239+ documents containing “federalism”.
Federalism is a political system where power is separated between one central and several different regional governments. The basic idea is to limit the size and influence of the government by dividing the roles / responsibilities of each entity. ("Federalism")
Describe the importance of federalism to American public administration.
In the case of the United States, federalism is a key in protecting the nation's civil liberties. This is because the power of the different levels of government is placing a check upon each other. During the process of running these organizations, is when administrators from both entities will have to work together on a host of issues. This is designed to ensure that interests of the general public are taken into account by having greater amounts of transparency and accountability. The best way to achieve these objectives is to have the roles and responsibilities divided between the different levels of government. This….
"Advantages and Disadvantages of Federalism." Buzzle.com, 2012. Web. 23 Jun. 2012
"Federalism." Kent State, 2010. Web. 23 Jun. 2012
Hoffman, Mary. Hurricane Katrina. New York: Power Kids, 2006. Print.
Palser, Barb. Hurricane Katrina. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2007. Print.
Between 1970 and 1997 contemporary federalism was developed characterized by a shift in intergovernmental system of grants. It also saw an increase in lack of funding of federal mandates and concern were raised on the federal regulations as well as the disputes that continued to occur over the federal system nature.
United States adoption of federal system
The United States was previously under a confederation. However, in the second constitution there was adoption of federalism which has been in existence since then. The reason behind this adoption was the fact that the confederate system became problematic and would eventually lead to bankruptcy as a result of the lack of ability to tax states and cover the debts from civil war. The confederate system was incapable of meeting the demands of the nation that was growing.
Pros and cons of federal system in the United States
There are various advantages and disadvantages of adoption….
Boyd, E. (1997). American Federalism, 1776 to 1997:
Significant Events. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.cas.umt.edu/polsci/faculty/greene/federalismhistory.htm
Leroy, A.W. (2010).The American constitutional system: principal characteristics -- federalism. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.proconservative.net/cunapolsci201partsixb.shtml
It is also essential for the emergency management program to be tested periodically to determine their capability of dealing with hazards. In order to warn other areas that are at risk and to obtain useful information for the future, damage assessment should take place as well (Turoff, 2004). Specifically, the jurisdiction should develop technology adequate enough for them to "collect, compile, report, receive, and transmit damage assessment information" (Turoff, 2004). The best thing local policy makers can do when designing emergency responses policies, is implement guidelines where analyzing, researching, and providing information about hazards is priority as they are necessary for prevention.
Federal policy makers require a similar frame of mind to their local counterparts except they have an extremely large amount of people to be concerned with. Hurricane Katrina is seen as one of FEMA's shortfalls and this is largely do to disaster planning falling by the wayside before….
S.A. Poynton (2011). The duel over duality: Effects of federalism on the United States
National Guard's emergency response mission. University of Baltimore (569).
D. Murphy (2008).The Seventh Annual U.S. Army War College Reserve Component
Symposium: Assessing the Evolving Relationship of the National Guard to Other
However, it is important to realize it only protected some individuals. White business owners had their property rights changed when they were forced to serve African-American patrons. emembering that there is generally one group that loses some power when another group gains power is a good way to understand the arguments for and against federalism.
In fact, the Civil ights Movement marked a shift in how the U.S. Supreme Court approaches federalism. Federalism used to be thought of as a way to preserve state rights, but the Court has made it clear that the federalist system is to protect individual rights, and that the states do not, in and of themselves, have any rights (O'Neill, 2002). Instead, state government rights are only recognized in so far as to protect the rights of individual citizens. This is an idea that was discussed during the recent debates over universal healthcare. There was….
Buchanan, J. (1995/1996). Federalism and individual sovereignty. The Cato Journal, 15(2-3).
Retrieved July 10, 2011 from Cato Institute website: http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj15n2-3-8.html
O'Neil, D. (2002). Federalism and the U.S. Supreme Court. Human Rights Magazine.
Retrieved July 10, 2011 from American Bar Association website: http://www.americanbar.org/publications/human_rights_magazine_home/irr_hr_fall02_federalism.html
The Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution provides that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." (U.S. Constitution, Tenth Amendment) This is interpreted to mean that the states have implied powers in addition to the powers explicitly enumerated to them in the Constitution. (Gardbaum 1996, 1252) Thus, the Tenth operates as one of the only effective limits on the power of the Federal Government.
The Development of Federalism during the 20th Century.
Federal power has increased considerably during the 20th Century, in a number of areas. The Great Depression compelled aggressive action from the Federal Government in enacting public works programs to put people back to work. (Gardbaum 1996, 1252) Government funding not only created a fourth branch of government sometimes referred to as the Administrative ranch, but also gave new….
