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Through this displacement of the libido, a build up of tensions is avoided, and individuals are allowed to live within social constraints of proper decency regarding modern sociocultural practices of acceptable forms of love within the contexts of relationships. However, oddly enough, Freud also posits the idea that all individuals are innately bi-sexual and can be attracted to both sexes. However, through the social constraints of modern society, most individuals are driven to only accept one sex as suitable to fall in love with, (Malakh-Pines 155). Thus love becomes a product of our repression of our true sexual desires.
Another modern sociological theory exploring the phenomenon of love is that presented by Erich Fromm in the 1950s. In his the Art of Loving first published in 1956, Fromm composed four different components of what we associated as love. Individuals care for one another, therefore "wanting the best for those we…
Harsfall, Sara. "Supplement to Sociology of Marriage and Family: Theories of Love."
Texas Wesleyan University. 2008. Retrieved 10 Dec 2008 at http://web.txwesleyan.edu/sociology/horsfall/love2.html.
Malakh-Pines, Ayala. Falling in Love. Routledge Press. 1993.
It appears that the work each of my parents did in their roles aligned with their attitudes of what they felt they should be doing. In the beginning of their relationship up until two or three years before their divorce, my mother clearly wanted to do the things associated with mother and wife. My father was also very comfortable as the typical, somewhat distant, working father who designated specific times for fathering and family (Soroka and Bryjak 300-301). In the years leading up to their divorce I think that their comfort with their roles changed. Since we (the children) were getting older, my mother did not need to be tied to the home as much as she had been previously. She wanted to do more activities, like take classes. However, this made my father uncomfortable since he did not see any reason why things would change. He was uncomfortable that…
Hochschild, Arlie, and Anne Machung. The Second Shift. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Macionis, John J. Society: The Basics. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000.
Soroka, Michael P., and George J. Bryjak. Social Problems: A World at Risk. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.
Stokes, Randall. Introduction to Sociology. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1984.
She is smart, she understands the issues, and she has a good way of communicating them to her readers. After reading this op-ed, it should make the reader want to get up and get involved, and it should also point out that society's mores change through time, and that means there is hope for the future, anyway. She writes, "Perhaps 25 years from now we will find it just as incredible that two people of the same sex were not entitled to legally commit themselves to one another. Love and commitment are rare enough; it seems absurd to thwart them in any guise" (Quindlen). This is the way she ends her essay, and it makes the reader think about old-fashioned belief systems, and how ideas change, and makes this reader hope that she is right, and someday, this all may just seem like a bad dream.
A like her article…
Quindlen, Anna. "Evan's Two Moms." New York Times. 1992. 25 Feb. 2008. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CEEDD1631F936A35751C0A964958260
Family & Sociology of Marriage
The purpose and social function of marriage has changed. While marriage was once a binding declaration of commitment and love to another person of the opposite gender, avowed and proclaimed in a holy ceremony, today marriage has become a catch all; a legally binding contract between two people who, for any reason, can choose to end the marriage without stigma or difficulty. Today, half of marriages end in divorce (CDC, 2010). And yet, millions of people remain happily married in America. Why? How? What is it that enables some couples to remain not just married, but happily so? Sociologists have analyzed the social, cognitive, and emotional consequences and detriments to failed marriages on the family. esults seem to indicate that successful marriages are not successful by chance, but rather, the product of hard work, compromise and mutual respect. While these criteria do not guarantee a…
Dankin, J., Wampler, R. (2008). Money Doesn't Buy Happiness, but It Helps: Marital Satisfaction, Psychological Distress, and Demographic Differences Between Low- and Middle-Income Clinic Couples. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 36:300 -- 311.
Freeman, C., Carlson, J., & Sperry, L. (1993). Adlerian marital therapy strategies with middle income couples facing financial stress. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(4), 324 -- 332.
Reis, H.T., and Collins, N. (2000).Measuring relationship properties and interactions relevant to social support. In S. Cohen, L.G. Underwood, & B.H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 136 -- 194). New York: Oxford University Press.
Rogers, S.J. (2004). Dollar, dependency, and divorce: Four perspectives on the role of wives' income. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 59 -- 74.
PETRUCHIO: They shall go forward, Kate, at thy command.-- Obey the bride, you that attend on her./Go to the feast, revel and domineer,/Carouse full measure to her maidenhead,/Be mad and merry, or go hang yourselves;/but for my bonny Kate, she must with me./Nay, look not big, nor stamp, nor stare, nor fret, 230I will be master of what is mine own./She is my goods, my chattels, she is my house,/My household stuff, my field, my barn,/My horse, my ox, my ass, my any thing,/and here she stands, touch her whoever dare!
The quote gives great insight into the end note of a marriage created in haste, with the intentions of personal and familial gain and with the closing of the marriage as a "contract" including the exchange of large sums of money for the groom and his family. Petruchio, makes his deal, getting his bride (then leaving her…
Shakespeare, William. "The Taming of the Shrew." The Taming of the Shrew. Ed H.J. Oliver. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. 89-232.
Oliver, H.J., ed. The Taming of the Shrew. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Marriage/Couplecounselingandissues in Family Therapy
Marriage/coupleCounseling andIssues in Family Therapy
Marriage/couple counseling and Issues in Family Therapy
Marriage/couple counseling and Issues in Family Therapy
Marriage counseling and its Purpose
easons of Divorce
ecommendations for Counseling
Issues of Family Therapy
This paper is about the importance of marriage counseling and the significant role it can play in the lives of many couples. It also highlights the significance and issues of family therapy.
Marriage counseling and its Purpose
Marriage counseling has become quiet famous these days.It plays a key role in circumstances of domestic abuse. It is also known as couple's therapy and is a kind of psychotherapy. Marriage counseling is an effective measure that can play a vital role in recognizing the root of the problem that exists among a couple and helps in solving conflicts and improving relationships. It can be immensely helpful in making wise decisions about a…
Stephens, O.A. (2012). Student Counsellors' Perceived Causes of Divorce among Couples in Lagos Metropolis. Ife Psychologia, 99-109.
According to the authors, this dynamic that many contemporary views consider to be a universal fact of life actually evolved only after the social changes introduced by the Industrial evolution. In fact, any so-called "modern" shift to a more egalitarian sharing of family responsibilities represents more of a return to the more natural state of families than any "radical" or "new" approach.
