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Fascism in the Interwar Period:
Fascism, similar to every sound political idea, is both thought and practice since it comprises of both a doctrine and an action. It's regarded as a doctrine since it originates from a given system of historical forces while it's an action in which a doctrine is imminent. Since it's a sound political conception, fascism is entrenched in the doctrine and works from within. Fascism is a spiritualized conception that could not be understood in its practical demonstrations as a party organization, a discipline, and a system of education unless it was examined with regards of its entire means of conceiving life. As a result, fascism is brought by the overall reaction of contemporary times against the floppy materialistic positivism of the 19th Century.
This concept can also be regarded as a historical conception through which man is what he is based on how he works…… [Read More]
Gregor believes and sustains in his works that fascism was the truly revolutionary doctrine of the twentieth century, representing a model for dictators in the Third World countries. Fascism, rather than Marxism, represented the model for dictatorships demanding liberation from foreign dominance and wealth redistribution. Fascism appealed at patriotic feelings and at national pride, but it was still an ideology of dictatorship.
The true model that applied the fascist ideology into a political program was enito Mussolini, who used the relevance of fascist theories in Italy when the fascists came to power in 1922. According to Gregor, fascism is best pictured by Mussolini's program, who used the opportune moment of economic downfall, of domestic disputes and external hostility to introduce the fascist platform.
Italian fascism is not, according to Gregor, the ideal system of belief - it represented an ideology that was not less irrational than other revolutionary ideologies of…… [Read More]
Communism was supposed to be the final product of human civilization, which went through certain socio-economic-political stages and would culminate in communism. Socialism would, however, represent a transitional state system. In certain countries, communism manifested as a highly regimented, state-regulated system but such forms of government cannot be truly called communist. Rather, they are more like authoritarian or totalitarian socialist states. Like many fascist regimes, communist states have been headed by dictators and run as military dictatorships or police states. The heavy-handed government, the control and suppression of governmental opposition, and the use of propaganda to promote the needs of the ruling party are all aspects common to both fascism and communism, in spite of their ideological differences. To garner support from among detractors in the working classes, fascists relied on a clever and systematic use of propaganda. In fact, the use of propaganda is one of the major similarities…… [Read More]
In general the middle class was driven by despair especially due to inflation that was galloping and economic crisis was becoming an ideological crisis. There was a discredit towards parliamentary democracy, economic policy that was liberal and a society of industrial development was now on the verge of breaking out in Europe. Therefore with the stable equilibrium from 1920 there was fragility of the democratic system and therefore adherents of authoritarian regimes aimed to overthrow the liberal governments that were in existence.
In parallel with the fear of proletarianization as well as lack of any ideological guidance, authoritarian as well as nationalistic movements emerged that pressed for the sedition of the liberal democracies that were newly formed which was an endeavor that was carried into effect for dictatorial and anti-liberal regimes. There was also the increasing disentrancement as well as accusations that the government was leveled against about economic scandals…… [Read More]
One of the critiques of this theory is that it assumes that groups coalesce or converge in an environment which is normless. hile the theory is suited to an explanation of spontaneous group formation, it does not address the fact that movements such as fascism are grounded on prior normative formations and value systems that lead to the collective behavior. At the same time it must be acknowledged that this theory does have value in that emphasizes the insight that
"…behavior is social" and that "…each individual's behavior is affected by the presence and actions of others." (Brown, and Lewis)
2.3. value -- added theory
Value-added theory is associated with the work of Neil Smelser. It is based on the view that various conditions have to be met for a social movement to come into being. This view is related to the concept of social change. In other words, collective…… [Read More]
The closest one could come to putting a date on the beginning of Fascism in Italy would be to magically zip back in time to March 23, 1919, where in a Milan's Piazza San Sepolcro, the founding fathers of Fascism. As their ideas evolved, they began to be more vocal. In 1921 they developed a plan for action for the nation of Italy. That plan evolved as time progressed, but it was still complete enough to actually win the hearts and minds of the people. "While failing to outline a coherent program, fascism evolved into a new political and economic system that combined corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, and anti-Communism in a state designed to bind all classes together under a capitalist system....one in which the state seized control of the organization of vital industries. Under the banners of nationalism and state power, Fascism seemed to synthesize the glorious Roman past with…… [Read More]
Fascist Italy v. Nazi Germany:
In the early 19th Century, Italy and Germany were characterized with instability, political weaknesses, and global economic crises. Governments in these countries seemed incapable of handling the troublesome situations. Actually, the leaders of both countries were dictators and led totalitarian regimes, which culminated in the cooperation during World War II. Adolf Hitler used the situation involving the near collapse of Weimar republic to advance propaganda against the government in which he blamed the government for all problems in the country and established Nazi solutions to the problems. In 1919, in Italy, Mussolini founded the Italian fascist party and formed a government after a series of strikes and riots. Since he took the government on dictatorial powers, Mussolini tried to control each aspect of Italian's life (Husic, n.d.). The Nazi and Fascist dictatorial regimes in Germany and Italy respectively had some similarities and differences.