Blumstein, J. (1994). Federalism and Civil Rights: Complementary and Competing Paradigms; 47 Vanderbilt Law Review 1251
Gardbaum, S. (1996). Rethinking Constitutional Federalism, 74 Texas Law Review 795, 798-801.
Yi, H. (1995) Fine Print: The Contract with America: Devolution, and the Administrative Realities of American Federalism. The New Bureaucrat.
(2010). "10th Amendment Resolutions -- Tenth Amendment Center" Retrieved from http://www.tenthamendmentcenter.com/nullification/10th-amendment-resolutions/
" In other words, the gridlock we often complain about is intentional "so that the government cannot infringe on our rights and liberties. If we had an efficient government, our liberties would be greatly reduced."
Americans frequently complain about the sluggish pace of government. A bill can take years to pass, and then even longer to be implemented and enforced. It may get stuck in court for many years, creating additional delays. States may object to a national law and seek to create their own version. All of these delays are the bedrock of the American system and they are inherent in its success over time.
Federalism grants states a measure of autonomy to balance the central authority held in Washington, DC. We wouldn't want it any other way. If we had a unitary system, we might find that the central government could, yes, make policy faster but without the input from….
So, although the two entities are linked by the constitution, it is essential that the federal government provide the state governments with the means to carry out their own policies, and this needs to be done in a nearly equal manner relative to each of the elemental components. Overall, if a is considered to be the state government, and B. is the federal government:
The federal relation or federalism will exist unimpaired even if, again by Constitutional agreement, the Government of B. finances some or all of the functions which the Government of State a is constitutionally authorized to perform. In other words, B may be the proverbial payer of the 'Piper' a, but B. has nevertheless no legal or Constitutional right to call 'the tune.'"
This illustrates the primary problem that faces the existence of federalism in modern Russia. Namely, the central government finances the operations of the provinces based….
Agulanna, Joe. "Of Federalism and National Conference." Africa News Service, Jan 21, 2005.
Financial Times Information. "A Brief History of Russian Federalism." Europe Intelligence Wire, Feb 4, 2005.
Jost, Kenneth. "Federalism." CQ Press, 2003.
Jost, Kenneth. "The States and Federalism." CQ Press, 1996.
The history of the United States is bound up in the ongoing debate between federalism and anti-federalism; between a federal government that has a strong mandate vs. one that is relatively weak vs. The localized state governments. The original Articles of the Confederation established a central government so weak that it barely existed other than on paper. From the perspective of states' rights in issues like slavery and commerce, federalism seemed antithetical to the birth of the new nation as it wrested itself free from the tyranny of British monarchy.
However, the need for a stronger federal government became apparent quickly after Independence. Independence gave rise for the real need for a standing army, one that required federal funding, federal management, and federal mandate. Moreover, the new nation needed cohesive means by which to organize international trade and treaties. A strong federal government also became increasingly crucial in establishing a core….
For example, in 2005, an inmate sought access to an abortion, which was initially denied. "The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled, without offering opinion, that the woman be allowed to have [an] abortion." (Dawe). The court did so, despite the fact that some state funds would have to be used for the inmate to access the abortion.
A more current political issue demonstrates the power of states' rights. Currently, some states have legalized gay marriages and civil unions. Other states have gone to the other end of the spectrum, and have passed state and local laws specifically illegalizing gay marriages. As of 2004, there were 17 states whose constitutions banned same-sex marriages, and most of those states also prohibited recognition of homosexual civil unions.
PBS Online). Many political conservatives were concerned that when Massachusetts legalized same-sex marriage, it would result in forced recognition of gay marriages in states that did not….
Dawe, Jonathan. "States Rights vs. Federal Government: Mayer: Inmate Abortion Battle Just
Warming Up." The Daily Statesman. 2005. Dexter Daily Statesman. 25 November, 2007 http://www.dailystatesman.com/story/1123337.html .
The Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies. "About Us." The Federalist Society.
2007. The Federalist Society. 25 November, 2007 http://www.fed-soc.org/aboutus/ .
S. constitution and the delegated powers the national government has according to the U.S. constitution makes the shift of powers from the federal government to the state governments limited by the existence of the U.S. constitution. A complete shift of powers from the state governments, in political, economic and programmatic terms toward the national government is impossible to be defined in realistic terms.
Historical events determined the lines between the layers of government to be in constant move. International and domestic events made the federalist form of government of the U.S. To act like a live entity that will always have to adapt its processes of development to external factors. Two World Wars, depression periods, globalization, terrorist attacks, the invasion of Iraq and more recently, the collapse of the housing market were making the delegated powers of the federal government subject to constant change in order to adapt and guarantee it….
