Federalism Essays (Examples)

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Government History

Words: 3756 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94692179

status of federalism within the U.S. It is the thesis of the paper that the President, the Courts and Congress have assumed influential and significant roles in the shaping of federalism in recent decades. Initially, a conceptualization of federalism will be offered as established by the founding fathers. Current literature will then be used to identify factors associated with and the role assumed by the presidency, the Courts and Congress in federalism as it exists today within the U.S.

Conceptual Framework unique federal system of government to replace the original Articles of Confederation was established b the U.S. Constitution. On the basis of federalism, the Framer's of the Constitution delineated that national concerns were to be handled by a national legislative branch and executive branch of government while concerns at the local and state level would be handled by state legislatures and governors. It was the intent of the Framer's…… [Read More]

References

Brock, P. (2001). Supreme Court Justice Thomas Smith speaks. Montpelier Magazine (Spring, 2001), Harrisonburg, VA: James Madison University, Montpelier.

Eastman, J.C. (2002). Re-entering the arena: Restoring a judicial role for enforcing limits on federal mandates. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 01934872, 25 (3), 931-952.

Greve, M. (2000). The supreme court's federalism. AEI Federalist Outlook, 2 (August 2000). Found at http://www.federalismproject.org/outlook/8-2000.html.

Jeffrey, K. (1995). Guide to regulatory reform: The federalism rule. Brief Analysis No. 151, National Center for Policy Analysis, Washington DC. Found at http://www.ncpa.org/ba/ba151.html
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Criminal Justice Supreme Court Decisions

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15715238

The plaintiffs were disabled Tennesseans who could not access the upper floors in state courthouses. They sued in Federal Court, arguing that since Tennessee was disallowing them public services for the reason that their disabilities, it was infringing Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Tennessee argued that the Eleventh Amendment banned the suit, and filed a motion to dismiss the case. It relied chiefly on Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett (2001), in which the Supreme Court held that Congress had, in endorsing certain provisions of the ADA, unconstitutionally repealed the supreme immunity of the States by letting people sue the States for discrimination on the foundation of disability. Garrett had held that Congress had not met the congruent-and-proportional test, in that it had not collected enough proof of discrimination on the basis of disability to give good reason for the repeal of…… [Read More]

References

GONZALES V. OREGON (04-623) 546 U.S. 243 (2006) 368 F.3d 1118. Retrieved March 26,

2011, from Web site: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/04-623.ZS.html

TENNESSEE V. LANE (02-1667) 541 U.S. 509 (2004) 315 F.3d 680. Retrieved March 26,

2011, from Web site: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/02-1667.ZS.html
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Approval of the Constitution of

Words: 2574 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53645579



DUAL FEDEALISM PHASE

The Dual Federalism is the reflection of the ideology that stressed over the balance of powers between the national and state governments, and considers both the governments as 'equal partners with separate and distinct spheres of authority' (Sergio, 2005). Previously, the 'federal or national government was limited in its authority to those powers enumerated in the Constitution', and it was evident that there was partial understanding and correspondence between the national and stat. There existed little collaboration between the national and state governments, which resulted in the 'occasional tensions over the nature of the union and the doctrine of nullification and state sovereignty'.

In 1789, the Constitution was approved by the States; ratification of the conventions convened took place. The period from 1789 to 1801 has been regarded as the Federalist Perios, 'the period takes its name from the dominant political party of the time, which believed…… [Read More]

References

Michael Mcguire. American Federalism and the Search for Models of Management. Public Administration Review. Volume: 61. Issue: 6. 2001. American Society for Public Administration.

Stever, James a. The Growth and Decline of Executive-Centered Intergovernmental Management. Publius: The Journal of Federalism Vol. 23. 1993. pp. 71-84.

Stoker, Gerry, and Karen Mossberger. Urban Regime Theory in Comparative Perspective. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy Vol. 12. 1992. pp. 195-212.

Stone, Clarence. Regime Politics. University Press of Kansas. 1989. pp. 218.
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Federal Plans for Post War European Order Within Anti-Fascist Movements During World War Two

Words: 3766 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2276224

European Federalism: Historical Analysis

Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Boka Eva (2005): The Democratic European Idea in Central Europe, 1849-1945 (Federalism contra Nationalism) Specimina Nova, University of Pecs,2005. 7-24

2. Boka Eva (2006): In Search of European federalism. Society and Economy (The Journal of the Corvinus University of Budapest), 28. 2006. 3. 309-331.

