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Feminism is defined as movements that are aimed to protect rights of the women al around the world. These rights include voting rights, political, economic as well as social rights. The second main aim of the feminist movement is to make sure that women get equal education as well as employment rights. Those who believe in feminism are termed as feminists.
One of the most important theories in feminism is the feminist theory. The main fact that has been mentioned in the theory is that there is a need to understand the roles that have been played by women all around the world. Secondly based on these roles, increased cases of gender inequality are to be assessed1. Sex and gender inequality and the social construction of sex and gender has been the focus of feminist theory. An important fact in the case of feminism is in relation to…
Botting, Hunt, Eileen, and Houser, Sarah, L. "Drawing the Line of Equality: Hannah Mather Crocker on Women's Rights." The American Political Science Review 100(2006): pp. 265-278.
Radford, Ruether, Rosemary. Women and Redemption: A Theological History. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2012.
Feminism Is for Everybody
Describe each of the following theoretical perspectives of women's subordination in society. Discuss which aspect of woman's subordination each focuses on.
Biological determinism or essentialism holds that there is a natural and genetic difference between men and women and from a patriarchal viewpoint finds that women are intellectually and physically inferior and should be relegated to child rearing and domestic duties. Liberal feminism, often called middle class feminism calls for equal economic, voting and citizenship rights within the present system, unlike radical or socialist feminism that demand the overthrow of capitalism, imperialism, and patriarchy, perhaps even in a revolution. Multiracial feminists also wish to build a global feminist movement that crosses the lines of color, language, religion and nationality, instead of simply being known as a white, middle class Western movement that benefits only privileged or upwardly mobile women.
Using Feminism is for Everybody, describe how…
Once women were exposed to feminism, and along with it the freedom to express themselves politically in the ways that they choose based upon informed decisions, by and large, feminists embraced a more liberal political mindset (Inglehart, et al., 2000). This is not to say that they abandoned their family and religious values, but perhaps it is more correct to say that in more left wing thinking, feminists were able to enjoy a greater degree of political freedom, recognition and an avoidance of the oppression that they suffered for so many years under a more conservative viewpoint and philosophy. Once feminists were on the path of free political expression, their activism made contributions to the study of political participation in several key areas.
On a strategic level, the advancement of women into the halls of higher learning institutions contributed to political studies from both sides of the classroom in a…
Ali, S., Coate, K., & Goro, W.W. (Eds.). (2000). Global Feminist Politics: Identities in a Changing World. London: Routledge.
Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2000). The Developmental Theory of the Gender Gap:Women's and Men's Voting Behavior in Global Perspective. International Political Science Review, 21(4), 441-463.
Phillips, a. (Ed.). (1998). Feminism and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Randall, V. (2002). Feminism. In Marsh & Stoker (Eds.), Theory and Methods in Political Science (2nd ed., pp. 109-130). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
(Laughter from the cronies surrounding him).
AMANDA pushes off and tries to get to her feet, but MARCUS's hands are all over her and she is pulled into his lap.
(half angry, half sobbing) Let me go. Please just leave me alone.
How many times must we go over this? Consider yourself lucky and do as you're told. And right now we're going into the men's room and you're going to put that smart mouth of yours to good use.
No one is affected in the cafeteria by the announcement that MARCUS intends to sexually assault this girl. The few who have noticed laugh or cheer him on. MARCUS stands, dragging an unwilling AMANDA with him.
JONAH stands and reaches the struggling couple within a few seconds
And there I go
JONAH (to MARCUS)
Both AMANDA and MARCUS look over at him,…
Offen, Karen. Defining Feminism: A Comparative Historical Approach. Signs: Journal of omen in Culture and Society, 14, 1: 1988, pg 119. Offen, in her book, has very successfully and clearly laid out the history of feminism and its overall impact. Her own analyses, though, of the philosophy of feminism are of the utmost interest as she incorporates the phenomenon of dualism, individualism and relationalism into the feminist school of thought. Even though, it does come across as biased at times, the views presented are fresh and new, unlike the very common good/bad aspects of feminism that are generally written about.
Sanders, V. First wave feminism. In S. Gamble, (Ed.), the Routledge critical dictionary of feminism and postfeminism (pp. 16-28). New York: Routledge. 2000.
Thomham, S. Second wave feminism. In S. Gamble, (Ed.), the Routledge critical dictionary of feminism and postfeminism (pp. 29-42). New York: Routledge. 2000.
alter Block. Levin on…
Work Cited Page:
Huguette Dagenails and Denise Piche. Women, Feminism and Development. Macgill-Queen's University Press. Pg 217-18. 1994.
Offen, Karen. Defining Feminism: A Comparative Historical Approach. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14, 1: 1988, pg 119.
Sanders, V. First wave feminism. In S. Gamble, (Ed.), the Routledge critical dictionary of feminism and postfeminism (pp. 16-28). New York: Routledge. 2000.
Thomham, S. Second wave feminism. In S. Gamble, (Ed.), the Routledge critical dictionary of feminism and postfeminism (pp. 29-42). New York: Routledge. 2000.
He also examines the link between the phenomenon of feminism, the increase or impact on female political participation and the influence of the 1972 elections in the activation or growth of the working women phenomenon.
Caroline amazanoglu. Feminism and the Contradictions of Oppression. London and New York. 1989. This book mainly focuses on the difficulties faced when forming an association between the feminist social theory and feminist political strategy. The recent growing popularity of the phenomenon has enhanced the relations amid the men and women as well as its own efficient as a tool to remove differences. Nevertheless there are still many opposing opinion of the impact of feminism.