Longley, R. Federalism: National vs. State GovernmentThe powers of national and state governments. Retrieved: September 16, 2008. Available at http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/rightsandfreedoms/a/federalism.htm
MacDonald, E (2008) What the Fed's Rescue of AIG Really Means. FOXBusiness. Retrieved: September 18, 2008. Available at http://emac.blogs.foxbusiness.com/2008/09/17/what-the-feds-rescue-of-aig-really-means/
History of U.S. Federalism. Retrieved: September 16, 2008. Available at http://www.cas.sc.edu/poli/courses/scgov/History_of_Federalism.htm
Federalism seeks a “well constructed Union,” as Madison (1787) put it in Federalist 10, whereas anti-federalists claim “the principles of this system are extremely pernicious, impolitic, and dangerous,” (Henry, 1788). The federalists did not just want a strong central government, but one that was organized with a clear structure and a separation of powers. Anti-federalists viewed the new nation as a looser coalition of states, divesting almost all powers including that of the judiciary and legislative branches to more regional controls. The differences between federalism and anti-federalism are pervasive, extending towards their vision of how government should be constructed, and why. These differences, moreover, continue to permeate American political discourse. To understand the differences between how the federalists and anti-federalists conceptualized the American government’s central institutions, it is essential to understand the divergences in their underlying political assumptions, theories, and philosophies. Essentially, the federalists and anti-federalists operated from completely different worldviews….
Tom Dyes American Federalism: Competition Among GovernmentsTom Dye's competitive federalism model is based on three key principles of Madisonian federalism: separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism as a system of shared power. These principles are designed to produce a more responsive and efficient system in which federal and state and local governments can better meet the needs of its citizens. In particular, the competition within this system will help to ensure that services are more efficiently delivered and that economic opportunity is more widely available (Dye, 1989). Furthermore, by reducing the overall tax burden, this model will also help to improve the overall standard of living for Americans. Professor Dye's "competitive federalism" model thus provides a compelling vision for how the American federal system can be improved.Some have criticized this model because they say it disadvantages the poor, but as Dye (1990) points out, this argument is weak.….
Dye, T. R. (1989). American federalism: Competition not partnership. The Political Chronicle, 1(2), 1-7.
Dye, T. R. (1990). The policy consequences of intergovernmental competition. Cato J., 10, 59.
Fant, G. V. (1997). Theoretical critique of\\\\\\" Modern Federalism\\\\\\". The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Throughout American history the power of the federal government in comparison with the states has been continually debated. This is because there is a principal known as the separation of powers. In the Constitution, this is reserving certain areas of authority for the federal and state governments. The problem is that many of these powers can often come into conflict with one another on a regular basis. As the Constitution, will provide some basic guidelines, but it will not address specific areas. To account for this, the courts are relying on individual interpretations and case precedent. This creates conflicting areas of authority, based upon the general powers that are given to the states and federal government. (Bonnie)
In the case of the federal government, this kind of conflict occurred in 1984 with the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act. This law encouraged the states to raise the minimum….
Social Security is one of the strongest federal social welfare programs in the United States. Initiated as part of Franklin Delano oosevelt's New Deal, Social Security kick-started a revolution in federalism that characterized the twentieth century. Prior to New Deal reforms, federal powers were kept largely in check. Social Security was, and still is, challenged on constitutional grounds because of the way its parameters allow for a strong federal government. Social Security raises issues of federalism, in its use of federal resources, funding and power. Moreover, Social Security precludes states from opting out. This essay will analyze the overall effectiveness of Social Security, as determined by the overall goal of the policy in promoting social welfare. The thesis is that in spite of some weaknesses and presumptions, Social Security remains consistent with the constitutional framework of federalism.
When President oosevelt backed Social Security, the policy was a direct response to the….
Jeffrey, T.P. (2011). Authors of social security believed it was unconstitutional. Retrieved online: http://cnsnews.com/blog/terence-p-jeffrey/authors-social-security-believed-it-was-unconstitutional
Katz, E. (1997). American federalism, past, present, future. Retrieved online: http://www.ucs.louisiana.edu/~ras2777/amgov/federalism.html
Norton, G. (2011). Breaking: Supreme Court rules Social Security is constitutional. Daily KOS. Retrieved online: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/08/29/1011367/-Breaking-Supreme-Court-Rules-Social-Security-Is-Constitutional
Federalism in U.S. History
The word federal denotes alliances between independent sovereignties. "The Oxford Guide to the U.S. Government," an important source for any student or teacher of history, describes federalism in the United States as "the division of governmental powers between the national and state governments." "The Oxford Guide" informs us that "state governments can neither ignore nor contradict federal statutes that conform to the supreme law, the Constitution." Unlike a confederation, a federal republic does not permit a state to have full or primary sovereignty over its internal affairs. If a conflict exists between the state and federal government, the supremacy clause mandates that federal laws are supreme. The powers of the central or national government typically are enumerated in a written constitution. Under the U.S. Constitution, any powers not specifically granted to the national government are presumed to be retained by state governments. State governments have their….
