where the ulgarian economy still has many of the plants and factories built during the Communist period, but which have been properly equipped now, after being sold to Western companies that invested a significant amount of money to turn them around and make them efficient.
This is also the case with the fourth…
1. Samuelson, Paul. 1997. Economics. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Immanuel Kant's explanation on how we gain knowledge is preferable to that of David Hume. The mind can be compared with the computer in illustrating how the mind gathers and processes information or sense-data from generalizations, which in turn derive from a categorical imperative. A person need not experience something before he can apprehend or learn it.
Exposition. David Hume believes that all ideas are derived and become knowable only from sense experience (Lavine 1985, Stevenson 1987, Wikipedia 2006, Morris 2001).. From this standpoint, he rejects that we can know that every event has a cause, as he rejects the necessary connection between cause and effect, i.e., that the effect can proceed only from its cause. Just because something occurs after another on a regular and even observable basis does not mean that the former is the effect of the latter. To him, the effect may just happen without…
1. Abbott, Thomas Kingmill, translator. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals by Immanuel Kant. Project Gutenberg Library Archive Foundation, 2006. http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfiles-fk_files=10995
2. Lavine, Thelma Z. From Socrates to Sartre: the Philosophic Quest. reissue edition.
Bantam Books, 1985
3. McCormick, Matt. Categorical Imperative. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006. http://www.iep.utm.edu/k/kantmeta.htm
Criminology Explanation of Deviant Behaviors
Comment by Sabina:
Delinquent behavior can considered normal in adolescent years. There are many different types of behaviors that are exhibited during teenage years, and as a society we have learned that this period could invoke delinquent behavior. Each individual must go through this rite of passage we refer to as adolescent year, a time where the individual is no longer a child but still not an adult. This is a transition from childhood to adulthood and it can be a troubling time for many individuals. In this paper I will discuss Moffitt's development taxonomy of delinquency and Akers social learning theory. I will discuss these two theories and how they attempt to explain some of the behavioral changes in adolescences. I will also discuss how these two theories explain the behavior of the three participants interviewed.
Moffitt's developmental taxonomy has two principal…
Akers, R.L. (2008). Out of Control: Assessing the general theory of crime. Stony Brook, NY: Erich Goode
Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Lee, G., Akers, R.L. & Borg, M.J. (2004). Social Learning and Structural factors in Adolescent substance use. Western Criminology Reviews. 5 (1) 17-34
Roth, M. & Bartsch, B. (2004). Moffitt's development taxonomy as seen by new results-someremarks on the adolescence-limited delinquency. National Institute of Health 53 (10) 722-737.
Prediction and theoretical explanation - Essentially, prediction may be anywhere from an informed "guess" to a well-reasoned hypothesis that is based on well-reasoned background knowledge but needs more specifics in order to be more accurate. Theoretical explanation, however, takes specific examples from theories that have already been proven, and provides a way of putting them into a context that allows for greater explanation. It seems that one can take a look at a problem or issue and find a continuum that allows for degrees of correctness based on either past knowledge or current experimentation. For instance, if point A at the left was "gut feeling" and point Z. On the right was "repeated and validated experimental data" then many forms of hypothetical thought would fall in between, depending on which stage or which actual type of prediction is being done. Prediction is a forecast that may or may…
Rubin, A. And Babbie, E. (2005). Research Methods for Social Work. New York: Thompson,
Russo, F. (2008). Causality and Causal Modelling in the Social Sciences. New York:
Factorial Ecology ith Radiocentric Explanations
Factorial ecology vs. radiocentric explanations of urban development
Currently, two popular frameworks of statistical and geographical analysis of human populations offer themselves to students of urban development and planning. According to the sociologist Carl-Gunnar Janson, one of the more popular explanations during the 1970's, regarding particular urban populations' growth and expansion, was to be found through the sociological use of factorial ecology. Factorial ecology is the statistical study of various sociological and economic data, with the attempt to determine the most probable explanations behind the chosen variables that are being studied.
Very often most of the variance in a group of dozens of the factors taken under consideration can be accounted for by three or four possible reasons. (Janson, 1980). This is not necessarily a weakness of the model, however. For instance, a factorial ecology might take into consideration the ethnicity and gender composition of…
Bunting, T. And Filion, P. (2000). Canadian Cities in Transition: The Twenty-first Century. Second Edition. Toronto, Oxford University Press.
Janson, Carl-Gunnar. "Factorial social ecology: an attempt at summary and evaluation." Annual Review of Sociology. 1980. Vol. 6, pp. 433-456.
Nelson, Doreen. (2002). Transformations: Process and Theory.
Pacione, M. (2001) Urban Geography: A Global Perspective, London: Routledge.
International institutions are concentrating on reducing the chance of conflicts from emerging. This is because they are focused on increased cooperation between different states (such as: military, economic, commerce, health, the environment, human rights and investment). These different factors work in conjunction with one another to establish standards for improved cooperation and preventing conflicts from emerging between democracies. (Dune, 2007)
Does trade reduce conflict, or conflict reduce trade, or both and why?
Trade can also reduce conflict. This is from the different countries having an economic interest in the success of one another. Once this takes place, is the point when there will be increased communication between them. To make this model work most effectively, various international institutions must be utilized to deal with any kind of disputes among nations. This will reduce the possibilities of fighting by giving both sides a forum for venting their frustrations and…
Dune, T. (2007). International Relations Theories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Student personality also affects the efficacy online format -- some extroverted students need the energy generated by the class to feel fully engaged with any material, regardless of the subject matter. Also, some students need individualized tutoring and support for material they find difficult, like the sciences. Moore stresses the importance of motivation and enthusiasm about the subject, and learning in general as critical aspects of benefiting from online learning formats, but having a learning style well-suited to the format may be another important part of creating an online classroom that 'works.' Older students who feel uncomfortable with revealing themselves online may have difficulty reaping the full benefits of an online classroom, no matter what their level of motivation.
Selecting good textbook and online content, providing real-life support through tutoring satellites, and incorporating as much interactive technology as possible, through Blackboards, video and talk sessions, and email, are all vital…
Science is a “way of knowing,” meaning that it is one way of ascertaining the truth about the world. Although it is not the only way of knowing, it is the most reliable way of knowing the physical universe because it is based on systematic, rigorous methods of testing, experimentation, and calculated observations. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2017), science yields “unbiased and verifiable information to make important decisions,” (p. 1). The scientific method is used to acquire and analyze information. Using the scientific method, it is possible to test hypotheses again and again, to come up with verifiable and repeatable experiments that can yield factual and provable data.