3. Levi, Lucio (ed.) (1990): Altiero Spinelli and Federalism in Europe and in the World. Franco Angeli, Milan

4. Lindberg, Leon (1963): The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford University Press
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Development and Composition of German Government

Words: 2756 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98222432

GERMANY & COMPOSITION OF GOVERNMENT. The research focus CURRENT ( year ) developments composition government. Preferred Resources: 1)The Economist 2) BBC News .

Development and Composition of German Government

Federalism is a key feature of the political system of Germany and its governance. Federalism dates back in the period after orld ar II when Germany was under the leadership Prussians. At this time, "Germany" consisted of a patchwork of states. These states formed the "Old Empire" (Altes Reich) with a common institution, the so-called Immerwahrender Reichstag in Regensburg (1663 -- 1806), composed of representatives of the respective territories. Its key features were power-sharing, bargaining and compromise-seeking (Kitschelt and olfgang 16).

Following the dissolution of that Empire in 1806, 39 territories formed, under Napoleon's protectorate, the Rheinbund (Rhine-Confederation) which was unwieldy and inefficient. The Vienna Congress in 1815 established, the confederal Deutscher Bund, as successor of the Old Empire and with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kitschelt, H., and S. Wolfgang. "Germany: Beyond the Stable State (Special Issue),, 26:4." West European Politics 26.4 (2010): 12-26. Print.

Scarrow, Susan. "Party Subsidies and the Freezing of Party Competition: Do Cartels Work?" West European Politics 29.4 (2010): 619-39. Print.

Streeck, Wolfgang, and Thelen. Kathleen. . Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies (Eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

The Economist. "Ready for a Bush Hug " The Economist 2006: 15-19. Print.
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Quebec Nationalism Canada Is a

Words: 2579 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56507969

5).

Courchene (2004) also discusses the changing nature of relations between federal Canada and Quebec and suggests that increasing cooperation has become a new vision that is now being explored. Brown (2003) takes particular note of the actions being taken in Quebec, and he notes that the Quebec Liberal Party (QLP) issued a paper "calling for a new federalism 'de concertation et de cooperation,' consisting of a better effort to manage global interdependence, a respect for the federal spirit (i.e. respect for provincial jurisdiction), a better fiscal balance between the federal and provincial governments, and more concerted interprovincial cooperation" (Brown, 2003, p. 6). In terms of how the Copuncil of the Federation, Brown finds that this may be little more than a continuation of the Annual Premiers' Conference under a different name, or it could lead to a return to the earlier practice seen in the Mulroney era when annual…… [Read More]

References

Brown, D.M. (2003). Getting Things Done in the Federation: Do We Need New Rules for an Old Game? Institute for Research on Public Policy (1).

Burelle, a. (2003). The Council of the Federation: From a Defensive to a Partnership Approach. Institute for Research on Public Policy (3 English).

Cameron, D. & Simeon, R. (2002). Intergovernmental relations in Canada: The emergence of collaborative federalism. Publius 32, 2, 49-70.

Chennells, D. (2001). The Politics of Nationalism in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
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Politics Six Questions & Discussion on American

Words: 2113 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20754328

Politics

Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics

Constitutional Convention

During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .
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U S Federal Policy on Abortion

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47096029

While abortion is not banned, it is not encouraged either. Its lack of acknowledgment at the state and local policy level demonstrates the lack of priority or evasion of the government to acknowledge abortion as a healthcare service that must be stated specifically as a subsidized service by the federal government.

Interestingly, with the approval and passage of the Affordable Care Act (or "Obamacare"), federal policy on abortion remains vague if not directly banned or discouraged. While abortion is not explicitly stated as a health service that will be subsidized under this new healthcare law, it is contended that abortion services and its funding are "always included unless it's explicitly excluded" (O'Neil, 2012). Thus, women can avail of abortion services as a healthcare and preventive service subsidized by the federal government and covered in health insurance plans.

