Five Factor Model Introduction Central Term Paper

Length: 10 pages Sources: 12 Subject: Psychology Type: Term Paper Paper: #22721509 Related Topics: Industrial Organizational Psychology, Michael Jordan, Personality Traits, Role Model
Excerpt from Term Paper :

214). The author notes many empirical reasons for his critique of the five-factor model. Among the many objections that are put forward is the assertion that there is in the breadth of the five factors an indefiniteness and inconsistency. Block also refers to the descriptive coarseness of the "Big Five."

Block's article has created much debate on this subject. A useful study that counters many of arguments put forward by Block is Solid Ground in the Wetlands of Personality: A Reply to Block by Costa and McCrae (1995). In contrast to Block's critique, this article suggest that, "...the most impressive achievement of the FFM is its reduction of conceptual jangle, showing how constructs ostensibly as different as absorption, intuition, and need for change all reflect aspects of the single, broader construct of Openness. " (Costa and McCrae, 1995).

The validity and acceptance of the FFM model and the various aspects that are open to discussion and debate are discussed in an article by DeYoung et al. (2007) entitled, Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five. The article refers to the levels of the hierarchy above the Big Five domains, as well as the 'facets' at a second level. The authors state that insufficient attention has been given to a level of trait organization located between facets and domains.

One of the most significant critiques, or rather amendments, of the five-factor model is the three-factor model of personality suggested by H.J. Eysenck. Eysenck criticizes the five-factor model on the grounds that there are overlaps in the five factors as well as in their correlates and suggests that a three factor model would be a more appropriate and correct assessment of personality. (Eysenck, 1991, p. 775) as already noted, this critique led Eysenck to suggest the PEN model, which posits the factors of psychoticism, extroversion and neuroticism. Eysenck states that, "Factor analysis has improved the situation...but the problem of naming factors is of course still with us" (Eysenck, 1991, p. 775).

A further criticism of the five-factor model is that although it is both categorical and taxonomic in structure, it does not penetrate deeply enough into the causative aspect of certain correlates. In a study by Davis and Millon, (1993) the view is suggested that the lexical approach of the Big Five assumes that the majority of the "...socially relevant and interpersonally salient personality characteristics have become encoded in the natural language" (Davis & Millon, 1993, p. 105). However, the study by Davis and Millon suggests that, "...convergence is not truth, and convergent validity is not construct validity" (Davis & Millon, 1993, p. 105). In other words, judgment and assessment related to personality factors can converge without necessarily being correct. In this light, the five-factor model is described as being "trivial" (Davis & Millon, 1993, p. 105).

An article by Clark (1993) also explores the limitations of the five-factor model. Clark argues against the categorical model of personality. The author also points out that there is the danger of stereotyping in the five-factor model and in other categorical diagnoses. (Clark, 1993, p. 100)

Another critique of the five-factor model is suggested by McAdams (1992). Central to this critique is that the five-factor model does not qualify as a "great' or fully comprehensive theory. McAdams states that while the five-factor model provides a functional basis for the personality traits in psychology, it however falls short of a truly unified psychological theory. (McAdams, 1992)

The above review of some of the more cogent areas of the


This does not imply that the model has less value. On the contrary, the degree and the extent of the debate on this model of personality is a sign of the healthy discourse that it has engendered, which is also an indication of its ongoing relevance in the understanding of personality structure and categories towards the therapeutic understanding of personality disorders. While claims of a 'perfect' model or theory are questioned by some there is little doubt that, as Digman states, the five variables that compose the five-factor model "...provide a good answer to the question of personality structure" (Digman, 1990, p. 436).


Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187-215.


Clark, L.A. (1993). Personality Disorder Diagnosis: Limitations of the Five-Factor Model. Psychological Inquiry, 4(2), 100-104. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database:

Costa P, McCrae, Robert R. (1995) Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin. 117(2), 216-220

Davis, R.D., & Millon, T. (1993). The Five-Factor Model for Personality Disorders: Apt or Misguided?. Psychological Inquiry, 4(2), 104-109. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database:

DeYoung C, Quilty, Lena C., Peterson, Jordan B. (2007) Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5).

Digman, J.M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417-440.

Digman, John M. (1996) the curious history of the Five-Factor Model. in: Jerry S. Wiggins (ed.), the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Theoretical Perspectives chapter 1, pp. 1-20. New York: Guilford

Eysenck, H.J. (1991). Dimensions of personality: 16, 5, or 3? -- Criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 773-790.