Definition of feminism taken from www.elissetche.org/dico/F.htm
Janet a Boles. The Politics of the Equal ights Amendment: Conflict and the Decision Process. New York: Longman, 1979. The recent demands for increased ratio of political representation of women sparked this discussion on the…
Andersen Kristi. Working Women and Political Participation, 1952-1972. American journal of political science, 3, 1975. This paper studies the reduction in the gender-based selection or division in the political setup of different countries over the last 2 decades. Andersen mainly accounts this change to the group of women who urged to work outside their homes. He also examines the link between the phenomenon of feminism, the increase or impact on female political participation and the influence of the 1972 elections in the activation or growth of the working women phenomenon.
Caroline Ramazanoglu. Feminism and the Contradictions of Oppression. London and New York. 1989. This book mainly focuses on the difficulties faced when forming an association between the feminist social theory and feminist political strategy. The recent growing popularity of the phenomenon has enhanced the relations amid the men and women as well as its own efficient as a tool to remove differences. Nevertheless there are still many opposing opinion of the impact of feminism.
Definition of feminism taken from www.elissetche.org/dico/F.htm
Janet a Boles. The Politics of the Equal Rights Amendment: Conflict and the Decision Process. New York: Longman, 1979. The recent demands for increased ratio of political representation of women sparked this discussion on the problem of group interests and representation. Hence, this discussion employs and recommends what the future researches should focus on like public opinion, interest groups, social movements, international politics, political elites, and public policy.
Feminism and Liberalism
The world of philosophy, political science, and social theory has come a long way since the times during which ancient Greek philosophers created theories according to which the best city state should be constructed and run. The beauty and joy of being human lies in the fact that humanity is constantly evolving. The same is true of social and philosophical ideas and theories. In the views of some, this is less than ideal, since new theories tend to supplant those before them even though the latter still have much to offer in terms of valid ways of living and being. On the other hand, another school of thought maintains that the new does not necessarily supplant the old. Instead, "new" theories like environmentalism and feminism can effectively join with "older" ideologies like socialism and liberalism. The result is then what can be referred to with the old…
Bennett, J.M. (1989, Autumn). Feminism and History. Gender and History, Vol. 1, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~judithb/femhist.pdf
Hartley, C. And Watson, L. (2010, Oct.). Is a Feminist Political Liberalism Possible? Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy, Vol. 5, No. 1 Retrieved from: http://www.jesp.org/PDF/FeministPoliticalLiberalism.pdf
Higgins, T.E. (2004). Gender, Why Feminists Can't (or Shouldn't) Be Liberals. Fordham Law Review, Vol. 72, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3966&context=flr
Princeton University (2013). Classical Liberalism. Retrieved from: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Classical_liberalism.html
Feminism and Stereotypes
There are many stereotypes associated with feminism and the feminist movement. The movement itself was started as a way to combat the stereotypical view of women's role in society. Even after many years of working for women's civil rights, still it remained that "women were automatically expected to take notes at meetings, make coffee, do all the housework, and often be available as sexual partners for male co-workers." (236) Along with beliefs that women were weaker, less intelligent, and overall unequal to men in many ways, these stereotypes were the target of the women's movement for freedom and equality in America. However, stereotypes have infiltrated and plagued the feminist movement for decades. There are stereotypes held by many feminists regarding other women, stereotypes held by society about feminists, and stereotypes about specific ethnicities, such as Black and Indian feminism.
There are a wide range of stereotypes held…
Many feminists cannot see being a housewife or homemaker to be a viable or honorable option for women. Although some women may find that taking care of the domestic needs of their families to be very rewarding and true expression of themselves, it can be met with a great deal of scrutiny from members of the feminist culture. Feminism often creates a stereotype that the housewife is being oppressed by her husband and that the homemaker is a slave to her family and a disgrace to free women. This stereotype can be traced back to Betty Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique," published in 1963, wherein she described the typical family as a "comfortable concentration camp." Modern feminism took from Friedan's description of the homemaker a stereotype that no healthy woman would chose this life. Other stereotypes that have been noted in the feminist movement include that feminists think poorly of heterosexual women in general, or women that are "effeminate" rather than "butch." The feminist movement is generalized as not being concerned with the problems of other social groups. Some people complain that feminists today raise awareness of the single mother's terrible social situation in our society, but that they stereotype all men as having it easy, even though there are many impoverished men and single fathers suffering from social inequalities as well. Others say that feminists stereotype all men as abusers, and while fighting for the rights of battered women and female rape victims, ignore the plight of battered and abused men and male rape victims.
However, the stereotypes that are supposedly held by feminists may not truly be a part of feminism, but rather a fabrication of the stereotypes held by others about feminists. Among the stereotypes applied to feminists include that they are all white and middle-class. The stereotypical lesbian does not shave or wear dresses, bras, or high heels. Stereotypical feminists do not wear makeup or concern themselves with aesthetics of any sort. Of course, feminists are also viewed to all be lesbians and fit the "Femi-Nazi" image of a woman holding all of the above mentioned stereotypes regarding other people.
An example of how such stereotypes were put onto feminists early in the movement is the Miss America protest of 1968, where "the media portrayed the protesters in fairly negative terms, such as coining the term bra-burners to denote all radical feminists, even though no bras were burned." (241) These negative stereotypes have prevented many women who would otherwise be a part of the movement from identifying as
fter reading three articles on feminism, it strikes me that perhaps feminism has been presented to many of us rather two dimensionally.
