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Home is a place where a person looks for safety and peace. It is the best place where one drops after a deadly tiring day at school or work in order to breathe an air of satisfaction. Family is considered to be the garden of security and care. However, the reality is uglier than this. The initially peaceful image created is darkened by the underlying truth of family violence. As defined by oger Levesque (2001), ' Family Violence includes family members' acts of omission or commission resulting in physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, or other forms of maltreatments that hamper individuals' healthy development'.
This family violence is no new phenomena. It has existed since long just that it is this new and modern era has given individuals the freedom and confidence to come up and disclose such secrets and take a stand against it. Nowadays newspapers…
Herzberger D. (1996). Violence within the Family- Social Psychological perspectives, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Levesque Roger (2001), Culture and family violence: fostering change through human rights law, American Psychological Association.
Loseke, D.R. (2003). Thinking about social problems: An introduction to constructionist perspectives, 2nd ed. New York: Aldine DeGruyter.
Perrin, Cindy & Barnett (2010). Family Violence Across the Lifespan: An Introduction, SAGE, pp: 40-68
It makes the important assertion that, current health status and disease outcomes associated with disease states in individuals or populations are determined by multiple factors that are both internal and external to the individual or population. These factors include the: (1) physical environment, (2) social environment, (3) genetic endowments, (4) prosperity, (5) individual behaviors, (6) individual biology, (7) health and function, (8) disease, (9) health care systems, and (10) overall well-being.
Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2010: Final Report)
This theory therefore suggests a wide ranging and holistic approach and also suggests that the health issues related to family violence should be seen from an interconnected and integrated point-of-view. "The schema acknowledges the complexity of interrelationships and interactions among multiple factors that are determinants of health but not necessarily limited to traditional predictors or determinants of health. Furthermore, the field model seeks to move health policy beyond being simply…
Brewster, Mary P. (2002) " Domestic Violence Theories, Research, and Practice
Implications." Handbook of Domestic Violence Intervention Strategies: Policies, Programs, and Legal Remedies. Ed. Albert R. Roberts. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 23-44.
Castillo G. And Alexander J. INJURY AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION IN RURAL AREAS: A LITERATURE REVIEW. Retrieved 20 August, 2006, at http://www.srph.tamhsc.edu/centers/rhp2010/Volume_3/Vol3Ch2LR.htm
Coker AL, Sanderson M, Fadden MK, Pirisi L. Intimate Partner
The research indicates that domestic violence has a negative impact on each of these areas.
One of the prominent concerns concerning domestic violence is the megative impact that it has on children. According to Stenberg (2006)
"In the first decade of research on family violence, many researchers documented that victims of physical child abuse were frequently characterized by behavior problems and psychiatric symptoms…More recently, researchers have also emphasized the risks associated with exposure to spousal or partner violence. Children are often exposed to multiple types of family violence…because marital violence and child physical abuse frequently co-occur. Hughes (1988) found that children who were both witnesses (of spouse abuse) and victims (of child abuse) had the most externalizing behavior problems, while children who were neither victims nor witnesses had the fewest such problems, and children who were witnesses but not victims had intermediate scores."
In addition to the negative effects of…
"Family Violence." Retrieved November 2, 2009 from; http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Family+violence
Huss, M.T., Covell, C.N., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2006). Clinical implications for the assessment and treatment of antisocial and psychopathic domestic violence perpetrators. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 13, 61-87.
Loseke, D.R. Gelles, R.J. Cavanaugh, M.M. (2007) Current controversies on family violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Mears, D.P., Carlson, M.J., Holden, G.W., & Harris, S.D. (2001). Reducing domestic violence revictimization: The effects of individual and contextual factors and type of legal intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 1260?1283.
Family Violence in Indigenous Australian Communities: Literature Review
The issue of family violence is one of the key concerns impacting negatively on Indigenous communities of Australia. I will review available literature on the issue, identifying factors contributing to the same; outlining a framework for understanding why the problem has continued to persist despite the intensive government scrutiny and high level of public awareness; and bringing out the key knowledge gaps in literature. I reckon that intervention policies have time and time again been developed on the basis of a liberal feminist approach that overlooks the Indigenous communities' perspectives on the concept of family violence; and as expected, the policies have repeatedly failed (Campion, et al., 2007). This review draws from this basis, and highlights the importance of adopting a context-based primary prevention framework focusing on solutions, rather than on the quantitative cause-and-effect aspects of the issue.
Statement of the Problem…
Willis, M. (2008). Reintegration of Indigenous prisoners: Key findings. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. Australian Institute of Criminology Reports. No. 364. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology
Wundersitz, J. (2010). Indigenous Perpetrators of Violence: Prevalence and Risk Factors for Reoffending. Australian Institute of Criminology Reports: Research and Public Policy Series 105. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications
Ypinazar, V., Margolis, S., Haswell-Elkins, M.R. & Tsey, K. (2007). Indigenous Australians' Understandings Regarding Mental Health and Disorders: a Meta-Synthesis of the Literature. Australia-New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(6), 467-478.
Family Violence Prevention Services Act
Social policy analysis must start with defining the problem that the policy is designed to address. For instance, Family Violence Prevention Services Act addresses the subject of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence. A number of needs assessment have been conducted to establish the significance of the issue of family violence and to identify the effectiveness of numerous interventions addressing the issue. The existence of a defined social issue is the reason for the Family Violence Prevention Services Act intervention. Karger and Stoesz argue that the systematic investigation of a social policy must be purposeful and occur within a systematic and structured framework for policy analysis. They propose a model for policy analysis that comprises the following elements.
Historical background of the policy
The Family Violence Prevention Services Act (FVPSA) offers the main government-financing stream devoted to the assistance of emergency supportive and shelter…
Alcock, P., May, M. & Wright, S.D. (2012). The Student's Companion to Social Policy. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
Agere, S. & Mandaza, I. (2009). Rethinking Policy Analysis and Management: Enhancing Policy Development and Management in the Public Service. London: Commonwealth Secretariat
Chalk, R.A., & King, P.A. (1998). Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press
Ginsberg, L.H., & Miller-Cribbs, J. (2005). Understanding Social Problems, Policies, and Programs. Columbia, S.C: University Of South Carolina
One could turn out to be a lawyer defending individuals caught up being under these situations, while the other could end up in prison for committing the same violent crimes against their family that they saw while growing up. It is this resilience in one, but influence in the other, that makes this theory the most interesting one of all, while at the same time, making it the most debatable.
Just as a criminal learns from observing and from experiencing the bad behavior how to participate and metabolize that bad deviant behavior, this same theory could be used as rehabilitation methods. The best part of this theory is that it emphasizes learning as the main component for the development of criminal cognitive behavior, especially when it comes to family violence (Piquero et al. 2006). Learning how to be violent in one's family setting could just as easily be reversed if…
Piquero, A.R., Brame, R., Fagan, J., & Moffitt, T.E. (2006). Assessing the offending activity of criminal domestic violence suspects: Offense specialization, escalation, and de-escalation evidence from the spouse assault replication program. Public Health Rep. 121(4): 409-418.
Frantzen, D., Miguel, C.S., & Kwak, DH (2011). Predicting case conviction and domestic violence recidivism: Measuring the deterrent effects of conviction and protection order violations. Violence and Victims. 26(4): 395-409.
Zastrow, C., & Kirst-Ashman, K.K. (2007). Understanding human behavior and the social environment. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher Education.