One of…… [Read More]
Following a series of terrorist attacks against the United States which culminated in the attacks of September 11th, 2011, the most pressing terrorist threat facing the country is that posed by Islamic Fascism, because it represents a diffuse, dedicated, and ongoing effort to attack the United States as frequently and destructively as possible, whether domestically or abroad. As a result, the United States government has dedicated substantial time and resources towards studying and confronting the threat posed by Islamic Fascism, but it remains a difficult task, not least of all because of the movement's diffuse, decentralized organization. When considering Islamic Fascism and the terrorism it encourages, one must confront the sometimes blurry boundary between domestic and international terrorism, as well as the way in which globalization has allowed money and resources to unite otherwise distant groups. Examining the establishment of Islamic terrorism in the United States reveals that…… [Read More]
Fascism is arguably the most influential and controversial political ideology in modern history, and continues to be a fascinating topic for political study and discussion. Yet, despite fascism's worldwide existence and its responsibility for the development of numerous groups and political movements, Germany remains only one of two countries (the other being Italy) in which the ideology of fascism has enjoyed the success of political power. Although there is very little consensus amongst political scientists and academics on many issues of fascism, there is a general agreement that the success of fascism in Germany was not due to any singular, or isolated, factor. Rather, it prospered as a result of Germany possessing the ideal combination of a strong national identity, a well-developed system of public persuasion and propaganda, and an existing government that was too weak and unstable to provide effective resistance against social and economic crisis. Therefore,…… [Read More]
Another difference worth mentioning is also of economic nature and refers to the Great Depression of 1929-1933. hile the Italian fascism emerged in the context of internal problems, the German fascism was driven by international economic crisis. The fall of the American market, the primary creditor of the defeated countries, meant that the financial resources would stop coming from across the ocean, and the economic condition was in even grater danger.
Not many differences can be found between the two, at least not many major and distinctive differences, ever more when the rules controlled the masses is similar manners, followed similar agendas and had the same enemies (the communists). However, one strong difference resides in the approach taken by the leaders. hereas Mussolini emphasized on Italy as a whole, with all of its inhabitants, Hitler emphasized on Germans as a race. In other words, behind the Italian fascism lays a…… [Read More]
Communism, at first glance, seems to be the exact opposite of fascism. Its supporters often describe it as a paradise, where each person does what they can and gets what they need. Efficiency is not the consciously stated goal, but it is the "natural state of being" theorized by Communists. In reality, the two types of government are only one step removed from each other; Communism requires just as much control over individuals as Fascism. The essential difference is that in the ideal form of Communism there is no government at all, but instead the people all work together by communal agreement, whereas in Fascism the government remains in complete control, if only (ostensibly) at the interests of the people. Also, Communism requires even distribution of wealth and work based on need and ability, while fascism can allow for a much more stratified society, with each individual's place rigidly defined…… [Read More]
However, Marcuse equates political art to "revolutionary" art, and feels it is an important, even vital part of any culture. He writes, "The most revolutionary work of art will be, at the same time, the most esoteric, the most anti-collectivistic one, for the goal of the revolution is the free individual" (Marcuse 203). By the end of the essay, its inclusion makes sense, because Marcuse neatly ties in his beliefs about philosophy and society with the use of art as a means of expressing revolution or revolt. This section also includes quite a bit of French poetry, which was not translated, and this helped take away from the overall meaning of the piece. A translation would have given this essay even more impact.
The final sections of the book include notes of thirty-three theses Marcuse was working on or had worked on, and letters to two of the philosophers who…… [Read More]
The history of communism and fascism
The two movements have been known to share a lot in terms of their history and even ideologies. Both are clearly seen to have been established after the First World War in order to create a new world political order that would not plunge blocks or continents into such a gruesome war as was WWI. Both ideologies loathed the domination of the bourgeoisie and wanted to recruit people to the new utopia that made all members of the society equal. Both the systems put totalitarianism into action. It was Lenin’s step of kick starting totalitarianism in October 1917 that brought into existence totalitarianism as we know it today. Both movements initiated the insurrection of the masses in politics and diminished the significance of individuals in politics. As stated by Hobsbwan E., (nd: Pp 29) “revolution swept across central and south-eastern Europe in the autumn…… [Read More]
Anatomy of Fascism
Chapter 2 Analysis
Paxton identifies the starting place and date of “fascism” (Italy, 1919) but goes on to note that the idea of fascism was occurring elsewhere in Europe at the same time—quite distinctly from anything related to Mussolini. The Hungarian kingdom had essentially been dissolved by the Treaty of Trianon following the end of WWI, and Bela Kun had instituted a socialist government in Budapest. Hungarian elites struck back and formed the Anti-Bolshevik Committee, which was essentially anti-Jewish, as Kun’s commissars had mainly been Jewish. Thus a type of Hungarian fascism was born. A similar story was told in Germany, where Hitler led a similar response to Jewish power during the Weimar years. Essentially, fascism was a nationalistic-militaristic response to liberalism and socialism. Likewise, the miserable outcome for countries defeated by the Allies in WWI was a prelude to the organic rise of fascism—a power viewed…… [Read More]
The relationship between the Russian Revolution and the rise of fascism is distinct and marked. Both movements were revolutionary in their own way, and both were provoked to a certain extent by a Marxist inspiration. Lenin was one of the leaders of the Russian revolution and he was a committed Marxist. He did not want Russia to participate in any part of the war, but was the one who surrendered to German invasion. When Lenin died, the gap that was left open in his death was quickly taken over by Stalin. Fascism was the outgrowth of a revolution that was meant to create more freedom, justice and equality. This is because the Russian revolution and the nation were vulnerable during this time of transition: this vulnerability meant that someone strategic could have the power to come in and corrupt the policies in place. This paper will explore the nuances, events…… [Read More]
rise of fascist states in Germany and Italy during the post World War I era was accompanied by similar movements in nations across the world; but most of these never achieved the same prominence. Great Britain saw the emergence of the British Union of Fascists, which gained thousands of supporters, but the organization never came to power. Largely this was for economic reasons: Britain did not suffer as severe an economic downturn after the First World War as many other nations did. Another explanation is the general rejection of the violent methodology employed by the British Fascists. It is tempting to argue that fascism was fundamentally opposed to the overall democratic nature of the British populous, but it is more likely that the failure of the fascist movement in Great Britain had economic origins.