This new development in the federal policy on abortion is a step forward…… [Read More]

References

"Federal and state bans and restrictions on abortion." (2012). Planned Parenthood Action Center. Retrieved 28 July 2012. Available at: http://www.plannedparenthoodaction.org/positions/federal-state-bans-restrictions-abortion-644.htm

O'Neil, T. (2012). "Obamacare and abortion: Health overhaul could lead to federal subsidy of abortion, critic says." The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 28 July 2012. Available at: http://freebeacon.com/obamacare-and-abortion/

Santelli, J., M. Ott, and M. Lyon. (2006). "Abstinence and abstinence-only education: a review of U.S. policies and programs." Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 38.
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civil rights and religion

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92623333

Federalism and Religious Freedoms: The Importance of and the Adherence to the Separation of Church and State in a Multicultural Environment

Although it is clear that many religious concepts were embedded into the original drafting of the Constriction and the Nation's laws, maintaining a separation of church and state in the official capacity allowed the country to prosper in many ways. Having civil laws that govern beyond religious controls allows for a level of stability that can accommodate many difference ideologies.

Federalism and Religious Freedoms

A Federalist design works to protect religion and religious leaders by allowing them to operate freely without any state intervention.

Main Point

• Although religions receive many protections, there are many issues that put the church and state at odds when the religious ideology conflicts with the secular freedoms which have been present since the founding in varying forms and degrees; obvious examples in today's…… [Read More]

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Establishment of a Nation Discuss

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53425036



Delegates' top priorities include the following. First, the delegates set out to revise the Articles of Confederation to weaken the power of the state legislatures and increase the powers of the central government. Delegates also sought changes in the ways states were represented in the federal government and introduced the concept of separation of powers to create a system of checks and balances. Debates between federalism and republicanism brewed during the Constitutional Convention, as delegates like Alexander Hamilton favored an exceedingly strong executive branch whereas traditional republicans hoped for term limits for elected officials. Compromise was a must and the Constitution of the United States reflects the confluence of republican and federalist values.

Second, the delegates heatedly debated the question of how to deal with slavery. An abolitionist movement had taken root in Europe and delegates were forced to address concerns about the international and inter-state slave trade. Once again,…… [Read More]

References

Articles of Confederation." MSN Encarta. Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761567227

Hamilton vs. Jefferson." Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at  http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-41.htm 

Lloyd, G. (2006). "Introduction to the Constitutional Convention." Teaching American History.org. Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/intro.html
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WWII to the 60s the

Words: 1427 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99114644

Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.

Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.

Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.

Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
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Framers of U S Constitution Created

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94237090

Another example is drinking laws are defined by each state, but the federal government passed a law stating they would not provide monies to any state that did not raise their drinking age to twenty-one years of age .

lock Grants

lock grants have been part of the United States federal system as early as the late 1960's . lock grants are fixed -- sum of federal grants to state and local governments which allows them to design and implement programs . Examples: Child Welfare: gives states option to receive Title IV-E Foster Care funding as flexible Grant; Medicaid: gives states the option to consolidate Medicate and SCHIP funding into state acute care and long-term care allotments. A block grant has different budgetary implications from an entitlement. While both block grants and categorical grants are normally financed by fixed appropriations, entitlement funding is usually open-ended . lock grants give Congress…… [Read More]

Block grants have been part of the United States federal system as early as the late 1960's . Block grants are fixed -- sum of federal grants to state and local governments which allows them to design and implement programs . Examples: Child Welfare: gives states option to receive Title IV-E Foster Care funding as flexible Grant; Medicaid: gives states the option to consolidate Medicate and SCHIP funding into state acute care and long-term care allotments. A block grant has different budgetary implications from an entitlement. While both block grants and categorical grants are normally financed by fixed appropriations, entitlement funding is usually open-ended . Block grants give Congress more authority and be in command of over future spending, entitlements are more responsive to macroeconomic conditions .