The most important elements of the scientific method include observation, identification, description, investigation, and explanation. Observation is often the genesis of scientific inquiry. Observing an interesting, important, unique, or unusual phenomenon might lead to a hypothesis about why that…
It should also be noted that adults are life, task or problem-centered in their course to learning. They want to see the applicability of what they are learning to their life, a task they need to perform, or to solving a problem. Technology-based instruction will be more effective if it encompasses real-life examples or circumstances that adult learners may come across in their life or on the job. While adult learners may respond to exterior motivators, internal priorities are more significant. Incentives such as improved job satisfaction, self-esteem and quality of life are vital in giving adults a purpose to learn. If any of these can be related as part of technology-based instruction adults will act in response more positively.
Challenges of technology
Adult learners can have need of specialized support, both on campus and at a distance. In the campus environment, they occasionally lack the technology skills and motivation…
Knowles, M.S. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education; From Andragogy to Pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Cambridge Adult Education.
Knowles, M.S. et al., (1998). The Adult Learner. Houston: Gulf Publishing.
Lawler, P.A. (1991). The Keys to Adult Learning: Theory and Practical Strategies. Philadelphia:
Research for Better Schools.
For candidates not considered good prospects for conventional LASIK because of extreme nearsightedness and who are leery of the long recovery period of PRK, phakic intraocular lenses can be implanted. "In these cases, a phakic intraocular lens may be used. This lens is implanted inside the eye and can effectively treat nearsightedness up to -20 diopters" (Randleman & Payne 2010, p.4). Intracorneal rings (thin plastic segments) implanted into the peripheral cornea to flatten the cornea can be used for individuals wary of the side effects of the surgery. hile visual recovery is less predictable with the intracorneal rings, the procedure has the advantage of being reversible. However, it is only able to correct up to -3 diopters of myopia (Randleman & Payne 2010, p.4).
Because it is not considered necessary surgery, and because the conditions it is designed to treat can be corrective with less expensive glasses and contacts, most…
Boyles, S. "LASIK Surgery: Safer than contacts?" WebMD. 2006. May 15, 2010.
Cloud, Daniel. "Perfect vision is helping." 'The New York Times. June 6, 2006.
May 15, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/20/us/20eye.html?fta=y
203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Aspects of identity that might have been denied or denigrated because of colonial mentalities can resurface and be admired. Discourse on gender and social class has also deepened and enabled identity constructions to flourish outside the confines of proscribed gender roles. Culture changes, and so too does identity. The values placed on identity aspects like religion have shifted too, making religion a less salient part of people's identity. On the other hand, sexual orientation and gender identity have both become more important. Gender roles have changed to such a great degree as to transform the definition and meaning of family, love, or sex.
Therefore, a number of issues affect the way we understand and create identities. Academia reflects broader changes in social values and norms. In some cases, academia inspires those social and political transformations. Regardless of the directions of the relationship between academia and social values, the two interact…
Magnetism and Electromagnetism: Concepts and Explanations
Magnetic polarity states that all magnets have a North and South pole. Each pole is attracted to each other just as the polarity of the Earth is attracted to itself. The most effective magnets in production are referred to as North Pole Magnets, due to the fact that they only attract South Pole magnets. Magnets can be either North Pole magnets or bi-polar, meaning that they posses on of each pole. As far as polarity is concerned, opposite poles attract and similar poles repel each other. This is the most basic concept associated with magnetism, and one that can be replicated using electrical current or electromagnets.
Example: If a magnet is touched to another, the two opposite poles will attract and the two similar poles will repel each other. This can be seen in a very basic experiment using two bi-polar magnets.…
Sociological Explanation of Sexual Initiation and Negotiation
Part of the desire to initiate and negotiate sex stems from the sociological desire to couple or be partnered with another human being. Many people grow up with fantasies and notions of finding Mr. Of Mrs. ight, hoping that at some point in their life they will fall into love and have "an affair of the heart" (Michael, et. al, 1994: 67). The reality of existence however is that most meetings that result in long-term relationships can be mundane. Choice of long-term partners and sexual partners can sometimes differ. In general however, most people seek out people that they think are similar in nature and personality to themselves, even without having intimate knowledge of the social context in which the potential partner lives and exists (Michael, et. al, 1994: 69).
The initiation and negotiation of sex often stems from familiarity. Most people fantasize…
Clements-Schreiber, M.E., Rempel, J.K., and Desmarais, S. (1998). "Women's Sexual Pressure Tactics and Adherence to Related Attitudes: A Step Toward Prediction." Journal of Sex Research, 35, 2, 197-205
Holland, J., Ramazanoglu, C. & Thomson, R. (1996). "In the Same Boat? The Gendered (in) Experience of First Heterosex." Richardson, D. (ed) Theorizing Heterosexuality: Open University Press, Buckingham.
Michael, R.T., Gagnon, J.H., Laumann, E.D. & Kolata, G. (1994). Sex in America: A Definitive Survey. Little, Brown & Co.: Boston, Chapter 4
O'Sullivan, L.F., & Allgeier, E.R. (1998). "Feigning Sexual Desire: Consenting to Unwanted Sexual Activity in Heterosexual Dating Relationships." Journal of Sex Research, 35, 3, 234-243
As in Durkheim's day, persons often come to cities, leaving family and home behind to seek their fortunes but only find loneliness. Also, one would also expect to see suicides more often in college students and young worker who traveled far from their original homes, and were unable to adapt to a new community. These persons are often forced to form social ties with strangers, and forced to create a new schema of values that might conflict with their parental values. If unable to do so, they may feel unable to return to their own way of life, but seem to have no future.
Rural communities might also show high levels of suicide, if sufficiently isolated from nearby towns, and if populated by houses that are sparsely, rather than closely located together and discourage community ties. These communities could be just as lonely as urban apartments. Diverse communities, without social…
Durkheim, Emile. (1951) Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Translated by George Simpson and John A. Spaulding. New York: The Free Press.
