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FDR: The New Deal Years 1933-1937: A History, Kenneth S. Davis presents a meticulous account of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's first term. This book is the third volume in Davis' much-lauded biography series of the 32nd president.
In this volume, Davis focuses on Roosevelt's New Deal policies, providing a thorough analysis of how the president laid the foundations - often without his full comprehension -- of the American semi-welfare state.
Davis' core argument is that the New Deal Program, which Roosevelt cobbled together in fits and starts and amid stringent opposition, would eventually be recognized decades later as a necessary safety net for the unfortunate and the down and out.
To examine Roosevelt's achievements, Davis arranges the book into four sections that chronicle Roosevelt's term from his 1933 inauguration to the beginning of 1937. These sections take the reader chronologically through the president's first Hundred Days, late 1933 to 1934, the…
Davis, Kenneth S. FDR: The New Deal Years, 1933-1937. New York: Random House, 1986.
Hawley, Ellis W. Book review of "FDR: The New Deal Years, 1933-1937." The American Historical Review, 93(3): 792. ProQuest Database.
FDR and WWII involvement
American involvement in armed conflict is a messy topic; since the Civil War the nation has a history of being divided about wars. Today, many Americans question our nation's involvement in the Middle East; in the 1960s and 70s, the Vietnam war created a huge schism in the country. What many do not realize, however, is that disputes over American involvement in overseas wars dates back much further than September 11 or even Vietnam. The country did have conflicts about our involvement in World War II, a supposedly halcyon era of national unity and support for overseas intervention.
In fact, the nation was undergoing a significant controversy about entrance into World War II. I will examine Roosevelt's motives for declaring war on Japan as well as the possible motives of Japan in attacking the United States, which was not a declared enemy of Japan at the…
hile FDR's leadership and guidance saved many American lives, he also destroyed many lives of American citizens, simply because of their ethnic origin.
However, without FDR's independence and firm guidance, which motivated America to support providing aid to England during the bombing of Britain, it is very likely that orld ar II would have turned against the European Allies. The congress was intent upon keeping America out of another world war, and the Lend-Lease program was the only way to prevent the balance of power from going against England. Jenkins demonstrates that it is highly unlikely that FDR 'knew' and permitted the Japanese to bomb Pearl Harbor, but he stresses that long before much of the nation and the congress were aware of Hitler's danger to America's interests, Roosevelt made a commitment to making America an international partner in the fight for freedom and justice abroad.
Thus, Roosevelt occasionally used…
Jenkins, Roy. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The American President's Series. New York:
Times Books, 2004.
primary sources on the New Deal Programs. It has 6 sources in Chicago format.
Frank D. oosevelt attempted to turn around the declining economy of the U.S. during the 1930s by introducing the New Deal. This comprised of various programs which aimed at restructuring and rectification of the economy and yet, when the New Deal was launched it failed miserably due to poor administration, and lost objectives. The failure was so dramatic after the words of hype to sell a failing economy that the programs are still criticized with fervor today by critics and economists alike.
Jim F. Couch and William F. Shughart (1999) in their book "The Political Economy of the New Deal" objectively project the political scenario and the administrators Harold Ickes and Harry Hopkins as having the major role for its failure. The basis of the authors' premise is that when the New Deal was introduced, the…
Young, James T. 1993. The origins of New Deal agricultural policy: interest groups' role in policy formation. Policy Studies Journal.
Adams, Don and Goldbard, Arlene 1986. New Deal Cultural Programs: Experiments in Cultural Democracy. Webster's World of Cultural Democracy, Accessed at http://www.wwcd.org/policy/U.S./newdeal.html#INTRO
Manza, Jeff 2000. Political Sociological Models of the U.S. New Deal. Annual Review of Sociology.
Long, Jennifer 1999. Government Job Creation Programs -- Lessons from the 1930s and 1940s.Journal of Economic Issues.
New Deal documents and analyzes it in the context of accounting. It has 3 sources.
Due to the tock Market Crash in 1929 and the global depression that followed suit, U.. industrial output fell 54% and there was 25-30% unemployment. In 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected president and he drastically changed the course of U.. economics and politics by introducing strong government regulation and a package of massive public works projects called the "New Deal." These were meant to re-employ Americans and to build a more modern infrastructure. Following are three sources for the New Deal.
The first source is an article written by Abraham Epstein in 1935 for The Nation. He wrote that the social-security bill was with signed by the President on August 14 with a great deal of publicity surrounding it. However, the issues it was meant to cover and the public opinion regarding it was…
Epstein, Abraham. "Social Security" Under the New Deal (September 4, 1935). The New Deal Network. Retrieved Nov 16, 2003. http://newdeal.feri.org/nation/na35261.htm
Fechner, Robert. My Hopes for the CCC (January 1939). The New Deal Network. Retrieved Nov 16, 2003. http://newdeal.feri.org/forests/af139.htm
Mayer, Albert. Can We Have a Housing Program? (October 9, 1935). The New Deal Network. Retrieved Nov 16, 2003. http://newdeal.feri.org/nation/na35400.htm
Taking one side over the other is quite a difficult task, especially when the problem is so complex as the entire economic stability of a country, or that of more countries. And the same conundrum is obvious today, as specific economic sectors (automobile or banking) and specific countries (Greece) face the risks of demise. What should a good leader do? What should have a good leader done?
A responsible leader would have selected the difficult road to recovery; the road which allowed the economy to revive by itself and to realize and correct its mistakes by itself. The measures would have been unpopular as the population would come to feel the repercussions of their extended and unsubstantiated expenses. Still, this approach would have allowed the population and the economic agents to recognize their mistakes and refrain from making them in the future as well. Still, a question is raised regarding…
Franklin D. Roosevelt, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt last accessed on November 3, 2011
Hoover information, The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, http://www.hoover.archives.gov/info/faq.html last accessed on November 3, 2011
For FDR, the Second orld ar served as a vital opportunity to revitalize the American economy after years of depression. Therefore, a large part of Roosevelt's justifications, ideas, and visions of the war centered on the economy. The war boosted employment levels, helped involve more women in the workforce, and propelled the industrial development of the nation. The war machine offered impetus for financial investments in industry as well as impetus for developing new technology. In fact, the war era led directly to the consumer culture that was to rise to the fore in the Truman years. Roosevelt had also promoted a bigger federal government even in the years prior to entering the war. The war gave the president the ultimate excuse to further his New Deal plans for greater federal powers.