The first article reports a UN Treaty, signed by 177 different countries, endorsing the concept of true equality for women. Women's equality might seem like a slightly overworked topic in the United States, but countries who have ratified this treaty include fghanistan and a wide variety of third world countries where the rights of women may be a much newer idea.
The Second article gives reasons why women might have difficulty being elected to office, and again, at first glance, might sound like complaining to mericans, who have been exposed to the idea of women's equality for decades. I think women who want to take an active part in politics need to be very careful (as anyone in any other group would have to) so they don't…
Author not given. "Issue in Focus: Human Trafficking, in Global Feminism. Accessed via the Internet 11/9/05. http://www.feministcampus.org/know/global/issue.asp?issue=Human%20Trafficking
Author not given. "The Women's Treaty: CEDAW," in Global Feminism. Accessed via the Internet 11/9/05. http://www.feministcampus.org/know/global/issue.asp?issue=CEDAW
Reyes, Sororro. "Issue in Focus: Political Participation," in Global Feminism. Accessed via the Internet 11/9/05. http://www.feministcampus.org/know/global/issue.asp?issue=Political%20Participation
For there to be an a priori sexual origin, people would be born with a sexual orientation and culture would have no impact in shaping people's sexual identity. To this end, a gay male in the 19th century would be exactly the same as a gay male in the 21st century, and this cannot be the case. The struggles faced by a gay male hundreds of years ago are vastly different from those faced by a male today. Instead of sexual origin -- the conceptual framework of the essentialist/constructivist approach -- it is more useful to conceive of sexuality as existing within the binary between minoritivizing and universalizing. Concepts of sexual origin are fallacious because they are totalizing and attempt to ascribe the same worldview to people within a particular sexual orientation. Moreover, the sexual origin approach suggests that one's gender is indistinct from their sexuality, which cannot be the…
de Beauvoir, Simone. "Introduction. The Second Sex." Feminist Theory Reader: Local and Global Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2010. 34-42.
Foucault, Michel. "Part Two: The Repressive Hypothesis." The History of Sexuality, Volume 1: An Introduction. 1502-1521.
Sedgwick, Eve. "Axiomatic." 243-268.
Dara irnbaum's Technology/Transformation: Wonder Woman is meant to discuss gender roles from society's perspective. The Wonder Woman character in the film constantly changes from a secretary into a super hero and has audiences concentrate on a few particular issues. irnbaum emphasizes the fact that television is meant to trick people in ignoring several otherwise obvious things. Instead of focusing on the matters that they usually considered when seeing Wonder Woman-related films, viewers observed the superficiality in the film and the fact that it put across a biased perspective regarding women.
2. Society had been accustomed to discriminating women freely at the time when Maya Deren produced Meshes of the Afternoon and it was thus more difficult for her to express her feminist convictions. Even with that, one can sense the frustration in the film's protagonist, especially given that she has trouble understanding society and how it works. The interference of…
Sitney, P. Adams, Visionary Film, (Oxford University Press).
Dir. Dara Birnbaum. Technology/Transformation: Wonder Woman
Dir. Martha Rosler. Semiotics of the Kitchen
Dir. Carolee Schneeman. Fuses Dir. Maya Deren. Meshes of the Afternoon
Summary of Story
Cristina Tzintzun writes about the intersection between gender and racism in "Colonize This!" The author's identity has been shaped largely by antagonism toward her father, who claimed to be a liberal hippie but who was really a racist, sexist bastard. He cheated on her mother throughout their relationship, and when she was just three years old, Tzintzun witnessed him having sex with another woman. Tzintzun also claims that her father beat and emotionally abused her Mexican mother.
As a result, Cristina struggles with her identity, both in terms of gender and race. Colonization highlights the intersectionality of gender and race. It is impossible for Tzintzun to call herself just a person of color, because she is a woman of color -- someone who experiences discrimination both because she is female and because she is brown. Moreover, Tzintzun was given a series of mixed messages when she…
Gray, K. (n.d.). I sold my soul to rock and roll.
"Lego Friends" Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrmRxGLn0Bk
Lundahl, A. (2013). My tattoos are not an invitation. The Feminist Wire. Retrieved online: http://thefeministwire.com/2013/07/my-tattoos-are-not-an-invitation/
Orenstein, P. (2010). The femivore's dilemma. International New York Times. 11 March, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/14/magazine/14fob-wwln-t.html?_r=1& ;
In summing up the essential dilemma for today's woman as she contemplates -- while being handicapped as non-equal partners with males in the workplace (females are paid less than men for the same work) -- either using her reproductive ability or launching a career, Mcilliams offers this succinct verity: "They have the worst of both worlds: the burdens of limitations and the hazards of opportunity" (30).
Are omen Eschewing Marriage because of the Impact of Feminism?
or is the lessening of the value of marriage due to other dynamics?
Mcilliams, a psychoanalyst / therapist by profession, is not saying that feminism has taken a toll on the institution of marriage. Quite the contrary, Mcilliams simply points out the truth as to what choices women are obliged to face. Many bright, forward-thinking women (in particular younger adult women) keep"…all involvements with men" at "arm's length" because they do not wish to…
Baehr, Amy R. (2009). Conservatism, Feminism, and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. Hypatia, 24(2),
Cherlin, Andrew J. (2009). The Marriage-Go-Round: The State of Marriage and the Family in America Today. New York: Vintage Books.