Welfare Reform Act of 1996

Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was signed into law by President Clinton on August 22, 1996. This law changes how government financial assistance is administered including: changing federal funding to states from an open-ended entitlement to a series of capped block grants allocations; sets time limits on entitlements and cash assistance to welfare recipients; requires more welfare recipients to engage in job programs, and enforces collection of unpaid child support, and denies legal immigrants from collecting SSI and food stamps. The legislative goals of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was to reduce dependence, to reduce child poverty, and to reduce illegitimacy and strengthen marriage. This reform has been effective in meeting each of these goals.
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Dred Scott v Sanford Should

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59213759

Thus, Scott was always a slave in areas that were free" ("Classifying arguments," Landmark Supreme Court Cases, 2009).

After the Scott decision, advocates of compromise between slave and free states such as Senator Henry Clay found their views legally invalidated. Clay had advocated the doctrine of popular sovereignty: that states should decide whether slavery was prohibited or permitted within their borders. As a result of Scott v. Sandford Northern states that had abolished slavery would now be forced to harbor slaves within their borders, if residents of slave states transported their 'property' to free states. To a slave-holder, being able to transport his or her property to the north was akin to being able to take a piece of luggage across state borders and retain his or her control over the property.

Southern states had always stressed the inclusion of slavery within the Constitution, and generally disregarded the Supremacy Clause,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Classifying Arguments in the Case." Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Landmark Supreme Court

Cases. November 17, 2009. http://www.landmarkcases.org/dredscott/arguments.html
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Governments Made Part Organizations Laws Electronically Use

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19547422

governments made part organizations laws electronically. Use Internet compare state's issues policies stateline.org. Compare issue states regions country describe state addressing issue. What aspects federalism reflected states' approach policy making area? Does federalist structure government hinder public policy effort issue states address? Support answer.

State government issues: Approval of charter schools

One of the most controversial issues primarily governed by the states is that of education. Although public schools are locally-funded, how schools provide education and how funds for schooling are appropriated differs from state to state. This can be seen in the current debate over charter schools in Georgia and New Jersey. These debates are not financial, but rather "have centered around power: Who has the power to create new charter schools?" (Wieder 2012). ecently, Georgia loosened restrictions on the approval of new charter schools, "regardless of whether local authorities want them or not" (Wieder 2012). However, in New…… [Read More]

References

Wieder, Ben. (2012). Two states, two different paths on charter schools. Stateline. Retrieved:

http://www.pewstates.org/projects/stateline/headlines/two-states-two-different-paths-on-charter-schools-85899378961
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Homeland Security and Emergency Management

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29852522

M5D1: Federalism and Emergency Management Grant

Our proposed grant would be designed to support the education of up-and-coming law enforcement candidates in the field of homeland security. States would be able to apply for a grant to provide scholarships to students at their state universities in the field of criminal justice who specifically wished to study this area of enforcement and serve in a criminal justice agency within the state for a specific number of years after graduation. This would encourage more highly-trained personnel to enter the field of criminal justice and better infuse recent academic knowledge about fighting terrorism and other critical areas into the actual hands-on practice of law enforcement agents in the field.

The program would be mutually advantageous to students and the states. Students would gain support for their education and would also have assurance about finding a job after leaving school. States would be able…… [Read More]

References

Citizen Corps. (2014). DHS. Retrieved from:

http://www.dhs.gov/citizen-corps

RICHARD BROWN M5D1

Having coordinated responses to threats such as
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Affordable Care Act and Marijuana

Words: 1052 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80775399

 When the Affordable Care Act was upheld by the Supreme Court, several people commended the Court for refusing to remove the only social protection they had which was established and improved by the New Deal as well as the Great Society. The House of Congress agreed to allow certain states have a significant level of command on the way federal programs such as Medicaid were implemented on the condition that it would be free to set up and enlarge its planned national entitlement schemes (Brown-Nagin, 2013). A huge disagreement in the beliefs of federalism has been bared for all via the suits contesting the Obamacare mandate. A school of thought believes that the government should get involved even constitutionally in situations when certain states do not have individual capabilities to settle a particular dispute. This school also believes that the main reason why the Constitution clearly specifies national bodies is…… [Read More]

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Accountability in the Public Sector

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59395936

, although more governments are including citizen satisfaction survey results to address the lack-of-quality-indicators criticism. Ultimately, the article's key findings can be summarized in the four lessons learned from the states that the authors provide: (1) the importance of working proactively to identify roles and responsibilities; (2) the importance of committed leadership; (3) the importance of balancing political, managerial and performance measurement accountability; and (4) The importance of clarity and simplicity.