The bombing of Pearl Harbor served as a convenient excuse to shed America's neutrality and enter into…
Fish, Hamilton. Quoted in an interview with Studs Terkel originally printed in The Good War. 1980. Cited on "Hamilton Fish." Online at Spartacus. < http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAfishH2.htm>.
Schultz, Stanley K. "World War Two: The Impact at Home." 1999 Ameircan History 102: Civil War to the Present. Online at < http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html>.
Great Depression and the Presidents' Reaction
The Great Depression did not have its origins in the United States, even though its effects were deeply felt there. The major causes of the Great Depression were numerous and yet related. This paper will discuss these causes and show what Hoover and FDR did to respond to the Depression.
The major causes of the Great Depression stemmed from the outcome of WW1: war reparations were forced upon Germany, who could not repay them. Europe as a whole was in financial straits and could not afford to import the American products that Americans were used to exporting. Also, the same credit structure problems that afflicted America were an international affliction. Essentially, the banks were in control of the global money supply (thanks to the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 -- and the Great War that soon followed, which allowed American banks to…
FDR's address to the nation following the Pearl Harbor attack is a strong speech. The introduction is strong. It is to the point, and sets the tone for the rest of the speech. The body covers the facts of the situation in a concise manner. The body also ensures that the listener is rallied to the cause. The conclusion contains a call for action. This call for action is directly related to the content of the speech, and flows directly from the introduction.
The overall organization of the speech is effective. The introduction sets the stage for the facts in the body of the speech. Those facts support the call to action that is present in the conclusion. The speech is concise, so that the listener does not lose focus on the message. The speech is oriented towards building emotional and logical support for its conclusion. The facts and…
FDR Pearl Harbor Speech. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://22.214.171.124/~eiden/mp3clips/politicalspeeches/fdrwarmessage344.mp3
Young, G. (2010). Signposts. A to Z. Of Business Presentations. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://a2zpresentations.wordpress.com/tag/verbal-signpost/
oosevelt and Taft
In the first part of the twentieth century the United States found itself becoming an emerging world power. In response to this new position in the world, two distinct foreign policies developed under two successive presidents: Theodore oosevelt's "big stick" policy and William Taft's "dollar diplomacy." While one was predicated on the development and use of military power to reinforce America's position in the world, the other was based on the development and use of economic resources to accomplish the same goal. oosevelt's position was unashamedly militaristic while Taft's was based on economic incentives, but in the end oosevelt was more successful. This is because, while he promoted military power, his reliance on military power intimidated many nations into acceding to his demands without the actual use of military force while Taft's attempt to downplay military force ultimately required him to use it more often.
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H.. (2009). Out of Many: A
History of the American People, Vol. II. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
These programs were really pushed between 1933 and 1936, with the goals of relief (job programs) reform (stimulating business and providing structure for banking), and to ensure that the events that caused the crash would never happen again (speculation, lack of confidence in American currency, farm and urban policy, and unemployment).
DR had to first focus on something that would provide the quickest recovery for the most people. His administration pushed through a number of banking reform laws that were designed to prevent another crash, to find emergency money for the poor and unemployed who had nowhere else to turn, and to establish work programs so that the able bodied could work, help their family, and recover self-esteem. DR also worked to repeal the Gold Standard so that the new economy would be based on more practical measures, and to repeal Prohibition. Relief was provided, then, in the so-called "alphabet…
FDR had to first focus on something that would provide the quickest recovery for the most people. His administration pushed through a number of banking reform laws that were designed to prevent another crash, to find emergency money for the poor and unemployed who had nowhere else to turn, and to establish work programs so that the able bodied could work, help their family, and recover self-esteem. FDR also worked to repeal the Gold Standard so that the new economy would be based on more practical measures, and to repeal Prohibition. Relief was provided, then, in the so-called "alphabet programs, " which guided government dollars towards finding jobs and work for the unemployed, to establish social security, and money designed to help stimulate farming and agriculture and use a trickledown effect to stimulate the economy by providing more dollars for consumer and business spending. The 1934 Securities and Exchange Act also acted to reform the stock market, which in turn, spun other reforms in trade, business practices, and labor acts.
Recovery did happen in two stages. First, Roosevelt appealed directly to the people in his famous "Fireside Chat Program" the first time a sitting President regularly appealed to the populace. Second, although he ran up a large government debt, by establishing relief and reform programs that would diminish unemployment, increase farming and industrial output, and change the attitude of Americans about themselves and the world. Clearly, the situation had improved, and by the end of the 1930s, America was again on the way to recovery and, as would be a repeat of the events prior to World War I, crucial to the European situation from 1939 on.
Compare the presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and ilson. hat made them Progressive presidents? Identify what you believe to be the most important pieces of legislation passed during each administration. hy are these so significant? Finally, be sure to indicate what each president did to expand the meaning of freedom for American
Theodore Roosevelt is often called our nation's first Progressive president. Roosevelt used the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break up heavily consolidated industries that were having a stifling effect upon American commerce and limiting the choices of the American consumer. Roosevelt was also an advocate against child labor and unfair labor practices in general. One of his first noteworthy achievements as president involved negotiating an end to a crippling coal strike. Roosevelt was the first president to pass food and drug safety laws; mandated government supervision of insurance companies; investigated child labor violations and also passed the Hepburn Act,…
Freidel, Frank & Hugh Sidey. "William Howard Taft." White House Historical Association.
2006. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
"Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom." U.S. History. 2014. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
Yarborough, Jean. "Theodore Roosevelt: Progressive Crusader." The Heritage Foundation. Web.
1. Describe the main tenants in the New Deal.
The New Deal was the set of federal programs launched by President Franklin D. Roosevelt after taking office in 1933, in response to the calamity of the Great Depression.