Some movies are based on philosophical themes that run through the whole movie and imply meaning other than those being visibly represented. Inception was also one such movie, directed and co-produced by Christopher Nolan, the famed director of Insomnia. The director's favorite theme to make movies has been dreams and we see the same in this movie 'Inception'. The director has taken dreams to represent the power of human perception and how it can influence the subconscious of man. The two main philosophical aspects that Nolan has tried to discover are "On being awake or asleep and dreaming" and 'reality vs. unreality'. The different characters of the movie shared dream space and once shaken in the dreams, the person got up from the deep sleep. Persons having dreams were only made to wake up either when they died in the dream and by kicking them in the dream.…
Balter, Leon. "Nested ideation and the problem of reality: Dreams and works of art in works of art." The Psychoanalytic quarterly 75.2 (2006): 405-445.
Fisher, Mark. "The Lost Unconscious: Delusions and Dreams in Inception." Film Quarterly 64.3 (2011): 37-45.
Rivera, Heather. "Inception." Philosophy Now 88 (2012): 46-47.
Yu-rong, Z.H.E.N.G. A Narrative Analysis of the Movie Inception. Journal of Changchun University, 11, (2011). 037.
Witchcraft in the 16th & 17 Centuries: Response to Literature
At first glance, a logical 21st Century explanation for the "witch craze" (also known as a witch-hunt) during the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe was based largely upon human ignorance. That is to say, the belief that a sub-culture of the general population performed witchcraft (and other magic-related phenomena), and ate the flesh of children, helped the unenlightened explain the unexplainable, and helped the ignorant deal with the darkness. Witchcraft seemingly established a reason that a person had that bad luck and it explained illnesses, and probably it helped explain natural calamities such as tornadoes, seismic catastrophes and sudden killer bolts of lightning or sheets of rain turned into disastrous flooding. Or it could even explain a stillborn child and a puppy with a broken leg. Somebody put a spell on that poor dog. Mysterious events that had no…
Behringer, Wolfgang (1997) Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria: Popular magic, religious zealotry and reason of state in early modern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Breslaw, G., Elaine (2000) Witches of the Atlantic World: A Historical Reader & Primary Sourcebook. New York, New York University Press.
Cohn, Norman (1975) Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt. New York, Basic Books.
Coudert, Allison P. (1989) The Myth of the Improved Status of Protestant Women: The Case of the Witchcraze. In: Brink, Jean, R., & Coudert, Allison P. ed. The Politics of gender in Early Modern Europe. Kirksville, MO, Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers.
Some effective strategies that have been used to good effect to improve the employee relations function include an effective management infrastructure including use of tracking reports to monitor progress, and the creation of linkages between individual effort and the bottom line (Denton, 1992).
From a public relations perspective, community relations assumes the form of a societal function. The value and importance of good community relations for a public relations company and its clientele cannot be overstated. In this regard, Berkowitz and Turnmire (1994) note that, "In order for an organization is to be effective in its relations with the local community, it must develop a program of regular environmental monitoring and proactively communicate with key publics about local issues that involve the organization. Community relations is an important aspect of public relations because of an organization's close links with the immediate social environment" (p. 105).
Balmer, J.M., & Greyser, S.A. (2003). Revealing the corporation: Perspectives on identity, image, reputation, corporate branding, and corporate-level marketing. New York: Routledge.
Berkowitz, D., & Turnmire, K. (1994). Community relations and issues management: An issue orientation approach to segmenting publics. Journal of Public Relations Research, 6(2) 105.
Cutlip, S.M. (1994). The unseen power: Public relations, a history. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Denton, D.K. (1992). Recruitment, retention, and employee relations: Field-tested strategies Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Can ayes Confirmation Theory Give an Adequate Explanation for Confirmation of Scientific Theories?
Theorizing in science is a complex and time-consuming undertaking. The theorist uses collected evidence from some means of scientific inquiry to project a generalized case. However, there is a difficulty with this process. There is some amount of probability that the theory will be wrong. Even if this is not a harmful outcome, it is difficult for the theorist to overcome in their professional lives. So, researchers want to understand the probabilities involved in the success of their theories.
ayes theorem discusses the probability that an event will occur, which in the use proscribed for this research is whether a theory is correct or not. ayes looked at two different events one of which can be used to add to the probability that the other is correct. For example, say that a statement (any given…
R Dawd, 'Scientific prediction and the undetermination of scientific theory building', PhilSci Archive, 2008, Retrieved 24 March 2012 from http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/4008/
D Garber, 'Old evidence and logical omniscience in Bayesian Confirmation Theory', J Earman (ed.), Testing scientific theories, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1983, pp. 99-132.
R Garlikov, The nature of the logic of confirmation in science, 2000, Retrieved 24 March 2012 from http://www.garlikov.com/Science.html
PE Meehl, 'Theory-testing in psychology and physics: A methodological paradox', Philosophy of Science, vol. 34, 1967, pp. 103-115.
The value breakfasts are a means of competing with McDonalds and other fast food outlets. What happened was that these companies started taking coffee more seriously because they were losing business to Starbucks, where people might eat a pastry or snack. By adding hot meals, Starbucks was not only combatting this new form of competition, but was also taking advantage of an opportunity to meet a customer need and increase the average sale in the morning. The value pricing aspect of hot meals simply reflects the fact that Starbucks is competing against companies offering cut-price breakfast items, and that Starbucks is not attempting to be an actual restaurant, but still just a place for a quick bit.
3. In the long run, Starbucks is more likely to win the coffee wars. McDonalds will always be a successful fast food chain, but coffee is not their specialty. They will never be…
defend your selection. Include an explanation of which approach would be the next best choice for your research questions, and explain how you decided between the two approaches to find the best fit..
Case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory, and ethnography:
Which is the best approach to study human trafficking?