There had never been a war quite like World War I. In its aftermath it was…… [Read More]
As Paxton (2005) points out, the Russian Revolution was directly responsible for the rise of Fascism in Italy and Germany. The Russian Revolution, comprised of and led largely by a Jewish demographic, represented a threat to the nationality and national interests of European states. Fascist movements were not limited to Italy and Germany—they appeared in England, France, Spain and elsewhere—but Italy and Germany emerged as the primary Fascist states because of the force of leadership that emerged in each nation respectively: Mussolini in Italy, and Hitler in Germany. Both were at the forefront of the conservative, nationalist movement that pushed back against the rising tide of Communistic socialism, which the conservative nationalist parties vehemently opposed. The Russian Revolution was, in essence, a rejection of everything Old World, as Fitzgerald (2000) showed. The representatives of Fascism were fighting specifically for that Old World—and they were using every possible avenue they could…… [Read More]
Sinclair Lewis' It Can't Happen Here is a thinly veiled satire about the possibility of a fascist dictatorship erected in the United States (eardon, 2015) . In that respect, the author's characterization is particularly important in elucidating the potential of fascism during the 1930's in this country. An analysis of the actions and interactions of Doremus Jessup and Senator Trowbridge, then, reveals that the potential of fascism in this country is both possible as well as nearly absolute.
The doctor in Vermont is a relatively minor character in this work. However, his reaction to the tirades of the recently elected U.S. President (Buzz Windrip) who acts like a fascist dictator for the majority of this novel is like that of most Americans regarding the possibility of this movement's emergence in America. The doctor scoffs at the possibility, and dismisses based on what he perceives as the virtue of the…… [Read More]
Nazi Propaganda and the Spread of Fascism
orld ar II was precipitated by the rise of fascism throughout Europe. As the mores of socialism began to take root in many parts of the continent, fascism emerged as a powerful counterpoint. For nations like Italy, Spain and Germany, the consequences of a sustained and devastating recession would be a coalescing of support behind strong, self-proclaimed and authoritarian leaders. Certainly, most notorious among them would be Adolph Hitler, whose Nazi party would first occupy Austria and Germany before ultimately pursuing a more global agenda. However, for our discussion, the primary interest is the degree of success that the Nazi party had in ultimately penetrating Germany with its values, ideals and policies. As the discussion here will show, propaganda would play a central role in the ability of the Nazi party to garner support and generate the impassioned loyalty of the…… [Read More]
Race for Colonies in the Late 19th Century
Although European imperialism had started in the 15th century when a number of European powers such as Spain, Portugal and Great Britain began to look for new settlements around the world, another great race for colonies occurred in the late 19th century. This time around, other countries such as the United States and Japan also joined Europe in the race. Some of the major reasons for the establishment of colonies in the late 19th century and specific examples of such colonies are outlined below.
The industrial revolution in Europe and the United States had greatly increased their technological and military power by the second half of the 19th century. Japan, too, had embarked on a path of rapid modernization in the mid-nineteenth century. As a result, several countries in Europe (including England, France, Germany and Italy), the U.S. And Japan…… [Read More]
European Federalism: Historical Analysis
Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…… [Read More]
Mazower says this is ridiculous, for Hitler was not "as A..P. Taylor once famously implied, 'just another politician'...The Second World War did not start because of diplomatic misunderstanding or confusion, nor even because of Hitler's deceit or duplicity. Rather it started because -- very late in the day -- Hitler's opponents realized they were faced with a 'clash of worlds'" (74).