Ewen, R.B. (1998). Personality: A topical approach. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fazio R. And Olson M. (2003) IMPLICIT MEASURES in SOCIAL COGNITION RESEARCH: Their Meaning and Use. Annurev.psych. 54, 297-327.

Grumm, M. & v. Collani, G. (2007). Measuring Big-Five personality dimensions with the implicit association test - Implicit personality traits or self-esteem? Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 2205-2217.

McAdams, D.P. (1992). The five factor model in personality: A critical appraisal. Journal of Personality, 60, 329-361.

Pervin, L.A. (1989) Personality: Theory and research (5th ed.). New York: Wiley.


Piedmont, R.L. (1995). Another Look at Fear of Success, Fear of Failure, and Test Anxiety: A Motivational Analysis Using the Five-Factor Model. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 32(3-4), 139+. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database:

Rogosch, F.A., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). Child Maltreatment and Emergent Personality Organization: Perspectives from the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(2), 123+. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database:

Segal N. And MacDonald K. (1998) Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: Unified perspective on personality research.

Human Biology. Retrieved January 20, 2008, at

The Big Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement and Theoretical perspectives by John and Srivastava, in Handbook of personality: Theory and research 1999, New York: Guilford Press.


Widiger, T.A., & Trull, T.J. (1997). Assessment of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68(2), 228-250. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database:

Literature review of the Five Factor Model

Sources Used in Documents:


Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187-215.


Clark, L.A. (1993). Personality Disorder Diagnosis: Limitations of the Five-Factor Model. Psychological Inquiry, 4(2), 100-104. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database:

Costa P, McCrae, Robert R. (1995) Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin. 117(2), 216-220

Cite this Document:

"Five Factor Model Introduction Central" (2008, January 22) Retrieved October 23, 2021, from

"Five Factor Model Introduction Central" 22 January 2008. Web.23 October. 2021. <>

"Five Factor Model Introduction Central", 22 January 2008, Accessed.23 October. 2021,

Related Documents
Central Banks What Criteria Are,
Words: 10788 Length: 35 Pages Topic: Economics Paper #: 39513855

Under the arrangement, moreover, a country with efficient production and a favored competitive position (including as enhanced by new capital goods) is rewarded with rising income and reduced unemployment. No grand scheme of state or international planning and direct control is required. Exchange rates are for the most part fixed under the classical gold-flows mechanisms (say, $/£ const. within fixed limits), as stated, and adjustments to trade imbalances

Psychodynamic Model, the Model's Developmental Processes, and
Words: 2966 Length: 8 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 1938969

Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis.

Aviation & Human Factor Aviation the History
Words: 7120 Length: 22 Pages Topic: Transportation Paper #: 32617794

Aviation & Human Factor Aviation "The history of the development and progress of Human Factors in aviation, highlighting areas of significant change" Development in Aviation field is an essential element from defense prospective of any country. Advancement in assembly of an aircraft is always a result of some human error in handling. Error handling while pilot is operating an aircraft is an unrecoverable action in some cases. Human handling for safety of aircraft,

Management Principles Management Leadership Model Paper: Management...
Words: 4934 Length: 15 Pages Topic: Business - Management Paper #: 21048437

Management Principles Management Leadership Model Paper: Management Principles Research suggests that everyone is a manager in their own way. For instance, everyone manages his finances, time, careers and relationships. These examples of managing are simple and straightforward. However, when concepts of management apply in organizations, management becomes complex. At such a point, it calls for extensive studying in order to understand the theoretical basis of management. The application of management and the enunciation

Factors That Positively Affect the Yuan
Words: 3619 Length: 12 Pages Topic: Economics Paper #: 77738730

8% as compared to the dollar in the start of the last year to January this year. The value of Yuan has improved even with the fall of other emerging economies. The loss of competitiveness that resulted can be best demonstrated by a ratio that has been calculated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, which makes a comparison of Yuan with the currency of the other emerging markets that are

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality...
Words: 3177 Length: 11 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 56691092

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology Personality is defined as a person's exceptional deviation on the general evolutionary design for human temperament. A personality trait refers to a durable disposition to act in a certain manner in different situations. Personality traits represent some of the most significant sets of individual disparities in organizations. It is the comparatively set of psychological characteristics that differentiates one person from another. People