Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The educational community over the past several decades has made excellent progress in providing opportunities at all levels of society, and to all types of individuals. This provides an excellent example to society overall and it is very positive in nature.
Last but not least is the environmental factor that most affects the program with which I am associated. I view this factor as positive in nature as well. The rising cost of energy affects all aspects of life, not least among them the students who attend my classes who are most likely to be at the bottom rungs of the economic scale. These students are the ones who can least afford to pay the higher costs of energy. These students are faced with not only the visible price of fueling their transportation, but the often hidden price of energy that effects every day purchases. The current administration swears there…
Penny's proposed new pricing strategy
The new Penny's proposed strategy is a revitalization strategy that is directed at the pricing procedures within the company. According to Penny, there should be a "Fair and Squire Every Day" pricing strategy. This new pricing strategy was not there initially. The transformations, which are also done by JC Penny's CEO on Johnson, are ambitious plans, which are geared at changing the phase of the company completely. According to Johnson, the 110-year-old store is to be transformed into a retail powerhouse, which resembles those of the twenty first century. He wants to create 80 to 100 stores within one store. These stores are perceived to be of high brands. There will be a "Town Square," where customers will be able to access a number of facilities and offerings as free ice cream and hot dogs (Mattioli, 2012).
The new pricing strategy is an…
D'Innocenzio, A. (2012). J.C. Penney slashing prices on all merchandise. USA Today (January
27). Accessed 5/5/12 at http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/story/2012-01 -
Mattioli, D. (2012). How J.C. Penney was minted. Wall Street Journal (January 25).
Domestic and External Factors on African
Domestic and External Factors on African Macroeconomic Formulation
Growth, productivity and employment are the most common economic variables to reduce extreme poverty and break poverty trap. Report from World Bank in 2007 revealed that one percent in GDP growth results to 1.3% poverty decline in low-income countries. Moreover, development in the productive capacity leads to reduction in sustainable poverty. With improvement in the economic growth, many people have been removed from poverty during the past few decades in many developing countries. However, poverty continues to be worsening in the 33% of the world's least developing African countries. (African Economic Research Consortium 2008). While there are many factors influencing growth, management of macroeconomic is very crucial to economic growth. Appropriate macroeconomic policies are critical for wealth creation, sustainable economic expansion and employment generating investment. Recent improvement in the economic performances of some African…
Microsoft's organization. Write explain internal external factors affect functions management. In paper, explain internal external factors affect functions management. Include specific examples: Globalization Technology Innovation Diversity Ethics eference 1-2 peer reviewed sources support ideas.
Microsoft is an indisputable leader of the IT community, with its innovations and commitments driving change, innovation and overall evolution across the entire globe. But aside from the technological dimension of Microsoft, the firm is also notable from a business standpoint, being the epitome of corporate success and an American triumph icon.
Similar to any economic agent however, the company is influenced by a wide array of internal and external forces. Four notable forces which generate impacts upon Microsoft are represented by globalization, technology innovation, diversity and ethics. The best means of assessing the impact of these forces is revealed by their applicability at the level of the four functions of management, namely planning,…
Blau, J. (1997). Microsoft takes first step toward globalizing R&D. Research-Technology Management. Vol. 40, No. 5
(2010). Microsoft standards of business conduct. Website of Microsoft. http://www.microsoft.com/about/legal/en/us/compliance/buscond/default.aspx accessed on October 22, 2012
Internal external factors shaping system: Example - Indigenous people criminal justice. Key question: An eminent Australian criminologist claimed criminal justice system "a major institutional tearing, bleeding rift black communities"
Internal external factors shaping system:
It is clear that the indigenous people in Australia have been going though much higher rates of interaction with the criminal justice system than non-Indigenous people or whites. Evidence does shows that information on police proceedings against alleged offenders imply an offending rate by Indigenous individuals of about 1 in 10, compared to 1 in 79 for the non-Indigenous population, though this figure does not consist of information from all states (Douglas, 2012). What is definite is that Aboriginal adults in Australia are just about 14 times more expected to be put in jail than non-Indigenous people, and the gap remains to grow. Indigenous adults are put in jail at a rate of 2404 per 100-000…
Anthony, T. (2012). Indigenous People, Crime and Punishment. New York City: Routledge; 1 edition.
Atkinson, J. (2005). Trauma Trails, Recreating Song Lines . Spinifex Press.
Braithwaite, J. (2002). Restorative Justice & Responsive Regulation (Studies in Crime and Public Policy) . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cunneen, C. (2008). Conflict, Politics and Crime: Aboriginal Communities and the Police. Allen & Unwin.
External Analysis of the Portable Saw Mill Industry
Explain three benefits of conducting an external analysis.
For Edward Perry, Timber King's new CEO, external analysis is one of the most strategic activities he can engage in and have his company continually pursue. Of the many benefits associated with external analysis, the top three are staying on top of customer trends and their continual evolution, being able to anticipate and act on opportunities, and getting advance warning of any significant threats (Banham, 2010). These three areas of customer-centered analysis, scanning the external environment for opportunities while looking to mitigate threats must eventually be integrated to the internal systems and processes of Timber King in order for the company to be successful (Feldmann, Olhager, 2008). The company must become highly agile and market-driven for the portable saw mill business to succeed.
Educate Mr. Perry on some of the challenges of conducting an…
Banham, H.C., C.G.A. (2010). External environmental analysis for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Journal of Business & Economics Research, 8(10), 19-25.
Feldmann, A., & Olhager, J. (2008). Internal and external suppliers in manufacturing networks -- an empirical analysis. Operations Management Research, 1(2), 141-149. doi:10.1007/s12063-008-0011-1
Kessides, I.N. (1990). Internal vs. external market conditions and firm profitability: An exploratory model. The Economic Journal, 100(402), 773-773.
Lings, I.N., & Greenley, G.E. (2009). The impact of internal and external market orientations on firm performance. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 17(1), 41.
Coca Cola -- External Analysis
An external analysis of Coca-Cola (NAICS # 312111 -- Soft Drink Manufacturing) requires scrutiny of the specific industry environment with Porter's 5-Forces model and examination of the larger business environment through a PEST analysis. In his interview on YouTube, Porter speaks of the five factors of Competitive Rivalry, Threat of New Entrants, Threat of Substitute Products, Bargaining Power of Suppliers, and Bargaining Power of Buyers. He also discusses the underlying forces for each factor, examining the Airline Industry, in which all five factors are strong, and the Soft Drink Manufacturing Industry, in which all five factors are "benign," essentially making the Soft Drink Industry "a license to print money" (Harvard Business Publishing, 2008). Porter stresses the importance and flexibility of his five forces, which keeps an organization focused on "underlying fundamentals" so the organization's leadership is not tricked or trapped by the latest trend or…
Chapter 21. (2011, August 25). Retrieved February 4, 2012 from Scribd.com Web site: www.scribd.com/doc/63145097/Chapter-21
American Bar Association. (2012). ABA Journal - Law news now. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from ABAjournal.com Web site: http://www.abajournal.com/
American Demographics. (2012). American demographics - News - Advertising age. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from Adage.com Web site: http://adage.com/section/american-demographics/195
Bhasin, H. (2011, February 21). Positioning by product characteristics. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from Marketing91.com Web site: http://www.marketing91.com/positioning-product-characteristics/
external environment facing TOYOTA, the global car manufacturer. This paper discusses impacts of the company's internal organizational strategy (structures and management). The work is divided into two tasks. Task 1: Critically evaluates key factors (e.g. environmental, global, competition, technology) impact TOYOTA performance. Task 2: Provides strategic recommendations for senior managers of the TOYOTA.