The book is less strong in a few other areas. For example, Mazower does not spend enough time and intrigue on what was happening with Communism during this period. Understandably, he believes that Fascism was the one of three triangular factors to fear the most. However, because he set up his theme to be which of three ideologies was going to come out on top, he needed to give equal billing to each. His argument is stronger as a two-prong democracy vs. fascism or nationalism scenario. It is difficult…… [Read More]
All of the residents of the attic live with the constant fear of discovery, and death looms over the Secret Annex.
However, although Anne and Peter are more grown-up in many ways than adolescents who lead a more normal childhood, they also are far more under the watchful eyes of their parents, almost as if they are small children. The growing restlessness of Anne and Peter, combined with the closeness of the environment exacerbates the normal tensions that always exist between the parents and children. The divisions between the married couples, the Franks and the Van Daans, are also amplified because of the tensions of the war, the small living quarters, and the lack of privacy.
Q4) Give an example of anti-Semitism.
Anti-Semitism is manifest in the fact that Anne and her family had wear yellow stars, to identify them as Jews, and were denied basic rights (such as the…… [Read More]
John Perkins (2007), likewise, examines how the modern American Empire has affected our economy and our society in his book the Secret History of the American Empire.
Perkins reveals nothing new when he contends that the United States makes up "less than 5% of the world's population…[yet] consumes more than 25% of the world's resources" (p. 5). What he does do with this information is use it as a platform from which to analyze America's position in the global arena. How is America able to consume so much? According to Perkins, "this is accomplished to a large degree through the exploitation of other countries, primarily in the developing world" (p. 5).
As Howard Zinn points out, European powers, beginning in 1897, were pushing their way into China, a potential nation ripe for exploitation. The only problem was that America was not in on the action. What Zinn shows is how…… [Read More]
6. I disagree with fascism. Fascism promotes the whole of society over the individual, which appears to be a sound policy. However, in reality, fascist societies result in the widespread denial of basic human rights to those who do not fit into the government vision of normalcy.
7. I disagree with communism as an ideology, because its focus on collective ownership of resources ignores one of the basic truths about human nature: greed. Communist systems place far too much power in the hands of those who control the resources, and that power has been abused in every single communist government that has ever been established.
8. Conservativism is one of the ideologies I agree with the least. I disagree with it because one of its driving principles is an entirely free market. Conservatives believe that "Economic freedom is essentially about ensuring human rights. Strengthening and expanding it guarantees an individual's…… [Read More]
Impression of the Interwar Years
Although with hindsight, it is possible to see how actions could have been taken to keep World War I from occurring, at that time the situation was like a dry forest that just needed a small flame to start the devastating fire. All the countries who were involved with World War I were completely on edge and only needed a small spark to have them make disastrous decisions. Once things were set in motion, they could not stop. Because of this, millions of people lost their lives and the countries, ironically, lost their Empires.
Why was it called the Age of Anxiety?
The war did not only destroy the Empires. It also destroyed many people's hopes and dreams. No longer could individuals rely on their government as a means of strength and support. In addition, a questioning of life's meaning and a loss of religion…… [Read More]
There are expressed their feelings through different work of art such as filming. Through films, they used actors and actresses to manipulate the story of the film. And thus through the facial expressions and their actions people watching it can get the whole picture of what the story was all about. One of the first to sense this transformation of the actor by the test performance was Pirandello (enjamin 1937). It was through the film actor that critics understand the moral of the story. Through time, the film was enhanced, it was first a silent film where the artists acts and try to relay the message through his actions but now, there are sounds that help the actor easily and accurately relay the message. His feelings as well the manner of his delivery through the sounds can very well understand the message of the story.
Technology boomed and changes came…… [Read More]
She proves to the reader the little horrors of history become eclipsed by the big horrors in a way that removes all meaning and importance to those who suffered the undesirable fates. To describe the little horrors, Morante uses Biblical imagery, albeit in heretical ways, to discuss religious discourse.