Rafter, N.H. (2008). The criminal brain: Understanding biological theories of crime. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Komisi Nasional Anti-Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan - KNAKTP
National Commission on Violence Against omen addresses policy reform at the national level, which may or may not prove to be effective in Cambodia, depending on officials leading government. (Organizations Addressing VA, 2008) Findings from the survey reported by Knight (2006) stress that the challenge "to establish and implement a culture-sensitive standard of justice," is at times difficult. Forum Pemerhati Masalah Perempuan - FPMP, which focusing on raising awareness in a rural area (Organizations Addressing VA, 2008) could benefit Cambodia, provided the awareness includes relating feasible solutions. Malaysia's efforts include All omen's Action Society (AAM), omen's Aid Organisation (AO) and omen's Crisis Centre (CC) in its campaign against domestic violence (Organizations Addressing VA, 2008) may not be as effective in Cambodia, due to potential noted delays and challenges experiences in Malaysia.
In Indonesia, Gerakan Anti-Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan Indonesia - GAKTPI, Anti-Violence…
Conard-Salvo, Tammy. (1995-2008). "Social Work Literature Review Guidelines." The Owl at Purdue. 4 June 2008 http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/666/01 .
Fraser, Barbara J.. "Struggle for a future: Cambodia still suffers from legacy of Khmer Rouge reign of terror." National Catholic Reporter, November 18, 2005. 4 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-139432087.html .
International Statistics on Violence Against Women. (N.d.). Domestic Abuse Shelter of the Florida Keys. 4 June 2008 http://www.domesticabuseshelter.org/InfoDomesticViolence.htm#intstatistics .
Knight, Karen. "Notions and practices of justice: the international and the local," NIAS Nytt, December 1, 2006. 4 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P31305755421.html .
Not all physical force can be characterized as violence, and not all violence is created equal. There are numerous controversies regarding definitions of violence and abuse and no clear consensus among researchers on how to characterize acts as one or the other. Presumably, there should be commonalities among different types of violence so that all can be characterized first as violence, and yet some violence is socially approved and so would be placed in a separate category. Even the issue of whether it should be assumed that there are many different kinds of violence is controversial, with some holding that violence is violence in any setting and at any time. At the same time, while there are important differences among the different forms of family violence, all may be caused by similar social and psychological factors. esearch has shown that the some forms of violence are more damaging than others…
Anderson, S.A. & Cramer-Benjamin, D.B. (1999). The impact of couple violence on parenting and children: An overview and clinical implications. American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(1), 1-19.
Arias, I., and Johnson, P.J. (1986). Evaluations of physical aggression in marriage. Paper presented at the 20th Annual Convention of the Association for Behavior Therapy, Chicago, Illinois.
Arias, I., and Johnson, P.J. (1989). Evaluations of physical aggression among intimate dyads. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4: 298-307.
Barling, J., O'Leary, K.D., Jouriles, E.N., Vivian, P., and MacEwan, K.E. (1987). Factor similarity of the conflict tactics scales across samples, spouses, and sites: Issues and implications. Journal of Family Violence, 2:37-54.
The second stated parenting style, specifically the 'authoritative' parenting style is generally believed among researchers to be the optimum parenting style for positive outcomes specifically relating to intergenerational transmission of cyclic problems relating to abuse and violence in families.
VI. LIFE COURSE TRAJECTORY of CRIME and VIOLENCE
It is stated in the work of Robert J. Sampson and John H. Laub entitled: "A Life-Course View of the Development of Crime " that a life course view....tends to emphasize the notion that people get 'locked' into certain trajectories." or, in other words, "... people construct their lives within the content of ongoing constraints." This is viewed as a continuous social reproduction." (2005) the work of Moffitt (1993, 1994) posited "two distinct categories of individuals, each possessing a unique natural history of antisocial behavior over the life course - Life-Course-Persistent and Adolescence-Limited Offenders." (Sampson and Laub, 2003) the argument of Moffitt is…
Simons, Johnson, Beaman, and Conger (1993) Explaining Women's Double Jeopardy: Factors that Mediate the Association between Harsh Treatment as a Child and Violence by a Husband. Journal of Marriage and the Family Vol. 55, No. 3 (Aug., 1993), pp. 713-723.
Violence (2007) Position Paper. American Academy of Family Physicians: Policy and Advocacy. 2007 Online available at http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/v/violencepositionpaper.html
Straus, M.A. (1994) Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Families. New York: Lexington Books. Cited in the work of Bloom, S.L and Reichart, M. (1994) Bearing Witness: Trauma and Collective Responsibility. Philadelphia Chapter, Physicians for Social Responsibility. (1995)
Bloom, S.L and Reichart, M. (1994) Bearing Witness: Trauma and Collective Responsibility. Philadelphia Chapter, Physicians for Social Responsibility. (1995)
As the nature of the family has change in the past century, the problem of family violence has also become more pronounced. Today, it is more common to find mixed families, single-parent families, and families where substance abuse and mental health issues are major problems (Lee, Lincoln). However, because of the nature of family violence, much of it goes unreported. Hermann notes that family violence is one of the most prevalent forms of interpersonal violence, with women and children often being the victims of reported instances of this type of crime. But as Lee and Lincoln point out, women and children are not the only victims of family violence: “males are subject to all forms of domestic abuse and yet their victimization receives scant attention” (233). For this reason, family violence is often a hidden crime, as statistics only show those cases that are reported and not…
Arthur, James. The Formation of Character in Education: From Aristotle to the 21st Century. Routledge, 2019.
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. NY: W. W. Norton, 1963.
Hermann, Henry R. Dominance and Aggression in Humans and Other Animals: The Great Game of Life. Academic Press, 2017.
Lee, Andrea, and Robyn Lincoln. "Reciprocity and Exchange: Perspectives of Male Victims of Family Violence." The Psychology of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior. Academic Press, 2017. 233-256.
Rainwater, Lee. Family design: Marital sexuality, family size, and contraception. Routledge, 2017.
Shriner, B & M. Shriner. Essentials of Lifespan Development: A Topical Perspective. Bridgepoint Education: San Diego, CA, 2014.
Zhu, Yuhong, Ko Ling Chan, and Jinsong Chen. "Bullying victimization among Chinese middle school students: the role of family violence." Journal of interpersonal violence 33.12 (2018): 1958-1977.
" (arnett, Miller and Perrin, 2005) However, when one of the partners perceives that an inequity exists in the relationship and wishes to terminate the relationship but is not able to do so, that individuals "experiences frustration and may become aggressive." (arnett, Miller and Perrin, 2005)
2) Symbolic Intereactionism -This theory places emphasis on the symbolic communication that takes place between individuals. "Through this lens, the key to understanding family violence can be found in the meanings that family members attach to various interactions." (arnett, 3) Routine Activities Theory - This theory is used for providing an explanation to stalking patterns.
VI. MULTIDIMENSIONAL THEORIES
Multidimensional models attempt the integration of "several unidimensional theories. Attempts to develop such models flow logically from the failure of single-concept frameworks to account for family violence." (arnett, Miller and Perrin, 2005) arnett, Miller and Perrin state that the need "for a multidimensional theory is especially…
Barnett, Ola W.; Miller, Cindy Lou; and Perrin, Robin D. (2005) Family Violence Across the Lifespan: An Introduction. Sage Publications. 2005.