Hall, David D. (2004). Puritans in the New World: A Critical Anthology. Princeton, NJ:
" A story narrating the life of the abused Minnie Foster, wife to John Wright, and her killing of her husband as a means to express her oppression and experiences of abuse from him. Like the narrator's downfall to insanity in "Yellow wallpaper," Minnie's character in "A jury" reflects the lack of avenue for women to express their feelings and thoughts, resorting instead to actions that are considered deviant in society, such as succumbing to insanity or committing murder.
Communication is considered vital in the story, for it is through understanding Minnie's psyche that the protagonists were able to uncover the truth about John Wright's murder. Evidently, Glaspell attempts to illustrate and celebrate the differences between men and women's way of communicating: female communication through intuition and implied meanings behind 'feminine talk' demonstrates superiority over the unimaginative forms of communication expressed by the male characters in "A jury." Implied meanings…
Atwood, M. (2003). "You fit into me." In Poems. J. Kelly (Ed.). NY W.W. Norton.
Gajjala, R. (1999). "Third world perspectives' on cyberfeminism." Development in Practice, Vol. 9, Issue 5.
Gilman, C.P. (2002). "The yellow wallpaper." In Worlds of fiction, R. Rubenstein and C. Larson (Eds.). NJ: Prentice Hall.
Glaspell, S. (2002). "A jury of her peers." In Worlds of fiction, R. Rubenstein and C. Larson (Eds.). NJ: Prentice Hall.
The body of elected officials would be quite different, with no Sarah Palins or Nancy Pelosis being taken at all seriously, or even being given attention by the media. The media itself would also be very different, with probably no (or almost no) female anchors or reporters, allowing the male view of society to completely dominate and in effect become (or remain, as it may have been) the only relevant perspective from which to discuss pertinent issues. That is, our entire understanding of the world would be much more limited and narrowly focused. This shows that in addition to the intrinsic problems of injustice, unfairness, oppression and repression that a world without feminism would endure, there would also be practical problems in a reduced ability to explain and engage with our world.
Despite this fact, however, there are still many in the world that oppose feminism for various reasons Some…
When deciding to take a stand regarding feminism, it is important to define what feminism is in today's society. A feminist is any person, of both genders and any age, who advocates feminism. Feminism is an international movement that is dedicated to equality of sexes and seeks to eliminate discrimination. In my opinion, feminists do not just oppose discrimination of women but also of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, and many other things. Feminists work toward non-violence and the elimination of social and economic injustice.
I consider myself to be a feminist because I believe that I am, and that everybody in this world is, deserving of equal treatment regardless of how they look or what body parts they were born with. I have seen some women who call themselves feminists because they strive to dominate and overpower men. I am not like these women. My feminist beliefs have…
White, Thayer. Be Your Own Therapist- Psychology Self-Help. 1999.
Reardon, David. The Seduction of Feminism. 2000.Book, Ester Wach. Why the Best Man for the Job is a Woman: The Unique Female Qualities of Leadership. 2000.
Ganew, S. A Reader in Feminist Knowledge. 1991.
During the progress of the last century, the concept of feminism has, like almost everything else, significant evolution. Apart from the fact that it has branched into many subtheories, including literature and socialism, feminism as a movement has also become a very diverse concept in society itself. The variety of perceptions associated with the movement is an example of the diversity of views that inevitably comes from growth. For this reason, analyzing anything from a "feminist" viewpoint becomes more complicated than may initially be suspected. For the purpose of this essay then, the basic premise on which the beginnings of the movement are grounded will be used as a starting point: the fact that women wish to be seen as equal - as opposed to either superior or inferior - to men. These equal status relates only to functions and actions within society, rather than to obvious physical differences.…
Mill, John Stuart. "The Subjection of Women." Online version at http://eserver.org/feminism/history/subjection-of-women.txt
Schniedewind, Nancy. (1993). "Feminist Principles of Classroom Interaction." In Feminist Values: Guidelines for Teaching Methodology in Women's Studies, Radical Teacher, 18, pp. 25-28.
Wollstonecraft, Mary. (1929). A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Everyman's Library edition available online at http://eserver.org/feminism/history/wollstonecraft-vindication.txt
Both Betty Friedan and Phyllis Schlafly affirm physical and psychological differences between men and women in their respective works The Feminine Mystique and The Power of the Positive Woman. Neither author proposes that women should strive to be more like men; in fact, both praise the differences between the genders and propose a feminism that affirms, rather than denies, these differences. Friedan calls the triats unique to being female "the feminine mystique," while Schlafly's "Positive Woman" embraces her identity as a female. Both look to social norms and psychological suppositions to support their points. For example, Friedan focuses specifically on her own experiences as a housewife to provide her feminist commentary. According to Friedan, women do not need so much to abandon their roles as wives and mothers so much as they need to rediscover identity and self-definition within those roles. Friedan does, however, claim that many of the…
How sports reproduce or challenge gender, sexuality, and/or racial norms
The world is made up of people with varying races, religious practices, regions, developmental capacities and levels, access to natural resources, gender, and many other facets of disparity: the emergence of sport and sporting activities has led to the creation of avenues where these differences are buried for the sake of promoting human equality globally.