2. Draw a concept map of the New Deal.
3. The New Deal was a launching pad into World War II. Do you think that this process was helpful or not helpful in the long run?
The New Deal was helpful because it helped lift a country out of a depression. WWII was a necessary war that needed to be fought by America.
4. What is your opinion of Roosevelt exceeding the two term presidential limit? Do you feel that this was right? Would you like to see it happen again?
Roosevelt violated the Constitution and should not have been elected past a second term. This is the only time…
Great Depression and the New Deal
The Great Depression
The Great Depression was caused by the stock market crash of 1929. The 1920s had been a roaring good time for Americans: credit was easy and investments were going up. In the 1920s, it was known as the Installment Plan -- and "enjoy while you pay" was a popular expression used to lure buyers into the market who could not otherwise afford to be consumers. Credit was used for everything -- including stock. However, when credit expands in the form of shoddy loans, a credit bubble is created. The bubble, in this case, popped in 1929 when the market realized no more credit was going to be pumped in as a result of too many loans to undeserving customers were being made (i.e., customers who could not pay them back). With the market correction came the margin calls and accounts had…
Brinkley, Alan. Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and The Great
Depression. NY: Vintage, 1983.
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Jeansonne, Glen. Transformation and Reaction America 1921-1945. IL: Waveland
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…
New Deal's Consequences
There are some truly poignant ways in which the New Deal profoundly changed American life. The vast majority of these changes had ramifications in political, social, and economic spheres of life. Perhaps even more importantly, many of these changes created by the New Deal were able to effect American life across these different spheres, creating cumulative effects that eventually resounded through all of three facets of life.
In terms of economics, it is notable that despite its intention to produce the opposite effect, the New Deal actually begat the trend towards economic conservatism and laissez fare economics that still typifies the country to this day. Ironically, the New Deal programs -- which were based on the simple notion that the government was responsible for generating spending and business to stimulate the economy during the Great Depression -- had the immediate impact of producing a heavily regulated economy.…
Theodore oosevelt and His Conservation Efforts
In this paper, I have discussed the presidential efforts of Theodore oosevelt regarding the conservation of natural resources in the United States of America. I have included details of the works done under his presidency concerning the environment preservation. In the last, I have insisted readers to hold this American president in the highest regard for his conservation efforts.
In the American history, Theodore oosevelt is remembered as the first president of United States who made it the central governmental function to conserve the natural resources of the country. For the reason that he had an exceptional scientific understanding from an earlier age and latest knowledge of wildlife and history of nature, oosevelt turned out to be the father of the contemporary conservation movement (Gurney 59).
Immediately after taking the office as President of the United States, Theodore oosevelt made a start to encourage…
Gurney, S. "Theodore Roosevelt (1858 -- 1919)." Forest History Today Fall 2008: 58-61. Forest History. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. .
Leeman, W.P. "The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America." Parameters 42.2 (2012): 137+. Questa. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. < Http://Www.Questia.Com/Read/1G1-307918426/The-Wilderness-Warrior-Theodore-Roosevelt-And-The >.
Powell, J. "Theodore Roosevelt, Big-Government Man." Freeman Mar. 2010: 26+. Questia. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. .
Sheffield, J. "Theodore Roosevelt, "Conservation as a National Duty" (13 May 1908)." Voices of Democracy 5 (2010): 89-108. Voices of Democracy: The U.S. Oratory Project. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. .
Era Franklin D. oosevelt, 1933-1945: A Brief History With Documents ichard Polenberg -- 4 Polenberg quotes, brackets quote i.e [polenberg, page number] 2.Franklin Delano oosevelt Alan Brinkley- 4 quotes brackets [Brinkley, page number] 3.
Franklin Delano oosevelt has had a strong impact on U.S. politics for several decades during the twentieth century. The fact that he had influential roles throughout some of the era's most significant events made it possible for him to develop attitudes that put him in an advantage. Even with this, his leadership abilities are also remarkable when considering his background without taking into account events like the Second World War or the Great Depression.
One oosevelt's most impressive early achievements involved the founding of the United States Navy eserve. As a person in charge of this institution, he got actively involved in a series of dealings involving influential individuals and communities in U.S. politics. In spite…
Roosevelt acknowledged the suffering the war could inflict on the American peoples and thus concentrated on strategies that could put the nation at an advantage. "Unknown to all but a few, the United States was by then far along in an effort Roosevelt had authorized early in the war: the Manhattan Project." (Brinkley 1946) The project involving the atomic bomb was practically a means to use a limited number of soldiers while dealing a blow that could destabilize the enemy.
The fact that Roosevelt was determined to keep the U.S. out of the war is visible when looking at his early reactions concerning the conflict. "When war finally broke in Europe in September 1939, Roosevelt continued to insist that the conflict would not involve the United States." (Brinkley 1928) Even with this, he did not hesitate to get the military to organize better with the purpose of being able to provide a swift response in case of a disaster.
All things considered, Roosevelt played an essential role in U.S. history and it is safe to say that his involvement both in the Great Depression and in the Second World War made it possible for Americans in particular and for the world in general to experience a more rapid recovery and to escape having to suffer for prolonged periods of time.
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era…
Brantlinger, Patrick. "Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" and Its Afterlives." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920 50, no. 2 (2007): 172+.
Burton, David H. The Learned Presidency: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988.
Burton, David H. Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician: An Assessment. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.
Collins, Michael L. That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883-1898. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.
Yet, Theodore oosevelt also found within the American nationalism a powerful civic culture that made the United States of America as a country that welcomed all kinds of people irrespective of where they came from, their racial identity and religious leanings as long as they were prepared to devote themselves to the country and observe the laws of the land. Theodore oosevelt also loved the idea that the United States of America was a melting pot in which a hybrid race of different strains could be created. Theodore oosevelt believed that such a mixing had created and would sustain the racial superiority of the American race. This belief of his was demonstrated by his personal delight in moving across social boundaries and meeting people of diverse groups. (Theodore oosevelt and the Divided Character of American Nationalism)
Thus we see that after President Lincoln for nearly thirty five years the leaders…
Gerstle, Gary. Theodore Roosevelt and the Divided Character of American Nationalism. The Journal of American History. Retrieved at http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/86.3/gerstle.html . Accessed on February 27, 2005
Leonard, Erin Ruth. Theodore Roosevelt's Broad Powers: From Revolution to Reconstruction. Retrieved at http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/teddy/teddyxx.htm. Accessed on February 27, 2005
President of the United States. Retrieved form http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761571294_4/President_of_the_United_States.html#p56Accessed on February 27, 2005
Roosevelt, Theodore. The American President. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0250190-0&templatename=/article/article.html. Accessed on February 27, 2005
assassination of President McKinley, Theodore oosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy.