McDonald, Renee and Jouriles, Ernest N. (2006) Estimating the Number of American Children Living in Partner-Violence Families. Journal of Family Psychology 2006 Vol. 20, No. 1. American Psychological Association. Online available at http://www.smu.edu/experts/study-documents/family-violence-study-may2006.pdf
Burgess, Ann W. And Roberts, Albert R. (nd) Violence Within Families Through the Life Span. Chapter 1. Online available at http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/70/04714146/0471414670-2.pdf
Of course, most couples enter into a marriage or relationship because they love each other, but how does that love turn to violence, and why do people stay in abusive relationships? What triggers the violence is certainly one question, but what keeps the other there is entirely another. Also, there is another aspect to family violence that is hard to understand or accept. In the case of child abuse, one parent must stand by and see it, or ignore it, and how is that possible, especially in situations that continue unchecked, often until death or severe injury to the child. How can a parent ignore the abuse of their own child? These are all unanswered questions that puzzle and perplex.
The chapter material complements the class discussions by helping to give the discussions focus and knowledge. This gives the discussions a chance to interact and react to new ideas and…
Bell, Holly. "Strengths and Secondary Trauma in Family Violence Work." Social Work 48.4 (2003): 513+.
Dalpiaz, Christina M. Breaking Free, Starting over: Parenting in the Aftermath of Family Violence. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Woolford, Andrew. "Heather Strang and John Braithwaite (Eds.), Restorative Justice and Family Violence." The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 41.1 (2004): 117+.
Family Abuse on Children
The widespread prevalence of family abuse has been increasingly the focus of media, societal, and scholarly attention. This research paper examines the effects of various forms of family abuse on the psychological development of children, and its long-term consequences for adult functioning. The scope of the paper includes research on the causes of family abuse and a discussion on the need for social interventions to minimize the effects of abuse on children.
The well-rounded development of children is a matter of great societal concern since they constitute the citizens of the future. As such, society has a definite stake in ensuring that its children are nurtured well today, in order that they function as responsible adult members of society tomorrow. This is a well-recognized fact as evidenced by governmental, societal, and legal interventions in providing for the development of children through free education, child care subsidies,…
Abrahams, Casey & Daro. (1992). Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, And Beliefs About Child Abuse And its Prevention. Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect. Vol Becker, K.B. (2002). Attention and Conduct Problems in Children Exposed to Family
Fontes, L. (2000). Children Exposed to Marital Violence: How School Counselors Can Help.
Greenwald, E., Leitenberg, H., Cado, S., & Tarran, M.J. (1992). Childhood Sexual Abuse:
First, family violence is rarely the only problem in a home. On the contrary, the vast majority of homes with family violence have at least one co-existing problem, such as drug or alcohol abuse, some type of mental problem, stress, unemployment, or poor parenting. In fact, though battered women's advocates may argue against this statement, it seems accurate to conclude that any parent, whether victim or abuser, who keeps their children in a home with violence, should be presumptively declared unfit as a parent, until they can prove such worth. After all, the research clearly establishes that children who witness inter-parent violence experience the same degree and type of emotional turmoil as children who are actually victims of child abuse. Therefore, removing the primary aggressor from the home is only the first-step in moving a family out of the cycle of violence.
In addition, removing an abusing parent from the…
Even some police still view the partner in domestic violence as "asking" for it in some way. In addition, even though laws in the United States and many other countries have become stiffer, there are still many countries around the world that subscribe to archaic and violent practices against women, often with the approval of their religion or beliefs.
The questions that remain unanswered about domestic violence and its long history are many. How has it been allowed to continue so long unchecked? How do men rationalize violence against family members they supposedly "love?" Why did it take until the 1960s and 70s in America to acknowledge there was a problem, and that men ruled the criminal justice system and the prevailing attitudes about domestic violence? Unfortunately, some of these attitudes still exist. Another writer notes, "The law and order movement has attained stringent warrantless arrest rules in the domestic…
Colker, R. (2006). Marriage mimicry: The law of domestic violence. William and Mary Law Review, 47(6), 1841+.
Goelman, D.M. (2004). Shelter from the storm: Using jurisdictional statutes to protect victims of domestic violence after the violence against women act of 2000. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 13(1), 101+.
Shipway, L. (2004). Domestic violence: A handbook for health professionals. New York: Routledge.
Federal and State Legislation
Domestic Violence Legislation at the Federal and State Level
Domestic violence is considered any violent act taken against someone involved in an intimate or family relationship (Eulich, 2013). It is a serious problem with countless victims each year. In 1994, Congress passed the United States Crime Bill which gave power to the federal government to help combat domestic violence, in particular violence against women and children. Specifically, the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) was created to address this problem which is considered to not only hurt victims, but also damage families, children and society as a whole (Eulich, 2013). The Act mandates that such crimes may be prosecuted by the Department of Justice and that the Gun Control Act (that existed as part of the federal Crime Bill) be extended to include issues related to domestic violence crimes. This VAWA gives the federal government a platform…
Eulich, W. (2013, February 13). In U.S., big strides in reducing domestic violence. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG.
The Center Against Family Violence (CAFV), located in El Paso, TX is an organization dedicated to confront and prevent domestic violence in all its forms. The CAFV started out as a hotline service but has not blossomed into comprehensive shelter that aims to protect those who have been harmed due to domestic violence.
To become a volunteer at CAFV, a lengthy and tough training program is necessary. Since many of the women who use these services need protection, confidentiality and security policies are put into place that make it difficult to simply volunteer at this shelter. A lengthy application must be filled out as well as a criminal background check must be performed before you are allowed to volunteer at this shelter. Personal references are also required. This process is much like being employed there as the hiring standards and the volunteering standards are very similar. According to…
CAFV homepage. Viewed 3 November 2013. Retrieved from http://www.cafv.org/volunteer/volunteer-at-cafv
Violence in the Family, Violence Against Children is a Cycle
To have a rational understanding of the cycle of violence and abuse that occurs within families as a result of past sexual abuse and present drug abuse upon the heads of the family, one must seek explanations for such bad parental behavior without excusing the negative behavior on the part of the adults themselves. If no causes of violence can be determined, and only legal vengeance is enacted against the perpetrators of abuse, then merely punishment will occur and the cycle of violence and hatred will never end. It is better to redress such crimes, moreover, with an eye to reforming the family, rather than in a spirit of retributive justice.
An example of this can be seen in the child psychologist Torey Hayden's book One Child. In her text, the author and teacher chronicle the abuse of one of…
Hayde, Torey. One Child. Avon, 1980
Kruger, (February 7, 2003). "DCF Policy Shift." St. Petersburg Times. Front Page.
Expressive functioning is related to communication such as emotional, verbal, and nonverbal communication, problem solving and roles within the family. Beliefs within the family are also a part of expressive functioning.
For the purpose of the Calgary Family Assessment Model, a family is defined as who they say they are. It is very important that the clinician performing the assessment not assign their own beliefs upon what he or she believes a family is, and take into account what the patient feels about family as to the patient is may mean not only the people who actually live within the household but can also address past, present and future emotional attachments.
Calgary Family Intervention Model:
The immediate family is composed of Mr. Herbert Schelley (the patient), Mrs. Annette Schelley (his wife), and their son Thomas Schelley. The extended family consists of the Schelley's two married daughters, their husbands and their…
Brownwald H. ed. (2003) Harrison's Textbook of Internal Medicine, 15th edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York
Clement S. (2004) Guidelines for glycemic control. Clin Cornerstone. 6(2):31-9
Echeverry D.M., Dike M.R., Washington C., Davidson M.B.. (1995). The impact of using a low-literacy patient education tool on process measures of diabetes care in a minority population J. Natl Med Assoc. (11):1074-81
Women and men are two parts of the human race. Men are important to society just as women are. However, because of the social structure of many cultures and society, men appear as the dominant, superior sex. This leads to the belief that men must control women, dominate them in order to be seen as 'real men'. Katz explore in his novel the need to remove such belief systems and create gender equality to end violence against women and create a balanced society.