Branden (1999) agrees, again tying in excessive adherence to typical male and female roles as a potential source of unnecessary strain, especially where marital partners may be better suited to a different arrangement or sharing of responsibilities. Likewise, oberts (2007) also acknowledges the damage caused to marriage by dissatisfaction, especially among wives, as to the roles prescribed to them by society.
Myth # 4 - the Unstable African-American Family:
In their criticism of the notion that the African-American community reflects a lower level of marital and family stability…
Branden, N. (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Roberts, S. (2007) the Shelf Life of Bliss. The New York Times, July 1, 2007.
Schwartz, M.A., Scott, B.M. (2000) "Debunking Myths about Marriage and Families" in Marriages and Families: Diversity and Change.
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
Ferree, M. (1984). The view from below: Women's employment and gender equality in working-class families. In .. Hess, & M.. Sussman (Eds), Women and the family: Two decades of change (p. 57-75). New York: Haworth Press.
Fung, J. (2010). Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 3993), 314-327.
Hewlett, S., & West, C. (1998). The war against parents: What we can do for America's beleaguered moms and dads. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Hwang, K., Chang, S., Chen, S., Chen, C., & Yang, K. (2001). Chinese relationism and depression. Unpublished manuscript.
Lai, E., & Fang, S. (2001). Sex role attitude and housework participation among men and women in Taiwan. Paper presented at the…
Beutell, N. & Wittig-Berman, U. (2008). Work-family conflict and work-family synergy for generation X baby boomers, and matures: Generational differences, predictors, and satisfaction outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(5), 507-523.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34(10), 844-850.
Carlson, J. (2009). Family therapy techniques: integrating and tailoring treatment. Florence, KY: Brunner-Routledge.
Chen, F. & Li, T. (2007). Marital enqing: an examination of its relationship to spousal
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.
The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.
Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…
Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.
Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.
Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.
Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
223) a person without a condition of some kind, was cruelly marginalized by society, as even the well-meaning people would avoid the connection with someone who was not seen well by the others, so as not to be marginalized in his or her turn. The situation of the woman is again entirely dependent on the man, since the society would not accept a woman who did not perform her usual role as a wife and a mother. Mrs. Smith marriage to a man who was not 'what he ought' obviously affects her long after the death of her husband: "Anne saw the misery of such feelings. The husband had not been what he ought, and the wife had been led among that part of mankind which made her think worse of the world than she hoped it deserved." (Austen, 2003, p. 212) as in Pride and Prejudice, there is an…
Austen, J. 1996. Emma. New York: Signet Classics.
2003. Persuasion. New York: Penguin.
1983. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Bantam Classics.
Marriage: A still-Evolving concept
Marriage is a ubiquitous social institution in our culture: it affects everything from how members of a married couple are defined by their families to their health insurance and how much they pay in taxes. Marriage dominates the cultural landscape of films, television shows, and Hallmark cards. But although the idea of heterosexual romantic love is taken for granted today, this has not always been the case. "For most of history it was inconceivable that people would choose their mates on the basis of something as fragile and irrational as love and then focus all their sexual, intimate, and altruistic desires on the resulting marriage….But only rarely in history has love been seen as the main reason for getting married" (Coontz 1). In ancient times, it was not unusual for a much younger woman to be married to a much older and more sexually and experienced…
Coontz, Stephanie. "The radical idea of marrying for love." From Marriage: A History.
Evergreen State College. 2005. [13 Oct 2013] http://www.stephaniecoontz.com/books/marriage/chapter1.htm
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: Laurel, 1923.
Offen, K. "A brief history of marriage." Economica. [13 Oct 2013]
As one commentator notes; "What this adds up to is, in my view, a significant shift in the balance of work and family life. oles are changing, the nature of care is changing, and the stress related to juggling the balance is increasing (Edgar, 1997, p. 149)
A number of statistics also help to outline the nature of the family structure in a developed economy like Australia. In terms of workforce participation, the figures are as follows: "….86% for fathers and 56% for mothers in two-parent families, and 65% for male and 43% for female sole parents"(Edgar, 1997, p.151). This is also indicative of a shift in the role of the female as solely a homemaker. "In 1993, 53% of couples with dependent children were both employed & #8230;" (Edgar, 1997, p. 151). Therefore, there are still imbalances and disparities in terms of the family structure and this is a…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.). (1997). The Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors
World Peace Academy. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59215755
Baile, S. (1990). Women and Health in Developing Countries. OECD Observer, a (161),
18-20. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98938035
esearch Design. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed in this study. Instruments include self-report measures and personal narratives of 91 native Hindu married couples (182 participants) from three types of living arrangements that I have mentioned earlier. The qualitative part on the other hand was utilized via personal narratives of the participants (ibid, p.82).
esearch Instruments. For the quantitative part, marital happiness was assessed using the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The questionnaire also includes a demographic survey portion which was based on the National Health and Social Life Survey. Quantitative questions on intimacy and conflict can also be found in the questionnaire. For the qualitative part, the instrument devised explored 12 dimensions of the participant's lives: their expectations about their partner, career, self, well-being, intimacy, marital relationship, family living arrangements, in-laws, parents, their conflict history, good times they had shared, and the cultural norms guiding marriage…
City University of Hong Kong Website. (n.d.) Chapter Three: Research Methodology.
Retrieved from http://www.is.cityu.edu.hk/staff/isrobert/phd/ch3.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Kroelinger, M. (2002). The Research Problem. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/the%20Research%20Problem.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Nachmias C.F. & Nachmias, D. (1996). Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
d., pg. 67). Thus, the definition of the British family is almost wholly contained within a woman's decision. Women who have children and enter the workforce create new trends in British family life, such as the fact that children are cared for primarily by professionals working in the home, at nursery schools, or grandparents (Kathleen, n.d., "Family Life," 2009). The redefining of family relationships to give equality to both the husband and wife and the problem of finding childcare while both parents work is a result of women's entry into the workforce and modern conceptions of family life.