The 'case study' approach to qualitative research focuses on either a singular example or a representative handful of subjects whose experiences can illuminate a particular phenomenon. Multiple methods may be used to gain a greater understanding of the person or persons, spanning from interviews to observations to primary source documents. In the case of the proposed qualitative approach to studying women who have become the victims of human trafficking, interviews would be one source of information: so would legal cases, government documents (including laws), and other outside sources beyond the women's perspectives themselves (Johnson n.d.). Given that one of the…
Johnson. (n.d.). Chapter 12. Retrieved:
Pros of Joining a Union
• Employees are able to bargain as a united force with the employer rather than each person having to negotiate on their own behalf
• Employers are force to respect and take seriously the voice and wants of the employees
• Promotions and raises are done in the same manner for everyone based on tenure (typically) rather than based on what a certain manager feels or the bias or subjectivity of anyone in particular
• Union dues are typically rather cheap
• Wages and benefits are guaranteed by the collective bargaining agreement so long as it is active
• More due process for employees who are terminated or punished and it is deemed that there is an injustice regarding any of those actions
• Brings together and unites the employees much more so than they normally would be in most situations
Potential Downsides of Unions…
control over one's own destiny is an illusion of misconstructed ideals and metaphysical analysis. Beginning with Sigmund Freud's fascination with the power of the unconscious which he explicitly details through his work Dora (1963), the influence that the unconscious has on an individual is explicated and determined to practically guide everything that one does, but without really giving the illusion that one is in control. The unconscious controls the self, but does it define who one is? When there is no sense of control or free will, things fall apart. One wants to know that one can influence the way that one's life turns out, but in reality, a very small number of things are actually under one's control. By attributing all sense of control and destiny to the unconscious, one either loses the definition of who one is as a person, or gives up any sort of power in…
Cunningham, Michael. The Hours. New York, NY: Picador Publishing, 1998. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. 1963. Print.
Camus, Albert. The Guest (Creative Short Stories). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Publishing. 1957. Print.
Kafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis. USA: Tribeca Books. 1915. Print.
Badge Name -- The eponymous Delta Mu Delta Honor Society's Performance Excellence Digital Badge recognizes honorable academic performance in business administration.
Type/Category - What type is this badge: attendance, participation, learning, existing skill, achievement, association, etc.
The Delta Mu Delta Honor Society's Performance Excellence Digital Badge commends academic prowess, measured by both alpha-numeric grading and also by instructor commendation.
The Delta Mu Delta digital badge acknowledges what?
The Delta Mu Delta digital badge acknowledges quantifiable academic excellence. There are additional digital badges available to Delta Mu Delta members for the number of blog posts covering critical business issues, philanthropy, and outstanding entrepreneurial performance.
Description - a tweet-length description; work to distinguish the Delta Mu Delta badge from other badges.
The Delta Mu Delta digital badge sigil is a key with a triangle and a ship, distinguishing it from other badges.
5) Criteria - The required steps to acquire a Delta…
"7 Things You Should Know About Badges," (2012). Retrieved online: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7085.pdf
Delta Mu Delta (2015). Society Bylaws. Retrieved online: http://deltamudelta.org/about/society-bylaws/
Delta Mu Delta Induction Ritual (2003). Retrieved online: http://deltamudelta.org/download/faculty-adviser/Induction%20Ritual.pdf
Party hosts should be held accountable when minors gain access to alcohol at their parties/events. Many states have enacted statutes that hold the hosts of parties liable for any alcohol -- related injuries that occur as a result of the hosts providing or allowing minors to drink at these parties (National Conference of State Legislatures [NCSL], 2014). These statutes include injuries to the minor in question as well as anyone else who is injured as a result of the minor getting access to alcohol at parties/events. In some states the laws are more general such that the liability is not just limited to the minor who was allowed to drink but to anyone allowed to drink to the point where they caused injury/harm/death of another person as well as any damage incurred to other people. Most of these statutes also hold hosts liable for property damage related to these circumstances…
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2014, March 27). Social host liability for underage drinking statutes. Retrieved on July 18, 2015 from http://www.ncsl.org/research/financial-services-and-commerce/social-host-liability-for-underage-drinking-statutes.aspx .
National Youth Rights Association. (2015). Drinking age and alcohol laws for all 50 states.
Retrieved on July 18, 2015 from http://www.youthrights.org/issues/drinking-age/laws-in-
Intellectual Testing: The client produced a Full Scale IQ score in the Average ange of intellectual functioning (FSIQ = 102). The results indicate that his Full Scale IQ score is at the 55th percentile compared to his peers (Wechsler, 1997). The client also produced a significant discrepancy on measures of his verbal and nonverbal intellectual skills in favor of his verbal abilities, although both were in the Average ange (Verbal IQ = 111; Performance IQ = 90). Further inspection of his pattern of results on the index scores indicates that the overall pattern of differences between his Verbal IQ and Performance IQ is not due to a significant difference in his verbal and nonverbal intellectual abilities, but to other issues.
First, the client produced equivalent performances on purer measures of his true verbal and nonverbal intellectual abilities (Verbal Comprehension Index = 109; Perceptual Organization…
Friedman, A.F., Bolinskey, P.K., Levak, R.W., & Nichols, D.S. (2014). Psychological
Assessment with the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF. New York: Routledge.
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. San Antonio: The
Technology and Society
All print media including books, newspapers and magazines are in deep trouble today thanks to new developments in technology, as are traditional methods of classroom instruction and school curricula. To that extent the Internet can be described as a revolutionary invention that has altered and transformed the way information is presented and conceived. Individuals are learning and creating innovative ways to contribute to relevant knowledge at an excessive speed, and the estern world has become dependent on this technology and also more aware of its negative side. hether the technology in our surroundings is causing human beings to become distracted, affecting our communication skills, or making them stupider is a question that has to be addressed.
This memorandum will describe these issues of trivialization and the 'shallow-ing out' of contemporary American culture, most of which are either as deliberately exaggerated and sensationalized as the Internet itself or…
Corey, G. et al. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011.
Milliken, J. Brands and Social Media Participation; United Breaks Guitars. Coreographytv, 2010.
Morozov, Evgeny. "Losing Our Minds to the Web." Prospect, June 22, 2010.
Consolidation Strategies and Market Structure
Business may need to adopt a strategy of consolidation. he financial pressures in healthcare organizations have been noted as increasing the occurrence of consolidation (Goldstein, 2012). here are different consolidations strategies available, the choice of strategy should depend in the firms own situation and the general macro-environmental conditions as well as opportunities that exist. Berkowitz (2010) outlines four potential strategies; divestment, pruning, retrenchment, and harvesting. Each may be considered individually.