Domestic violence is an issue many people face on a daily basis. However, in Katz book, The Macho Paradox, chapter 1 opens the discussion of domestic abuse seen as a common event in the American landscape. "...found that two-thirds of American men say that domestic violence is very or fairly common in the U.S., and in a 2005 national survey...92% of respondents said that family violence is…
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure
The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution of non-traditional deviations. As with any issue, deviations from the norm pose objections and controversy. In the case of the family, philosophical, theological, and social debates revolve around the question of what constitutes the family structure ideal for raising children. The trend in single parenting, a decline in marriage rates, and the introduction of the homosexual family has led to the conservative opinion calling for a return to traditional family values and ethics to counter the demoralization of America. Sociologists, however, observe that family diversity is healthy and should be supported by society. Thus the depiction of the ideal family framework becomes a struggle between social opinions and political agendas. Society is changing, and the family compositions are reflective of those…
Harms, William. (1999, Nov. 24). "Marriage wanes as American families enter new century,
University of Chicago research shows." The University of Chicago News Office.
Herbst, Matthew T. (2003, July). "Do Family Values Lead to Family Violence?: A Consideration
of the Idea of Family." Quodlibet: Online Journal of Christian Theology and Philosophy. 5:2-3. Retrieved February 17, 2004. http://www.quodlibet.net/herbst-family.shtml
Children and Violence
Exposure to domestic violence can have negative effects on children that may result in short-term or long-term complications in the child's life. Taking timely and appropriate measures help limit the negative effects such experiences may have on children. Young kids living in families experiencing domestic violence are a disempowered lot. They develop limited emotional literacy and verbal skills. Further, the environment occasioned by domestic violence is that of intimidation and secrecy. The caregivers are also less emotionally available to the children. Together, such factors restrict the children's opportunity and capacity to make their opinions heard. To help the children, their preferences should be considered and a healthy environment that ensures the maintenance of the daily routine of children is maintained in the temporary shelters. They should be continually supported and support structures established in every area that the children are. Discussed in this paper are the consequences…
Brown, R., & Luppi, F. (2010). Domestic Violence and Children. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 1-12.
Carpenter, G. L, & Stacks, A.M.(2009). Developmental effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in early childhood: Are view of the literature. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(8),831-839.
Ehrensaft, M.K., Cohen, P., Brown, J.,Smailes, E., Chen, H., & Johnson, J.G. (2003). Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A20-year prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 741.
Epstein, C. & Keep, G. (1995). What children tell Children about domestic violence. In A. Saunders, C. Epstein, G. Keep & T. Debbonaire (Eds.), It hurts me too: Children's experiences of domestic violence and refuge life. Bristol: WAFE/Child-line/NISW.
"A Good Man is Hard to Find" ends with the family being executed by the Misfit, a murderous outlaw. Although O'Connor's story is evidently supposed to be humorous, it gives the reader pause to note that the family will die without ever exchanging a kind word. There are different types of family violence: the somewhat positive violence of the Roethke poem that makes the boy adore his father at the expense of his mother vs. The carelessness and cruelty in the O'Connor story, which arises as a result of a lack of respect and the superficiality of the modern family. Family relationships do not necessarily create a state of understanding. In the story, the most transcendent moment of grace occurs between two strangers, before one kills the other, as physical violence makes the grandmother appreciate her time on earth. "His voice seemed about to crack and the grandmother's head…
O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man is Hard to Find." UCF. December 8, 2009.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. MIT Classics: Shakespeare Home Page. December 8, 2009
Family Income, Parental Attitudes and Environmental Influence on Children's Well-being and Achievements
Economic theory suggests that both time and money are critical resources to the well being of family members since income is used to increase well-being of children and parents. Moreover, income is used to enjoy leisure and purchase goods and services to improve well-being of family members. Typically, " less time available to the family, income constant, thus predicts lower well-being for some or all family members" (Burton & Phipps, 2011 p 396). In the contemporary environment, family income can lead to a development of children and youth's intellectual development. In other words, family income can assist in enhancing children health, educational and intellectual outcomes. Despite the general belief about relationships of family income and children development, there is still a disagreement about the causal effects of family incomes to the positive outcomes of children since unmeasured variables…
Blau, D.M. (2006). The Effect of Income on Child Development. The Review of Economic and Statistics. 81 (2):261-276.
Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J.(1997). The Effects of Poverty on Children. The Future of Children. 7 (2): 55-71.
Burton, P. & Phipps, S. (2011). Families, Time, and Well-Being in Canada. Canadian Public Policy. 37 (3): 395-423
Dahl, G. (2005).The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion. Paper no. 1305-05.
"While biological and psychological factors hold their own merit when explaining crime and delinquency, perhaps social factors can best explain juvenile delinquency" which "is a massive and growing problem in America." (http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html)
Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika's%20paper.htm
Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.
Social Disorganization at the micro level:
Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"
Owner: obert O. Keel. Last Updated: Monday, October 3, 2005. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/socdisor.html
Miller, a.(2005) Every Smack is a Humiliation-- a Manifesto
Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice-Hall. "Social Learning Theory" http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html
Schegel, K.(1998) Lecture Notes. http://www.indiana.edu/~theory/Kip/Control.htm
Juvenile Delinquency.Family Structure" http://family.jrank.org/pages/1006/Juvenile-Delinquency-Family-Structure.html
Causal Theories of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Perspectives" http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html
Control Theory 2" http://www.homestead.com/rouncefield/files/a_soc_dev_6.htm
Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika 's%20paper.htm
Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.
Social Disorganization at the micro level:
Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"
It is expected that an initial
investment of $400,000 will be needed in order to effectively establish the Center. In addition, the Center will require a maintenance cost of $50,000 per month.
5. Budget and Strategy
Strategy 1: Arranging meetings with community leaders
This strategy ensures that the community at large will accept FAC in its capacity as an establishment to provide help and counseling within the existing cultural, religious, and educational paradigms. Public trust is important for the success of the Center. Specifically, this strategy includes arranging meetings times, venues and refreshments. This is estimated at a budget for about $5,000 per meeting. This strategy will also include the possibility of securing the services of a cultural consultant; preferably also a person with some standing in the community. The budget for this is estimated at an initial fee of about $3,000, which will repeat monthly for as long as…
d., pg. 67). Thus, the definition of the British family is almost wholly contained within a woman's decision. Women who have children and enter the workforce create new trends in British family life, such as the fact that children are cared for primarily by professionals working in the home, at nursery schools, or grandparents (Kathleen, n.d., "Family Life," 2009). The redefining of family relationships to give equality to both the husband and wife and the problem of finding childcare while both parents work is a result of women's entry into the workforce and modern conceptions of family life.
While these characteristics apply to the primary types of families in the United Kingdom, it is important to recognize that this state is diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Cloud (2008) discusses the difficulties in conducting research for one often not-discussed portion of society -- homosexuals. Cloud (2008)…
Cline, A. (2009). Sudan: Women and Family. Retrieved July, 18, 2009, from http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/islam/countries/bl_SudanWomen.htm
Cloud, J. (2008, January 17). Are Gay Relationships Different? Retrieved July 18, 2009,
"Family Life in the United States and United Kingdom." Retrieved July 18, 2009, from http://articles.famouswhy.com/family_life_in_united_states_and_united_kingdom
Many nations do not use restorative justice as a policy, but eventually bright, progressive leaders worldwide will hopefully learn the value of restorative justice, and implement it at some level.