Morante reminds the reader that History continues and her ethical challenge to those who care is to realize something needs to be done. Morante's story depicts a difficult era filled with fascism, Nazism, war, and occupation through the perspective of a mother and a family. For her to depict real horror and untold suffering serves to shed light on the plight of those who appear voiceless in society. War, along with any major catastophe eclipses the suffering of many. What this essay attempts to focus on are the less obvious horrors of war the plague the thoughts and hearts of a…… [Read More]
Globalization has greatly weakened the traditional way in which governments functioned. The ever increasing economic integration has had an impact on the autonomy and power of existing national governments and given greater access to other non-state political and economic actors. (Steger, 2004)
Every human order in the past has lived off a shared image of the world view that served to plant the feet of its members tightly in time and space. Yet none actually ever dreamt of linking together the oceans and continents and the people who lived in them. Each of these individual world views only emerged after military defeats suffered in modern Europe. These world views included global acquisition of territory, resources and subjects in the name of empires and the will to unite the world through fascism and Marxism. They indeed left permanent marks on the lives of people, institutions and systems but they failed to…… [Read More]
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…… [Read More]
Unilateralism and Preemptive Defense
The arguments for unilateralism and preemptive strikes outlined by conservative historians appear logical and well-documented but are essentially wrought with contradiction. In his recent documentary film called Bowling for Columbine, Michael Moore delivered the premise that American culture is built on the promotion of fear. Fear underlies American foreign policy, especially after the terrorist attacks of September 11. In fact, those attacks offered the Bush administration easy fodder for propaganda to promote unilateralism and preemptive strikes on other nations. In spite of the huge practical leap from Bin Laden to Iraq, the administration launched its attacks on that nation with impunity and in spite of massive international opposition. The willingness of the American government to act without the slightest respect for the United Nations proves that America as a whole is under the spell of a cultural superiority complex. This complex is not only psychologically dangerous,…… [Read More]
He writes, "The rise of the radical Right after the First World War was undoubtedly a response to the danger, indeed to the reality, of social revolution and working-class power in general, to the October revolution and Leninism in particular" (Hobsbawm 124). The right-wing backlash against labor unions was crucial in setting up the rise of those fascist leaders who would be responsible for initiating the Second World War. As such it was partially responsible for creating the conditions for violence, but also, later, for unification between anti-fascist forces to defeat them. Socialist resistance to fascism was always strong, starting out peacefully until "resistance to fascism which did not envisage the use of arms could not succeed" (Hobsbawm 152). They were not that successful and went against the Stalin's Soviet view of a symbiotic alliance between capitalism and communism against fascism. Yet paradoxically, it was the strength of communism coming…… [Read More]
The reason for such volunteer support for a war against fascism was born from the economic calamity and the political turmoil of the 1930's (Sills pp). Thus, like many during the Great Depression, the young volunteers had experienced with deprivation and injustice, leading them to join the "burgeoning student, unemployed, union, and cultural movements that were influenced by the Communist Party and other Left organizations" (Sills pp). These groups had exposed the volunteers to a Marxist and internationalist perspective, and with their successes in bringing people to conscious, political action led to a revolutionary spirit (Sills pp).
American radicalism was spurred by the appearance of pro-fascist groups like the Liberty League, and the expansion of fascism abroad (Sills pp). ith Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Hitler's rise to power in 1933, and Italy's assault on Ethiopia in 1934, (all accomplished without hindrance from estern governments), the Communist Party responded…… [Read More]
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, in the immediate period, due to the increasing prosperity, the Republican left started to benefit from the people's trust and this was proven as well by the elections in 1928. Moreover, the coalition formed by the German's people Party with the three Republican parties was undoubtedly considered a change. However, the situation was not to last long and one year afterwards in Germany the first signs of an economic depression have made themselves felt. As a consequence, people started to mistrust the political change they had sustained and that allowed the left-wing and right-wing radicalism to gain legitimacy, a fact which led to tensions of the parties which sustained those currents of thought on the political scene. In this situation, one of the logical measures, which later determined the appearance of Fascism, was that the Socialists, under the pressure of the fear that their sustainers would embrace Communism, became…… [Read More]
In IBM's case, the Department of Justice found that their efforts were mired in failure. Unfortunately, IBM was so central to the economic operations of Germany and occupied Europe that it was necessary to preserve IBM's role in the economy of Europe so as not to jeopardize the postwar occupation.
Part II-Present Corporatist America and Comparisons with Fascist Italy-
When the Wall Street Journal, the United States' newspaper of record for financial affairs makes an explanatory note, it gives us all pause. Gerald F. Driscoll in "An Economy of Liars" takes aim at both the Obama and George W. Bush administrations when he speaks about the present economic reality and asserts "We call that system not the free-market, but crony capitalism. It owes more to Benito Mussolini than to Adam Smith ("An Economy of Liars" 2010)."
If a communist agitator on the proverbial soapbox spouted this statement, it could be…… [Read More]
It is necessary to control the workers and make them dependent on the government. The policy also makes it possible for the government to direct all its resources on a single project -- typically the major "goal" of a regime such as war.
Complete government control on weapons, although not an exclusive characteristic of totalitarian governments precludes the chances of successful uprisings.
Case Studies: Specific Examples of Totalitarian egimes
The Soviet Communist regime under Joseph Stalin, the fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy and Nazi regime led by Adolf Hitler are typical examples of totalitarian regimes.
Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin: As observed earlier, it is debatable whether Karl Marx had clearly envisaged the formation of totalitarian governments by the application of his Communist theory. However, the first country to adopt Communism, i.e., the Soviet Union soon degenerated into the worst type of totalitarian government imaginable under Joseph Stalin who…… [Read More]
ultra-nationalist ideologies were far more threatening on a worldwide scale than communism to the liberal belief in individual rights from 1920-1945," because it is unequivocally true. One of the principle means of corroborating this statement is to analyze the atrocities and events that led up to and included orld ar II, which took place during the aforementioned time frame. orld ar II was largely about the propagation offFascism, which is ultra-nationalism at its finest -- or at its worse for the millions of people who were slaughtered in the wake of this ideology prior to and during orld ar II. An examination of first hand sources from the Japanese invasion of China, Italy, and from communist Russia indicate that ultra-nationalism was far more restrictive in individual rights than communism -- for the simple fact that the latter belief circumscribed such rights while the former simply eradicated them.