He took the view that the President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution." I did not usurp power," he wrote, "but I did greatly broaden the use of executive power."
oosevelt's youth differed sharply from that of the log cabin Presidents. He was born in New York City in 1858 into a wealthy family, but he too struggled -- against ill health -- and in his triumph became an advocate of the strenuous life.
In 1884 his first wife, Alice Lee oosevelt, and his mother died on the same day.…
Blum, John Morton. (1954). The Republican Roosevelt. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Brinkley, Douglas (2009). The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America. New York, N.Y: HarperCollins
Fehn, Bruce. (2005) Theodore Roosevelt and American Masculinity. Magazine of History 19(2): 52 -- 59
Theodore Roosevelt Association Quotations from the speeches and other works of Theodore Roosevelt
26th President was also the nation's youngest; although Teddy oosevelt was not elected to his first term, he was already a popular politician. As the White House puts it, oosevelt "brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy," ("Theodore oosevelt"). However, oosevelt was and is known as much for his environmentalism as for his domestic and foreign policy.
Theodore oosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, amidst a "flurry of activity" that "disturbed the genteel quietness of East Twentieth Street, New York City," (Morris, 1979, p. 3). The oosevelts were no Lincolns; they were urbanites and prominent philanthroposts. They had servants. Theodore oosevelt Senior, Teddy's father, was "one of the most influential men in New York," (Morris, 1979, p. 4). The oosevelts were came from a long line of original Dutch merchants who…
Miller, N. (1992). Theodore Roosevelt. Harper Collins Perennial, 2003.
Morris, E. (1979). The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Random House.
Roosevelt, T. (1913; 2004). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography. Kessinger.
Roosevelt, T. (1899; 2004). The Rough Riders: An Autobiography.
illiam Leuchtenburg's Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal is a text that combines recent American history with a political and sociological analysis of American policy and government, and adds a healthy dose of biography of the president to give the mixture human drama. Leuchtenburg is able to accomplish this literary feat not simply because he is such a skilled historian, but because Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his cabinet exercised a unique degree of power over the American economy of his day. America was in an economic crisis when Roosevelt came to be elected the presidency. To remedy this crisis, Roosevelt essentially had to overhaul the American system of government and the relationship of the federal government to the citizenry. He created the modern social welfare system, the concept of the 'safety net' for the needy, and a sense of government's social obligations as well as a citizen's obligations to…
Leuchtenburg, William. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Perennial, 1963.
Franklin Delaney oosevelt's attitude towards the Jewish problem during the War. I have read and heard such contradictory accounts spanning from Jews who congratulate for his involvement to some scholars and others who criticize him for an alleged anti-Semitism. Being that this is a famous personality that we are talking about and a prominent President of the U.S.A.; I felt that enlightenment on the subject was important. I wanted to go to the source, and therefore I accessed original documents from the collections of the Franklin D. oosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. These, compounded with other sources, are the results that I found.
By the 1940s, news had already reached the U.S.A. about the concentration camps which Edward . Murrow described (December, 13, 1942),as "A horror beyond what imagination can grasp . . . there are no longer 'concentration camps' -- we must speak now only of 'extermination camps.'" (FD…
Beschloss, M. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
FDR AND THE HOLOCAUST
Feingold, HL The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.
Writing Guidelines for History Identifications and Essays
Your essay should have an introductory paragraph that in some way summarizes, encapsulates, suggests, shapes, and/or sets up the ideas, themes, facts, or whatever you are going to discuss in the main body of your essay. In other words, you should set forth your thesis.
Here, in the main body of your essay, you should develop the principal ideas and themes, and support them with the appropriate facts. The main body will inevitably be several paragraphs long, perhaps a page or two or more, depending on what you want to say and the amount of material you include. Basically, the main body consists of as many paragraphs as you need to discuss the question at hand.
Also let me note that individual paragraphs generally begin with a topic sentence for that paragraph, follow that by a couple of sentences of development,…
Elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, heodore Roosevelt, while being one of the most ambiguous political figures in American history, was also extremely influential, both culturally and socially, and reflected the times in which he lived as no other President. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's Presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America and foreign nations were based on the continuing struggle between the poor and the wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" into foreign lands. Domestically, America was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which upset the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic…
TR: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt. TR's Legacy -- The Environment. Internet. 2003. Accessed February 28, 2003. www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tr/environment.
Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Random House, 2001.
Theodore Roosevelt's Influence. Bartleby.com -- Great Books Online. Accessed February 28, 2003.
Franklin oosevelt's Leadership
Franklin oosevelt Leadership
Discuss why a consideration of Franklin oosevelt's leadership at a former point in time is important to an understanding of leadership today.
Franklin oosevelt is the kind of leader who faced tremendous challenges and overcame them. This helped him to have a sense of understanding the problems impacting different segments of society. These attitudes became a part of his leadership style during his presidency. This is despite coming from a background of affluence and power. (Maney, 1998) (Savage, 1991)
For example, oosevelt was arrogant and full of himself when he was the Secretary of the Navy. After acquiring Polio, is when his life was turned upside down and he was humbled. During this time, he learned what it was like to feel the sense of discrimination and misunderstanding when it comes to the disease. This helped him to see the challenges impacting ordinary people…
Maney, P. (1998). The Roosevelt Presence. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
Savage, S. (1991). Roosevelt. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press.