Youth Justice Process in New Zealand. (2005). Family Group Conference. Retrieved 29 June 2008, at http://www.justice.govtnz/youth/fgc.html.
This government-produced review of the ideologies and practical implementation of the Family Group Conference was a valuable and basic article in terms of the understanding the process and how it works well in most cases.
The Family Group Conference in New Zealand
The Family Group Conference (FGC) was established in New Zealand in 1989, with the purpose in mind of more skillfully and more fairly dealing with problems and issues of boys and girls (under the age of 14) and young people (14-16) who get in trouble with law enforcement. According to information provided by the Youth Justice Process (www.justice.govt.nz),the FGC has modernized and…
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…
Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.
Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.
Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.
In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.
Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.
Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?
ACF Questions and Answers Support. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from http://faq.acf.hhs.gov/cgi-bin/acfrightnow.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_sid=qnPNlL5i&p_lva=&p_faqid=68&p_created=1001610478&p_sp=cF9zcmNoPTEmcF9ncmlkc29y dD0mcF9yb3dfY250PTEzJnBfc2VhcmNoX3RleHQ9JnBfc2VhcmNoX3R5 cGU9MyZwX2NhdF9sdmwxPTEwJnBfY2F0X2x2bDI9MzAmcF9zb3J0X2J 5PWRmbHQmcF9wYWdlPTE*&p_li =
Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cfm
Crime Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from NCWC. Web site: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm
Overview of Labeling Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/labeling.html
Garcia Marquez explores the isolation, solitude, and melancholia experienced by the Macondo community, as a metaphor for a parallel isolation, solitude, and essential disconnectedness from the world as experienced by Colombia, and Latin America as a whole. Moreover, as in the life of that Latin American nation, non-reflective violence occurs again and again. Suppression of memory further isolates Macondo until eventually, Macondo creates a society (i.e., a reality) based (oxymoronically) on pure fantasy. Here, Garcia Marquez powerfully suggests how suppression of collective memory: of violence; invasion; challenges to collective identity; outside exploitation, and all else that serves to explain, for better worse, the history of a group, only deepens and increases inevitable disconnectedness within that place and its people.
Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Gregory Rabassa
Trans.). New York: Avon, 1971.
One Hundred Years of Solitude." Sparknotes. Retrieved May 11, 2005, at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/solitude.htm.
Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Gregory Rabassa
Trans.). New York: Avon, 1971.
One Hundred Years of Solitude." Sparknotes. Retrieved May 11, 2005, at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/solitude.htm .
Restorina, Maria R. "Gabriel Garcia Marquez and His Approach to History in One Hundred Years of Solitude." Retrieved May 11, 2005, from: www.loyno.edu/history/journal/1994-5/Estorino.htm
Violence in video games and the role of culture.
The video game industry is a multi-billion dollar industry representing about $9.9 billion dollars in retail sales in the U.S. alone in 2004 (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). In this paper, video games refer to electronically controlled games played on any platform including console units, computers, internet, hand-held devices or various technology toys. In recent years, video games have redefined leisure activities among children as studies conducted in U.S. estimated that 99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games (Whitaker and Bushman, 2009), with children age 2-7 years spending an average of 3-5 hours a week playing games, while 8th and 9th grade students spend an average of 9 hours per week (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). According to Whitaker and Bushman (2009), violence in video games is also commonplace with violent content available in over 85% of video games.
Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annu Rev Psychol, 53, 27-51.
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1679-1686.
Dill, K.E., & Dill, J.C. (1998). Video game violence: A review of the empirical literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3(4), 407-428.
Funk, J.B., Buchman, D.D., & Germann, J.N. (2000). Preference for Violent Electronic Games, Self-Concept, and Gender Differences in Young Children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(2), 233-241.
As they repeatedly say, especially Graff, they are doing what they have to do, and although there may have been other tactics that would have worked, there was no way of knowing whether or not the human race could be saved without violent action against the buggers. The buggers themselves, though they do not really appear as character until the very end of the novel, in the dream they send to Ender on the new world, are actually stuck in the same bind as the humans. hat the human experienced as violence in the First and Second invasions was not actually violence to the buggers -- they had no idea that they were killing sentient beings. They had tried to communicate with the humans, but because the two species communicate so differently, this was impossible. Violence became necessary for them to ensure their own survival, and although eventually they succeed…
Card, Orson. Ender's Game. New York: Tor, 1991.
Violence on College Campuses
Virginia Tech could probably have avoided the terrible massacre of 2007 had its officials taken more timely and effective action with Seung Hui Cho. He had a very long record of mental illness dating back to middle school, including fantasies of violence and murder, and he had received psychiatric treatment in the past. His behavior at Virginia Tech was so disturbing to students and faculty that a court ordered him to undergo a psychiatric evaluation in 2005, although he refused all counseling. University officials did not discuss his case with each other or even with his parents for fear of violating state and federal confidentiality laws, although their interpretation of these was mostly incorrect. Even though medical and psychiatric records are confidential by law, there is an exception for students like Cho who are deemed a danger to themselves and others. Not only did he receive…
Burlin, S. And J. Gammage (2007). "Laws Limit Schools Even After Alarms," Philadelphia Inquirer, April 19, 2007.
Corey, G. et al. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning.
Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech, April 16, 2007 (2007). Report of the Review Panel Presented to Governor Kaine, Commonwealth of Virginia.
McMurray, J. (2008). "Colleges Are Watching Troubled Students," Associated Press, March 28, 2008.
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…
Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.
Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.
Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.
Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…
In terms of the theories that are put forward in the book by Simon et al. (2004), Gary's profile conforms to a number of theoretical perspectives. In general however this profile tends to concur with the point made by the authors that the criminal behavior is largely a result of lax or ineffective parenting. (Simon et al., 2004, p.15) as this book states, there are numerous studies that refer to the importance of family and home environment as well as problematic parenting in the development of developmental antisocial tendencies. This also refers to larger problems when these become permanent behavior patterns and extend into later life. (Simon et al., 2004, p.15)
Furthermore, parents are seen as "primary argents of socializations" of children and therefore they play a major role in the creation of negative and "abnormal "tendencies in developing children. (Simon et al., 2004, p.16)
Theorists like Gleuck and others…
Simon R., Simon L. And Wallace L. (2004) Families, Delinquency and Crime:
Linking Society's most Basic Institution to Antisocial Behavior. Roxbury Publishing.
Less dramatically, in my own personal experience I have known people who have engaged in minor acts of delinquent behavior, for no apparent reason, and I have (successfully, I believe) had to deal with peer pressure to engage in antisocial acts.
In this course I would like to learn more about the juvenile justice, theories of why young people commit crimes, and how someone's family influences the likelihood that they will commit a crime. On a persona level, I am interested in family law in general, since so many of my friends come from divorced homes and have had to deal with the family court system. I think the course would prove useful in many fields I might choose to enter, including education, social work, the law, or law enforcement.