Divestment occurs where a business unit or product line is sold. A firm may decide that a particular business unit or product is not profitable, or does not add sufficient value. If the division or product range is profitable, it may be perceived as having a high opportunity cost; investment in one business/product may be tying up capital that may be used elsewhere (Morris, Devlin, Parkin, & Spencer, 2012). If a division is…
The last strategy is harvesting, this is where a there is a gradual withdrawal of support for a product or services. During the withdrawal of support the product or service is still supplied, and demand will usually decrease, or the firm may seek to transfer the demand onto an alterative or substitute (Berkowitz, 2010). The term harvesting refers to the company taking as much revenue as possible from the product or service being harvested, while the demand decreases (Berkowitz, 2010). Harvest strategies are often seen when a product or service is nearing the end of its lifecycle (Kotler & Keller, 2011). For example, a harvest strategy may be used by a pharmaceutical form where newer more effective forms of treatment are being developed, so older products will no longer be needed.
There are four basic market structures which reflect different competitive position. The four models are monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, and pure competition (Mintzberg et al., 2011; Berkowitz, 2010). A monopoly is where there is only one supplier for a product (Berkowitz, 2010). In this marketplace a consumer has no choice, as there is only a single supplier (Mintzberg et al., 2011). If a single company controls the market and there are no forces of
The author of this report has been ask to offer some reflection on leadership in light of what has been discussed, learned and pondered during the author of this report's current master program studies. Indeed, leadership is a very important facet of society, or organizations and of daily life. Every day, it seems that there are leaders who are engaging in abuses, are not upholding the higher standards that they can and should be held to and so forth. On the other hand, there are other leaders that push the envelope as much as they can in terms of doing the right thing, upholding the right values and leading with conviction. A major aggravating factor with all of this is that the scope, depth and bready of what the "right thing" is and what leaders are compelled to do is quite different from culture to culture or even…
Medical malpractice is defined as "any act or omission by a physician during treatment of a patient that deviates from accepted norms of practice in the medical community and causes an injury to the patient" (Bal, 2009, p.340). Notability, while Bal (2009) defines this in the context of physicians, it is also important to realise that other medical practitioners, such as nurses, dentists, pharmacists, and occupational therapists, can also be subject to malpractice suits. The risks associated with an accusation of malpractice remain high, for example, in a recent report it was found that doctors in low risk specialty areas had a 75% chance of facing a malpractice claim, whereas those is high risk specialities had a 100% chance (Seabury, Lakdawalla, and Chandra, 2011). However, the incidence level of paid claims is reducing; in 2014 there were a total of 11,922 claims, a 4.3% decrease on the preceding year (Gamble,…
Bal., B S. (2009). An Introduction to Medical Malpractice in the United States. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 647(2), 339-347
Budetti, P P., Waters, T M. (2005). Medical Malpractice Law in the United States. Kaiser Foundation. Retrieved https://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/medical-malpractice-law-in-the-united-states-report.pdf
Edwards, J S., Wells, P K., (2015), Tort Law. New York, Delmar Cengage Learning
Gamble, M. (2016). 29 Statistics on Medical Malpractice Payouts and Lawsuits. Beckers Hospital Review. Retrieved http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/legal-regulatory-issues/29-statistics-on-medical-malpractice-payouts-and-lawsuits.html
The problem of consciousness, in short, is that there is a gap between any posited physical explanation and the actual subconscious or immaterial experience of the phenomena, i.e. Of the subconscious act itself. The one does not adequately lead onto, or conclusively latch onto, the other, but once one recognizes this problem one may conclude as McGinn (1989) does that our human mind is unable, due to its limitations, to deal with this quandary and we may be reluctant to pursue it further. Offering a way out, Chalmer, therefore, recommends adopting a nonreductive explanation where a naturalistic account of consciousness based on principles of structural coherence and invariant organization as well as a double-aspect view of information may pose as more insightful explanations for the why's and wherefores of consciousness.
The problem of consciousness involves the following: the brain is reducibly matter as so is the other organs…
Fausch, K., Torgerseon, C., Baxter, C., & Li, H. (2002). Landscapes to Riverscapes:
Bridging the Gap between Research and Conservation of Stream Fishes BioScience, 52, 1-16
Hermeneutics (interpretive) paradigm
This is a more complex approach to the explanation of the social events live poverty. Basically it deals with a detailed interpretation of written/oral histories to explain current social order and the social happenings like poverty among other factors. There are varies backgrounds that people come from, an in each community or society or even culture, there is always the stories of people and how they lived with each other. Therein are the details of the people who were once rich within that society as well as those who were poor (Joe eichertz, 2012).
The historical poverty within a given group of people is a thing that is found among all religions and all cultural groupings. Even in the Bible, there are those who were historically known to be from the richer tribes and those from the poorer tribes. It is on the same vain that the…
Haralambos and Holborn. Sociology: Themes and Perspective. 5th Edition, page 11). Collins
Joe Reichertz, (2012). Objective Hermeneutics and Hermeneutic Sociology of Knowledge.
Retrieved February 27, 2012 form https://www.uni-due.de/imperia/md/content/kowi/hermeneutikenglisch.pdf
In the past, any form of criminal activity was associated with low self-esteem that is why criminal activity was minimal. Paying for crime in the past involved ruthless means, including tying a criminal on a stone and throwing them into the river. Comparing the past with the modern world, a great contrast occurs. Criminal offenders in the modern world appear to be of very high self-esteem. The self-esteem arises from prior criminal activities, personal traits and participation in prison. It is so unfortunate because criminals do not fear the law, security officials and subsequently no regard for positive punishment.
Criminologists and psychologists have a task of establishing whether crime is in either way related to the human mind, behavior and psychology. Criminal activity is increasing by day, and the securities do not know what to attribute for especially, when correctional facilities are full of criminals. It is likely…
Broidy, L.M., (2001). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Criminology, 39, 9-36.
Cesar, J.R., Nicole, L.P., Alex, R.P., & Stephen, G.T., (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal justice, 38, 988-997.
Inga, D.S., Alfgeir, L.K., & Robert, A. (2012). A comparative analysis of general strain theory.
Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 117-127.
She advocates that this trend must be reversed and that the majority of society's efforts should be expanded on preparing inmates for their eventual release.
Petersilia does not broach the issue of prisoner reentry into society without providing a long and detailed explanation of the problem. In the first portion of her book she provides one of the most detailed histories of the development of the America prison system available. She details how American prisons evolved from being purely punitive in nature to becoming largely rehabilitative in purpose and then turning back again in the direction of being punitive as law and order became a major political issue in the 1970s and 80s.