While these characteristics apply to the primary types of families in the United Kingdom, it is important to recognize that this state is diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Cloud (2008) discusses the difficulties in conducting research for one often not-discussed portion of society -- homosexuals. Cloud (2008)…
Cline, A. (2009). Sudan: Women and Family. Retrieved July, 18, 2009, from http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/islam/countries/bl_SudanWomen.htm
Cloud, J. (2008, January 17). Are Gay Relationships Different? Retrieved July 18, 2009,
"Family Life in the United States and United Kingdom." Retrieved July 18, 2009, from http://articles.famouswhy.com/family_life_in_united_states_and_united_kingdom
Family Social Policy
hat are the different ideological approaches to family social policy…how are they different?
Canada has traditionally taken the position that the responsibility for keeping a family intact is a private issue, not a public / governmental issue, according to Module 9. In terms of the ideological approach to families, the Module 9 explains four strategies.
Familialism is the approach taken in Canada for heterosexual family values; this approach supports women staying home to raise children and men getting jobs outside the home. Any struggles the family may have (money, marriage difficulties) are to be kept within the family.
Liberal Feminism differs from Familialism in that men and women have an equal basis for respect, both in the workplace and at home, but especially in the workplace. This ideology does not suggest that women should be raising children, staying home, and being homemakers. That typical role for a…
McDaniel, Susan A. (2007). Families, Feminism, and the State. In Power and Resistance.
Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing.
Module 9. Family and child Welfare Policy.
Families, Delinquency & Crime
The fundamental changes occurring to families in the 2st century can be classified into two different categories, depending on the internal or the external perspective that is used in the analysis. The external perspective proposes an analysis of the sociodemographic changes that have occurred to families under the impact of the external factors of the 2st century. The sociodemographic changes are characterized both by the numbers, by a quantitative reflection of families, and by the relationships that are formed within each family.
From the first perspective, the 2st century has imposed both changes in the number of families (some cultures, notably the Western ones, have encountered decreases in size because of an increased reluctance of individuals to get married) and in the formation of these family groups. As such, in many of these family groups, the norm has translated from a man-woman marriage as the basis…
1. Roopnarine, Jaipaul; Gielen, Uwe. 2005. Families in Global Perspective. Pearson Education.
2. Vaskovics, L.A. 1994. Family and household structures in the former GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany from 1980 to 1989 -- a comparison. Wiesbaden.
3. Aly, A.M.Y. 1999. Lectures on population, family and childhood issues. Alexandria: The Modern University Office.
People generally focus on appearance when coming across a particular individual. This is perfectly exemplified by the meeting between the old member of the De Lacey family and the monster. The man initially welcomes the creature, as he is no longer able to see and is unacquainted with the monster's facial features and body.
Victor Frankenstein can be considered to contrast the monster through his behavior, his background, and because of the goals that he has. The scientist virtually had everything that the monster longed for, considering his family, his reputation, and the fact that he was generally seen as one of society's leading members. Instead of valuing what he had, however, Frankenstein gave it all away in favor of gaining reputation, as this was apparently the thing that he appreciated the most in life. hile most readers are likely to blame Frankenstein for most unfortunate events in the book,…
Bloom Bissonete, Melissa, "Teaching the Monster: Frankenstein and Critical Thinking"
Chao, Shun-Liang. "Education as a Pharmakon in Marry Shelley's Frankenstein," the Explicator, Vol. 68, No. 4, 223-226, 2010.
Lunsford, Lars, "The Devaluing of Life in Shelley's Frankenstein," the Explicator, Vol. 68, No. 3, 174-176, 2010
Schmid, Thomas H. "Addiction and Isolation in Frankenstein"
It is expected that an initial
investment of $400,000 will be needed in order to effectively establish the Center. In addition, the Center will require a maintenance cost of $50,000 per month.
5. Budget and Strategy
Strategy 1: Arranging meetings with community leaders
This strategy ensures that the community at large will accept FAC in its capacity as an establishment to provide help and counseling within the existing cultural, religious, and educational paradigms. Public trust is important for the success of the Center. Specifically, this strategy includes arranging meetings times, venues and refreshments. This is estimated at a budget for about $5,000 per meeting. This strategy will also include the possibility of securing the services of a cultural consultant; preferably also a person with some standing in the community. The budget for this is estimated at an initial fee of about $3,000, which will repeat monthly for as long as…
His new wife wants to be Yuki's friend, but essentially, Yuki misses her mother and the loving relationship they had, and she is very unhappy. Her mother is portrayed as loving but weak and fragile, while her father and stepmother worry more about what other people will think than they do about Yuki. They also do not let her visit her mother's family as often as she would like, and that bothers her. Essentially, she grows up without love after her mother dies, and she has to come to terms not only with losing her mother but also with her own maturity and dreams for the future.
Two of these protagonists are immigrants, and they are all caught between two different worlds. How they react and how they manage to combine their cultures is the central point of all these books. Their families all hang on to their home culture,…
"While biological and psychological factors hold their own merit when explaining crime and delinquency, perhaps social factors can best explain juvenile delinquency" which "is a massive and growing problem in America." (http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html)
Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika's%20paper.htm
Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.
Social Disorganization at the micro level:
Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"
Owner: obert O. Keel. Last Updated: Monday, October 3, 2005. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/socdisor.html
Miller, a.(2005) Every Smack is a Humiliation-- a Manifesto
Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice-Hall. "Social Learning Theory" http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html
Schegel, K.(1998) Lecture Notes. http://www.indiana.edu/~theory/Kip/Control.htm
Juvenile Delinquency.Family Structure" http://family.jrank.org/pages/1006/Juvenile-Delinquency-Family-Structure.html
Causal Theories of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Perspectives" http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html
Control Theory 2" http://www.homestead.com/rouncefield/files/a_soc_dev_6.htm
Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika 's%20paper.htm
Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.
Social Disorganization at the micro level:
Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"
Family to Family
Pipes, Jerry & Victor Lee. (1999). Family to family. Alpharetta: North American Mission Board,
The Christian-focused psychology text Family to family offers family counseling with a spiritual orientation. The book is designed to address the difficulties many modern families face, including competing schedules, generational clashes, and having a sense of strong moral values in a secular society. Spending time together in a spiritual fashion can give families an oasis of stability in a fast-paced, increasingly impersonal world (Pipes & Lee 1999: 11). Creating a sense of community within the church and creating a community between members of the family are the essential building-blocks of the author's stated goal to save the modern family.