...in the end 'the addict has to want to change' and if the addict does not want to change it does not matter what program..." that the addict is in. (National Institute of Justice, 2005) the National Institute of Justice reports that a woman "often retains legal custody of a child while in prison, and once out, may not have the child immediately returned to her by the family member caring for the child." (2005)
Sarah Samson reports in the work entitled: "Groundbreaking Study Identifies Crucial Factors for Successful Community Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners in altimore" published in 2004, that Programs that help prisoners stay connected with their families, get drug treatment, and work while in prison can increase the chances that they will successfully reintegrate back into society, according to a new study released today by the nonpartisan Urban Institute. The study breaks new ground by recording prisoners' perspectives on…
Baltimore Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home," by Christy Visher, Vera Kachnowski, Nancy La Vigne, and Jeremy Travis, has been made possible by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, OSI-Baltimore, the Abell Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Maryland Governor's Office of Crime Control and Prevention, and the John D. And Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
Community Supervision and Reentry (2008) Urban Institute Prison Reentry Portfolio. Online available at http://www.urban.org/projects/reentry-portfolio/community-supervision.cfm
Pelissier, Bernadette (2004) Gender Differences in Substance Use Treatment Entry and Retention Among Prisoner with Substance Use Histories. Research and Practice. American Journal of Public Health August 2004. Vol. 94 No. 8. Online available at http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/94/8/1418.pdf
Powell, M. Anne; and Nolan, Clare (2003) California State Prisoners with Children:
The definition of violence is one that might best be described as it is at Dictionary.com; i.e.; a violent act or proceeding. There are other definitions to be sure, however, the definition used herein is the one that most constitutes the premise of the question is violence socially constructed? Since the question, in this specific space, directly refers to whether I agree, or disagree, with the view that violence is socially constructed, I would have to say that I most vehemently agree that it is.
One need only look as far as the local newspaper to discern that America (as an example) is a very violent country. Constant reports of innocent (and not so innocent) bloodshed is broadcast on the nightly news, reports of murders, slayings, and violence in all its forms are abundant in nature. America is a nation of violence and its leaders adhere to that culture…
Aluf, B. (2011) Understanding history won't help us make peace, Foreign Policy, Issue 184, p. 70
Barron, P. & Sharpe, J.; (2008) Local conflict in post-Suharto Indonesia: Understanding variations in violence levels and forms through local newspapers, Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 395 -- 423
Barron, P.; Kaiser, K.; Pradhan, M.; ( 2004) Local conflict in Indonesia: Measuring incidence and identifying patterns, Policy Research Working Paper No. 3384. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Diehl, P.F. & Lepgold, J.;( 2003) Regional conflict management, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield
The document states this in this wording (United Nations):
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children.
Thus under the leadership of the United Nations, many different groups have joined forces to improve the quality of lives of children around the world.
Many people have defended the Chinese culture and…
Garvin, G. "Tiger mom Amy Chua roars with new controversial book about 'America's elite'." 2 February 2014. Miami Herald Books. Online. 15 April 2014.
Intlekofter, K. "Discipline or abuse?" 3 December 2012. John Hopkins Magazine. Online. 15 April 2014.
Jiali, G. "Child abuse in a culture of non-interference." 7 June 2012. China.org.cn. Online. 14 April 2014.
Pedro, B. "Study debunks 'tiger mom'- myth: children worse grades, are more depressed and more alienated from their parents." 12 May 2013. The Economy of Meaning. Online. 15 April 2014.
Violence in Plato: The Euthyphro
In the dialogue of the Euthyphro, Plato depicts an exchange between the titular young, aristocratic man who has decided to turn his father in for manslaughter and the Greek philosopher Socrates. According to Euthyphro, his father left a slave in a ditch to die when the slave was accused of killing another slave, causing the slave to die of exposure. Euthyphro defends his actions as pious while Socrates reacts with incredulity. This suggests that although the primary impetus of the dialogue is a condemnation of impious actions, Plato does not give much weight to the violent death of the slave. Euthyphro is portrayed as ignorant because he cannot come up with an acceptable definition of piety to Socrates and little regard is given to the death of the slave which prompted the drama to take place. Violence (or anti-violence) is not the primary preoccupation of…
Thus, as Kurtz approached his death, he came upon the realization of this possibility -- a possibility that came true upon his 'defeat' (death). This realization was embodied in his exclamation, "The horror! The horror!" As he neared his death. Explicit violence was, evidently, just a "mask" that colonizers used to cover up their fears of the potential power and control of the natives over them (colonizers).
In the same vein, violence was also portrayed in Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," although this was expressed implicitly through the inherent tendency of Africans to view women as the weaker and inferior sex. Okonkwo's behavior towards his wives and daughters showed this animosity between sexes in African culture. However, it was also implicitly shown in the novel how, despite their apparent submissiveness, the women in Okonkwo's life and in the Mbanta tribe showed strength of character and control over males more than the…
Achebe, C. (1994). Things Fall Apart. New York: First Anchor Books.
Conrad, J. E-text of "Heart of Darkness." Available at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=ConDark.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all .
One group will consist of those with childhood abuse experience while the other group will consist of respondents who do not have childhood abuse experience. This grouping is done to achieve the objective of assessing whether respondents with abusive histories really posses a starkly different view of the family. Both groups shall consist of male and female adults, aged 26-55 years old. For the purpose for this research, those belonging to the abused groups will be those have experienced childhood sexual and/or physical abuse.
In terms of the research ethics, the respondents will be assured of their anonymity through verbal and written means. Before the start of the interview, the author will present to them a letter assuring them that all the information that they will be disclosing will solely be used for academic purposes. They will also be asked to choose a name or alias that will…
Baker, L.L. et al. (2002). Children Exposed to Domestic Violence. Retrieved from ttp://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:sWf-p3OsUz4J: www.lfcc.on.ca/ece-us.PDF+domestic+violence&hl=tl&ct=clnk&cd=16&gl=ph-on Dec. 11, 2008.
Coid, J. et al. (2001). Relation between childhood sexual and physical abuse and risk of revictimisation in women: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, 358, 450-454.
Domestic Violence Resource Center. (2008). Domestic Violence Statistics. Retrieved at http://www.dvrc-or.org/domestic/violence/resources/C61/on Dec. 9, 2008.
Family Health International Website. (n.d.) Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector's
Victims of Intimate Violence: Laci Peterson and Minh Dang
Domestic violence is prevalent in the modern world. In the United States, one out of four women, suffer emotional or physical violence in the arms of a close partner. There are scores of causes of domestic violence among them frustration, poverty, social and environmental aspects. Women and girls are predominate victims of domestic violence which leads to murder, emotional pain, psychological trauma and physical suffering. In this regard, this paper assesses the Laci Peterson's case that involved her, her unborn child and her husband, Scott Peterson. The paper also evaluates the Ming Dang's case that entails her and her family who sexually, emotionally, psychological and physically abused her since when she was three-years old and eventually sold her as a sex slave when she was barely ten-years old. The paper links the two cases, though different, into intimate domestic violence defined…
Chuang, S., & Meak. L. (2012, December 31). From Child Sex Slave to Activist: Berkeley
Woman Breaks Chains of Human Trafficking .nbcbayarea.com. Retrieved February 11,
2013 from http://www.nbcbayarea.com/investigations/From-Sex-Slave-to-Activist-How-a-Berkeley-Woman-is-Using-Her-Past-to-Help-Others -- 184471481.html.
Crier, C. (2005). A Deadly Game (The Untold Story of the Scott Peterson Investigation. New York: HarperCollins.
Each day, thousands of New Yorkers experience violence at the hands of someone they love. But only a fraction of victims know where to get help" (p. 3).