Sports and sporting activities are human interventions that involve exemplification of skill, learnt and intrinsic, in deploying the rule of instructions and delivery of intended results. There are many sporting activities in the world. For instance, sporting activities range from those that involve in-depth levels of martial arts, skill, psychological reactions, and physical interventions. All sporting activities are open to human involvement: nonetheless, not all people all sporting activities because of their gender. Humanity exists with a number of differences. For instance, there are…
Brace-Govan, J. (2010). Representations of women's active embodiment and men's ritualized visibility in sport. Marketing Theory. Volume 10, Issue 4, pp. 369 -- 396
Clarke, G. (1998). Queering the pitch and coming out to play: Lesbians in physical education and sport. Sport, Education and Society Volume 3, Issue 2, pp.145-160
Deem, R & Gilroy, S. (1998). Physical Activity, Life-long Learning and Empowerment-
Situating Sport in Women's Leisure. Sport, Education and Society, Volume 3, Issue 1,
She also has the power to kill these children during the first days of their lives as they sleep (probably to explain SIDS), so these offspring are called "Oppressed Souls."
In the Kabbala, Lilith is called the Tortuous Serpent because she seduces men to go in tortuous ways. Her husband, Samael, is called the Slant Serpent. Samael's whole name means "poison of God" (sam-el). There is also a dragon (snake) without eyes in this story who mates with Lilith, who is associated with the government of evil and who is destined to swallow poison at the hands of the angels Gabriel and Michael.
Needless to say, Lilith has been feared and blamed for a whole host of evils and, as the independent woman, has been personified as a seductress or a demon, as well as the wife of God (would she also be called Mary?) Her independent adventures in various…
Feminism & Gender Theory
'No boys allowed:' Legos for girls
In her book, As Long As It is Pink, author Penny Sparke notes the great 'distaste' she felt when wrapping up some glass ornaments she had bought for her mother. She knew her mother would delight in such items, but for her, these glass, ultra-feminine delicate 'dust collectors' signified being held hostage to both class and gender. Even the Victorian middle class ideal of domesticity, which the statues mimicked, was considered somewhat valuable for the refuge it offered from the public world of work. In mass-produced America, now everyone could buy glass ornaments and thus they had been devalued as a marker of class. In cheapening this representation of the home, the role of women as decorators and homemakers has likewise been cheapened, suggests Sparke (Sparke 1996: 3-4). In 21st century America, we are likewise in the uncomfortable position of…
Gray, Emma. "Legos for girls." The Huffington Post. December 16, 2011.
Available: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/16/legos-for-girls-lego-friends_n_1154227.html [30 July 2012]
Sparke, Penny. As Long as it's Pink: the Sexual Politics of Taste. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
Wieners, Brad. "Lego is for girls." Bloomberg Business. December 14, 2011:
Feminism/Post-Feminism in Popular Culture
“feminism pop culture,” “post-feminism pop culture,” “feminist studies current,” and “feminist post-feminist popular culture”
Baer, H. (2016). Redoing feminism: digital activism, body politics, and neoliberalism. Feminist Media Studies, 16(1), 17-34.
This study looks at the influence of digital platforms in projecting feminism in the 21st century. The author discusses subjects such as Pussy Riot and Twitter movements like #YesAllWomen. The point the author makes is that neoliberal societies are still oppressive towards women and that feminism is both needed and alive on social and digital media. This source comes from a peer-reviewed journal and is relevant to my topic of interest because it discusses whether feminism is still possible or prevalent in the 21st century, since it seems so often taken for granted. The strength of the article is its case study focus with specific examples of feminism on digital platforms. The main weakness…
" For there is a branch of feminism which suggests women should embrace male characteristics in the workplace (whether that be dressing in suits or trying to achieve type a success-driven personalities or following male conventions in business and art and relationships) and which denigrates personal experience of things such as childbirth, mothering, menstruation, and the natural (for some women) instincts for flexibility or strong interpersonal relationships in business. In their commitment to subtle rebellion and their frequent embrace of their oppressors and the beliefs of the dominant culture, radstreet and Wheatley model the kind of feminism which tries to operate inside the system. Unfortunately, in their case as in many modern cases, this is not entirely successful. "The literary sphere becomes an acceptable way to include groups... while at the same time excluding them from other political and social institutions." (Schlotterbeck) it is unfortunate to note that Wheatley died…
Bradstreet, Anne. "In Honour of that High and Mighty Princess, Queen ELIZABETH" Archived at http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem214.html
Bradstreet, Anne. "To My Dear and Loving Husband." Archived at http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem217.html
Schlotterbeck, Marian. "Modestly Appropriating Conventions: Anne Bradstreet, Phillis Wheatley, and the Literary Sphere of Early America." Oberlin College. http://www.oberlin.edu/library/friends/research.awards/m.schlotterbeck.pdf .
Wheatley, Phillis. "On Being Brought from Africa to America," Archived at http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2273.html
One of the interesting surprises about “The Latina Domestic” was that focus on Lupe Ontiveros who played a maid character approximately 300 times in film and television in her career. What was interesting about this, however, was not the fact that she could only really work basically within the confines of this stereotype but rather that she devoted herself to each one of these roles with a real passion because, in her words, she “gave her heart and soul every time she played the maid, as that is a job that many have to hold for a lifetime. She wanted dignity in hat character” (93)—and in the documentary Maid in America, she had the opportunity to set the record straight about the reality of Latinas in America.
The problem of Latinas in the mainstream media, however, is that the media often makes the Latina into a fetish and…
Nash, Meredith, and Ruby Grant. \\"Twenty-Something Girls v. Thirty-Something Sex And The City Women: Paving the way for “post? feminism”.\\" Feminist Media Studies 15.6 (2015): 976-991.