Examine the external environment of TOYOTA and how this impacts on the internal organizational strategy (structures and management). Critically evaluate the key factors (e.g. environmental, global, competition, technology) that impact on TOYOTA performance. Findings are drawn from use of analysis tools (e.g. PESTLE, Porter's five forces, SWOT).
We begin our analysis of Toyota by looking at the company through three analytical prisms: Porter's Five Forces Analysis, SWOT Analysis, and PESTLE. It is necessary to define what these analytical prisms are, initially, i.e., define terms, before beginning the analysis in earnest.
Porter 5 Forces Analysis
1. Toyota seeks 15% of global car market: Japanese automaker targeting Russia, India, China and Brazil, MSNBC.com, November 13, 2006
2. Global Economic Research: Global Auto Report: Strengthening Car Sales Drive Global Vehicle Output To Record High -- Production increase will support global economic activity, Feb. 25, 2011, Scotiabank Group
3. Toyota Motor Corporation Global Web site, http://www.toyota-global.com / (Accessed on March 10, 2011)
4. European car makers and their suppliers: changes at the interface, RT McIvor, PK Humphreys… - European Business & #8230;, 1998 - emeraldinsight.com
Performance measurement is an increasingly important process in today's organisations. This is true for not only business or private sector organisations, but also public sector organisations. Against the backdrop of budgetary constraints and the need for guaranteeing the effectiveness of public programs, performance data is crucial for decision making in the public sector. From the health and education sectors to criminal justice agencies, government agencies and organisations are ever keener on outputs and outcomes. Performance measurement frameworks such as benchmarking and the balanced score card are now utilised to inform decision making. For instance, performance measurement enables the government to evaluate the effectiveness of a given policy or initiative. Based on the findings, decisions can then be made to expand or discontinue the initiative.
Given the unique characteristics of the public sector, it is imperative to understand the factors that drive the use of performance information in decision making. In…
Systems Model of Organizations Perspective
Analyzing an organization as a system can help understand how the organization is interconnected along a variety of different factors. These factors can include everything from the technology infrastructure to the organizational culture and the behaviors of individual employees. For example, an organization that has a learning culture can overcome any obstacles or organizational changes more quickly than more rigid structures. This analysis will briefly outline some of the implications for using a systems approach by discussing three factors that are present in an organization and how they may affect other parts of the organizational "system."
Organizational culture can be a difficult concept to define because it can be highly subjective in nature. Each organization develops a culture in which employees and stakeholders create a set of shared values and norms. The organizational culture can be guided by the organization's leadership…
External environment plays a key role in the manager's roles. Different factors in the external environment create opportunity and present threats to which the organization needs to respond. It is important for managers to conduct an environmental scan in order to better understand the environment in which they operate. Juervicius (2013) explains one system, the PESTLE system, which forces managers to think about the different external factors that affect their business.
The PESTEL model features an analysis of the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal environments. For the manager, each of these provides the framework for analyzing the operating environment. These factors are all significant, and unrelated to other external factors like competition and demand drivers. For example, where there is political risk (like a government shutdown), the manager can better understand this risk by working through the PESTEL framework. The economy is a critical input, and technological changes…
Jurevicius, O. (2013). PEST and PESTEL analysis. Strategic Management Insight. Retrieve November 20, 2013 from http://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com/tools/pest-pestel-analysis.html
Mind Tools. (2013). Henri Fayol's Principles of Management. MindTools.com. Retrieved November 20, 2013 fro http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henri-fayol.htm
Man seems to be an innately selfish creature, unable to see a world outside of himself. Each man feels that he is the center of the universe and little logic can be used to change his mind on this regard. A man who does not accept the fact that he is not the center of the universe and that there is a world beyond his own mind, is limiting himself to a narcissistic existence devoid of true understanding.
In his lecture, "Proof of an External orld," Moore makes it clear that as with all topics of philosophy, the proof is much up for interpretation and individual analysis. Things external to us, external things, and things external to our minds are all equivalent terms (70). The individual is more or less entirely his or her mind because it is in the process of thinking that a person exists, to…
Moore, G.E. "Proof of an External World." Classics of Analytic Philosophy. Ed. Robert
Ammerman. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965. 68-84. Print.
External Analysis Motorcycle Industry
External Analysis of the Motorcycle Industry
Harley Davidson, the heavy-bike manufacturer holds the purpose of fulfilling dreams of personal freedom (Purpose: Harley Davidson, 2013). The company functions in segments of Motorcycles & elated Products and the Financial Services. It is however globally known for heavy bikes that have engine displacement of 651+cc (Harley-Davidson Inc. 2013). The company enjoys a unique position in the market yet it is exposed to many new market challenges in recent future. The demand for heavy bikes has increased among those that are not necessarily filthy rich and other companies are also entering the industry. Here is the PEST analysis of Harley Davidson to study what challenges it is facing in external environment.
The PEST analysis offers a detailed picture of how the macro environment factors affect the performance of Harley Davidson. The PEST stands for Political, Economic,…
Engel, J., (2013), "Polaris challenges Harley-Davidson with 3 Indian motorcycles," Retrieved
Harley-Davidson Inc. (2013), Retrieved from:
External and Internal ecruitment
External recruitment and its strategy at Coca Cola Company
ecruitment refers to an act of enabling employees take after the various roles and responsibilities within an organization. The act of selecting and employing procedures that ends in having employees fill up various responsibilities within an organization is referred to as recruitment. External recruitment refers to a recruitment process that the human resource of an organization moves outside the organization. The officer in charge searches and selects the best employees who are going to fill up the empty positions of responsibilities. Unlike internal recruitment, the mechanisms that are put in place cater for the organization from outside figures. The organization uses its human resource department to search systematically for workers who can be part of the employee fraternity in the organization (Chan, 2006, p. 34-45).
In Coca Cola Company, stakeholders involve external recruitment as it engrosses various…
Bayo-Moriones, A & Ortin-Angel, P. (2006). Internal Promotion vs. External Recruitment
in Industrial Plants in Spain. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ISSN 0019-
7939, 04/Volume 59, Issue 3, pp. 451 -- 470
Chan, W. (2006). External Recruitment and Intra-firm Mobility. Economic Inquiry, ISSN
Annual reports are strong for the breadth of information discussed, but with respect to depth are better used for internal analysis. They provide an overview of external issues but that overview should be supplemented with other research. Trade magazines and academic journals often have very specific articles that may or may not be of relevance to an external analysis. hen they are relevant, they tend to provide excellent detail. Analyst conference calls, as with annual reports, are best used for internal analysis, but in these calls if management feels that external forces were the key factor in firm performance in the past quarter, the discussion will center on that performance. The Bureau of Economic Analysis is valuable for learning about broad economic trends, but those trends are not put into context of the industry. Newspaper articles may be excellent sources, but they can also be useless. Information literacy is required…
Websters Online. (2010). Retrieved May 15, 2010 from http://www.webstersonline.com/searchresults.asp?category1=company&searchvalue=southwest+airlines&state_prov=&search=Search&AddInfo=
FareCompare.com. (2010). Retrieved May 15, 2010 from http://www.farecompare.com/
Bureau of Economic Analysis website: http://www.bea.gov
LaMotta, L. (2009). Southwest soars despite fuel costs. Forbes.com. Retrieved May 15, 2010 from http://www.forbes.com/2009/01/22/southwest-airlines-fuel-markets-equity-cx_lal_0122markets12.html
Strategic Management: External Analysis
External analysis in organization is important since it examines the threats and opportunities existing within an environment. The only way of differentiating strength or weaknesses from opportunity or threat is to ask whether the issue exist if companies failed to exist. And if it is true, then this is considered as external to firm. Opportunities is a favorable conditions within the environment and it may produce rewards for most organizations, in short, they are the situations that may exist, however they should be acted upon if firms benefits from them. Threats on the other hand, are barriers that prevent firms from meeting their objectives. External analysis is significant for success of every company (Samuels & Perry, 2005). This paper examines the major threats and opportunities in improving the ability of the McDonalds Company to meet the needs of its stakeholders and make their vision…
Ratnasingam, P. (2005). A SWOT Analysis for B2C E-Commerce the Case of Amazon.com.