Moreover, many domestic violence victims are coerced by the perpetrators into not testifying against them. In this regard, Glaberson (2011) reports that, "The defendants in domestic violence cases are in constant contact with their victims, and they use various means and methods to try to have the case dropped. Many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening . . . The women they were charged with abusing" (p. 3). Because even abusive relationships can be strong, some women who have experienced domestic violence -- even many times -- may be reluctant to prosecute their spouses or partners. In some cases, domestic violence shelters encourage abused partners to seek formal divorces in order to facilitate the…
Duchon-Voyles, a. (2010, October 21). From dangerous home to safe house. The New York
Times. [online] available: http://www.nytimes.com/ 2010/10/24/magazine/24lives-t.html?ref=domesticviolence.
Glaberson, W. (2011, February 25). Abuse suspects, your calls are taped. Speak up. The New
York Times. [online] available:
(Domestic Violence: Why Does it Happen? And How Can it Be Stopped) pastor or a priest may try and approach a domestic violence issue from a religious perspective, as these are primary for any religious person. The importance of dealing with the concerns for shelter, safety, intervention and treatment may have only secondary consideration. The view may be that once these people set things right with God things will become fine. This view discounts the fact that the other domestic issues are also important. Domestic violence is complicated and potentially dangerous and these ordinary concerns represent immediate and crucial needs. eligious concerns of a priest or pastor could become stumbling blocks or utility resources, when dealing with domestic violence as these concerns are at the core of many people's lives. The results will depend on how these are utilized. (a Commentary on eligious Issues in Family Violence)
In domestic violence…
Davidson, Bob. Domestic Violence: Why Does it Happen? And How Can it Be Stopped. Retrieved at http://www.lovetakestime.com/art-domesticviolence.html. Accessed on 11/27/2004
Domestic Violence. Adopted 36/3 Council 22/23 February 1994. Appendix 3 Council Meeting 22/23. February 1994. Retrieved at http://www.racgp.org.au/document.asp?id=861Accessed on 11/27/2004
Domestic Violence: An Overview. Facts of Domestic Violence on Children and Teenagers. Mental Health Journal. Retrieved at http://www.therapistfinder.net/Domestic-Violence/Domestic-Violence-Children.html . Accessed on 11/27/2004
Domestic Violence Fact Sheet. Retrieved at http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/DomViolFacts.html . Accessed on 11/27/2004
Sexual jealousy may be the main factor for couples aged 18 to 30, but couples in their 50s have established hitting and getting hit as habits, their way of dealing with stress and problems, their bond itself. People wonder and ask why the victim does not leave the abusive relationship. Experts say that it is never easy to do so because leaving costs a lot of money and the victim, often the woman, has no money of her own and has never worked. She does not feel she has much choice until she reaches the brink (The Daily).
Alksnis, C. And Taylor, J. (2003). Aggressive ehavior by Witnesses and/or Victims in Adulthood. Correctional Service of Canada. http://www.csc-scs.ca/text/pblct/fv/fv04/fv04/fv04e04_e.shtml
Cwik, MS. (1996). Why Does Wife Abuse Occur? MSA Review. http://users.aol.com/agunah/review.htm
Daily, The (2002). Impacts and Consequences of Spousal Violence. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/020626/d02060.htm
Focus on the Family. (2004). The Impact of Family…
Alksnis, C. And Taylor, J. (2003). Aggressive Behavior by Witnesses and/or Victims in Adulthood. Correctional Service of Canada. http://www.csc-scs.ca/text/pblct/fv/fv04/fv04/fv04e04_e.shtml
Cwik, MS. (1996). Why Does Wife Abuse Occur? MSA Review. http://users.aol.com/agunah/review.htm
Daily, The (2002). Impacts and Consequences of Spousal Violence. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/020626/d02060.htm
Focus on the Family. (2004). The Impact of Family Violence on Children. Focus Ministries, Inc. http://www.family.org/fmedia/misc/a0034023.cfm
Each 911 call reporting an assault by a family member or member of the household will be considered a domestic violence incident. Income will be determined by looking at the tax records for the individuals listed as the tenant or owner of the location identified in the 911-telephone call. The phone calls will be tracked, and the researcher will determine how many of those phone calls end up in a conviction. Because domestic violence offenders can frequently plead-down, any conviction stemming from the alleged family violence incident will be considered a domestic violence conviction for the purposes of the study.
After collecting six months worth of initial phone calls, and tracking the resolution of those calls through the legal system, the researcher will correlate the number of calls attributable to each member of a socioeconomic group with income to determine whether domestic violence varies with income. After making that determination,…
Domestic violence is popular as domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse, or family violence. The behavior involves brutality or another abuse by one person in a domestic behavioral context where people rise against others in marriages or similar unions. The intimate partner causes violence to their spouses making it domestic violence. Spouses and partners within intimate relationships are expected to live in harmony without elements of discomfort. Domestic violence takes place where heterosexual and same-sex relationships are involved (Edelson, 2011). The issue of domestic violence takes various forms such as physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse ranging from subtle to coercive forms of marital rape and violent physical abuse resulting in death or disfigurement (Tolman, 2010).
Domestic violence occurs where abusers believe that their actions are justified and acceptable. The implication is that there is production of intergenerational abuse cycles of condoning violence. Perception, awareness, documentation, and definition…
Breines, W., and L. Gorden. (2013). "The New Scholarship on Family Violence." Signs: AJ. Woman in Cultural and Society 8(3):490-531.
Edelson, J.L. (2011). Social Workers' intervention in women abuse: A study of case records from 1907 to 1945. Social Service Review, 65, 304-313.
Ehrensaft, M.K., and D. Vivian. (2009). "Is Partner Aggression Related to Appraisals of Coercive Control by a Partner?" Journal of Family Violence 14(3):251-266.
Garbarino, J., & Sherman, D. (2011). High-risk neighborhoods and high-risk families: The human ecology of child maltreatment. Child Development, 51, 188-198.
orkshops are arranged for their further training in recognizing such behavior but over time the officers have also found direct relationships with other crime such drug dealing and grand theft auto. Other such animal cruelty like cock and dog fighting are also on the rise for the Midwest Region (Getz, par. 2). Laura McCloskey also found a direct relationship, weak in theory but however present between firesetters and people who are cruel to animals. She states, "youths who are both firesetters and cruel to animals are especially at risk of delinquency. Firesetting and animal cruelty have been linked conceptually because of their covert nature and empirical evidence indicating an overlap between these two behaviors" (page 6). She further elaborates that the tendency toward such behavior will over time lead to other delinquencies. It is believed such behavior is learned and can be found in paternal influence but also is a…
American Humane Urges Alabama to Strengthen Pet Protection Act." PR Newswire
Getz, Jim. "WORKSHOP LINKS ANIMAL ABUSE to DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PETS CAN PROVIDE CLUES to BIGGER PROBLEM." St. Louis Post-Dispatch 16 Nov. 2000.
McCloskey, Laura a. "A study of firesetting and animal cruelty in children: family influences and adolescent outcomes." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2004).
Meyer, Diana Lambdin. "Animal Abusers More Likely to Abuse People." Contemporary Women's Issues 1 Sept. 1996.
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-
analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.
Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),
Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
Gender and Domestic Violence
Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…
Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,
L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].
Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.
Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',
Domectic Violence in the United States
Domestic Violence in the United States: A esearch Proposal
Domestic Violence in the United States:
Domestic violence is not a new phenomenon associated with modern times. It has been a common occurrence throughout history. From a social/cultural point-of-view, the woman was considered the property of the man and his duty was to discipline her and the children (and slaves/servants) with thorough beatings. Consistent with eighteenth-century English common law, the only concerns about this related to the thickness of the stick that the law allowed for the beatings. Although there were some earlier unenforced laws against spousal abuse, it was only as recently as the 1970s that the U.S. justice system began to view the problem with any seriousness and consideration of domestic violence as a crime. Until that time, social services for the victims of domestic violence were almost nonexistent (Bronfman, et al., 2005).…
Bronfman, Lois Martin, David Butzer, and Brian Stipak. (2005). The role of police in combating domestic violence in the United States: A case study of the Domestic Violence Reduction Unit, Portland police bureau.
Ellison, Louise. (2002). Prosecuting domestic violence without victim participation, Modern Law Review 65 834-858.
Karmen, Andrew. (2010) Crime victims: An introduction to Victimology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brook/Cole Publishing Co.
Rennison, Callie M. (2003) Intimate Partner Violence, 2000-2003. U.S. Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice. NCJ 197838.
P.T.S.D Influence Family a Solder eturning Home Deployment
The consequences of P.T.S.D (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) are limited to varied scales of human behavior and experiences in life. Several avenues of performance and human interaction are related to the development of stress avenues among people. Childhood experiences are part of the mechanistic influences that have a larger share of what people go through in their lives. The experiences developed within the notion of dealing with the stresses and embracing the new strategic feeling of life are central to all the activities and experiences of the people in the society. The environment is one of the other factors that are related to the general growth and development of s child to adulthood. The elemental activities that are related to the general consequences of having to be part of the social structures also have a common arena. This is an arena of…
Dekel, R, et al. (2005). Being a Wife of a Veteran with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Family Relations, ISSN 0197-6664, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp. 24-36
Evans, L, Cowlishaw, S. & Hopwood, M. (2009). Family Functioning Predicts Outcomes for Veterans in Treatment for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Family
Psychology, ISSN 0893-3200, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp. 531 -- 539
Evans, L, et al. (2030). Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and family functioning of Vietnam veterans and their partners. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0004-8674, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp. 765 -- 772
Matters appear to be even worse for those who are in need for protection and shelter as a consequence of psychological or physical abuse at home since statistics also indicate that the percentages of those who are denied shelter are slightly increasing every year in Texas. If there were 16% of those who asked for shelter who were denied in 2001 in Texas "due to lack of space"(Texas HHSC, 2008), according to the same report, 22.63 were denied due to the same reason in 2008.
The ATP in Webster Texas does not only offer temporary shelter for women and children, but it also involves their residents in educational programs that help them rebuild their self-esteem and learn the basic principles necessary for them to change their lives and start all over again. The organization also offers "a weekly confidential self-help support group for victims / survivors of Domestic Violence and/or…
Bay Area Turning Point, Inc. Retrieved: Oct, 7, 2009. Available at:
2008 Family Violence Program Statistics. Texas Council on Family Violence. 2009. Retrieved: Oct 7, 2009. Available at: http://www.tcfv.org/
Domestic Violence Abusers
The purpose of the study by Etter and Birzer was to characterize defendants in case of protection from abuse (PFA) orders in one Kansas county. The results of the study were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Both researchers are affiliated with universities and cited extensively from academic literature on this topic. As they pointed out, domestic violence is a widespread problem in the U.S., occurring every eighteen seconds (Paisner, 1989, cited in Etter and Birzer, 2007, p. 113) and across all socioeconomic classes and racial groups (Gilbert, 2001, cited in Etter and Birzer). A PFA order, unfortunately, does not necessarily stop the abuse.
The researchers reviewed data collected from PFA court filings for a period of approximately one year from Sedgwick County, Kansas, a metroplex with a population of over half a million and the largest urban area in the state. The study was descriptive in nature;…
Etter, G.W., and Birzer, M.L. (2007). Domestic violence abusers: A descriptive study of the characteristics of defenders in protection from abuse orders in Sedgwick County, Kansas.
Journal of Family Violence 22(3), pp. 113-119.
Domestic Violence Among Hispanics
olina, C.S., Gomez, J.R., & Pastrana, .C.V. (2009). Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children who are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence. Adolescence. 44(173). The paper is about symptoms which a child develops when he or she is exposed to domestic violence. This is a psychological survey, seeing the effects of children when they witness their mothers being beaten. It measures the dimesions of depression and anxiety which a child may develop. This study focuses on the Hispanic community and dysfunctional families within that community. The first author, olina, is a hold a Ph.D. In psychology and psychotherapy, this deems her credible for the study. Additionally, she is herself of a Hispanic background, therefore she is aware of most of the culture's traditions and dimensions.
urdaugh, C., Hunt, S., Sowell, R. & Santana, I. (2004). Domestic Violence in…
Molina, C.S., Gomez, J.R., & Pastrana, M.C.V. (2009). Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children who are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence.
Murdaugh, C., Hunt, S., Sowell, R. & Santana, I. (2004). Domestic Violence in Hispanics in the Southeastern United States: A Survey and Needs Analysis. Journal of Family Violence. 19(2).
Saenger, S.A. (2000). Family Violence: A Review of the Dysfunctional Behavior Patterns. Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse.
Alcohol, Drugs, And Domestic Violence
Family violence - or male aggression against women in a relationship setting - also known as domestic violence (DV) is most certainly a devastating social and moral problem in our society; but it is also a serious police problem, and an expensive health problem. In fact, the annual health care cost associated with the manifestations of DV is estimated to run as high as $857 million in the United States (odiguez, et al., 2001). But moreover, DV takes a toll on American families that is much greater than any dollar amount could ever reflect - and, in addition, DV is a social blemish on the face of America that seems to be getting worse, not better. The "causes" of violence in the family - why men act aggressively against their wives and girlfriends and even their children - are varied and complicated; but in too…
Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly (2003). Alcohol use may increase the likelihood of domestic violence. 15 p7.
Brain, Paul F. (1986). Alcohol and Aggression. London: Croom Helm.
Brookoff, Daniel, M.D., Ph.D. (1997). Drugs, Alcohol, and Domestic Violence
In Memphis: Research in Progress Seminar Series. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
(Potter-Efron, 2007). Both alcoholics and domestic violence offenders seem to be out of control at times, especially to their victims. (Potter-Efron, 2007). Finally, both family violence and alcoholism create tension in families, which can lead to an increase in assaultive behavior or alcoholic binges, making both problems very self-perpetuating. (Potter-Efron, 2007).
In addition, the drinking behavior can be a catalyst for family assaults. This is rarely due to the fact that non-violent people become violent when drunk. However, alcohol use lowers inhibitions, making it more likely that an abusive person will resort to violence. Furthermore, many abusers may actively seek to become intoxicated prior to abusing, knowing that their victims, and the rest of society, are less likely to hold them accountable for their abusive behavior when they are intoxicated. Therefore, it is quite likely that drinking patterns will establish abuse patterns in a household. For example, children may "keep…
Dryden-Edwards, R. (2008). Domestic violence. Retrieved August 3, 2008, from MedicineNet.com
Web site: http://www.medicinenet.com/domestic_violence/article.htm
Jordan, C., Nietzel, M., Walker, R., & Logan, T.K. (2004). Intimate partner violence. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Potter-Efron, R. (2007). Anger, aggression, domestic violence, and substance abuse. In Hamel, J. & T. Nicholls. Family interventions in domestic violence: a handbook of gender-inclusive theory and treatment. New York: Springer Publishing Company.