Family members must learn to establish more meaningful relationships with one another and with God -- rather than just focusing on themselves or blaming others. The authors wrote their book to address a common…
Family Wellness Diagnosis, Nursing
I opted to interview a family of two parents (married heterosexuals) who have two children. Both children are in their late teens. Both parents work. She is a freelance writer and he is a sales clerk at a retail home goods store. Both are in their late forties. He is about 5'11; she is 5'6." Their heights and weights appear appropriate though he claims that at 180 he feels a little overweight. She is about 140. She is originally from Guatemala and he is from the mid-west of the U.S. The children are both boys. Bruce, age 19, is away at college. The other, Erick, graduated from high school last year and has been working at a local golf course while waiting to decide what he wants to study at a community college. I spoke with Bruce over the telephone for about 15 minutes. He confirmed…
Care Plan (no date). Assessment Using Functional Health Patterns. Downloadable from http://www.delmarlearning.com/companions/content/0766822257/apps/appb2.pdf .
Doenges, M. And Moorhouse, M.F. (2003). Application of Nursing Process and Nursing Diagnosis: An Interactive Text for Diagnostic Reasoning. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA.
Life Nurses (2009). Nursing Assessment. Viewable at http://www.lifenurses.com/nursing-assessment/.
Family-focused Functional Health Pattern Questions:
Family Discrimination Laws
States like Connecticut, New Jersey, and Alaska are taking the lead when it comes to passing laws protecting employees from discrimination based on family responsibility. These anti-family responsibilities discrimination (FD) laws are designed to protect workers, but whether they are a good idea is a matter of opinion. There are concerns that these laws may be abused, and that employers may end up bearing the brunt of missed days and dissatisfied customers because employees are missing too much work time to be with their families (Pynes, 2013). Personally, I do support the idea of anti-family responsibilities discrimination laws. I think that work is very important, but there should be a good work-life balance. Most people do not have that anymore, because they know they will likely risk being fired if they want or need to miss any work time to spend with their family. People should not…
Pynes, J.E.(2013). Human resources management for public and nonprofit organizations: A strategic approach (4th ed.). CA: Jossey-Bass.
Reeves, T.Z. (2006) Cases in public human resource management. NY: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Although I fully support the concept of a certain amount of family nudity at home, I do have my reservations regarding unrestrained "social" nudity whereby people practice a "nudist lifestyle" in the company of others, such as at beaches, clubs, or gatherings outside the privacy of their homes. The reason why I support "at home nudism" is because I am convinced about its positive effects on the normal development of children. I do not consider "Social Nudity" appropriate because I believe that it does not serve any useful purpose apart from enabling the "nudists" to make a political statement about their beliefs. Such public display of nudity also tends to create a backlash against more moderate forms of family nudity and gives credence to the view about nudists being "odd."
Peckenpaugh, William D. (1999). "Familial and societal attitudes toward nudity, and the effects on children's development." [Available Online] Accessed…
Peckenpaugh, William D. (1999). "Familial and societal attitudes toward nudity, and the effects on children's development." [Available Online] Accessed on October 3, 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/2516/familial_attitudes.html
Study conducted by Robin Lewis and Louis Janda (1988) among others
Families should visit there older members more often who are in assisted living situations, or who can no longer drive. this is the assignment but I also want my experiences as helping them to recover from alcoholism, plus getting attached to them just to watch them die.
Many elderly people do not have family or friends to visit them
-Younger people should make an effort to visit the elderly because it will benefit the elderly, the younger person, and teach lessons about life
-Many people do not want to visit the elderly because it is time consuming, depressing, or boring
-I have personal experience with the elderly and I know that it is rewarding
the lives of both older and younger people will be improved
There are millions of elderly people living in nursing homes or assisted living facilities in our country. All of these people have lived a…
In Europe and other Western societies, the individual may be expected to make some self sacrifices for the common good. The emphasis on social well-being and social integrity prevents people from frivolously terminating relationships, whether they be cohabitations or marriages. In the United States, cohabiting or marriage relationships are often terminated for reasons that can be easily classified as selfish in nature. Americans have conflicting beliefs and values related to marriage and cohabitation, though. Most Americans believe that marriage should last forever, yet an astonishing number of Americans do not work hard to make their marriages or domestic partnerships last (Cherlin, 2010).
One prevailing, and also paradoxical, belief in American society is that it is better for children to experience divorce than it is for the parents to remain in a relationship that is personally unfulfilling. Americans seem to value marriage and individualism at the same time, which can be…
Cherlin, a.J. (2010). How American family life is different. Chapter 1 in the Marriage Go-Round. New York: Vintage.
Women had joined the workforce long before the 1950s, with dual incomes being as necessary for many families during the Depression and even through the 1940s as they are today (Coontz 2000). In fact, the emphasis that was brought to the cohesion and in many ways the isolation of the nuclear family during the first half of the twentieth century was detrimental to many aspects of the family, including its economic viability, according to Stephanie Coontz's The Way We Never Were (2000). This historian also argues that personal satisfaction and happiness suffered when they became wholly attached to the success of the family rather than being derived form individual pursuits, as was the case earlier in the nineteenth century and before (Coontz 2000). The period since the 1950s has been one of increasing individualism and self-definition outside the context of the family, which has again made familial roles both more…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were. New York: Basic.
Skolnick, A. & Skolnick, J. (2004). Family in transition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
It shows the selfishness of Dewey Dell, who is only concerned about her pregnancy and gives other family members little thought. It shows the long-suffering, to the point of self-immolation, of Cash. It shows the rivalry of Darl and Jewel, both vying for their dead mother's affection. And it shows the innocent simplicity, bordering on mental instability, of the young Vardaman. Each of these family members was affected in different ways by this destructive family dynamic.
Anse, in one of the most telling passages in the book regarding his relationship to the family, goes down the list of family members and whines about how each has cost him money in some way, further complaining that he has to work, when he does so, even though he doesn't have any teeth (35-37). Wadlington argues that because the story is set in the south and Anse is the "master" of the house,…
Many nations do not use restorative justice as a policy, but eventually bright, progressive leaders worldwide will hopefully learn the value of restorative justice, and implement it at some level.