Main Part: In a federal system, the national government holds significant power, but the smaller political subdivisions also hold significant power. The United States, Canada, Australia, and Brazil are examples of federal systems (Constitutional Topic: Federalism, 2010, p. 1). Although it was not directly named in the Constitution, federalism is a central principle of government in the United States of America (Drake & Nelson ibid). The U.S. federal system has five basic characteristics (Drake & Nelson, May 2002, pp. 1f.): 1) Federalism provides a division of legal authority between state and national governments. Overlap occurs, but two legally distinct spheres of government exist.
2) The states are subordinate to the national government in such areas as management of foreign affairs and regulation of interstate commerce. 3) Federalism enables positive cooperation between state and national governments in programs pertaining to education, interstate highway construction, environmental protection and health, unemployment, and social security concerns. 4) The U.S. Supreme Court serves as legal arbiter of the federal system in regard to conflicting claims of state and national governments. 5) The two levels of government exercise direct authority simultaneously over people within their territory. The principle of American federalism, created in the eighteenth century, was bold and has greatly affected U.S. history. Its influence continues today (Drake & Nelson, May 2002, p. 2).
Main Part: Federalism in the United States has evolved quite a bit since it was first implemented in 1787. Pre-Federalism Period: 1775-1789. During that period, the former colonists successfully fought the War of Independence and established a government under the Articles of the Confederation. Disenchanted with the deficiencies of the Articles of Confederation, delegates drafted and the states ratified a new Constitution that created a federal system of government. (Drake & Nelson, May 2002, p. 3). Political scientists define two types of federalism in the history of the United States: dual and cooperative. From a vantage point, federalism can be viewed as a "layer" cake (dual); from another it may be pictured as a "rainbow" or "marble" cake (cooperative) (see Drake & Nelson, May 2002, p. 2). Dual Federalism Phase Part I: 1789 -- 1865. Dual federalism holds that the federal government and the state governments are co-equals, each sovereign. Dual federalism was necessary because parts of the Constitution needed to be interpreted very narrowly, such as the 10th Amendment, the Supremacy Clause, the Necessary and Proper Clause, and the Commerce Clause. In this narrow interpretation, the
Federalism is a political system where power is separated between one central and several different regional governments. The basic idea is to limit the size and influence of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Between 1970 and 1997 contemporary federalism was developed characterized by a shift in intergovernmental system of grants. It also saw an increase in lack of funding of federal…Read Full Paper ❯
It is also essential for the emergency management program to be tested periodically to determine their capability of dealing with hazards. In order to warn other areas that…Read Full Paper ❯
However, it is important to realize it only protected some individuals. White business owners had their property rights changed when they were forced to serve African-American patrons. emembering…Read Full Paper ❯
Federalism The Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution provides that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved…Read Full Paper ❯
" In other words, the gridlock we often complain about is intentional "so that the government cannot infringe on our rights and liberties. If we had an efficient government,…Read Full Paper ❯
So, although the two entities are linked by the constitution, it is essential that the federal government provide the state governments with the means to carry out their…Read Full Paper ❯
Federalism The history of the United States is bound up in the ongoing debate between federalism and anti-federalism; between a federal government that has a strong mandate vs. one that…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
For example, in 2005, an inmate sought access to an abortion, which was initially denied. "The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled, without offering opinion, that the woman be…Read Full Paper ❯
S. constitution and the delegated powers the national government has according to the U.S. constitution makes the shift of powers from the federal government to the state governments limited…Read Full Paper ❯
History - U.S. (before 1865)
Federalism seeks a “well constructed Union,” as Madison (1787) put it in Federalist 10, whereas anti-federalists claim “the principles of this system are extremely pernicious, impolitic, and dangerous,” (Henry,…Read Full Paper ❯
Tom Dyes American Federalism: Competition Among GovernmentsTom Dye's competitive federalism model is based on three key principles of Madisonian federalism: separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism as…Read Full Paper ❯
Federalism Throughout American history the power of the federal government in comparison with the states has been continually debated. This is because there is a principal known as the…Read Full Paper ❯
Federal Social Security is one of the strongest federal social welfare programs in the United States. Initiated as part of Franklin Delano oosevelt's New Deal, Social Security kick-started a revolution…Read Full Paper ❯
Federalism in U.S. History The word federal denotes alliances between independent sovereignties. "The Oxford Guide to the U.S. Government," an important source for any student or teacher of history,…Read Full Paper ❯