London: Idea Group.
Ratnasingam, P. (2006). SWOT analysis for B2C e-commerce the case of Amazon.com.
London: Idea Group Pub.
This could bring a flood of new competitors to the market. Verizon is working with other wireless providers to gain preferential access to new wavelengths. Previous auctions, including the 2007 auction of the 700 MHz spectrum that Verizon won, came with open-access rules. Verizon is battling the FCC with regards to the regulator's desire for openness rules on all bandwidth, something Verizon considers a threat to be actively combated (Singel, 2009). As a whole, the regulatory environment has become less favorable to the wireless industry of late, with the FCC taking a more active role in micromanaging the industry (Corbin, 2009).
An analysis of the competitive environment using Porter's Five Forces model reveals that the competitive environment for Verizon is moderately challenging. There is strong buyer power. The main driver of buyer power in wireless is the low switching cost between providers. Buyers are also savvy and have…
MSN Moneycentral, various pages. Retrieved October 23, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/newsnap.asp?Symbol=U.S.%3aVZ
Verizon Investor Relations website, various pages. Retrieved October 23, 2009 from http://investor.verizon.com/profile/history/
No author. (2009). The U.S. Economy. EconomyWatch.com. Retrieved October 23, 2009 from http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/usa/
No author. (2009). Federal Funds. The Federal Reserve Bank. Retrieved October 23, 2009 from http://www.federalreserve.gov/RELEASES/H15/data/Monthly/H15_FF_O.txt
External analysis first begins with an assessment of the macroeconomic conditions of both domestic and international firms. In our current economic environment domestically signals are mixed in regards to recovery or depression. Year over year, the unemployment rate has remained stagnant at historically high levels. This is important because employment rates have a direct correlation to economic prosperity and its subsequent rate of inflation. At 9.1% nearly 1 out of every 11 Americans are without work (1). This figure does not include individuals who are underemployed or working only part-time. When added these two criteria, the unemployment rate soars to above 16%. This doesn't bode well for the macroeconomic environment of the United States as nearly 70% of GDP comes from consumer spending. If consumers are without work, they subsequently will not spend as much to help bolster the economy. Consequently, more jobs can potentially be lost as more companies…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) "News Release: Personal Income and Outlays, March 2011." U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) - Bea.gov Home Page. Web. 20 May 2011. .
3) "News Release: Gross Domestic Product." U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) - Bea.gov Home Page. Web. 20 May 2011. .
External Analysis of Southwest Airlines
External Analysis Southwest Airlines
Will Southwest Airline's strategic plan continue to bring success in the new airline industry landscape? This paper sought to answer this question by examining the external increasingly consolidated environment in which Southwest competes. The review was conducted through application of Porter's Five Forces, a PEAT analysis, and a SWOT analysis.
The report concludes that Southwest has gained ground and maintained stability, changing only as much as it needed in order to remain the friendly domestic budget airline it started out as, and to compete effectively but with fidelity to its vision and values.
This paper will present a brief analysis of the competitive landscape for Southwest Airlines based in order to assess the airline's future capabilities in an environment in which other airlines are increasingly co-opting Southwest's successful and innovative strategies. This deductive exploration of the landscape will continue at the…
Airlines Industry Profile, First Research. (2011). [Web]. http://www.firstresearch.com/industry-research/Airlines.html
Domestic Airlines, U.S. Industry Report, IBIS World. (2011). [Web]. Retrieved http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/default.aspx?indid=1125
Huettel, S. (2011). Tampa International Airport votes to give airlines incentives for adding flights, St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved http://www.tampabay.com/news / business/airlines/article1176335.ece
Porter's Five Forces, Strategic Management, Quick MBA. (2011). [Web]. Retrieved http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
Further Briggs (2008)
adds weight to the argument saying although internal validity and the statistical conclusion adds weight to the causal effect, external validity and construct validity are essential for the causal effects and generalization purposes to many settings. To ensure concrete construct validity level on a study's dependent variable, re-examination for reliability is noteworthy not just the causal effect. Details on the sample and sampling procedures should be analyzed thoroughly for rigorous data Creswell, 2008()
Threats to external validity
It implies a situation where sample picked to act as a representative of the population is insufficient to cover all facets of the population. In this case, the sample is inadequate to act as a representative and is expected to obscure generalization of research result.
Non-representative research context
It describes a situation where the research was set out of context. Example if the survey conducted tried to evaluate…
Briggs, D.C. (2008). Comments on Slavin: Synthesizing causal inferences. Educational Researcher, 37, 15-22.
Campbell, D., & Stanley, J. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago, IL: Rand-McNally.
Creswell, J.W. (2008). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches: Sage Publications.
There are a number of forces that will impact the strategy of Hot ings. The legal and regulatory environment governs a number of different aspects of the business, from licensing to human resources policies to food handling and other aspects of the business. There are regulations at the federal, state, municipal and possibly county levels. Food handling and alcohol are the most important elements within the regulatory environment as violations of these regulations can result in shut down, legal action or the closing off of revenue streams. Proper training must be given to all staff with respect to the different food and alcohol regulations in order to keep the business running.
The economic environment is of critical importance because the number of times people eat or drink outside of the home is dictated in large part by their disposable income. In good economic times, people go out more…
Chathoth, P.; Tse, E. & Olsen, M. (2005). Turnaround strategy: A study of restaurant firms. International Journal of Hospitality Management. Vol. 25 (4) 602-622.
Food Product Design. (2010). Economy key to casual, fine dining recovery. Food Product Design. Retrieved March 28, 2011 http://www.foodproductdesign.com/news/2010/11/economy-key-to-casual-fine-dining-recovery.aspx
Hamilton, R. (2010). Defending against threats to intellectual property. In Defense of Data. Retrieved March 28, 2011 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/2011/01/-all-through-the-recession.php
Horovitz, B. (2008). Casual dining chains hunger for change. USA Today. Retrieved March 28, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2008-10-13-casual-dining-restaurants_N.htm
In analyzing the three-year figures we find that there is one commonality that jumps out of the data: the one school that did not support the decentralization program is the only school whose test scores have not improved. Overall, the schools have improved by a total of 4.5 (which includes the low performer), or about 7.5% over three years. The greatest amount of improvement came from Computer Assisted Learning, but that school, Lincoln, was already the high performer.
Media and parental concerns over scores are certainly reasonable and understandable. No stakeholder wishes to see scores decline. However, some major issues revolve around some of the politics in this situation:
Three years may not be enough time to statistically validate the data or the trend; even though it appears on the surface that the decentralization plan works for most schools.
External Influences on Health Care
Healthcare today is changing dramatically. The entire structure of healthcare here in the United States completely changed on January 1, 2014. With the completion of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, the old way of healthcare went through a drastic evolution. This was called for by both the people and the government, as previous methods of distributing healthcare were just becoming infeasible. As such, it is clear that there are a wide number of political, legislative, and economic factors that have influenced this dramatic change and will continue to make evolutions in the health care field.