Theodore Roosevelt, elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, was one of the most ambiguous characters in American history. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, influenced and shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America were based on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" in foreign lands. Domestically, the country was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which complicated the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic change in many areas, such as the twelve hour work day, the dangerous conditions in American factories, the exploitation of immigrant laborers, corporate resistance…
American President. Internet. Accessed February 6, 2003.
Ayers Website. Accessed February 5, 2003.
In the construction of Panama Canal, Roosevelt's primary objective was to curtail his fears that another nation would come up with the idea of building a passageway, wherein trade between the U.S. And other countries would be detrimentally affected, blocking the U.S.'s access to trade goods from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean and back. Through the Roosevelt Corollary, the then president implemented the Monroe Doctrine, which posits that European nations shall not force Venezuela to pay its debts. Roosevelt's assertion that the U.S. shall take action should the doctrine be violated by the concerned parties. As with the Panama Canal construction, the implementation of the Roosevelt Corollary was imposed by Roosevelt for fear that a European nation shall control or overpower a Latin American nation, which may lead to increased European power, and ultimately, decrease the power and control of America over the Latin American region.
Public Administration Review, 47, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1987): 17-25.
All three of the works described by Bertelli and Lynn focus on the separation of responsibility among the branches of government. John Mabry Matthews asserted that "the work of government can be divided into the formulation and execution of public policy" (p. 35). He was a strong advocate of transparent government and believed that public administration should not be treated as an afterthought.
The key elements of illoughby's Principles of Public Administration, were based on the notion that the government should be run like a corporation, with the President acting as, essentially, the general manager. He complained of a "failure to apply scientific principals" (p. 40) such as those outlined by Taylor, as well as the abundant administrative responsibilities of legislative branch, which he believed should belong to the executive branch.
Leonard hite's key points centered on the mechanical nature…
Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
President Roosevelt took a proactive approach to the Great Depression, immediately proposing the New Deal programs as practical steps towards rebuilding the nation’s economy. When he was elected, Roosevelt also demonstrated understanding of the need for emotional messages to help the American people remain calm and confident. For example, one of FDR’s most famous quotes was delivered in his inaugural address: “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” Roosevelt capitalized on the power of the radio to deliver his message of hope and inspiration to the American public. Starting in 1933, Roosevelt delivered the “Fireside Chats,” which informed the public but also provided the psychological solace that so many needed.
Who Benefitted from the New Deal
Ultimately all Americans benefitted from the New Deal, which comprised a number of different but related programs designed to stimulate the economy and mitigate harm. The New Deal programs…
Roosevelt became a boxer, he lifted weights and climbed mountains (he ascended the Matterhorn at the age of 22). His famous charge up Kettle Hill (Battle of San Juan Heights, Rough Riders) during the Spanish-American ar set him apart as an athletically gifted soldier with courage and heart.
And along with his workouts and activism, he "began to collect animal specimens, including fireflies and squirrels"; he filled notebooks with "drawings and life histories of animals and insects"; he read Darwin and Huxley; and, Dalton continues, he loved camping and became an "experienced outdoorsman."
hen the "strain of the job" of president "weighed on him," Dalton explained, "he stepped outside to watch the spring birds migrating"; he "identified the blackpoll warblers perched in the elms outside the Oval Office," and kept notes on his various bird sightings. In the spring of 1903, the president went est "to dramatize his commitment to…
Benedetto, Richard. 2006. No rest for the president. USA Today, 3 August 2006.
Cavendish, Richard. 2001. Assassination of President McKinley. History Today 51 (September).
Dalton, Kathleen. 2006. The Self-Made Man: He was a sickly child. But through sheer will,
Muscular effort - and a lot of time in the great outdoors - he became a powerful, passionate
More precisely even, in order to reach the highest position in the United States, he used his conceptions regarding the reorganization of the United States in order to defeat Hoover. In this sense, "the Hoover administration was accused of being the "greatest spending Administration in peace times in all of our history." It had "piled bureau on bureau, commission on commission..." At the same time Hoover was condemned for the modesty of his relief efforts" (Abbot, 1990, 22). Still, once he reached the President's office he dwelt on the need for the U.S. To recover and created the New Deal, a program that would ensure the recovery of the economy as well as that of the population. These discussions however made him one of the most popular presidents of the history of the U.S. especially taking into account the fact that at the moment of Roosevelt's election, there were over…
Abbott, Philip. The Exemplary Presidency: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.. 1990.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003.
During the turn of the century, maverick muckraking journalists dug up dirt on unfair labor practices including the use of child labor. Muckrakers also drew attention to unsanitary working conditions and the lack of systematic health regulations in meat and food production. President oosevelt responded by initiating a series of labor-related legislation including the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. However, oosevelt at the same time publicly denounced muckrakers and lent them their derogatory name. oosevelt's passion for environmental conservation reflected his personal interests and beliefs more than it did the results of investigative journalism. Environmental conservation emerged as of the main issues that distinguished the progressivism of oosevelt and that of Wilson.
Presidents oosevelt and Wilson transformed the role of the federal government in the United States. Both wielded their executive powers to protect the rights of the poor and working class, to abolish some of the powers…
Theodore Roosevelt." AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://www.americanpresident.org/history/theodoreroosevelt/
Theodore Roosevelt." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
Thomas Woodrow Wilson." AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at http://www.americanpresident.org/history/woodrowwilson/
Woodrow Wilson." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson#Presidency_1913-1921
However, the speech is rather vague and filled with generalities and idealistic views. Precisely because it is not clear and directed against a named aggressor it does not have the strength to create a major change in our foreign policy. The speech should rather be analyzed as a sign of where our security policy is headed than as a clear statement of foreign policy. Perhaps the President's speech could have had a bigger impact if the aggressors were named. It is clear that Japan, Italy and Germany can be portrayed as aggressors, but the Chicago speech does not identify any country. From this it is simple to draw the conclusion that this is the first step towards taking measures against aggressors.
The quarantine of the aggressor nations represents an alternative for America's current foreign policy and the president showed support for forming alliances against aggressive nations. The Chicago speech marks…
Roosevelt, Franklin D., Quarantine the Aggressor, October 5, 1937, available at http://www.presidentialrhetoric.com/historicspeeches/roosevelt_franklin/quarantine.html ;
Quarantine Speech, available at http://www.answers.com/topic/quarantine-speech ;
Reactions to Roosevelt, October 18, 1937, available at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,758266-1,00.html .