Youth Justice Process in New Zealand. (2005). Family Group Conference. Retrieved 29 June 2008, at http://www.justice.govtnz/youth/fgc.html.
This government-produced review of the ideologies and practical implementation of the Family Group Conference was a valuable and basic article in terms of the understanding the process and how it works well in most cases.
The Family Group Conference in New Zealand
The Family Group Conference (FGC) was established in New Zealand in 1989, with the purpose in mind of more skillfully and more fairly dealing with problems and issues of boys and girls (under the age of 14) and young people (14-16) who get in trouble with law enforcement. According to information provided by the Youth Justice Process (www.justice.govt.nz),the FGC has modernized and…
Family on Family: An Interview With Uncle Simon
The idea of the family as a social subsystem is a very useful one in the academic world and in sociological and therapeutic practice, but it is not necessarily one that individual laypeople ascribe to when they think about their own family (Lesser & Pope, 2007). Though certain aspects of most people's conceptions of the family unit can be seen to mirror larger social structures in some ways, most people's views are much more individual and personalized (Carter & McGoldrick, 1998). The following interview, conducted with the interviewees uncle, demonstrates the personalized yet somewhat standardized view of family that can and does ultimately emerge when people think about their family.
The interviewee, Simon, had not previously though very much about the definition of "family" or how this definition was and is influenced by other social trends, though upon reflection he acknowledged that…
Carter, B. & McGoldrick, M. (1998). The Expanded Family Life Cycle. New York: Lavoisier.
Lesser, J. & Pope, D. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment. New York: Pearson.
Walsh, F. (2011). Normal Family Processes. New York: Guilford.
Grandparents / Parents
Learning about England
Shops and Church
Dream Come True
Value of Trip
Growing up hearing tales about England instilled in me the strong desire to visit the land of my grandparents but the likelihood of that happening was minimal. My mother and father worked hard to provide for my family but their ever having the ability to send me to England to visit the home of my ancestors was virtually nonexistence. My experiences with the British Isles were limited to my grandparents' recollections and what I was able to read. Neither satisfied my interest but it was all I had and I never missed a chance to learn more.
In the summer between my junior and senior year in high…
Family elations esearch
The Sociology of Families and Households is a film that will be examined in this paper. The film is full of controversial topics as well as complex socioeconomic issues that will be discussed in detail. A textbook, Public and Private Families, written by Andrew Cherlina share a lot of concepts of the film will be brought in to the discussion as well.
The various relationships that exist between Marxist theory, sociological perspectives, structural functionalism, as well as the family and early feminist theory are examined throughout the program. It examines the rapid decline in marriage over the last few decades as well as the great increase in couples choosing cohabitation. Divorce is increasing and the fertility rate is on the decline in the U.K. All of these factors have combined to affect the traditional family in Britain and has created new challenges for them in how everyday…
The Sociology of Families and Households. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2015, from http://www.educationaltrainingvideos.com/The-Sociology-of-Families-and-Households.html
Cherlin, A. (2013). Public and Private Families: An Introduction (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Sociology of the Family. (2013). Retrieved April 11, 2015, from http://www.academicroom.com/topics/sociology-family
Parker, S. (2013, October 25). Why family issues are economic issues. Retrieved April 12, 2015, from http://www.wnd.com/2013/10/why-family-issues-are-economic-issues/
To meet their needs in this regard, I'll provide them with a liaison during every part of their journey. I will for example ensure that a particular flight attendant on every flight will meet them and help the family find the correct connection for their continuing journey. In the case of their arrival, I will ensure that an airport official will meet them at the airport and ensure their safe arrival at their accommodation. I will do the same in the case of hotels and specific activities. During each leg of the journey, I will ensure a guide to help the family arrive safely, enjoy their activities, and return at the correct times for everything they planned. During the journey, it is also possible that my clients will be in need of child care facilities. I will therefore ensure that all the appointed assistants will be aware of how to…
" It said that an expanding range of adult parenting arrangements and the growing disconnection between marriage and children. The report believed that it would be wise to examine the events, which have been happening. Canada recently stood at the forefront of Western nations in instituting radical changes in family law. The U.S.A. seemed to be taking the same direction (Cere).
The dominant stand among legal elites, including the two groups, which wrote the two reports, was that the family law should not aim at protecting the rights of children to grow up with their own, married parents (Cere 2005). Instead, it should protect and promote a concept called "family diversity." The stand drew from the belief that societies flourished when people of different backgrounds lived and worked together. The authors of the reports argued that society would be better off with all kinds of families co-existing and viewed as…
Buckley, William. F. Does Marriage Matter? National Review: National Review, Inc., December 22, 2003
Cere, Daniel. Love and Marriage. Public Interest: The National Affairs, Inc., Spring 2005
Hoffnung, Michele. Wanting it All: Career, Marriage and Motherhood During Colle Educated Women's 20s. Sex Roles: a Journal of research: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2004
News and Society. Cohabitation Not Equal to Marriage: Vanier Study Reports. Community Action: Community Action Publishers, October 26, 2005
Again, this conflict exists between two sisters, but in this story it is the sister that stays home that is treated as essentially unwelcome by her family, and the sister that returns home that is welcomed and praised despite the many issues that are apparent in her life. At its heart, however, this story is one of senseless bickering and the type of frustration that crops up during periods of familial unfairness. Neither sister makes a real effort to try and make the other happy, and the other family members are equally guilty of perpetuating a type of squabbling that has no real merit or purpose -- the arguments are over senseless things such as a beard being cut or not -- yet the rift that this creates in the family seems just as permanent as that which exists in Walker's short story. The narrator of Welty's tale is the…
Though Antigone is certainly the protagonist of the play, she makes her decision very early in the action -- she chooses to bury her brother despite the civil disobedience and disrespect of the State that it shows. Ismene, on the other hand, wavers between the two duties. hen Antigone is caught, her sister tries to take the blame with her: "But now you're in trouble, I'm not ashamed / of suffering, too, as your companion" (Sophocles, 540-1). Though Ismene's motives might be somewhat questionable, she is at least claiming a sense of duty and companionship with her sister -- and a desire to honor her brother -- by joining in the guilt of the act against the State. Antigone will not let her, again for reasons that could be put under debate. One possible explanation for Antigone's refusal to let Ismene share the punishment for the act would be her…
Sophocles. Antigone. Ian Johnston, trans. Accessed 5 March 2009. http://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/sophocles/antigone.htm
Marriage and the Family
hen studying the dynamics of marriage, family, children, and all the interactions and psychological components that go along with being a family, there are decisions that must be made in that milieu that hold enormous importance. Those decisions should be based on a firm knowledge of what parents are supposed to do when it comes to children; what married people are supposed to do when it comes to their love and relationship; and what the family is supposed to do when it comes to being part of a neighborhood and of a community. This paper is a personal reflection on those dynamics but I zero in on the psychological needs of the child, no matter how successful the marriage is or isn't. In fact, when things are not going well in a marriage or a relationship that has produced a child -- or when the child…
DuPaul, G.J., Kern, L., Volpe, R., Caskie, G.I.L., Arbolino, L., Van Brake, J., and Pipan, M.