There are definitely political forces at play in regards to the recent healthcare changes, as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was a highly controversial law that was deeply opposed by the majority of the epublican Party. Members of Congress who opposed the law so much claimed…
ABC News. (2013). Government shutdown 2013: After defeat, tea party promises attacks on healthcare. Health. Web. http://www.wjla.com/articles/2013/10/government-shutdown-2013-after-defeat-tea-party-promises-attacks-on-health-care-95560.html
Henry J. Kaiser Foundation. (2013). Key facts about the uninsured population. Uninsured. Web. http://kff.org/uninsured/fact-sheet/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/
Melnik, Jessica & Marquez, Chrysanne. (2012), The legislative Process: And its relation to health policy. Slideshare Healthcare. Web. http://www.slideshare.net/melnik02/legislation-and-health-care-policy
Obama Care Facts. (2012). Cost of Obama Care. Obama Care Facts: Dispelling the Myths. Web. http://obamacarefacts.com/costof-obamacare.php
External Analysis Southwest Airlines
One of United States' most successful airlines in the business is Southwest airlines. The company has been one of the most successful businesses in the economy with no case of worker layoff or strike being recorded in the organization. The company has dedicated its commitment to ensuring it provides a favorable environment for its workers. The company's corporate culture has played a significant role in the success of the company as it recognizes the workers emotions. Positive attitude is influential in the workplace as the workers become more productive. The air transport business is in an industry where profit maximization is a challenge to many players. The struggling economy and the increased number of players in the company make the industry unfavorable for business. The industry is also affected by the increased price of fuel which increases the cost of transportation. The paper conducts environmental analysis…
PEST analysis.(2009). Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_PEST_analysis.html
Porter's Five Forces: A model for industry analysis. (2007). Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from: http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
SWOT analysis: Lesson. (2009). Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from: http://marketingteacher.com/lesson-store/lesson-SWOT.html
Zahorsky, D. (2009). A business owner's secret weapon: SWOT analysis. Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from: http://sbinformation.about.com /cs/bestpractices/a/SWOT.htm
("External Selection II," n.d.)
On pages 490-491, there is a discussion regarding the 3 finalists and the selection method that was used by NII. Do you think that the 6 selection methods used by NII were appropriate? For each finalist, decide whether you would be willing to hire the person and state why.
For the most part, the 6 selection methods are appropriate. However, there is one area that is irrelevant in the process. This is based upon finding out what kinds of sports they like. While this information is useful, the reality is that it is immaterial and has nothing to do with their ability to perform different duties. ("External Selection II," n.d.)
In the case of Lola Vega, she will be hired by the firm. This is because she scored well on: cognitive, knowledge and structural areas. Moreover, she has a strong aptitude for working with others and…
External Selection II. (n.d.)
Also reported for Wal-Mart Stores Inc. was the following information:
(1) It is reported that Wal-Mart now ships in the U.S. alone order from 35 of its 4,000 stores in the U.S. compared to the previously reported shipping from 25. Goals have been set at 50 stores by the end of the year. It is reported that traffic to Wal-Mart's U.S. e-commerce site "exceeds 45 monthly visitors and growth and conversion are accelerating." (Davis, 2013, p.1) Davis also reports that Wal-Mart announced yesterday it had acquired two online technology startups and planned to hire 150 more staffers for its Walmart.com operations in Silicon Valley, which already employ 1,500." (Davis, 2013, p.1)
(2) It is reported that in the U.K. The "Asda supermarket chain that Wal-Mart owns is the country's second-largest online grocer, Wal-Mart says. Asda completed the rollout of Wi-Fi to its stores in the first quarter, making it…
Akkad, S., Chelune, T., and Coppola, C. (2011) Wal-Mart's Strategic BMGT495-7380. University of Maryland; University College. 22 Nov. 2011.
Wal-Mart (2011). Corporate Facts Sheet. Retrieved from http://walmartstores.com/pressroom/factsheets/
Wal-Mart Corporate (2011). About us. Retrieved from https://walmartstores.com/AboutUs/
Walmartstores.com (2008). 2008 Annual Report. Retrieved from http://walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2008/docs/wal_mart_annual_report_2008.pdf
Ford faces many threats. In terms of operational/strategic threats, the company faces intense competition in all of its markets. There is no product or geography where Ford does not face intense competition. This drives down margins and exposes Ford to the possibility of declining sales. The competitors in the industry are innovating at a rate faster than Ford generally is. This creates new and unique competitive threats. Ford is under threat from electric cars and self-driving cars, both of which threaten to completely transform the landscape for personal transportation in the coming years. Thus, Ford's position in the marketplace is very much threatened by new technology, and whatever competitors (old or new) that master the new technologies before Ford can expect to win market share away from Ford.
Vehicle emissions standards are occasionally a threat to Ford's business. These are not a major threat today -- but they were in…
Multinational firms must operate with some degree of independence in the different corners of the world, if only for practical reasons such as input procurement and the development of distribution channels. Political considerations have long had an impact on organizational structure decisions. In many nations, subsidiaries of multinationals must be joint ventures with local firms, or the multinational may find that business is difficult to conduct as the result of all manner of cultural differences, corruption and bureaucracy.
The matrix structure was developed as a direct response to changes in the external environment. Firms that moved overseas with multiple product lines found that managing these lines in different countries required both a product-based perspective and a geographical perspective. hen considering the geographic perspective, one can see that economic considerations play a significant role as well -- when China and Southeast Asia began to boom, "Asia" became its own reporting unit…
Boyne, G. & Meier, K. (2009). Environmental turbulence, organizational stability and public service performance. Administration & Society. Vol. 40 (8) 799-824.
Burke, a., van Stel, a. & Thurik, R. (2010). Blue ocean vs. five forces. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 88 (5) 28.
Chunhachinda, P., de Boyrie, M. & Pak, S. (2008). Thailand capital flight through trade with the U.S. during times of political and economic instability. Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets & Policies. Vol. 11 (3) 363-387.
Gali, J. (1999). Technology, employment and the business cycle: Do technology shocks explain aggregate fluctuations? American Economic Review. Vol. 89 (1) 249-271.
This savings on fuel has also given Southwest more funds to invest in programs to reduce turn-around time of their jets between flights .
Southwest Airline's Internal Weaknesses
As with any company the size of Southwest, they have several weaknesses, with the most significant being their heavy dependence only on passenger traffic as their primary source of revenue. Despite efforts to move into logistics and supply chain services, the company is still struggling to gain significant success in more profitable business services markets (Kumar, Johnson, Lai, 2009).
Despite having an employee base that has the lowest turnover and highest levels of morale, Southwest also has one of the most rapidly declining sales-per-employee revenue levels for U.S.-based airlines (Kumar, Johnson, Lai, 2009). One of the factors that contribute to this is the fact that Southwest has more ground crew members than other airlines, an investment the company makes to attain the…
Christopher P. Ball. (2007). Rethinking Hub vs. Point-to-Point Competition: A Simple Circular Airline Model. The Journal of Business and Economic Studies, 13(1), 73-87,116.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
David a Carter, Daniel a Rogers, & Betty J. Simkins. (2006). Does Hedging Affect Firm Value? Evidence from the U.S. Airline Industry. Financial Management, 35(1), 53-86.
D'Aurizio, P.. (2008). Southwest Airlines: Lessons in Loyalty. Nursing Economics, 26(6), 389-92.
Anything that appears challenging or threatening in the external environment needs to be taken seriously and this is where management plays a key role.
Internal factors or forces on the other hand are more concerned with organizational culture, mission and values and human resource. While all managers are required to remain true to organization's culture and uphold its values at all times, a real manager is the one who knows when to mould the culture in such a way that it would remain close to its original values while at the same time also become more accepting of external changes. A manager who is blinded by his organization's culture and beliefs is likely to miss signs of external change. Management needs to understand that internal forces are within its control and thus can be used constructively for the benefit of the entire organization instead of allowing it to control the…
Lawton, P. (1995, September). Initiating and managing change in your organization. CMA Magazine, 69 28-32.