Japan's invasion of…… [Read More]
Jose Ortega y Gasset, once a "Liberal" legislator in the doomed Spanish Republic, wrote Revolt of the Masses 70 years too soon. This elitist book, although seriously flawed, makes numerous excellent points, demands to be read in these opening years of the 21st Century, and should be quoted, frequently, publicly, and with great fervor. Gasset felt that man has come to demand things without taking responsibility. However, at the same time, Nietzsche's book, Disadvantages and Advantages of History does not explicitly examine the nature of morality, the master/slave relationship, or related questions. Instead, it questions the relationship of historical knowledge to life in the present. By "present," Nietzsche does not mean some specific century or decade, but rather the present we perpetually find ourselves in as human beings. He also discusses the possibility of people living like animals because they do not knowledge of history. By comparing Gasset and Nietzsche,…… [Read More]
Main question: How to keep identity and integrity in time of horror/terror?
One of the main questions that the film Mephisto by Istvan Szabo is the question of whether one can keep one's identity and integrity within a time of horror and terror. Szabo seems to be implying that it's almost impossible to do this, and seems to toy with that notion throughout the film. The film already takes place within a loaded and terrifying time in world history. This is the era of World War Two, when fascism and the Nazis were coming to power. Looking back on this era, it can seem absolutely shocking that the Nazis were able to come to such a supreme level of authority, power and evil, but fundamentally this occurred, because they were allowed to. The Nazis came to power because the rest of the world allowed that to happen. Thus,…… [Read More]
His underlying interest was to understand the basic forms of religious life for all societies. In Elementary Forms, Durkheim argues that the totems the aborigines venerate are actually expressions of their own conceptions of society itself. This is true not only for the aborigines, he argues, but for all societies (ibid).
eligion, for Durkheim, is not "imaginary," although he does deprive it of what many believers find essential. eligion is very real; it is an expression of society itself, and indeed, there is no society that does not have religion. We perceive as individuals a force greater than ourselves, which is our social life, and give that perception a supernatural face. We then express ourselves religiously in groups, which for Durkheim makes the symbolic power greater. eligion is an expression of our collective consciousness, which is the fusion of all of our individual consciousnesses, which then creates a reality of…… [Read More]
"The rumor claiming that the commercial almost never aired is true," said Clow (www.ciadvertising.com).The Apple board "demanded that it not be aired," Clow goes on, but Apple CEO Steve Jobs insisted that it be played, and so it was. Clow says that this commercial wasn't just a parody of Nineteen Eighty-Four; "one could almost interpret this commercial as a bleak commentary on society," he writes. It shocked the "PC world into paying a little more attention to their competitors in their field," Clow asserts.
In conclusion, TV Guide called the Apple commercial "the greatest commercial of all time," according to CNN. And while Orwell's book isn't the greatest by any means, it has created an endless number of allusions and references, including the phrase "Big Brother," who, unfortunately, is with us today far more than most of us probably realize.
Clow, Lee. "Lee Clow: His Masterpiece." Chiat/Day Advertising.…… [Read More]
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…… [Read More]
In Italy, Mussolini exploited the state of confusion and malaise to seize power. From this cradle, Fascism emerged into the world. In Germany, it morphed into Nazism, a more virulent and transformed fascism feeding upon race mysticism as well as extreme nationalism and dictatorship. Both countries took this highway to the Hell of World War II. During this second installment of Great War, European countries groaned under the Fascist boot heel and fought back under native partisan movements in the underground resistance.
Ironically, the European Federal movement was midwifed by Italian political theorist Alberto Spineless. After the Second World War, the people of Europe wanted human rights, an end to despotism against both and human freedom and dignity.
he Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by…… [Read More]
Arguments for and against the Patriot Act
The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/ashington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and…… [Read More]
Features of Modern / Post-Modern Period
Most historians term the era after the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, i.e., after the mid-18th century as the Modern Period in history; a period that has seen tremendous changes in politics, sciences, economics, commerce, society and technology. Some of the salient features of the Modern / Post-Modern period have been explained in this essay.
New Standards for Governance:
The American Revolution (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) were significant political and social developments in the later part of the 18th century, which signaled the weakening of powers of monarchies and ushered in new standards for governance and society such as democracy, liberty, equality and fraternity -- standards that have empowered the people and symbolize the Modern Age. Such a new form of government is typified by the nited States of America which adopted a constitution that guaranteed the inalienable rights of…… [Read More]
Conservatives and socialists splitted society and failed to create a functioning coalition. After years of authoritarian monarchic control, proportional system of election led society to political chaos, as nearly 20 parties with different political programs from communist to right radicals were represented in eichstag. None of country's politicians was successful either in diplomacy or in the art of achieving compromise. The experience of political pluralism led to political and economical disorientation in society, as in a period of 1919-1933 Germany witnessed several temporary coalitions in parliament and twelve governments, which were unable to stabilize country's economy.