In an interesting twist, Petersalia argues strongly that one of the major reasons for the present problems in the American prison system is the heavy reliance on determinate sentencing systems. She argues that the determinate system has…
Petersailia, J. (2009). When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry and Reintegration. New York: Oxford University Press.
When Prisoners come Home
Typical experimental research methods relied upon in the cognitive approach to psychology include measuring patterns of neural activity in response to specific stimuli and of the effect on external behavior of other internal processes such as hormonal activity.
I my opinion, the cognitive approach to understanding psychology is more comprehensive than the strict behavioral approach. Because the behavioral approach limits the analysis to a relatively narrow focus on behavior that is externally observable, it seems to ignore significant causal explanations for those behaviors. Conversely, the cognitive approach does not necessarily discount the value of externally observable behavior within the overall framework of understanding the many contributing influences on human behavior.
Cognitive psychology also seems to have more unexplored potential for future development of the field by virtue of the relatively recent evolution of various new technological applications of medical imaging processes. Specifically, whereas the methods and materials relied…
Sociology, one of the biggest areas that are receiving continuous amounts of focus is the inequalities that exist. Recently, disparities in income levels have become much larger. This is because the top 1% (who controls the majority of the wealth) is earning more at the expense of the other 99%. These are individuals that have to work every day (often controlling little to no amounts of personal assets). Throughout history, this conflict has often been the focus of different labor disputes and social revolutions. (inship)
However, globalization is having a dramatic impact with these divisions becoming even larger. In the article that was written by iniship (2012), he is talking about how these disparities are evolving. Evidence of this can be seen with statistics that were uncovered from the Congressional Budget Office. They found that the income levels of the ultra-wealthy increased from 8% in 1979 to 18% in 2007.…
"The ABCs of the Global Economy." Dollars and Sense, 2011. Web. 18 May 2012
Baurerline, Monkia. "All Work and No Pay. Mother Jones, 2006. Web. 18 May 2012.
Davis, Kingsley. "Principles of Stratification." American Sociololgocial Review 10.2 (1945), 242 -- 249. Print.
Mills, Wright. "The Sociologocial Imagination." Social Sciences, 1959. Web. 18 May 2012
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
However, it is more comforting to think that we as individuals have control over our health and can prevent illness through personal responsibility. This means we have no responsibility to extend greater healthcare coverage to others who do not have insurance as presumably they have not 'worked hard' enough to deserve such a benefit.
Instinctively it might seem as if "the greater the cohesiveness or solidarity of a group, the better its decisions will be." Common sense suggests that cohesiveness produces a greater sense of agreement and solidarity. It is easier to enforce a decision that is made in a unified manner. But the problem with solidarity is the phenomenon known as 'groupthink' or the assumption that if the other members of the group think something is right, than it is correct.
Human beings are social animals, and the need to please others and to receive support is…
Fundamental attribution error. Changing Minds. Retrieved April 11, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/fundamental_attribution_error.htm
What is groupthink? PSYSR. Retrieved April 11, 2010 at http://www.psysr.org/about/pubs_resources/groupthink%20overview.htm
life experiences. It include explanation examples previous experiences implications future applications.
Universal Healthcare: Averting Crisis in the United States
A crisis is a unique moment of extreme pressure, exceptional in character and high in significance. Decisions made at the time of a crisis are qualified by the multiplicity of factors all demanding solutions at the same time. One mark of a good leader is the ability to make the right decisions during moments of crisis as well as in placid reflection. The political system of democracy is not well-suited to crises. Many voices piping up and arguing fail to develop consensus, and in spite of the good arguments of some, democratic politics cannot survive a crisis. In a crisis, only a few make the grade and emerge as leaders. The decisions facing leaders in the United States take into account the long-term goals of the world's largest economy, and also…
Dean, Howard. Howard Dean's Prescription for Real Healthcare Reform: How We Can Achieve Affordable Medical Care for Every American and Make Our Jobs Safer. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2009: White River Junction, VT.
Reid, T.E. The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Healthcare. Penguin Books, 2010: New York.
storms paintings, atteau's the Storm and Delacroix's the Sea Galilee, and their relation to Neo-Classical and Romantic styles
This work bases on two storm art works, which depicts storm in two different ways. The differences are explainable through two different artwork styles, neo-classical and romantic styles. Neo-classic art commonly referred to as the revival of artistic canon came into practice in the mid 1700s. This form of art aimed at criticizing the government's oppression the people. Artiste of these times used this form of art to show their dissatisfaction with the mode of governance. They fought for democracy through artwork. Romantic art began during the late 18th century to mid-19th century. It aimed at rebelling against the neoclassical times. The movement began as an intellectual and artistic movement, but its agenda was rebellion against the oppression. It values included the following individualism, subjectivism, irrationalism, emotions, and nature. This art style…
Martindale, Colin. "Empirical Questions Deserve Empirical Answers." Philosophy and Literature 20.2 (2000): 347-61. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.
Tapert, Annette. "Rare & Refined." Architectural Digest 2011: 130,n/a. ProQuest. Web. 25
Creamer, Noelle. "Through the Eyes of a Collector." Ophthalmology Times 33.12 (2008): 61-
2. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.
puzzling or mysterious subject from a field of study or from an interest you have explored. Write an extended definition that explains this mystery for your readers. As appropriate, include information about its characteristics, parts, history, possible causes, effects, solutions, benefits, or dangers.
On some products, we see labels tagged with the logo EcoLogo and Green eal. ome people do not know what they stand for or why they are necessary. The following essay is an explanation of these labels and the reason for their existence.
Both labels, each produced by different companies, were issued as control against a practice called Greenwashing. Greenwashing is the practice of managers calling their brands / products 'natural', 'earth-friendly', 'environmental', 'green', 'organic', or the like -- when they may not, necessarily, be so. ome products have even branded themselves with empty semantics such as being 'biodegradable' or 'natural' (consider: 'natural' potato chips and 'natural'…
Chan P (2009) Beware of 'Greenwashing' Tangerine Living
STUDENT NAME (print): SAMIR ZIDANY
PROGRAMME START DATE: March 11th, 2012
PROGRAMME TITLE: CIPD Certificate in HR & L&D Practice
COURSE LOCATION: Dubai- Rotana Tower
PERSONAL TUTOR: Keith Reynolds
Undertaking a Learning Needs Analysis
SUBMISSION: 1ST 2ND Extension (delete)
Before submitting your work to www.bradfield.co.uk please read the following statements and tick the appropriate box to show that you have understood and completed what is required.