Anamnesis, A. (1996). The root ideas in dealing with change. Physician Executive, 22 41-45.
They were not informed of the reason for the code. They were asked "(a) How similar do you think this person is to you? (1 _ not at all similar to 11 _ very similar) and (b) How much do you think this person will like you? (1 _ not at all to 11 _ very much)" and other like preliminary questions to see if subliminal likes were noticed and present (Jones, p. 672).
Students were then asked to remember their "partner's" code number and dismissed.
First, the birthday-association manipulation was modestly associated with anticipated liking, _ _.15, t (107) _ 1.64, p _.10. Second, a multiple regression analysis showed that anticipated liking did predict partner liking, even after controlling for birthday association, _ _.61, t (107) _ 8.23, p _.001. Finally, the same regression analysis showed that the birthday-association effect was eliminated after controlling for anticipated liking, _ _.04,…
Berg, J.H. And McQuinn, R.D. (1986). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 50, No. 5.
Fry, R. (1999). Biology of love. The Health Report. 6 Sep 1999. The effect of love on the chemical state of our brains. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s49793.htm.
Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. www.biopsychiatry.comAbstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.
Geher, G. (2005). Motivational underpinnings of romantic partner perceptions: Psychological and physiological evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 22, No. 2, 255-281.
successful leadership styles, strategies and traits.
Two leadership styles that I believe are successful and effective styles are servant leadership and transformational leadership. Both of them emphasize strategies of helping followers to become better overall, and both build on positive traits of trust and integrity. Servant leadership focuses on putting the needs of the other ahead of one's own. It is truly about serving one's followers and thereby building an organization that is grounded in compassion, empathy, and the desire and ability to actually help other people overcome the obstacles they face, whether they are in a particular work habit, a personal problem, or a financial difficulty. Servant leaders look out for their followers as though they were their sheep.
Transformational leaders focus on using Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Social Intelligence (SI) to build relationships and transform their followers into the kind of workers that the organization needs to succeed.…
Eichenwald, K. (2005). Conspiracy of Fools. NY: Broadway Books.
Sanders, T. (2006). The Likeability Factor. NY: Three Rivers Press..
Causes of Crime
Natural Causes of Crime
The factors and precursors that are associated in whole or in part with the causes of crime are prolific and many. Many of those causes fall under one of three major categories, those being biological, sociological and psychological. Indeed, many crimes are caused in whole or in part by inherent biological attributes, external factors or a combination thereof. Crimes can be committed of a person knowing better and not caring enough to not do or stop the behavior or they can be committed from a person that is at least temporarily unable to process and realize what they are doing due to being on alcohol, an illicit street drug or prescription medication. This report will cover all of those and provide examples of each, either general or specific. While some people perhaps lean a little too heavily on crimes causing them to commit…
Carroll, A. (2008). Drug-associated psychoses and criminal responsibility. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 26(5), 633-653.
Collins, R. (2013). Micro and macro sociological causes of violent atrocities. Sociologia,
Problemas E. Praticas, (71), 9-22. doi:10.7458/SPP2013712327
Moskalenko, S., & McCauley, C. (2011). The psychology of lone-wolf terrorism. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 24(2), 115-126.
Enron Corporation was the American company that specialized in supplying of energy.
Prior to its collapse in 2001, Enron was one of the most admired companies in the United States recording superior profits year by year, however, in 2001, series of the Enron questionable financial transactions were finally made opened when the company's stock price collapsed within one day. This study investigates several factors that led to the fall of Enron Corporation, the outcome of the investigation reveals that the top management did not promote culture of ethics within the organization. The paper reveals that the management was intoxicated with power manipulating information to their benefits. Moreover, top officials used power ruthlessly intimidating the subordinated. The company did not promote the culture of checks and balances by allowing only one entity performing both the functions of internal and external auditing. The study recommends that integration of ethical business is an…
This is a double-edged sword, so the CEO needs to keep that fact in mind. Mistakes will look bad not only personally, but will reflect poorly on the company as well. Therefore, the CEO needs to play the role of the PR flak. People respond to leaders who project a strong image of the firm and therefore the CEO can be an excellent source of good publicity.
The video highlighted the achievements of Lee Iacocca and Norman Schwarzkopf with caveats about the assistance they had. Yet, it was the organizational skills of those leaders that led to the achievements. It is important to remember not who the media assigned credit for the success but how that success was achieved -- this is the way the CEO should approach the issue of organizational skills.
Lastly, we saw Lee Iacocca issue a response to the Japanese competition. It is important to remember…
Business - Management
External Environment Analysis
Southwest Airlines is the nation's low fair, high customer satisfaction airline. It mainly serves short haul cities, offering single class air transportation, which aims for the business commuter as well as leisure travelers. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) classifies Southwest Airlines as Scheduled Passenger Air Transportation - 481111 (North American Industry Classification System, 2011).
When conducting an external analysis it is important to look at Porter's five forces to determine the competitive strength and therefore magnetism of a market. Porter's five forces comprise five forces from horizontal competition and vertical competition. These forces are: threat of substitute products, the threat of established rivals, and the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of suppliers and the bargaining power of customers (Porter's Five Forces a Model for Industry Analysis, 2010).
The first threat is that of the threat of new entrants into the…
Del Vecchio, John. (2000). Analyzing Industries. Retrieved from http://www.fool.com/research/2000/features000309.htm
How Economic Factors Affect the Aviation Industry. (2011). Retreived from http://www.myefficientplanet.com/74865/how-economic-factors-affect-the-aviation-industry/
North American Industry Classification System. (2011). Retreived from
The house brand product in question here will be Archer Farms ice cream. Archer Farms is Target's house brand used for a number of different food products. For the sake of argument, we will assume that Archer Farms ice cream is quite good and Target thinks that there might be some merit to selling it beyond their own stores. The brand does not receive its own marketing at this point -- it has no website, for example, and its Facebook page is a community page not run by the company. There is no disassociation between Archer Farms and Target at this point. This paper will examine how this market strategy might be undertaken.
McNamara (2014) notes that involvement in the marketing context refers to "how much time, thought, energy and other resources people devote to the purchase process." Ice cream is a low involvement product based on…
Akdeniz, M., Calantone, R. & Voorhees, C. (2013). Signaling quality: An examination of the effects of marketing -- and nonmarketing -- controlled signals on perceptions of automotive brand quality. Journal of Product Innovation Management.
McNamara, S. (2014). Consumer involvement theory. AdCracker. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from http://www.adcracker.com/involvement/Consumer_Involvement_Theory.htm
Mehta, A. (2013). Ice cream is not impulse in supermarkets. Buy Stories. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from http://thebuystories.wordpress.com/2013/06/10/icecream-category-at-supermarkets/
US Census Bureau. (2012). 2012 national population projections: Summary tables. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from
Internal company and the External Environment
Based on your research, what are the key drivers for success in the large office supply store industry? This section should be at least 2 pages in length.
There are key success factors for the large office supply store industry. One of the key success factors is location and significance. It is imperative to note that one of the most pivotal success factors for any business is its location. This is the same case for large office supply stores. It is imperative for such corporations to locate their retail stores in a high-traffic area, for instance a mall or a highly frequented intersection. Furthermore, it is essential to make certain that the business is situated near consumers that the corporation seeks to target. The utmost potential customers for office stationeries comprises of the corporate or business consumers, therefore positioning a store in the area…
Ford Motor Company is - according to its financial statements for the last year - in relatively good financial shape, especially if one considers the current weak state of the economy, the past recessionary months and the still extremely shaky state of the recovery. This paper analyzes the current strengths and weaknesses of the company as it moves toward increasing globalization.