(2013). Comparison of Parent Education and Functional Assessment-Based Intervention
Across 24 Months for Young Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
School Psychology Review, 42(1), 56-75.
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.22.214.171.124840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
(PREP Inc. 2012)
Allen, W. (1997). Replication of five types of married couples based on ENRICH. Unpublished dissertation. University of Minnesota. St. Paul, Minnesota.
rowning, DS (2003) Marriage and Modernization: How Globalization Threatens Marriage and What to do About it. Wm. . Eerdmans Publishing, 2003
Duvall, E.M. (1971). Family development, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co.
Fournier, D.G., & Olson, DH (1986). Programs for premarital and newlywed couples. In R.F.Levant (Ed.), Psychoeducational approaches to family therapy and counseling (pp. 194-231).New York: Springer.
Fournier, D.G., Springer, J. & Olson, DH (2010). Conflict and commitment in seven stages of premarital and marital relations. Unpublished manuscript, Dept. Of Family Social Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
Fowers, .J., Montel, K.H., & Olson, DH (1996). Predictive validity of types of premarital coupes based on PREPARE. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy, 22, 1, 103-119.
Fowers, .J. & Olson, DH (1992). Four types of premarital…
Allen, W. (1997). Replication of five types of married couples based on ENRICH. Unpublished dissertation. University of Minnesota. St. Paul, Minnesota.
Browning, DS (2003) Marriage and Modernization: How Globalization Threatens Marriage and What to do About it. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003
Duvall, E.M. (1971). Family development, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co.
Fournier, D.G., & Olson, DH (1986). Programs for premarital and newlywed couples. In R.F.Levant (Ed.), Psychoeducational approaches to family therapy and counseling (pp. 194-231).New York: Springer.
Smedley, Agnes. Daughters of Earth. 1929. The Feminist Press of CUNY Reissue 1987.
It is interesting to read Agnes Smedley's philosophy of marriage as expressed in the early feminist classic Daughters of Earth in light of the current controversy over gay marriage. The author takes an explicitly deflationary view of marriage's effect upon women, and also to a lesser extent, a negative view of the male's participation in what she considers a form of social bondage. Rather than seeing personal connections as a source of positive alliance between individuals, she sees marriage as a threat to society and the formation of effective unions of labor and politics.
Smedley calls marriage "a relic of human slavery," rather than as a potential right all human beings ought to strive to. Because of the history of marriage and its limiting legal and social constraints upon the female partner, the author believes…
Even in private people have a sense of what is or is not appropriate -- like whether the lights should be left on or off. hen, might be only after marriage, only after the children are asleep, and only when the parents are away -- or only when on vacation with an 'unsuitable individual.' here might be the bedroom, the backseat, or not in public, again depending on the particular societal norms one subscribes to, and the norms of one's partner. And why might be only for procreation (the only acceptable reason in some societies or cultures) or for pleasure (in some cultures, prostitutes for pleasure, marital partners for procreation might be the 'rule') (Strong, DeVault & Cohen, 2005, p.241).
The variety of answers to the sexual script questions of 'who, what, when, where and why' underline how culture and context set a sexual script, as well as personal physical…
Strong, Brian, Christine DeVault & Theodore F. Cohen. (2005). Marriage and the Family Experience. 9th Edition. New York: Wadsworth.
Marriage in Literature: "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and "The Story of an Hour"
On the surface, it would not seem as though Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" would be comparable because of their varying tones, the former is comedic and the latter is more serious, and themes, escapism vs. reality. However, at the heart of both stories is a marriage that is unhappy. In both stories, the protagonist has been slowly suffocated by their husband or wife. They both are extremely unhappy in their unions and use their imagination to escape their realities. The stories differ in how the protagonist deals with the intrusion of reality into their happy fantasy; one continues on in the fantasy world, making it less and less likely that he can survive within reality and one admits that she cannot return to reality…
Belsey, C. (2005). Culture and the Real: Theorizing Cultural Criticism. Taylor and Francis: New
Chopin, Kate. (2007). "The Story of an Hour." Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing. 6th
(Boston: Thomson/Wadsworth) 193 -- 94.
At the same time, the Japanese parent will likely encourage the child's freedom, especially in the early stages of life, while the American parent will tend to correct from early stages of development any misbehavior or errors. With the relationship mother-child, the Japanese mother will tend to emphasize less the development of the communication side for the child and will prefer a more symbiotic relationship (Ibid. page 71).
4. A family can best be defined through some of the main characteristics it has. However, one should also known that there are some general characteristics that everyone accepts as to what a family is and several others that are only accepted by groups of individuals as to what the family is. As such, both aspects need to be taken into consideration and discussed.
First of all, the family is judged to be the fundamental unity cell of society. From this perspective,…
1. Roopnarine, Jaipaul. Gielen, Uwe. 2005. Families in Global Perspective. Pearson.
2. Ehrenreich, Barbara, Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 2002. Global Woman. Henry Holt and Company
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…
Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.
Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.
Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.
Expressive functioning is related to communication such as emotional, verbal, and nonverbal communication, problem solving and roles within the family. Beliefs within the family are also a part of expressive functioning.