Willa Cather’s 1913 novel O Pioneers! was the first of her Great Plains trilogy. It was also one of the first American novels to depict the pioneering feminism of a main character. The heroine in Cather’s novel is Alexandra Bergson, the daughter of a Swedish immigrant. She is left the family farm in Nebraska when her father dies—and as others are giving up the prairie life she is determined to make it work. She dedicates her efforts in part to the dream of seeing her brother Emil, whom she loves, succeed and get to go to college. She convinces her brothers to mortgage the farm so as to buy more land when others are bailing with the idea being that soon the land will make them prosperous. The gambit pays off and the Bergson’s become wealthy—only they fail to find happiness that is supposed to come with prosperity. In other…
Cather, Willa. O Pioneers! http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/24
Dyck, Reginald. \\\\"Willa Cather\\\\'s Reluctant New Woman Pioneer.\\\\" Great Plains Quarterly 23.3 (2003): 161-173.
Greenwald, Anthony G., Brian A. Nosek, and Mahzarin R. Banaji. \\\\"Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm.\\\\" Journal of personality and social psychology 85.2 (2003): 197.
Gustafson, Neil. \\\\"Getting Back to Cather\\\\'s Text: The Shared Dream in O Pioneers!.\\\\"
Western American Literature 30.2 (1995): 151-162.
Laird, D. (1992). Willa Cather\\\\'s Women: Gender, Place, and Narrativity in\\\\" O Pioneers!\\\\" and\\\\" My Ántonia\\\\". Great Plains Quarterly, 242-253.
Quawas, Rula. \\\\"Carving an identity and forging the frontier: The self-reliant female hero in Willa Cather’s\\\\" O Pioneers!\\\\".\\\\" (2005).
Werden, Douglas W. \\\\"She Had Never Humbled Herself\\\\": Alexandra Bergson And Marie Shabata As The\\\\" Real\\\\" Pioneers Of\\\\" O Pioneers!.\\\\" Great Plains Quarterly 22.3 (2002): 199-215.
Globalization has opened up international markets for almost all good including sex trade. It has also made it easy for traffickers to move women from one country to another and force them to join the sex trade. According to Brewer (2009), with the increasingly integrated world economy has allowed human trafficking to thrive. Human trafficking thrives since the perpetrators make use of well-organized criminal syndicates that use an array of complex and evasive tactics to evade the law. Money is channeled back to the country through elaborate money-laundering schemes using underground banks. Prostitution has now become a globalized commodity with women being forced to partake in the trade against their wishes (Watson, June 18, 2009). The perpetrates lure the women with the promise of jobs and a lucrative life and they entice them to come to a foreign country. When the women arrive their passports and return tickets are…
Cultural Anthropology: Post-Feminism in the Media of the Modern Era
In the wake of Weinstein scandal and the #MeToo movement that made women who speak out about sexual assault Time’s Person of the Year in 2017, a reassessment of the values (often contradictorily) displayed in the media in the modern era regarding sex and sexuality is in order. In the 20th century, the Women’s Movement launched the Feminist ideal, which argued that women had the right to be independent, treated as equals to men, work alongside men, and not be viewed as slavish homemakers or as sexualized fantasies for what Laura Mulvey called “the male gaze” (6). In the 21st century, the Feminist generation appears to have be replaced by a post-Feminist generation that, instead of resisting the male gaze, actively seeks to attract it and use it to its own advantage. For instance, the arrival of the Britney…
Gill, Rosalind. “Postfeminist Media Culture: Elements of a Sensibility,” European Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 10, no. 2, 2007, pp. 147-166.
Holson, Laura. “A Blurred Lines Boomerang: Miley Cyrus and Robin Thicke See a Reversal of Fortunes.” The New York Times, 2014. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/26/fashion/miley-cyrus-and-robin-thicke-see-a-reversal-of-fortunes.html
Mulvey, Laura. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.\\" Screen, vol. 16, no. 3, Autumn 1975, pp. 6-18.
Unger, Michael. “The Aporia of Presentation: Deconstructing the Genre of K-pop Girl Group Music Videos in South Korea.” Journal of Popular Music Studies, vol. 27, no. 1, 2010, pp. 25-47.
What exactly does it mean to be a ‘bad feminist?’ Roxane Gay’s Bad Feminist is an amazing and insightful collection of numerous essays that cover a various topics. In essence, the essays offer a new and different perspective of the contemporary topic of gender inequality. In this text, I explore what it really means to be a ‘bad feminist’ in the context of Roxane Gay’s Bad Feminist. In so doing, I first briefly describe the popular notion of feminism and then proceed to provide the academic definition of feminism. This brief description offers the relevant background or basis for an evaluation of the meaning of bad feminism.
From the onset, it is important to note that the idea that most people today have of feminism is far from what Gay projects in Bad Feminist. For a while, the mental notion that most people have of feminism is that…
Ferree, Myra, and Ali Mari Tripp, editors. Global Feminism: Transnational Women\\\\'s Activism, Organizing, and Human Rights. NYU Press, 2006.
Gay, Roxane. Bad Feminist: Essays. Harper, 2014.
Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for Everybody: Passionate Politics. Pluto Press, 2000.
1. The main purpose of Kwok’s book is to extend postcolonial scholarly discourse. Building on the work of Edward Said, Kwok claims that contemporary Biblical scholarship and theology has been inextricably linked to colonial structures, paradigms, and assumptions. These underlying epistemologies have a strong impact on how theology is conducted, and the implications thereof. Kwok wants to change how theology is done, which is beyond a discursive activity. Although the book is too complex for one thesis statement, Kwok’s key thesis would be that the “postcolonial imagination refers to a desire, a determination, and a process of disengagement from the whole colonial syndrome, which takes many forms and guises,” (3). The purpose of the book is stated well, albeit in a lengthy way. It is certainly justifiable in light of the progress that has already been made in postcolonial scholarship.