Franklin D. oosevelt and the New Deal 1 and 2
The Least Favored from the New Deal
The Impact of New Deal
Helping the Future Generations
The education system
Welfare and Social Security
The Impact on Labor Standards
Measuring the success of the New Deal
Franklin D. oosevelt and the New Deal 1 and 2
The New Deal measures as one of the greatest experiments of public policy in American history. This Deal was carefully designed by the oosevelt administration to mitigate the effects of the economic depression of the 30s; it was an effective tool in assisting the country to recover from the effects of the economic crisis. It helped restore many people's livelihoods. The deal was responsible for making the government directly responsible for the welfare of the people; at least in part. the deal encompassed certain provisions that also shifted the Class power dynamics of…
Adam Cohen. 2009. "The First 100 Days." Time, June 24.
Jim Powell. 2003. How FDR Prolonged the Great Depression. Policy Report, CATO.
Gavin Wright. 2010. The New Deal and the Modernization of the South. Qualitative Analysis, Federal History online.
Guadalupe T. Luna. 2004. The New Deal and Food Insecurity in the "Midst of Plenty."Research Article, DRAKE JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL LAW.
Americans Think about President and Mrs. Roosevelt: hat can you learn from these letters about the writers' impressions of the president and his wife? hat do they expect or hope the president or his wife will do? hat conclusions would you draw about the popularity of the president or about why people might have voted for him?
It is humbling and even awe-inspiring to read between the lines of the letters to the President and Mrs. Roosevelt during the early years of the Great Depression in this country. In an election year such as ours, that has proved so divisive to the American populace, and provoked such cynicism, letters such as these that begin, in one addressed to the First Lady, from a Kansas housewife of 1934, "My dear Friend," seem to come from another world, another nation, where the president's wife is a friend and the president is a…
McElvaine, Robert S. (Editor). Down and Out in the Great Depression. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.
The plan also calls for contributions to improve public education, to modernize schools and to improve Pell Grants. There is also money for research in science in technology to improve the broad band capabilities of the Internet infrastructure. Money has also been allocated for small business owners.
This infusion will be over several years. Critics of this plan concur that the amounts of money spread out over several years will not be sufficient to achieve the results the plan puts forth. Also, a lot of money has been given to banks, financial institutions and lending agencies. Money has also been given to the auto industry so that they can be more competitive with foreign auto manufacturers. But soon after, what the critics feared happened. The President asked the CEO of General Motors ick Wagoner to resign. Critics believe that such an unprecedented rise of the power of the Federal government…
Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: Fdr's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Aravosis, John. Summary of Final Stimulus Package. 2009. America Blog. Available: http://www.americablog.com/2009/02/summary-of-final-stimulus-package.html .
Calmes, Jackie. "House Passes Stimulus Plan with No G.O.P Votes." New York Times 2009.
Fox, Justin. "
Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal reflected the concept of positive government, meaning that the New Deal gave Americans an optimistic outlook.
that the New Deal helped the United States to balance its budget.
that government intervention helped people to attain a greater degree of individual freedom and security at a time when economic insecurity was widespread.
that the federal government take over policies from the states.
that President Roosevelt himself was optimistic, using his radio broadcasts to bolster Americans' spirits.
Government intervention and spending was one of the cornerstones of the New Deal
All of the following statements about Hispanic-Americans are true except they are the fastest-growing minority in the United States.
they have made major political gains in terms of electing local officials, particularly in the Southwestern states.
they are one of the nation's oldest ethnic groups despite the fact that many of today's Hispanic-Americans are relatively recent arrivals.
The ough iders were trained to fight Spanish troops in Cuba. Because of Cuba's hot climate, the United States government made an effort initially to recruit volunteers from hotter regions of the United States such as the American southwest (Library of Congress). The ough iders ended up being the only volunteer cavalry that was sent to Cuba during the Spanish-American War (Library of Congress). Another thing I learned from reading about the ough iders was that the Spanish-American War was fought on many fronts, including Cuba. The ough iders were an important part of Cuba's history as well as American history. After reading about the ough iders, I have a greater appreciation for how ordinary Americans have fought for their country. Finally, I learned that the history of the ough iders proves that United States is truly governed by the people and for the people.
Library of Congress. "ough…
Library of Congress. "Rough Riders." Retrieved July 14, 2009 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/roughriders.html
If Chief Justice Hughes and his five aged associates had chosen to remain, the membership of the court would have been enlarged from nine to fifteen" (Pusey 1995).
A small group of constitutional lawyers advised Roosevelt in the construction of the bill, assuring him that the Democratic majority in both Houses of Congress would pass it. hen Roosevelt introduced the bill, Roosevelt used the euphemism of judicial 'reform' rather than said it was an attempt to circumvent the recent rulings of the Supreme Court. He framed his plan as a way of relieving the pressures of overcrowded court dockets. However, some of the phrases he used made his feelings clear, namely his reference to the problems of lifetime appointments, or "aged or infirm judges," (Menaker 2008).
hen he spoke of justices of advanced ages, the President was obviously speaking of his opponents on the Court, the so-called anti-government Four Horsemen…
Lord, Lewis. "An eagle that didn't take off." U.S. News and World Report.
August 10, 2003. Full text of print article available March 6, 2009 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/030818/1870thann.htm
Menaker, by Richard G. "FDR's Court-Packing Plan: A Study in Irony." History Now. Issue 15,
April 2008. March 6, 2009 http://www.historynow.org/04_2008/historian4.html
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…
Felzenberg, Alvin S. "There You Go Again:" Liberal Historians and the 'New York Times' Deny Ronald Reagan His Due." Policy Review, no. 82 (1997): 51+.
McKenna, Marian C. Franklin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of 1937. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.
Reagan, Ronald. 2008. Inaugural Address. [Online] available from the Internet at http://www.americanpresidents.org/inaugural/39a.aspaccessed 3 May 2008.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
They each impacted the world in unique yet powerful ways and therefore I chose to invite these three leaders to dinner.