A useful tool in analyzing the external environment in which Ford is presently situated can incorporate Michael Porter's Five Forces model, which is graphically summarized below: (http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_fivefoces.htm)
Ford is vulnerable to the threat of both new entrants (in terms generally of new car models as well as specifically of new environmentally friendly cars) as well as the threat of substitute products from other car companies eager to attract the same consumers that Ford wishes to attract. Honda, for example, is likely to become one of Ford's primary…
Hamel, Gary and C.K. Prahalad. Competing for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 1997. http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_19/b3680166.htm
CASE ANALYSIS: STABUCKS
Starbucks Case Analysis
Starbucks Case Analysis
Many individuals all over the world walk into Starbucks daily for their cup of coffee, but it is more than the costly coffee that brings individuals in day after day to the shops across the globe. Starbucks offers a high-energy atmosphere and helpful employees who help clients in any issue or question they might have with the coffee or service. People buy the product because of symbolizes and the status position coming along with it. Although various business designs are available, the concepts and framework of Starbucks is a good design to follow, due to its nationwide and international success. This paper investigates the strategic fit of Starbucks as a business and further shows how it survives even through hard economic times. By looking at the market and…
Grimm, C.M., Lee, H., & Smith, K.G. (2006). Strategy as action: Competitive dynamics and competitive advantage. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pham-Gia, K. (2009). Marketing strategy of 'Starbucks Coffe'. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Pahl, N. (2008). The idea behind the Starbucks experience: The main elements of Starbucks' strategic diamond. Munchen: GRIN Verlag.
Education - Theory
Addressing etention Issues in Community CollegesUsing Transition and Ecological/Environment Theory
Many community colleges face serious retention issues that affect student performance, persistence, and learning. The rationale employed in identifying alternative assessments involves overriding standardized test validities and predictive reliability issues. However, there are concerns regarding the derived holistic understanding among student outcomes. The goal of providing college educators through alternative supplemental approaches facilitate standardized testing of various evaluative measures as introduced. The issues of student self-assessment and social and value-added assessments, evaluations, and personal growth portfolios within community colleges had increased. The design suggests an institution of the writing and implementation of parallel outcomes in the studies are linked to different fundamental questions serving as subjects of confirm relevance to campus dynamics and student success.
The levels involved in making the students leave or stay are informative points on student engagement. This includes social and academic connection…
Braxton, J.M., & Doyle, W.R. (2013). Rethinking College Student Retention. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. International Encyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, 2nd ed., 131-214.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.
Forney, E., & DiBrito, G. (1998).Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. pp. 111-114.
External Analysis: Overstock.com
Porter's Five Forces Model
Porter's framework, as Hill and Jones (2009) point out, concerns itself with forces (five in number) that configure or structure competition within a given industry. These, according to the authors, include: "(1) the risk of entry by potential competitors; (2) the intensity of rivalry among established companies within an industry; (3) the bargaining power of buyers; (4) the bargaining power of suppliers; and (5) the closeness of substitutes to an industry's products" (Hill and Gareth, 2009, p. 42). The subsequent sections of this text will apply Porter's Five Forces model in an evaluation of Overstock.com's operating environment.
Overstock.com is "a technology-based retail company offering customers a wide variety of high-quality products, at great value, with superior customer service" (Overstock.com, 2014). Some of the products the company offers for sale include, but they are not limited to; jewelry, furniture, handcrafted items and products,…
Hill, C. & Jones, G. (2009). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Overstock.com. (2014). Who we are: Our Business. Retrieved from http://www.overstock.com/81689/static.html?TID=ABOUT:Business
Quick MBA. (2010). Porter's Five Forces: A Model for Industry Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
esponsibilities as an external consultant to a contract manufacturing organization (CMO)
esearch in the field of medicine has contributed to changes in administration of dosage. Initially some administration routes for drugs are considered more convenient than other methods. However this relies and depends on the benefits and shortcomings of the drug administration route. The paper discusses on the possible and the convenient drug administration routes to apply in CMO. The paper also discusses on the methods to improve the physical stability and product chemical in the dosage for CMO
outes of administration for biological medicinal products
Different routes of administration can be applied for biological medicinal products and generally for contract manufacturing organization (CMO). For instance, enteral, parenteral, and transdermal are the common broad routes of medicinal administration.
Hypodermoclysis administration route
Hypodermoclysis administration route is whereby the dosage is in fluid form and can be referred to as subcutaneous infusion…
Adikwu, M.U., & Esimone, C.O. 2009. Biopolymers in drug delivery recent advances and challenges. [Saif Zone, Sharjah, U.A.E.], Bentham eBooks.
Arcangelo, V.P., & Peterson, A.M. 2005. Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A
practical approach. Philadelphia, PA [u.a.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Gillespie, J.R., & Flanders, F.B. 2010. Modern livestock and poultry production. Australia,
According to her market research, the primary reason that families do not take traditional birth courses is that the courses are expensive. In order to address this, Brio maximized the online and digital aspects of their curriculum to drastically reduce the costs to families who were primarily paying for the published course material in other classes.
The internal factor that I wish to further evaluate is that of resources within the institution. The hospital that I chose to observe and suggest the change in curriculum for was a hospital in Scottsdale. This hospital is very large and has a large labor and delivery area. Additionally, the hospital also has one-site conference space available that can be requested in advance. This space would provide the ideal place for the training, especially since the training is meant only for labor and delivery nurses within the hospital.
Additional resources to consider for the…
Martin, Karin (2003). "Giving Birth Like a Girl." Gender and Society. Vol 17.1 (54-72).
The Bradley Method of Husband-Coached Childbirth. Accessed 5 Feb 2012 at http://bradleybirth.com/
Brio Birth. Accessed 5 Feb 2012 at http://www.briobirth.com/
There are several factors that could contribute to increased demand for owner-occupied housing in the United Kingdom. Given that this demand is presently suppressed by a poor economy, most of the conditions under which demand would increase involve finding ways to boost overall economic performance. One normal policy prescription, lowering interest rates, is effectively off the table with the current rate at 0.5% and the Bank of England expected to maintain this rock bottom rate for the foreseeable future (Oxlade, 2013). Banks could lower lending rates to buyers, but these rates are usually based on spreads relative to the rate at which banks borrow, so there might not be much flexibility for banks to lower rates profitably.
One way would be to boost the economy through fiscal stimulus, government putting money into the economy instead of taking it out. This would create better demand conditions, and would also give…
Oxlade, A. (2013). Interest rates at 0.5pc for four more years. The Telegraph. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/interest-rates/9922941/Interest-rates-predictions-Four-more-years-of-0.5.html
Key Success Factors (KSFs) of most organizations have similar attributes, references, and disciplines. This is because each project has internal and external expectations. In most cases, internal expectations happen to be project developers while the external expectation happens to be clients and/or the audience community. The positive striking balance is categorical in elaborating the nature and quality expected in developing each project. This comparison will be substantial in assessing KSFs of two seemingly different organizations. The analysis will identify the reasons why the organizations have pursued the KSFs in the execution of their projects. This study analyzes the KSFs of the two organizations. The study will also appoint basic commonalities between these two organizations in relation to the nature of projects that the two organizations are pursuing.
The key success factors in these two seemingly different scenarios
Combined Security Transition Command -- Afghanistan (CSTC-A)
After a close…
Degnitu, W. (September 1st, 2000). PROJECT Management: A Case study of Zuquala Steel Rolling Mill. Journal of the ESME, Vol. III, No. 1. Retrieved July 29, 2012 from http://www.africantechnologyforum.org/ESME/prjmgmt/Zuquala.htm
Dow, W., & Taylor, PMP. (2012). Project Management Communications Bible. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Goatham, R. (February 19th, 2009). The Story Behind the High Failure Rates in the I.T Sector. Retrieved March 08th, 2014 from http://www.maxwideman.com/guests/failure_rates/intro.htm
Schwalbe, K. (2008). Introduction to Project Management, Second Edition. New York: Cengage Learning.