Haffner describes that political crisis was a common attribute of Weimar republic's pluralism: "From 1914 to 1923 all governments had been weak" German parliamentarians of Weimar republic faced a common problem of all young political parties. Being one of the most popular parties in the country with wide support in society and even being…… [Read More]
The preamble of the United States' constitution is the perfect example of democratic government:
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." (the United States' Constitution)
What other proof needed, to show the democratic origins of the constitution? "Perfect union," "general welfare," "liberty to ourselves and our posterity." And it was all written by our ancestors.
To those who criticize democracy as a form of government, I only quote what John Dryden once said:
Democracy does not guarantee equality of conditions - it only guarantees the equality of opportunity."
For if one comes to the Land of All Opportunities in search of a better life for…… [Read More]
Combat. A French Resistance Newspaper from 1944
COMBAT: THE RESISTANCE NESPAPER
Big Brother: The Physical Embodiment and Symbol of the Party in Oceania
Big Brother's Predecessors: Hitler, Stalin and an Old British Recruiting Poster Featuring Lord Kitchener
BIG BROTHER IS HITLER AND STALIN, INCLUDING THE MOUSTACHE
By O'Brien X
Unlike the real dictators Hitler and Stalin, Big Brother does not really exist and has never existed, except as the symbol of English Socialism (Ingsoc) and the Party that controls all aspects of life in Oceania through totalitarian, police state methods. After all, a dictator with a physical body will eventually become ill, decline with age and die, Big Brother will live forever as the image of a Party that intends to remain in power forever. Its members will die off, even at the privileged Inner Party levels, but that matters no more than cutting off dead fingernails. As…… [Read More]
Germans, Post World War 2
Evil, German attitudes through the Twentieth Century, and humanity
The Second World War has had a terrible impact on society as a whole and it is safe to say that it shaped the way that people perceived the idea of being human and of life in general. Michael Hanake's 2009 motion picture The White Ribbon discusses with regard to a series of events happening in a fictional German village during the era leading to the First World War. While the film discusses ideas that apparently have nothing to do with the Second World War or with the National Socialist ideology, an in-depth analysis would make it possible for someone to find parallels between many of the concepts it contains and values promoted in Nazi Germany.
Haneke's film provides viewers with the image of an apparently perfectly organized village in which everyone is well-acquainted with…… [Read More]
During the inter-war years, Nazism strengthened its populist support by emphasizing its nationalist ideology, thus drawing on the German traditions of the 19th century and gaining strength from the disillusion that had set in after the defeat in World War I. Hitler's policies for Germany included the resurgence of a Greater Germany, by instilling the German people with a renewed sense of purpose in order to inspire, "the miracle of Germany's emergence as a nation" (Berwick, 20). This rejuvenated nation would also include Austria and the German-speaking people who had been lost to Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1919. Before 1933, Hitler played on the unjustness of the Versailles Treaty and, between 1933 and 1939 repeatedly claimed that he was reasserting the national rights of Germany, which included the publicly popular issue of territorial claims (Payne, 1995). Therefore, the reoccupation of the hineland in 1936, the occupation of…… [Read More]
Age of Extremes
The ise of the evolutionary Arts
The chapter under review is set in the context of the troubled times that Eric Hobsbawm describes in his book "The Age of Extremities" -- a time which saw two world wars, the greatest economic depressions in world history and the communist revolution in ussia and elsewhere. There was an environment of revolution in Europe and elsewhere -- in India for example where the fight for independence from British rule was at its height during the later part of this period. Therefore according to Eric Hobsbawm, the time period from 1914 to 1945 was one where the socio-political scenario had a deep impact on the arts and culture and their expression.
The ise of the evolutionary Arts
During the period from 1914 to 1945, Eric Hobsbawm notes that in the established world of arts and culture the only two innovations that…… [Read More]
Jesus said that God created human beings (Matt. 19:4) and they should worship and obey Him wholly and also love their neighbors, much as they love themselves (Matt. 22: 37-39). He also taught that human beings have immaterial souls that live on after one dies and that these souls will be reunited with bodies on the day of resurrection (Matt: 12: 26-27; John 5:28-29). Interestingly, Jesus termed human beings as spiritually "lost" (Luke 19:10) and also corrupt (Matt. 9:13; Mark 7:21-23) (Douglas . Groothuis 2003).
Buddha did not speculate about the origins of humans. His focus was the existing human condition with emphasis on suffering occasioned by having unfulfilled wants and desires. His teachings asserted that humans cannot satisfy the needs of their souls as they do not have souls to begin with. Similar to a chariot that lacks essence and is just a composition of individual components and…… [Read More]
All of the chapters in the book relate to various events in Levi's life, as well as to his passion for chemistry. Surprisingly (when considering the suffering he went through in Auschwitz) Levi only associates a small chapter in the book with his experiences in the death camp. The story is nonetheless sad, and can be regarded as being the most impressive account in the book. All in all, "The Periodic Table" is more of an autobiography than a nonfiction account involving the Holocaust.