The article also brings to light the legitimacy of other readings in this unit; most notably, Wamsley and colleagues' (1987) Public Administration and the Governance Process. Although this essay was written almost a quarter of a century ago, the statements expressed about accountability and transparency are as relevant today as they were at the time of the writing. Wamsley et al.'s "concern for the more inclusive principals we commonly call the public interest" (p. 301) largely mirror the concerns…… [Read More]

References

Behn Robert. "The New Public Management Paradigm and the Search for Democratic Accountability," International Public Management Journal. 1998. (1:2):131-164

Brown, Trevor and M. Potoski. Transaction Costs and Institutional Explanations for Government Production Decisions. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 13:4 (2003): 441-468.

Johnston, Jocelyn, Barbara Romzek and Curtis Wood. The Challenges of Contracting and Accountability Across the Federal System: From Ambulances to Space Shuttles. Publius: The Journal of Federalism. 2004 (34:3): 155-182.

Klingner, Donald, John Nalbandian and Barbara Romzek, Politics, Administration and Markets: Conflicting Expectations and Accountability. American Review of Public Administration. 32:2 (2002): 117-144. .
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U S History Ordeal by Fire

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32472282

Johnson rebuked generals and Congress continued to pass into legislation laws Johnson had vetoed. Johnson's antics caused more and more supporters to abandon him, and impeachment became a very real concern.

Congress voted to impeach Johnson in 1868 after he violated the Tenure of Office Act and tried to remove Secretary of War Stanton, but the Senate did not convict him. During this time, a struggle between the court system and Congress also developed, which in effect allowed the court to send a message that econstruction was not a constitutional problem but a political one. Ultimately, the power struggle showed the viability of the Constitution and American federalism. While the struggles were great, the Supreme Court, Congress, and the President all survived the crisis and supported the separation of power that separate the three branches of government.

By driving a wedge between the Congress, the judiciary, and the presidency, Andrew…… [Read More]

Reference

McPhearson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw Hill.
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Madison's Dilemma What Was Madison's Dilemma and

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84593834

Madison's Dilemma

What was Madison's Dilemma and what was his solution to it?

James Madison's dilemma primarily hinges on the idea that "men are not angels," that if the contrary was true, then no form of government would be needed. However, because men are truly not angels, government is a necessary system. This brings about a dilemma to Madison, who views this roundabout thinking as a paradox: even with government, how does one prevent man from his non-angelic, corrupt behaviors? What separates government from the common man? Madison's solution, then, is a separation of powers, a "checks and balances" system in the judicial, legislative, and executive branch. In this manner, each branch limits powers of the other branches, and can also resist major influences within the separate branches.

What is the process of incorporation and what is its constitutional basis?

The incorporation doctrine -- or the "incorporation of the Bill…… [Read More]

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Commerce Clause the United States

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80587362

The New Deal jolted the commerce clause into high gear, creating the regulatory agencies, commissions, and boards that continue to oversee the United States' commercial life."

During that administration, oosevelt attempted to assert a lot of federal power that had not been previously asserted by the federal government. However, a number of such laws pressed through Congress were found by the U.S. Supreme Court to lack constitutional authority. For many of these pet endeavors, FD claimed commerce clause authority.

Much of the disagreement with the law stems from the word " commerce." This is a very broad term and is the root word of commercialism. The Constitution does not explicitly define the word. Some would present the idea that it refers simply to trade or exchange, while others claim that the founders of this country and the writers of the document, intended to describe more broadly commercial and social intercourse…… [Read More]

References

Cohn, J. (2012). Did Roberts Gut the Commerce Clause? New Republic, 28 June 2012. Retrieved from http://www.newrepublic.com/blog/plank/104455/did-roberts-gut-the- commerce-clause#

Donato, R. (2012). Commerce Clause and the New Deal. Chicago Business Review, 22 Sep 2012. Retrieved from http://hbr.org/2005/09/the-commerce-clause-wakes-up/ar/1

Downes, L. (2005). The Commerce Clause Wakes Up. Harvard Business Review, September 2005. Retrieved from http://hbr.org/2005/09/the-commerce-clause-wakes-up/ar/1
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American Colonial Experience and the Articles of