Hitler was of course one of the most nefarious men in history. I did not invite him to dinner to hear him rant about enemies to the Aryan people. Rather, I wanted to understand who Hitler was, to recognize what qualities could turn a human being into such a monster. Hitler was enormously successful at his military campaigns too, and I thought it would be interesting to pit him and his foe, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, together. Both impacted the course of World War Two. To Roosevelt I would like to ask more about his disability and about how he felt about the current state of affairs in America.
Similarly, I would like to ask Dr. King what he thought about America today. He would probably be proud of his…
War Address" by F.D. Roosevelt
Discussion analysis on Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Infamy Speech"
The Second World War had been noted as the most destructive conflict in the history of humanity, mainly because it involved and separated nations of the world into two factions: the Axis and Alliance powers. These factions reflect the kind of conflict that led to the declaration of the world war, wherein the Axis group was composed primarily of Germany, Italy, and Japan, while the Grand Alliance involved the United States, Britain, and France. The Grand Alliance was formed as a protest against the Nazi government, led by Adolf Hitler, implemented its anti-Semitism propaganda across Europe, and it moved on to include the Asian region as well (with the participation of Japan).
The Pearl Harbor attack against the United States served as the catalyst that led to its participation as member of the Grand Alliance and involvement…
He would sometimes be wheel chaired to the door through which he would enter to make a public appearance, but once at the door, his leg braces would be put on him, and he would rely on his son's arm for support and balance (43-48). Later, with his son's support, he was able to use a cane, and the extent of his disability was successfully downplayed by the force of his political platform and the attention he commanded with powerful words and the presentation of himself in a dignified way with strong posture (43-48).
"Deeply concerned that the image of a 'permanently crippled man' seeking to lead a crippled nation out of the Depression would be damaging to his campaign, oosevelt's aides every effort to portray the Democratic nominee as a man who had conquered polio and who could walk. As he traveled across the country, his leg braces, without…
Bardes, Barbara A., Shelley, Mark C., Schmidt, Steffen W. (2008).
American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials,
Coates, Peter A. (2006). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive
Species: Strangers on the Land,
Bernard Baruch and his WIB systematically helped increase national industrial production levels more than 20% as well as appling many price controls at the wholesale level. Unfortunately, these controls were key in raising prices and around 1918 nearly double prior to WWI.
One of the reasons our nation was such a force in the early industrial age was because of the appointment of Baruch as the leader of the War Industries Board. The lasting effect of the changes and methodolgies implemented affect us to this day. Therefore, this single appointment may be one of the more influential ties to why hisstorians are smitten with oosevelt.
The National Origins Act
Chinese immigration was a major factor in the late 1800's and the difference in culture and life philosophies changed many immigration treaties that gave Chinese more privileged travel and residence status in the United States but did not legally permit them…
Chew, Kenneth SY, and John M. Liu. (2004). "Hidden in Plain Sight: Global Labor Force Exchange in the Chinese-American Population, 1880-1940." Population and Development Review Vol. 30
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on May 17, 2005, from EdMonroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
Meyer, Ronald Bruce. (n.d.). Clarence Darrow (1857). Retrieved on May 17, 2005, at http://ronaldbrucemeyer.com/rants/0418almanac.htm
Smitha, Frank E. (1998). World War in 1915: The United States and War at Sea. Retrieved on May 16, 2005, at http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch05b.htm
Cold War, the president of the United States was often referred to as the "leader of the free world." This connotes an image of someone with an unsurpassed amount of power and responsibility. From 1861 to 1969, the role of President of the United States progressed from being that of the leader of a moderately powerful, factious republic to being one who was almost singularly responsible for the defense of most of the world's population against Communist tyranny. To understand this evolution requires an broader inquiry into the nature of these leaders and the constantly changing polity that they were elected to represent.
Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt bear the distinction of having lead the country into its largest conflicts during this time frame, which makes them among the most intriguing to historians. Although McKinley, Lyndon Johnson and Truman were also 'wartime' Presidents, their respective conflicts were…
Oxford University Press, 1992.
George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy. Ayer, 1975
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past. Harpercollins, 1986
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
succeeding presidencies of Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt seem to be categorically and diametrically antithetical from every conceivable angle. Entering the office in 1929, Herbert Hoover's administration marked the end of America's most prosperous period to date. Within nine months of his assumption of office, the country began its tumble into the Great Depression. Clearly, the nation was paying for the good times of the Roaring Twenties. Roosevelt, however, took on the unenviable responsibilities of the president in 1933, and with them, he received a nation ravaged by unemployment, homelessness and starvation. During the worst economic times in recorded American history, he would become the warm, fatherly figure ordained to comfort the citizens. Where Hoover was reserved and conservative, Roosevelt was engaging and progressive. Hoover's reaction to the initial blow of the Depression was one of patience and calculated inaction. He was confident that the problem would right itself.…
First Lady is to live in the spotlight. Like it or not, the First Lady is a role model for thousands of women, not just in the United States, but also worldwide. What she says, what she does, how she conducts herself in certain situations, even how she chooses to decorate the White House -- these things and more are all examined by the people and the press and given close scrutiny.
Three First Ladies who each had to deal with criticism, controversy, and pressure in their time are Eleanor Roosevelt, arbara ush, and Nancy Reagan. This paper will examine each of them in turn and compare and contrast their influence, impact, and character as First Lady.
Eleanor Roosevelt was a thoroughly modern woman for her time and refused to adopt the stereotypes and confining image of women as they were in her day. She was strong, outspoken (although painfully…
Biography of Nancy Reagan. Retrieved December 7, 2002. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/nr40.html
Bush, Barbara. A Memoir. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor. This Is My Story. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1937.
Eleanor Roosevelt. Retrieved from MSN Encarta Encyclopedia, December 7, 2002. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761577012
On July 3, 1969, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals entered an order requiring the submission of new plans to be put into effect this fall to accelerate desegregation in 33 Mississippi school districts. On August 28, upon the motion of the Department of Justice and the recommendation of the Secretary of Health, Education & elfare, the Court of Appeals suspended the July 3 order and postponed the date for submission of the new plans until December 1, 1969. I have been asked by Negro plaintiffs in 14 of these school districts to vacate the suspension of the July 3 order. Largely for the reasons set forth below, I feel constrained to deny that relief. (396 U.S. 1218, 1218-1219).