In "Vanadium," Levi shortly depicts a series of occurrences speaking about Auschwitz. The author apparently wants to go over the topic as fast as possible, only to return to the beautiful world of chemistry. He does not succeed in doing that however, since the subject slowly but surely grabs hold of him and forces him to go deeper and depict one of the most influential chapters…… [Read More]
By mobilizing women in the name of Peron, Eva was able to use women to evangelize the greatness of Peron to their families, and to count upon their turn-out in the streets on prominent festival days. She also took special care to help downtrodden women through her Foundation.
Plotkin suggests that Peron's rise to power was not merely based on charisma. The Peron regime created institutions that supported its quasi-religious cult of personality. The educational, bureaucratic, and social structures of the land all conspired to keep Peron in power. Textbooks, national holidays, myths disseminated through the media about the rise of Peron's wife up from poverty, and gift-giving all created a system of interconnected symbols and rituals that made Peronism seem legitimate. Populism itself can be a manufactured entity.
A common question not just in regards to Peron, but about many populist figures that betray their constituencies is how people…… [Read More]
247). Further, Jones began preaching about "revolutionary suicide" which was a kind of "collective suicide" as an "outcome of being attacked by forces" against Jonestown.
These facts that are generally supported by other sources can easily lead an alert reader to assume that Jones started with an idealistic spiritual movement and gradually he apparently became obsessed with power - and paranoid that some group would try to wipe him out - and turned his church into a cult. The PBS research claims that prior to the mass deaths Jones "confiscated medicines from every resident" and kept himself "medicated" on barbiturates and amphetamines. It doesn't take a doctor or psychiatrist to project that being on amphetamines (speed) and barbiturates (downers) could induce wild highs and lows, radical mood shifts which could certainly lead to paranoia, fear, hostility, and violence. "Hard physical labor" was forced on members six days a week -…… [Read More]
Throughout his play, collective devastation is met with personal suffering. It is only when this becomes a shared suffering that it can become a collective way to redemption. The divides of a war now over would give way to this shared experience for all peoples of France, charged with the responsibility of rebuilding.
Indeed, this speaks much to the futility of war itself, as spoke by Camus when he resolves that "all a man could win in the conflict between plague and life was knowledge and memories" (Camus, 262). The viewpoint expressed here is in informed by the severity of orld ar II and the unprecedented global experience of attempting to be removed from this trauma. In the resolution instigative of this discussion, we can see that Camus holds on to some sense that man is inherently more a good creature than a bad one, and that he is to…… [Read More]
It is a humorous take on the time of unrest between the two World Wars, when Germany smarting from the ignominious defeat after the First World War allowed Hitler to take charge. This led to the large scale extermination of the Jewish people. This film is about what might have been if Hitler had a change of heart. This film also underhandedly mentions the Great Depression. In the last speech of the movie, the Charlie Chaplin character, the barber, who is mistaken for Adenoid Hynkel, bemoans greed and the loss of democarcy. This Jewish barber also calls for peace and for soldiers to drop their weapons and fight against those who would enslave them and force them to resort to untold instances of violence. The fact that this film was made in 1940 is remarkable and shows great courage on the part of Chaplin. The war was still five years…… [Read More]
The U.S. retaliated by freezing Japanese assets and imposed a complete embargo on oil exports to Japan and delivered the 'Hull Note' -- an ultimatum demanding a complete withdrawal from China. Japan considered the act unacceptable and opted for all-out war by attacking Pearl Harbor. (Ibid.)
Major Issues of the War:
Fight against Fascism: Fascism gained strength after the WWI. Totalitarian regimes in Germany, Italy, and Japan looked to dominate their neighbors and threatened military occupation. The democratic countries and the Soviet Union fought to stop them.
esources: The struggle to capture natural resources such as oil, considered necessary for development in an industrial age, was another major issue of the War. Hitler looked to capture the resource rich areas to the east as well as to create Lebensraum ("living space") for the expanding German population. A resource-poor Japan led by militarists had also adopted a policy of expansionism in…… [Read More]
He felt that this was all "full of defeatism and disillusion and sometimes of a too studied innocence" (White, pp. 481). He criticized intellectuals for not merely taking a side on an issue that White thought affected everyone. He thought that intellectuals would more than anyone, want their opinions to be heard and to be taken into account because it is the educated people in the United States that made a difference. It was them who had the advantage of knowing and having more opportunities than the rest, yet they were the ones that were content with what was occurring. He writes, "Where I expected to find indignation, I found paralysis, or a sort of dim acquiescence" (White pp. 483). He was so appalled by their lack of opinion and this disregard to an issue that affected so many, that it invigorated his own desire and admiration of and for…… [Read More]