For the purpose of the Calgary Family Assessment Model, a family is defined as who they say they are. It is very important that the clinician performing the assessment not assign their own beliefs upon what he or she believes a family is, and take into account what the patient feels about family as to the patient is may mean not only the people who actually live within the household but can also address past, present and future emotional attachments.
Calgary Family Intervention Model:
The immediate family is composed of Mr. Herbert Schelley (the patient), Mrs. Annette Schelley (his wife), and their son Thomas Schelley. The extended family consists of the Schelley's two married daughters, their husbands and their…
Brownwald H. ed. (2003) Harrison's Textbook of Internal Medicine, 15th edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York
Clement S. (2004) Guidelines for glycemic control. Clin Cornerstone. 6(2):31-9
Echeverry D.M., Dike M.R., Washington C., Davidson M.B.. (1995). The impact of using a low-literacy patient education tool on process measures of diabetes care in a minority population J. Natl Med Assoc. (11):1074-81
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.
Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.
Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…
Conversely, those who do benefit from such ties gain the trust that they need early on, allowing them to "risk" being involved in personal and intimate relationships as adults.
Additionally, children who grow up in supportive and loving families are more likely to provide similarly stable homes for their own children.
The importance of the family thus goes beyond individual gains. By helping children to grow into loving, stable and well-adjusted adults, the institution of the family contributes to society as a whole. Children who are encouraged to follow their dreams end up being happier in their chosen careers and therefore "give back" to society as professionals. These children can also contribute by continuing the cycle and raising happy children when they do start their own families.
In doing so, they help to ensure that each generation will have the thoughtful and kind citizens who contribute to society as well.
SBFT focuses on the aim a couple wants to achieve. It centers on talking about the present and future conditions of both the partners. Some of the major contributions in the field were made by Milton Erickon, who provided the basics of hypnotic techniques. He asserted the use of hypnosis techniques to discuss with couples the existing and potential problems in their marital life. He focused on the effective and open two way communication regarding all issues of marital life including trust, expectations, sex, and excessive alcohol use (or abuse) by one of the partners and other similar issues (Erickson, 1976). Erickson made use of his proposed hypnosis techniques in counseling couples for solution of all the problems by letting them speak their heart. A
wide variety of hypnotic techniques is of great importance in marriage preparation for the couples who have some issues between them before marriage.
Bowen, Murray (1990) Family Therapy in Clinical Practice: Jason Aronson Publishing.
De Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to solution in brief therapy. New York: W.W. Norton.
Erickson & Rossi (1976) Two-Level Communication and the Microdynamics of Trance and Suggestion, The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1976 Reprinted in Collected Papers Vol.1
Fisch, R., Weakland, J.H., & Segal, L. (1982). The tactics of change. San Francisco:
Japanese Family and Marriage Life
Understanding the family and marriage life of the Japanese people has been a challenge to most in the current global society. The constant changes of the Japanese family structure, roles, and marriage system as explained in the nuclearization theory attests to the challenges most face in understanding their family and marriage life. Demographic transitions witnessed over the last four decades also compound to the challenges people encounter in the quest of understanding the family and marriage structure of the Japanese people (Kumagai 87). As such, this research paper analyzes in detail the family structure and marriage life of the Japanese people. The analysis considers both the traditional and the modern family structure and marriage life of the Japanese people.
Like many families of the Asian region, the Japanese family has extended family system that includes the distant relatives to the family as well…
Fujimura-Fanselow, Kumiko. Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future. New York: Feminist Press at the City Univ. Of New York, 1995. Print.
Helm, Leslie. Yokohama Yankee: My Family's Five Generations as Outsiders in Japan. Seattle: Chin Music Press Inc., 2013. Internet resource.
Kumagai, Fumie, and Donna J. Keyser. Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1996. Print.
Peterson, Gary W, Suzanne K. Steinmetz, and Marvin B. Sussman. Handbook of Marriage and the Family. New York [u.a.: Plenum Press, 1999. Print.
Solutions to Marriage Debate
The marriage debate is a polarizing debate regarding, most people assume, whether gay individuals should have the right to marriage or not. On the homosexual side, it is important to be afforded the same rights as married couples both because they wish to enjoy the same benefits accorded those who are married and because the status of married carries with it different connotations. The opposite opinion is marked by individuals who do not want homosexual couples to use the term "married" because it is a union endorsed in the Bible and would be sullied if people that these individuals believe are in active sin were able to claim that they were married. It is a difficult questions and one that has been debated in public places, the media and by politicians. This paper looks at two journal articles with contrasting views that may not offer a…
Brumbaugh, Stacey M, Laura A. Sanchez, Steven L. Nock, and James D. Wright. "Attitudes Toward Gay Marriage in States Undergoing Marriage Law Transformation." Journal of Marriage & Family 70 (2008): 345-359. Print.
Polikoff, Nancy D. "Law that Values all Families: Beyond (Straight and Gay) Marriage." Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers 22 (2009): 85-104. Print.
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:
Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed
Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.).1997, the Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors World Peace Academy.
Baker, M. 2003, 'Reinventing the Family: In Search of New Lifestyles', Journal of Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 178+.
Constructivist epistemology. [Online] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism
Coulter, G. 2001, 'Cohabitation: An Alternative Form of Family Living', Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol.26, no. 2. p. 245.
A woman who has yet to make a son is the lowest of the low, far beneath her mother-in-law. Once she produces a male heir, she increases her status in the family, in her husband's eyes, and as the mother of the father's child, thus reducing the status of the mother in law and her power over the girl as well. Before, her own mother only spoke of the future without her, in her brother's terms, and only when married does she have a future -- but with a past door of her childhood "slamming shut."(243)
This creates a fragmented household, pitting woman against woman, all eyes turned to the husband for authority. And before, in a house with daughters, no "matter how fond of his daughter the father may be" she is a temporary member of his household, with no ties to him, and she will not protect…
Fried rice or popcorn is offered into the sacred fire (Hinduism.co.za).
The marriage ceremony itself takes place at the Vedi, where banana tree trunks are decorated against the open sky. The boy and girl sit together on a wooden seat. Parents of the bride, groom, and two priests surround the couple. Vedic mantras are said throughout the ceremony (Mypurohith).