2. The key question the author is addressing is how…
Kwok, Pui-lan. Postcolonial Imagination and Feminist Theology. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2005.
In ancient Athens, it was customary for women to be kept indoors. They were not supposed to be out in public places or mixing with the men. That was considered immodest and bad manners. Though they could come out for social reasons, such as to help family and friends or to attend festivals, their sphere was essentially domestic and in the home was where they were supposed to be.[footnoteRef:2] The famous Greek playwright Euripides had a line in his play The Trojan Women: “What causes women a bad reputation is not remaining inside.”[footnoteRef:3] In ancient Sparta, however, it was just the opposite: women there held positions of power and even ruled the city-state. Spartan women could own land and had other rights that Athenian women did not have.[footnoteRef:4] This difference should not be surprising, however, because these same differences still exist today. The differences that lead to some women staying…
Understanding Women’s Pathways to Jail: Analyzing the Lives of Incarcerated Women by Dugan L, Yahner L.J & Simpson S.S,(2008).
This research method took a retrospective approach through the life event calendar to collect the data that was used to display the female pathways. It depended on the respondent memory among the women. This method enabled the self reports which are objective and gives a firsthand experience in such a research process. The research was conducted among 351 women who were incarcerated at Baltimore City Detention Centre. There were extensive in-person interviews undertaken with the aid of computerized life event calendar. This research was conducted between January 2001 and April 2002
The research had four major categories of variables, the first was demographics and life contingencies, offence history was the second, illegal/antisocial activity and the last was violent experiences. In the analysis of the variables collected, there were some feminist pathways…
Because society compromises the value of the woman, it is allowed the life of domesticity and life. The speaker however remains forever beyond this because she chooses self-realization instead.
In Heaney's "Punishment," feminism can be seen from the male viewpoint, as it were. The corpse of a bog girl, an adulteress, educates the narrator regarding issues of gender and politics. The narrator, far from the conventional male reaction of disgust, instead becomes infatuated with her. It is as if he is the male representative of the feminist viewpoint; that women offer value and education rather than objects of sex or symbols of domesticity. The intimacy between the speakers involve no blame. Instead of man and woman, they are equals, in strong contrast with the society that would condemn them both for their actions and their association.
Academy of American Poets. A Close Reading of "I Cannot Live With You."…
Academy of American Poets. A Close Reading of "I Cannot Live With You." 2007. http://www.poets.org/page.php/prmID/310
Tagle, Stephen. The Bog Girl Re-sexualized: An Analysis of Seamus Heaney's "Punishment." 13 April, 2005. http://www.stanford.edu/~stagle/ESSAYS/SPR%20ENG160%20E01%20Punishment.htm
This includes the kitchen and anything related to Mrs. right. Ironically, the clues to the murder are in these places. The women notice the misplaced loaf of bread, the birdcage and the quilt "that's not sewed very good" (1121). The crime scene is all about trifles but the men would never know.
hile women have progressed over the decades, there are still certain areas of life that are directly associated with women. omen are still the primary family members that take care of the household and the family. omen still pay attention to the kinds of details that men tend to overlook - sometimes the most important details of all as Trifles demonstrates.
Glaspell, Susan. Trifles. The Norton Introduction to Literature. New York .. Norton and Company. 1991. pp.…
Glaspell, Susan. Trifles. The Norton Introduction to Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1991. pp. 1115-25.
"Lady Gaga in part because she keeps us guessing about who she, as a woman, really is. She has been praised for using her music and videos to raise this question and to confound the usual exploitative answers provided by 'the media'… Gaga's gonzo wigs, her outrageous costumes, and her fondness for dousing herself in what looks like blood, are supposed to complicate what are otherwise conventionally sexualized performances" but this complication does not necessarily lead to a feminist liberation (Bauer 2010).
Still, Gaga has been embraced by a generation of women, some who shun and some who embrace the feminist label. "Lady Gaga idealizes this way of being in the world. But real young women, who, as has been well documented, are pressured to make themselves into boy toys at younger and younger ages, feel torn. They tell themselves a Gaga-esque story about what they're doing. hen they're on…
Bauer, Joy. "Lady Power." The New York Times. June 20, 2010. June 21, 2010.
Love, Meredith A. & Brenda M. Helmbrecht. "Teaching the conflicts: (Re)engaging students with feminism in a postfeminist world." Feminist Teacher. 18(1).
Maloney, Malori. Lady Gaga: "I'm not a feminist. I hail men, I love men." Bitch.
Feminism in "The Hunting Trip"
Parks and Recreation -- Season 2 Episode
Parks and Recreation was a hit comedy TV show that debuted in 2009 and ran 125 episodes until its finale in 2015. The show focused on a bureaucratic organization tasked to run a local Park Department in a fictional town in Illinois. The show based upon the main character, Leslie Knope, who undertakes a series of projects and mingles with a range of different types a characters in a dynamic and humorous way. Leslie is a feminist and finds herself in a position that is far more progressive than many of the characters that live in the fictional town. The "Hunting Trip" show is an interesting episode for many reasons. First, despite being female, Leslie proves that she is just as good a hunting as the men in the show.