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51499634

American Colonial experience and the Articles of the Confederation influence the content of our Constitution?

he American colonies existed as separate political entities. he only attempt to consolidate any of the colonies under one united government was that of the ill-fated "Dominion of New England," an attempt to reign in the independent colonies by a monarchy (that of James II) that was thought by many to want to 'catholicize' the Anglican church in the late 1680's. Administration had to be done at a local level because of the inferior condition of the roads. he advent of newspapers and printing presses in the mid-1700's was really the first non-commercial link between colonies; often colonies had been openly hostile to one another. For instance, dissenters that disapproved of the government of Massachusetts founded Conneticut, New Haven, and Rhode Island. he consolidation or division of colonies, when it occurred, happened by skillful diplomacy…… [Read More]

THE SUPREMACY DOCTRINE basically states that national laws have supremacy to state laws. This is why the Bush administration can tell California to 'reign in' their medical marijuana laws. Because national law is predicated on the dogmatic belief that marijuana has no medical uses, it is what is considered a 'schedule one' drug such as heroin or LSD.

c. In this context, JUDICIAL REVIEW is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a State for the violation of basic principles of justice. If DEA agents or federal marshals were to arrest a pharmacist for selling marijuana, the case would ultimately represent the interests of California vs. those of the federal government and be taken to the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land. (no pun intended)

D. FEDERALISM is the idea that the national government should have jurisdiction over state or local governments. Whereas originally the central government derived its power from the States (people after the revolution would say 'the United States are,') currently administrative law is the law of the land; for instance, executive orders take precedence over even Constitutional law. In the context of the medical marijuana debate, California would not be able to maintain policies that violated federal law. In extreme examples such as that of school integration in the 1950's, the federal government has even sent federal marshals to uphold federal laws.
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James Morone's by the People Debating American

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96389255

James Morone's By the People: Debating American Government addresses the meaty topics of federalism and nationalism. These trends in American political discourse have shaped much of American history, and it is crucial to engage in intelligent debates on these topics. Morone does an excellent job of presenting all sides of the debate and allowing readers to make decisions accordingly.

First, Morone presents an overview and definitions of terms, starting with the question, why federalism? The author responds to the prevailing federalist and anti-federalist beliefs by showing why a strong federal government might have been appealing to early American statesmen. In particular, Morone notes that the fragmented colonial governments needed to reconcile their interests in national security and free trade. Federalism arose largely out of practical matters. Choosing federalism often involves making calculated compromises between local self-interests and the resources that can only be generated on a larger scale. However, Morone…… [Read More]

Reference

Morone, J. (2012). By the People. Oxford University Press.
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U S Constitution the United States

Words: 4248 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26964593

The truth is that the forefathers were actually quite surprised at the effect that the signing of the Constitution had created in America; at the democratic society and government that resulted after the ratification of the Constitution.

The ratification in itself was a long one, and it involved in essence the perusal of the written Constitution by each state for ratification purposes, for which each state was required to create an independent ratifying committee headed by special delegates. The discussions of the advantages and the disadvantages of the newly written constitution of America began almost immediately after it was signed, and the two opposing factions of the Federalists to whom the majority of the forefathers belonged, and the Anti-Federalists who formed the opposing group brought these forth. The situation in America at the time of the writing of the Constitution was that of pro-democracy. The political as well as the…… [Read More]

References

Encyclopedia: American constitution. Retrieved at  http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/American-constitutionAccessed  on 4 October, 2004

Encyclopedia: American Revolutionary War. Retrieved at  http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/American-Revolutionary-War . Accessed on 4 October, 2004

Encyclopedia: Articles of Association. Retrieved at  http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/Articles-of-AssociationAccessed  on 4 October, 2004

Encyclopedia: Articles of Confederation. Retrieved at  http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/Articles-of-Confederation . Accessed on 4 October, 2004
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Analyzing the Partisan Politics

Words: 2107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34653564

Partisan Politics

At the time the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the new America of the 19th century saw its indigenes with varied political opinions. Those in favor of a powerful central government and therefore, a restraint of the powers the states possessed were part of the Federalist Party; those with the belief that interpretation should be given to the Constitution in order to reduce the powers the national government wields, which would further empower the states, became part of the epublican PartyTherefore, The Federalists adopted a nationalistic opinion; the epublicans, although they would not refute the efficiency of the central government, held the opinion that certain rights ought to be kept for the states. Thus, this essay will explore the aforementioned idea (Writer Thoughts). It will examine how the Federalist philosophy and ideas shaped modern American Society.