I have read my work through and have checked it for spelling and grammatical errors using, where appropriate the spell and grammar checker on the computer.
I have written my name at the top of each page of my work and have numbered each page.
I have read the definition of plagiarism. I realise that plagiarism is cheating and can confirm that the assignment I am submitting is my own work.
The definition of plagiarism is given below. Read it…
A brief explanation of the public health need you identified.
Childhood obesity is an increasingly prevalent problem in our homes, schools and in the United States as a whole. ith obesity comes a host of health risks including heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and a significantly shorter lifespan. This is why early intervention in critical.
Describe the population whom you plan to target for your public health program and explain why.
Early intervention should take the form of addressing obesity in your elementary school aged children. It is at this age that health behaviors become habit-forming and more difficult to break. Additionally, because it appears that younger people are ever more susceptible to obesity, it is critical to take corrective action now.
Describe potential sources of funding.
Funding will largely be elicited through the combined support of government grant programs aimed at reducing childhood obesity and private companies such as…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Health People 2020. CDC.gov.
Primary Text. (?). Planning a Health Promotion Program. .
Girls and Gangs
When people think of gangs and gangsters, they often think of young males. While females may be part of gang culture, they are often viewed as being in the periphery. In many ways, this view of female gang membership is correct. For example, females that are affiliated with gangs have oftentimes been reduced to sexual objections, being used for the gratification of gang members, as a way to lure new recruits (Firmin 2009, p. 15). Furthermore, female sexuality has traditionally been seen as a way to ensnare rival gang members, so that female gang members and females associated with gangs have often acted as spies infiltrating rival gang networks (Aabbad 2012, p.272). However, the traditional view of girls as sexual accessories and playthings for gang members does not reflect the reality of the modern-day gang situation. While women still face significant marginalization and sexual violence within the…
Contemporary Wales, vol. 22, no.1, pp.178-195.
Young, T. 2009. 'Girls and gangs: Shemale gangsters in the UK?', Youth Justice, vol. 9, no.3,
Financial Plan Explanation
Grady's budgeting is done on an incremental basis. What this means is that the budget for next year will be based on the budget for last year, with adjustments for inflation, for changes in the payer mix, for strategic changes relating to the service offering mix, and for new facilities in the system, as well as new capital expenses.
Grady uses a cost-benefit analysis, which takes the form of net present value, as part of its decision-making criteria for capital expenditures. Grady is in the midst of a capacity expansion. Karkaria (2013) notes that Grady has a $74 million expansion plan for downtown Atlanta which will enhance its system capacity with respect emergency care, in anticipation of a spike in demand relating to the ACA, and to meet existing demand in the market that is yet unfulfilled.
Grady has sought financing for this project, including…
Foreman, J. & Argenti, P. (2005). How corporate communications influences strategy implementation, reputation and the corporate brand: An exploratory qualitative study. Corporate Reputation Review. Vol. 8 (3) 246-264.
Grady 2013 Annual Report. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from https://gradyhealthfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Grady-Health-System_2013-Annual-Report.pdf
Grady. (2014). The Marcus Foundation awards Grady Health System $30 million for Emergency Department and Stroke Center expansion. PR Newswire. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/the-marcus-foundation-awards-grady-health-system-30-million-for-emergency-department-and-stroke-center-expansion-277449311.html
Karkaria, U. (2013). Grady's $74m expansion includes upgrading ER. Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://www.bizjournals.com/atlanta/print-edition/2013/08/02/gradys-74m-expansion-includes.html?page=all
Humans made it to the Americas
Since the first humans originated in Africa and somewhere in the Middle East, anthropologists and historians have been figuring out how the first humans made it to the Americas. Archaeologists agree that these first Americas relocated from Asia via Beringia and settled in North America. Based on new and emerging evidence, we can doubt this theory and suggest new possibilities. Many explanations exist about how the early man migrated to the New World. This paper looks at three predominant theories of how humans made it to the Americas. The oldest is the Bering Land Bridge Theory, recently the Coastal Theory, and the Pacific/Atlantic Theory
The Bering Land Bridge Theory
The theory of the Bering Land Bridge is the most widely held. Human beings hunted and gathered for food. As sources of food became scarce, people began looking for ways to hunt large animals. Larger…
anti-Realism (or constructive realism) of van Fraasen. He divides his essay into three sections:
An explanation of van Fraasen's attempt to demolish scientific realism
His insistence that van Fraasen succeeds no better than his predecessors in answering a major objection to antirealism
The link between realism and explanation and van Fraasen's attempt to sever that link.
An explanation of van Fraasen's attempt to demolish scientific realism
According to Van Frassen, realism can be defined in the following way: "Science aims to give us, in its theories, a literally true story of what the world is like, and acceptance of the scientific theory involves the belief that it is true." (1088).
Van Fraasen does not go to the extreme, as some do, of rejecting science absolutely. He accepts that scientific statements have a truth value of being true or false. At the same time, however, he rejects the positivist stance where…
56-57). There are also medicobiological explanations which are based on hormonal or chemical addictions or imbalances (Hague and Malos, pp. 56-57). Sociological explanations also exist which claim that domestic violence is a result of "genetic imperatives" (Hague and Malos, pp. 56-57). It is important to note that all of these explanations tend to excuse the violence and do nothing to support the woman (Hague and Malos, pp. 56-57).
There are also 'socio-structural explanations that assume it is a result of societal stressors such as job loss, lack of money, housing, etc.' (Hague and Malos, p. 58). 'This does not explain the fact that domestic violence is almost always man on woman or the fact that it exists across all social classes' (Hague and Malos, p. 58). There are those who explain it as a breakdown of the family (Hague and Malos, pp. 58-59). These are the moralist explanations (Hague and…
Hague, G. And Malos, E. 2007, 'Why does domestic violence happen? Attitudes and explanations' in Domestic violence Action for change, 3rd ed. New Clarion Press,
Identifying Autism Loci and Genes by Tracing Recent Shared Ancestry. Science 321(5886): 218-23.