As shown in Appendix 2 these report gives a complete and detailed picture of candidate's personality type, classifying him to one of five main types: A-director, B - socializer, motivator, people person, C - thinker, analytic, D - supporter, X which means that personality has two types synergized.
Interviewing as the most used employee screening skill
Another very effective method of prospective employee evaluation is evaluation interview. Evaluation interview was a theme of a number of researches and studies, which examine the validity of different interview types. The researches show that structured intrviews have a higher acuracy than unstructured (Huffcutt and Arthus, 1994; McDaniel et al., 1994; Wiesner and Cronshaw, 1988; Wright et al., 1989). In most cases interviews can be planned using job analyses questions or scoring procedures, which can objectively evaluate candidates creditability in prospective field.
Each interview has five common steps: planning and preparing the interview, beginning…
Terpstra, D.E., & Rozell, E.J. The relationship of staffing practices to organizational level measures of performance. Personnel Psychology, 46. 1993
Maurer, S.D., Howe, V. And Lee, T.W. Organizational recruiting as marketing management: an interdisciplinary study of engineering graduates, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 45, 1992.
Lievens, F. Recent trends and challenges in personnel selection, available from www.emeraldinsight.com/0048-3486.htm
Ullman, J.C. 1966. Employee referrals: A prime tool for recruiting workers. Personnel, 43
However, some internal factors are more controllable than others, such as the organizational mission. ven while competitors may enter the market from the outside, and standards may change, the organization can still demand as part of its mission, high quality standards of behavior from its doctors and those whom it helps to attain appropriate certification in the United States. The impact of the economy may necessitate budget cuts or reorganization for an organization, as might, in the future, different technological innovations, as so much of our business is conducted online, but business ethics and purpose, as defined by the organization's mission, will remain constant.
External and Internal Factors
All organizational behavior in the business world feels the impact of both external and internal factors. For instance, one external, often uncontrollable factor is the rate of globalization. No American company, for example, can control the unity and cohesion of the European Union's rate of production, yet they still must compete with the EU for its market share. For my own organization, the Educational Commission for Medical School Graduates (more information regarding the organization is available on the web at ( http://www.ecfmg.org/ )the increasing globalization and interconnected nature of the heath care and educational community and economy has proved to be the wellspring for the organization's founding and purpose. Globalization has proved to create and continue the ECFMG's usefulness to medical students from around the world attain certification in the United States. The organization has no control over different nation's friendly relations with the United States, and in that sense it cannot fully control the external impact globalization, although on an internal level an organization can decide how responsive it will continue to be to international as well as national forces, and the ethics it will demand of the users of the service, even though it has no control over different global government standards regarding certification of doctors.
However, some internal factors are more controllable than others, such as the organizational mission. Even while competitors may enter the market from the outside, and standards may change, the organization can still demand as part of its mission, high quality standards of behavior from its doctors and those whom it helps to attain appropriate certification in the United States. The impact of the economy may necessitate budget cuts or reorganization for an organization, as might, in the future, different technological innovations, as so much of our business is conducted online, but business ethics and purpose, as defined by the organization's mission, will remain constant.
internal validity and external validity are important when designing, implementing, and reviewing empirical research. Internal validity refers to the design of the research and its methodology. Issues like sampling, statistical analyses, robustness of the variables, survey instruments, and researcher bias can impact internal validity. With regards to my research question, internal validity is of the utmost importance. The independent variables in this case include two different types of interventions: bloodless cardiac surgeries and blood transfusions. However, it is important to operationalize these two independent variables so that the researchers are clear on what exactly constitutes a bloodless surgery and a blood transfusion. Moreover, issues like hospital setting must be taken into account as a potentially confounding variable. When, where, and how these procedures are implemented can all have a bearing on the internal validity of the research design.
Likewise, the dependent variables are morbidity and mortality in patients. It is…
"Internal Validity," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.indiana.edu/~p1013447/dictionary/int_val.htm
Osborn, D.R. (n.d.). External validity. Retrieved online: http://cas.bellarmine.edu/Osborn/hypertut_piv/external_validity_is_concerned_w.htm
Shander, A., Moskowitz, D. & Rijhwani, T.S. (2005). The safety and efficacy of 'bloodless' cardiac surgery. Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 9(1).
Whitson, B.A., Huddleston, S.J., Savik, K. & Shumway, S.J. (2007). Bloodless cardiac surgery is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Journal of Cardiac Surgery 22(5): 373-8.
The people who have not yet gone in for the Plasma TV are more or less happy viewing the conventional TV, but want to go up in the value chain and aspire one day to buy a Plasma TV and like to be at par with their aspirational group who has already bought one. (the Psychology of Consumers -Consumer Behavior and Marketing)
Associative reference groups comprise of people who more practically represent the individual who are equal as regards their position in the society, income levels like co-workers, neighbors, members of clubs and organizations. As these people considers them near equals, a purchase by one member within the reference group triggers to think about the purchase by the other members of the society. The purchase of a Plasma TV, by a colleague belonging to a particular organization might instill confidence in the other employee to think about buying a similar…
Buying a Plasma TV" (November, 2004) NSW Office of Fair Trading-Department of Commerce. Retrieved at http://www.fairtrading.nsw.gov.au/pdfs/corporate/reportonpurchasingaplasmatv.pdf. Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Cassavoy, Liane. (November 03, 2003) "Should You Buy a TV From a PC Maker?" Retrieved at http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,113009,00.asp . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Gateway feels lure of consumer electronics" Retrieved at http://news.com.com/Gateway+feels+lure+of+consumer+electronics/2100-1041_3-1015744.html . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Gateway Plasma TV to undercut prices" Retrieved at http://news.com.com/Gateway+plasma+TV+to+undercut+prices/2100-1040_3-964156.html . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
On the other hand, organizations that focus on external equity enjoys the advantage of attracting and retaining highly qualified employees. Similarly, the rate of staff turnover is extremely minimal as the staffs remain aware that their organization is offering compensation packages, which are streamlined accordingly with the compensation in the market. However, insisting on the external equity bears also some disadvantages. For instance, by focusing on the prevailing market compensation, an organization whose economic state does not support such pay package ends up hurting its operations. Similarly, resentment within the top brass, such as CEO's and other managers may crop due to inequality dictated by the conditions in the market (CCH, Incorporated and Myers, 2003).
It is worth noting that a given organization may resort to choose a definite compensation plan depending on its objectives. For instance, Intel chose internal equity plan which is in accordance to its objective of…
CCH, Incorporated and Myers, D.W. (2003). 2004 U.S. Master Human Resource Guide. New York, NY: CCH Incorporated.
Armstrong, M. (2007). A Handbook of Employee Reward Management and Practice. New York, NY: Kogan Page Publishers
Wal-Mart is also a highly delegative culture in terms of its subsidiaries, with in-store managers in all regions they operate in responsible for performance. The Wal-Mart approach to delegation also requires in-store associates to assist with the unloading of trailers when they arrive with merchandise at Superstores as well. Wal-Mart strongly holds efficiency and delegation in the same context (Appelbaum, Lichtenstein, 2006).
Diversity and Ethics
Wal-Mart has often been criticized for their lack of diversity and for a lack of ethics in managing part-time workers. In response to these claims and to practices that proved to be unethical, the company has created a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) program that is global in scope. Wal-Mart's efforts to ensure diversity and ethics have in turn been delegated to the store manager level (Spangler, Britt, Parks, 2008) where individual performance is measured and evaluated over time. The framework of planning, organizing, leading and…
Appelbaum, R., & Lichtenstein, N.. (2006). A New World of Retail Supremacy: Supply Chains and Workers' Chains in the Age of Wal-Mart. International Labor and Working Class History, 70(1), 106-125.