Supporters of the Constitution

The proposed American Constitution's advocates labeled themselves as "Federalists."…… [Read More]

References

Boyd. "American Federalism, 1776 to 1997: Significant Events." USA Embassy. N.p., 1997. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

"Constitution of the United States." The Free Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

"Federalists." U.S. History. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

MacDonald, William. Select Documents Illustrative of the History of the United States, 1776-1861. N.p.: Macmillan, n.d. Google Books. 1905. Web. 26 Mar. 2016. .
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Government Has a Perfect Right

Words: 1525 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48657994

eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual. Thus, as adults and citizens the government should offer structure and guidance in a manner that is consistent with the social goals of the Enlightenment; namely allowing actualization without overly reducing individual decisions and actualization.

orks Cited

Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.

Barry, B. hy Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. eb. April 2013. .

Gay, P. The Enlightenment - the Science of Freedom. New York: .. Norton, 1996.

Porter, R. The Enlightenment. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2001.

Sharma, C. "Beyond Gaps and Imbalances." Public Administration…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.

Barry, B. Why Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. Web. April 2013. .
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Value of the Traditional Managerial Approach to

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63911420

value of the traditional managerial approach to public administration?

Accountability

Economy

Effectiveness

Providing for political representation in public administration

Which of the following best describes "externalities"?

They are profits

They are always in the public interests

They are costs absorbed by the manufacturers of products

They are created by economic activities but not accounted for in market transactions

The judiciary's power to dispense with the harsh application of law is known as:

Adjudication

Equal protection

Equity

Constitution:

Comprehensively provides for federal and state administration

Comprehensively provides for federal administration

c. Contains no provisions for public administration

None of the above

Which of the following is not associated with the traditional managerial approach to public administration?

a. Max Weber

b. Paul Appleby

c. Woodrow Wilson

d. Frederick Taylor

6. Public Administration resembles private management in that:

a. It is profit-seeking

b. It regulates the public at large

c. It provides services…… [Read More]

References

Fanning, Fred. (n.d.). Public sector safety professionals: Focused on activity or results? Best of the Best Newsletter. Retrieved: http://www.asse.org/practicespecialties/publicsector/docs/PSPS%20Best-of-the-Best%20Newsletter%20Article%202006-2007.pdf

Fessler, Pam. (2012). Struggling families lift themselves out of poverty. NPR. Retrieved:

http://m.npr.org/news/front/155932539?page=2
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Localities With Strong Economic Growth

Words: 1732 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75973874

This hurts the low-wage labor pool, which is the function of large employers that able to pool many jobs under one roof rather than many jobs under many roofs. Small businesses suppliers are often eliminated due to state government dealings with big business. States can assist with these problems by only enabling such entities to operate away from the small businesses and only operate in areas where there are a small number of small businesses with very strong customer loyalty to where the businesses in that area enjoy an inelastic demand curve and fear losing no business to the outside.

eferences

Bell . 2010. Smart Grid, Smarter City. ICMA September 2010.

http://icma.org/en/BlogPost/11/Smart_Grid_Smarter_City

Lare PV 2006. Growing Toward More Efficient Water Use: Linking Development Infrastructure, and Drinking Water Policies. Copyright EPA 2006.

icma.org/Documents/Document/Document/1739

San Diego Budget & Finance Committee (2006) FY 2008 to FY 2012 -- City of San Diego Five-Year…… [Read More]

References

Bell R. 2010. Smart Grid, Smarter City. ICMA September 2010.

http://icma.org/en/BlogPost/11/Smart_Grid_Smarter_City

Lare PV 2006. Growing Toward More Efficient Water Use: Linking Development Infrastructure, and Drinking Water Policies. Copyright EPA 2006.

icma.org/Documents/Document/Document/1739