The sacred fire is a crucial part of the marriage ceremony, and begins the rites and ceremonies that make up the ceremony. The sacred fire provides a pure and spiritual atmosphere for the marriage (Hinduism.co.za). The boy and girl, tied together by the symbolic marriage knot, walk around the sacred fire seven times. Traditionally, the new marriage is not considered to be complete until the seventh round around the consecrated fire. Before this time, the marriage can be revoked (Mypurohith).
Samagree, a mixture of herbs, sandalwood, clarified butter, rice, twigs, and…
About.com. Ideals of a Hindu Marriage. Shri Gyan Rajhans. Accessed O. 3 October 2005. http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/aa111602a.htm
Hinduism.co.za. Marriage. Accessed O. 3 October 2005. http://www.hinduism.co.za/marriage.htm
Mypurohith. Hindu Marriage Ceremony. Accessed O. 3 October 2005. http://www.mypurohith.com/Matrimonials/Hindu_Marriage.asp
Vivaaha.org. Hindu Marriage Ceremony. Accessed O. 3 October 2005. http://www.vivaaha.org/newpage3.htm
Social Changes for the American Family: Today and in 10 Years
The next ten years will see a greater variation in the structure of families and marriages, with much greater variations and flexibility than has ever been the case in the past. This will be primarily driven by the recognition that children, regardless of the composition of a family unit, need the structure and stability of long-term relationships at the adult level of stabilize their emotional maturation
(Milot, 2001). This shift to as much greater tolerance of marriage structures in addition to a questioning of consumerism, and if economic conditions continue to be turbulent, anti-consumerism, will mark the next ten years. The American family will shift from the prototypical nuclear family definition to one marked by more of a polyglot of roles, responsibilities and lifestyles (Milot, 2001).
Analysis of the American Family Today and in Ten Years
Clearly the economic…
Ali, A.J., & Wisniesk, J.M. (2010). Consumerism and ethical attitudes: An empirical study. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 3(1), 36-46.
Milot, L. (2001). Restitching the american marital quilt: Untangling marriage from the nuclear family. Virginia Law Review, 87(4), 701-728.
Perrone, K.M., & Worthington, Everett L.,,Jr. (2001). Factors influencing ratings of marital quality by individuals within dual-career marriages: A conceptual model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(1), 3-9.
Judith Stacy is a professor as well as author of cultural and social analysis. She focused mainly on studies of gender, queer relationships, and sexuality. She explores the typical pattern of relationships that deviate the basic western marriages idea in her article.
In 1968 Stacey got her bachelor degree from university of Michigan. In 1968 she received degree of Maters in history from university of Illinois and from Brandeis she received her PhD in sociology degree in 1969. She stayed in the faculty of university of California in 1979-1997 and then she appointed as Streisand professor of gender studies and PRF of sociology in southern California.
Judith Stacy, an expert on the family is very well-known for her challenging research on conventional issues. She seems to be very impatient with the increasing war situation of same sex marriages, divorce, fatherlessness, marital fidelity and the like. She unveils many profiles around…
Stacey, Judith. Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western
China. New York: NYU Press, 2011.
This paper looks at relationship trends in the U.S. from a sociological perspective, using feminist political stance as a way to explain the transformation from traditional family norms of the early 20th century to the mixture of families today. Today, single parenting is the new norm as half of all marriages end in divorce. More and more people are going unwed and not having children as well. The population is aging and there are effects to all these factors that are discussed as well. The pros and cons of these trends are examined and described.
The traditional family of one hundred years ago used to be the sociological norm; today, however, the new norm is that there is no norm. Half of all marriages end in divorce, and as the Pew Research Center (2015) shows, not only are family sizes shrinking (with parents having fewer children…
From this discussion, Dubin (2009) then moves to presenting a new and unique model for implementation in both marriage and family counseling contexts. The current article models the "Basic Needs Genogram" as the primary method to be tested in contemporary therapy structures. This is a genogram that is based off the works of Glasser (1998) and breaks down our complexity of needs into five basic categories: "self-preservation, love and belonging, power or self-worth, freedom or independence and fun or enjoyment" (Dubin, 2009). These needs are interconnected and help drive behavior within the context of relationships, whether those relationships are marriage of familial structures. Dubin (2009) suggests that the Basic Needs Genogram will allow individuals, as well as family members to consider how current and past generational patterns influence the formation of their 'picture albums,'" which then dictate how their own relationships are formed and maintained (Dubin, 2009, p 17). It…
Duba, Jill A. (2009). Introducing the 'basic needs genogram' in reality therapy-based marriage and family counseling. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(2), 15-19.
Children then meet with their devotional groups to discuss how to apply the lesson to their own lives.
While the camp is the main focus of the institution, an extension program for older children of deployed soldiers or those who have died as a result of their deployment is another important feature. This feature presents one-on-one counseling opportunities. The young adults have the opportunity to sit down with Biblical counselors and discuss problems that range from psychological disorders to difficulty connecting with their deployed parent. Although one-on-one counseling is the major component of the extension program, group counseling is also available. Further, the group runs a Bible study once a week that allows young adults to consider their predicaments through a spiritual lens. Knowing that these people are often in college, working, or trying to get their lives on the road, the institution offers some features of the extension program…
Gender oles and Marriage
The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"
James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…
Allen, J.A. (2004) The Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexuality, Histories, Progressivism. University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Chopin, K. (1997). "The Story of an Hour" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, pp. 158-159.
Davis, S. (1982). "Katherine Chopin." American Realists and Naturalists. D. Pizer and E.N. Harbert (eds). Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 12.
Gilman, C. (1997)."The Yellow Wallpaper" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997, pp. 230-242.
Devel/Family Cycle Theory
Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following:
Leaving home: single young adults
The joining of…
Erickson, M.J. (1998). Revisioning the family life cycle theory and paradigm in marriage and Family. American Journal of Family Therapy 26(4), pp. 341-355.
Jordyn, M., & Byrd, M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of university students and their identity development. Adolescence 38(150), pp. 267-278.
VanKatwyk, P.L. (n.d.). Family life cycle theory. Theories of Human Development. Retrieved from http://freedownload.is/pdf/family-life-cycle-theory-3553375.html