Black pointed out that the Brown decision came 15 years before the Alexander case, but that Mississippi and other states had failed to desegregate. He blamed this on the fact that:…
Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education, 396 U.S. 1218 (1969).
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Novel Guide. "Black, Hugo 1886-1971." Novelguide.com. 1995. Novelguide.com. 28 Apr.
King might be one of the only persons in history with the rhetoric powerful enough to chip away at Hitler's cold heart, to find out why Hitler believed what he did and just possibly persuade him to think differently. Even if King could not get through to Hitler, it would be a fascinating conversation. The only direct question I might ask to Hitler might be about his interest in the occult. I have heard rumors that his dabbling in the occult led to his distorted ideas about the Aryan race.
Over dessert, I would try to find some common ground between the four of us. That common ground, if anything, would be a defining feature of human nature. Dr. King helped awaken America to the reality of racism. President Roosevelt introduced New Deal legislation that left a long legacy of social services in America. Hitler left a trail of blood,…
4. Theodore Roosevelt
A lion of a president and a bulldog of a man, I see him as courageous, moral, upright, and staunch. Roosevelt is famed for his many achievements, but the oen that I consider most important is his fight against the economic corruption and greedy businessmen of his country. Few presidents dared to oppose powerful capitalists who, in many ways held the country in the palms of their hands. Roosevelt was not afraid to oppose them. His endeavors in this area included busting hugely competitive businesses that were engaging in corruption to further their ends and earnest regulation of businesses.
Roosevelt is also well-known for his leadership of the Progressive Movement and for his founding the conservation movement as well as for imbuing Americans with a love for sports and exercise in the American nation.
Roosevelt was a man of many talents: naturalist, hunter, explorer, author, and soldier…
Carpenter, J.J. Jefferson's Views on Education Implications for Today's Social Studies 95 (2004): 140-141.
Schwartz, B. George Washington and the Whig conception of heroic leadership American Sociological Review, 43, 1983
Neely, ME The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993
Roosevelt, T. Citizenship in a republic Speech delivered at the Sorbonne, April 23, 1910
Undeclared War in the Atlantic
America's move to escort convoys into the Atlantic meant America was ready to enter undeclared naval war with Germany during World War II, and yet these very actions have been subject of many criticisms. That is, many claimed it happened because during the time of this war, the oosevelt administration did not establish clear defense tactics that would have defended the U.S. during war. The United States may have been a sitting duck until a time when it was attacked. Some claim the U.S. security was deeply influenced by what was going on elsewhere in the world. For example, if Britain were to crumble under the weight of war, then the Axis powers would essential control the resources of the entire Old World. The New World would then be living in war. This paper discusses more about the United States' undeclared war against…
Bailey, Thomas A. & Ryan, Paul B. 1979. Hitler vs. Roosevelt: The Undeclared Naval War.
New York: Penguin.
Kershaw, Ian. 2007. Fateful choices: Ten decisions that changed the world. 1940-41. New York:
Penguin, p. 624.
George H.W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush, possibly the most underestimated president of recent times, is my choice for the fifth spot. It is perhaps understandable why Bush Sr. is often excluded from most people's list of "great" U.S. Presidents; unlike "activist" presidents such as Franklin oosevelt or his predecessor, onald eagan, Bush carried out his job in a low-key manner but did his job competently. This is precisely why I have chosen him as one of the top five presidents because a president's job, in the words of Bush Sr. himself, does not always involve, "high drama, and the sound of trumpets" (Quoted by ose, 1991, p. 307)
Bush Sr. became the President after having served the country in various positions such as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and to China, chair of the epublican National Committee, head of the CIA, and vice-president in the eagan administration…
Bonwick, C. (1993, April). "Thomas Jefferson: Pragmatist or Visionary?" History Today, 43, 18+. Borden, M. (Ed.). (1961). America's Ten Greatest Presidents. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Busch, A.E. (1997). "Ronald Reagan and the Defeat of the Soviet Empire." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 27(3), 451+.
Kengor, P. (1998). "Comparing Presidents Reagan and Eisenhower." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 28(2), 366+.
Peterson, M.D. (1975). Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1st ed.). London: Oxford University Press.
Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).
However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while…
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
All three groups argued against monied interests and big business, all three represented marginalized groups in economic and political life, and all three sought to expand the power of government at the expense of commerce. The New Deal coalition invited many new people to join the political process, taking advantage of the efforts of the Populists and the Progressives to open up the voting process. hile the New Deal lacked the outwardly religious and evangelical flavor of the previous two movements, at its core, the message of all three groups was the same -- a more powerful and responsive government, regulation of capitalism to support the common welfare, and the creation of laws to protect the weakest members of society.
Edwards, Rebecca. "1896: The Populist Party." Vassar College. N.p., 2000. eb. 10 May 2010.
Horowitz, David and Peter Carroll. On the Edge: The United States in the Twentieth…
Edwards, Rebecca. "1896: The Populist Party." Vassar College. N.p., 2000. Web. 10 May 2010.
Horowitz, David and Peter Carroll. On the Edge: The United States in the Twentieth Century.
Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005. Print.
Kazin, Michael. The Populist Persuasion: An American History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
S. led colonial expansion in the area. One impact of the treaty was that it gave the United States the rights to Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. Both Guam and the Philippines were critical additions because they signaled the beginning of U.S. involvement in the Pacific. It also marked a significant change in how America was viewed in the global arena, because almost all of Europe was sympathetic to Spain, and did not wish to see the decline of a fellow colonial power. However, with the treaty, the U.S. entered into the global arena and poised itself to emerge as a superpower. This status also brought about an atmosphere of economic, population, and technological growth that lasted for more than a century. Furthermore, the Spanish-American War helped repair the rift between the North and the South, and helped establish better relations between blacks and whites during that time…