Bateman, Snell. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World. New York: McGraw Hill
Cherie Blanchard, Clare L. Comm, & Dennis F.X. Mathaisel. (2008). Adding value to service providers: benchmarking Wal-Mart. Benchmarking, 15(2), 166-177.
Krotov, V., & Junglas, I.. (2008). RFID as a Disruptive Innovation. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 3(2), 44-59.
In addition to these factors,
Microsoft also has to contend with challenges to its core business of
personal productivity applications from a wide variety of competitors.
Internally, Microsoft's environment is hard-driving, very focused on
development schedules, and has a definite intensity of focus. The internal
environment is dominated by engineering expertise and depth of insight over
and above work-life balance, an issue the company has struggled with for
years. In addition the internal environment is dominated by managers who
have been promoted based on their technical prowess and not necessarily
their management ability. This makes for a tense yet very focused internal
culture where accomplishment is everything. As a result the company's
internal environment is not necessarily marked by a work-life balance;
instead it is a culture that rewards technical insight, intelligence and
DataMonitor (2006) - Microsoft Corporation Company Profile. Publication
Date 5 April 2006. eference Code: 1103…
DataMonitor (2006) - Microsoft Corporation Company Profile. Publication
Date 5 April 2006. Reference Code: 1103
Greene (2005) - Troubling Exits at Microsoft. Business Week Online.
September 26, 2005. Accessed from the Internet on January 18, 2007 from
Careful selection of the right employees is one mechanism of external control deployed by Google.
Google controls its employees not through fear, but by motivating them to do good works: "With millions of visitors every month, Google has become an essential part of everyday life - like a good friend - connecting people with the information they need to live great lives" it proclaims (Top ten, 2009, Google). Google offers generous compensation packages to its employees that are individually tailored, and given the difficulty of finding good health insurance and 401 (K) s in the current economy, this also acts as an incentive to remain at the company.
Google's workplace environment, which includes free lunches, free fitness classes -- even free dry-cleaning -- creates an atmosphere of a college campus or even a summer camp. Employees have little incentive to leave the workplace. They have a greater sense of…
Benefits. ( 2009). Google. Retrieved December 19, 2009 at http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/toptenreasons.html
Top ten reasons to work at Google. (2009). Google. Retrieved December 19, 2009 at http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/toptenreasons.html
internet student list external sources information consulted end essay.
There has always been much controversy regarding the importance of family in regard to the significance of friends in one's life. The "blood is thicker than water" saying is very old and it stands as proof that certain segments of society have been inclined to consider that family is indeed more important than friends. One of the main reasons for which this can be true is the fact that family members have obligations toward each other. Family is a priority for most people, as they would choose their family over their friends when they have to do so. Family members are the first to intervene when someone needs help because they feel that it is their duty to assist the respective individual any way that they can.
hereas one has the liberty of choosing his or her friends, he or she…
Davis, James H. Matthew R. Allen, and Hayes, H. David, "Is Blood Thicker Than Water? A Study of Stewardship Perceptions in Family Business,"Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 34.6 (2010)
Desforges, Charles and Abouchaar, Alberto, "The Impact of Parental Involvement, Parental Support and Family Education on Pupil Achievements and Adjustment: A Literature Review," Retrieved September 25, 2011, from the Birmingham Grid for Learning Website: http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/files_uploaded/uploaded_resources/18617/Desforges.pdf
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
Stress Factors in Law Enforcement
his brief paper will look at some of the issues and circumstances that create stress in the lives of law enforcement officers. In particular some chronic stressors will be examined that contribute to higher than normal rates of suicide, divorce and alcoholism in the profession.
here is little debate over the contention that law enforcement officers face inordinate amounts of stress during the course of their duties. For instance, police officers have one of the highest rates of suicide in the nation. While the national rate of divorce is approximately fifty percent, the divorce rate for police officers is between sixty and seventy percent and evidence indicates that alcohol abuse is about twice the rate of the general population (Haines, 2003).
here are many programs available to deal with situations that produce acute stress, such as post shooting trauma. What is not as obvious…
The daily grind of police work exposes officers to constant stressors that slowly accumulate making them more vulnerable to traumatic incidents and normal pressures of life. Often this process is too slow to see and neither the individual nor his or her constituents are aware of the damage being done.
While programs for acute stressors are important, few officers are involved in traumatic incidents in a year as compared to the whole department, which meets stress in call after call. One of these routine stressor are traffic stops. A police officer may pull over many cars during the course of a week for a variety of reasons. The officer is apt to hear excuses to gain sympathy or indignities to demean them, and there is always the risk that the individual or individuals in the vehicle will try to kill or injure the officer. However, officers are expected to be friendly at best or neutral at worst. If an officer approaches a car with a friendly attitude, his guard is down, on the other hand if an officer approaches a driver thinking this might be the one who attacks him, he will come across as rude, gruff and uncaring. This dilemma creates opposite mental states; a person can't hold both attitudes at the same time. This produces chronic stress with the cumulative effect of breaking down defenses, exacerbating other pressures, and weakening the immune system leaving the individual vulnerable to diseases and such conditions as ulcers ("Common Stress," 2011).
Another common source of stress for a police officer is the fact that a police department is both a professional and a military organization. It is a professional organization in the
214). The author notes many empirical reasons for his critique of the five-factor model. Among the many objections that are put forward is the assertion that there is in the breadth of the five factors an indefiniteness and inconsistency. Block also refers to the descriptive coarseness of the "Big Five."
Block's article has created much debate on this subject. A useful study that counters many of arguments put forward by Block is Solid Ground in the Wetlands of Personality: A eply to Block by Costa and McCrae (1995). In contrast to Block's critique, this article suggest that, "...the most impressive achievement of the FFM is its reduction of conceptual jangle, showing how constructs ostensibly as different as absorption, intuition, and need for change all reflect aspects of the single, broader construct of Openness. " (Costa and McCrae, 1995).
The validity and acceptance of the FFM model and the various aspects…
Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187-215.
Clark, L.A. (1993). Personality Disorder Diagnosis: Limitations of the Five-Factor Model. Psychological Inquiry, 4(2), 100-104. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77524910
Costa P, McCrae, Robert R. (1995) Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin. 117(2), 216-220 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77524936
Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue and Decline Cognitive Levels
Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels
In modern combat missions, the desire to operate at night is paramount because of the heightened enemy prowess against aggressors. As a result, technology has fostered the possibility of developing systems that would minimize the challenges associated with darkness. A common example of this technology is the Night Vision Goggles (NVG). However, because of physical and physiological challenges associated with NVG technology, pilots have often been dissatisfied with their careers. This situation has often forced many of them to leave their current workplaces in search for the ones that address cognitive and psychological problems associated with the use of the gadget. This research proposal will prove that NVG causes fatigue and lowers the quality of cognitive judgments required in piloting. While identifying the problems associated with NVG technology in piloting, this study will…
Bailey, R.E. (2012). Awareness and Detection of Traffic and Obstacles Using Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems. NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, 1-69
Brickner, M.S. (1980). Helicopter Flights with Night-Vision Goggles- Human Factors Aspects. Ames Research Center; 1-40
Chen Y, Wickramasinghe V and Zimcik D. (2007). Adaptive mount approaches for helicopter seat vibration control. In: Proceedings of ICAST 17 (4) 211-241
Craig, G, et al. (2006). Night Vision Goggle External Lighting Effects. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 50: 86-90 DOI: 10.1177/154193120605000119
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…
Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.
Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.
Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration
Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.