This article begins with a discussion of autism spectrum disorders and the social and mental impairments that typify the disorder, setting up an approach that is inherently humanistic and person-centered. Despite the highly technical and quantified nature of the ultimate research question and data collected and analyzed in this study, this person-centered focus and tone is observable throughout this research article. Immediately following a brief description of the impacts of autism spectrum disorders on individuals that have these disorders, the authors launch into a discussion regarding the evidence for a hereditary pattern in the development of the disorder and the ability to trace the disorder and its impact through families.
The authors follow this with a discussion about one of the general methodologies they ultimately employ in this research, known as "homozygosity mapping," which essentially is…
IQ Test Scores
Cultural Differences in IQ Test Scores
Most studies carried out in the United States to measure intelligence (IQ) indicate a significant gap in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites. The gap is more pronounced in certain areas of intelligence such as general intelligence and on tests requiring problem solving and more complex mental operations than on tests of rote learning and immediate memory. The gap has narrowed since the 1970s but still persists stubbornly. Debate has raged among the psychologists and social scientists about the reasons for the gap. The "hereditists" believe that the difference in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites is largely due to genetic reasons. The "environmentalists" are equally certain that the gap is due to environmental reasons and has nothing to do with genetics. This paper looks at both the heredity explanation as well as the environmental explanations of…
Dorfman, Donald D. (1995). "Soft Science with a Neoconservative Agenda." A Review of the Bell Curves. 40: 5. Contemporary Psychology, APA's journal of book reviews. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.apa.org/journals/bell.html
Haughton, Noela A. (2002). "Biased Content, Context, and Values: An Examination of the SAT." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQincome.htm
Jencks, Christopher and Phillips, Meredith. (1998). "The Black- White Test Score Ga: An Introduction." (pp. 2-22) The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips - eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Keita, L. (1999). "Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean." The Western Journal of Black Studies. 23: 1, p. 65.
Origin of Evil
The origin of evil has been a controversial issue not only in the contemporary Christian circles but also among the ancient Greek Christians. The point of contention in the discussion about the origin of evil is why a good God would have created evil. The Judeo-Christians struggled to understand how a good, powerful, and all-knowing God could allow evil to exist. The logical conclusions were that either God did not exist or God was not good[footnoteRef:1]. However, Augustine sought to clarify this erroneous notion about the existence of God. Saint Augustine believed that the discussion on the origin of evil and whether a good God has a role in its creation and existence must first begin with the understanding of evil and God. He explained that if evil was not necessarily a thing, then it may not have been created although it negates the notion that God…
29, p > 0.5).
This study set out to test the hypotheses that people from Eastern cultural backgrounds compared to those from Western backgrounds would make fewer dispositional attributions about the behavior of fictitious characters that the read about and would also demonstrate a more collective attitude towards themselves.
With respect to the first hypothesis, that Western participants would make a greater number of dispositional attributions that would participants with Eastern cultural heritages, that hypothesis was supported. However, there are a few caveats that need to be mentioned with regards to this. First, the scenarios that were presented to the participants only provided two alternatives to explain the behavior of the person. One alternative was a negative dispositional explanation, the other was a situational explanation could have been interpreted as far-fetched in some cases. Miller (1984) found that the tendency for Westerners to make internal attributions was higher for…
Chiu, C-y., Morris, M.W., Hong, Y-y., & Menon, T. (2000). Motivated cultural cognition: the impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 247 -- 259.
Choi, I., Dalal, R., Kim-Prieto, C., & Park, H. (2003). Culture and judgment of causal relevance.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 46 -- 59.
Jones, E.E. & Harris, V.A. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 3, 2-24.
psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.
To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.
Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…
Yet the film ends on an optimistic, even triumphant note, with the raised hand of Bender symbolizing victory over the stereotypes subject to which the characters began the film.
The film "The Breakfast Club" contains myriad examples of group dynamics at play. Doing a close reading of the film was valuable in that it provided insight into how narratives can be shaped by psychological principles. In dissecting the actions of the film's principal characters, it became apparent that the filmmakers were not simply trying to create a plotline that would entertain a mass audience. The film also integrates psychological inquiry into its teenaged protagonists. Each character is given a back story which motivates his or her behavior and later undergoes a realization of his or her flaws in order to make a change. The film goes beyond just a high school narrative; it is about how to break free…
Aronoff, J., & Wilson, J.P. (1985). Personality in the social process. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum
Golembiewski, R.T. (Ed.) (2000). Handbook of organizational consultation. New York, NY:
trade also has contributed to the economic exploitation of women, as the
textile industry for example, which is predominantly women has seen jobs
lost and wages cut. Women are often forced to be teachers or work in day-
care centres, but not on equal footing with men. Women are victims as are
ethnic minorities, and they are forced into hourly jobs with low salaries,
high unemployment, and little unionization or official organization.
Furthermore, women are dependent on household duties, and through
mechanical technological improvements in household work, women have been
able to work more. This means that women are in fact tied to the family,
and that the family dictates that women's economic needs are of secondary
concern. As the household labourer, traditional duties are a priority, and
this notion of women contributing to the workforce as secondary to
household duties has contributed to women being treated as secondary…
Furthermore, he argues, a technological culture is not an inevitable feature of human evolution. If other cultures had achieved ascendancy, then science and technology would not have emerged as a reference point for measuring intelligence. SETI's requirement for an almost identical technology, although scientifically understandable, is based on an impoverished concept of intelligence.
According to Munevar, the development of a scientific culture, with access to radio communication, is highly contingent, requiring a number of lucky breaks from the environment and human natural and social history. In this context Munevar cites the development of mammalian intelligence. It is widely believed that the dinosaurs were wiped out by the immediate effects of an asteroid or cometary impact or possibly volcanic eruption. But mammals who survived the years of darkness caused by the dust of the impact or eruption then evolved to occupy the niche held by the dinosaurs. If the dinosaurs had…
Lamb, D. Discovery, Creativity and Problem Solving, Aldershot: Ashgate. 1991
Lamb, D. Crop patterns and the greening of Ufology, Explorations in Knowledge, XI, 2: 12-46. 1994
Munevar, G. Radical Knowledge, Aldershot: Avebury. 1981
Munevar, G. Extraterrestrial and human science, Explorations in Knowledge, VI, 2: 1-8. 2005
" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:
Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)
Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:
The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.
Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…
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