However, she actually uses the stereotypes that are…
‘I’ve Been Pondering Whether You Can Be a Part-feminist’
This is an article by Kate Hughes that is based on a qualitative year-long study of young women and their perception of feminism. The author intended to establish if there are any changes in perception of gender within the personal lives of the women after they took the Women's Studies program (Hughes). It is clear that gender perceptions are based on an individual's culture and upbringing with different cultures having different views on the roles of women. This article articulates this clearly and the author has managed to demonstrate how these perceptions change within a short period of time. The women were first interviewed when they began the program and a follow up was done 9 months later. The responses by the interviewees initially were reserved and most of the young women felt they were being influenced by their cultures. However,…
Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
riting and woman suffrage were inextricably intertwined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Suffrage gave them a voice, and they used that voice to challenge the early American patriarchal status quo. By examining those works, new light can be brought to bear on suffrage activists, who at the time were thought to be an unimportant fringe group. Through a study of their work, we can learn more about their day-to-day lives.
According to Sandra Harding in McClish and Bacon (p. 28), one's own knowledge depends on one's position in society. hen one is a subordinate in the social hierarchy, one understands life differently than someone at the top of the social hierarchy. However, as the most powerful write history, it tends to be rather one-sided. Since that is the case, Harding argues that these different viewpoints are equally valid. By looking at…
Bullough, Vern, ed. Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2001.
Laffrado, Laura. Uncommon women: gender and representation in nineteenth-century U.S. women's writing. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, 2009.
McClish, Glen and Jacqueline Bacon. "Telling the Story Her Own Way": the Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies." Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2002): 27-55.
Porche, Amy S. "The Fashioning of Fanny Fern: A Study of Sara Willis Parton's Early Career, 1851-1854." 2010. Georgia State University Digital Archive, English Dissertations. 6 December 2011 .
It is a joy to watch him as he becomes more confident and sure of himself, and I cannot wait to see him play with his new brother or sister. I have no idea what he will become in the future, but it seems clear that he will grow up to accomplish great things, and I think that is positive change.
If I can do anything, I hope that I can inspire other Black women to reach their full potential and reach for the stars. That can ignite great change in the Black community, and among all women, no matter their race or stature. I believe that women can accomplish great things, but many allow themselves to be held back, and I hope that my experiences can inspire women to do more and become better. Change does entail strength, and women have always shown themselves to be strong individuals, no…
Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
riting and women's roles were unavoidably mixed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It was a time in which many women protested their restrictions through novels, poetry, pamphlets, and speeches. By analyzing those creations, readings can begin to understand the lives of those forward-looking women. In their own time, people dismissed them as inconsequential complainers. Minority authors, like blacks and lesbians were even more ignored. However, by learning about their work, we can learn about the daily life of the social classes to which they belonged.
Many people feel that our socioeconomic status limits our understanding of others (McClish and Bacon). Because our understanding is limited by our own viewpoint from our socioeconomic status, patriarchal societies tend to limit self-expression to that which is compatible with the patriarchy. As a result, it's important to remember to ask questions based one's own experience,…
Markley, A.A. "Laughing That I May Not Weep": Mary Shelley's Short Fiction and Her Novels." Keats-Shelley Journal (1997): 97-124.
McClish, Glen and Jacqueline Bacon. "Telling the Story Her Own Way": the Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies." Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2002): 27-55.
Ross, Christine. "Logic, Rhetoric, and Discourse in the Literary Texts of Nineteenth-Century Women." Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2002): 85-109.
Virginia Woolf and Her Works as Mediums of Feminism
Virginia Woolf was among the rare writers who have put their talents and ideologies into writings, particularly as a patron of equality to women. Considered as one of the founders of feminism, there were quite a number of literary works that show Woolf's passion for promoting feminism. Some of this includes the following literary masterpieces.
To the Lighthouse
A Room on One's Own (1929)
Three Guineas (1938)
Women and Fiction (1929)
Professions for Women (1929)
Much of Woolf's literatures depicted her strict criticism on how the society put little importance to the female gender. Also, she showed in the context of her works how prominent the female gender can play important roles in the society, both socially and politically. Much of Woolf's works have in fact depicted political thoughts that have endeared the hearts and minds of many readers.
Dick, Susan. Virginia Woolf.
Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse (1927).
Her Writing Tell of her Life.
Sexual Objectification of omen in Music
hen compared to the female singers of the early 20th century, the women in music today represented a much more blatant example of sexual objectification. This is not to suggest that three-quarters of a century ago women were not also objectified; it is simply to acknowledge that the objectification has been amplified to such a degree that women in music are eroticized in their music videos (in virtually all cultures, East and est, as the music videos in K-Pop, J-Pop and estern Pop all indicate) and in their performances on stage. omen performers from CL to Miley Cyrus to Beyonce all contribute to this sexual objectification by essentially flaunting their sexuality and utilizing it in a post-feminist manner of being the sexual aggressor rather than the sexually passive receiver of the "male gaze," as Mulvey called it in her deconstruction of the sexual objectification…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. NY:
Routledge, 1990. Print.
Dougary, Ginny. "Yes, We are Borrowed." The Times, 2007. Web. 13 Apr 2016.
Gill, Rosalind. "Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility," European
The concept of feminism is not new, although it is often associated with the latter half of the twentieth century. However, assuming this is correct is an error. The aim of this paper is to look at the concept of feminism, first defining what it is, and then looking at how it is developed and how it may be seen today.
Feminism refers to an ideology in which the position of women is advanced with the aim of gaining equality; meaning that they are able to gain the same rights as men (Offen, 1988). The concept of equality refers to political, economic, and legal rights (Offen, 1988). The underlying concept is that women also need to have equal access to resources, such as education and health care, as well as equal opportunities in the workplace (Freedman, 2003; Offen, 1988).
While the movement and progress of the ideas may be…
Baruch, Elaine Hoffman, (1988), "Women in Men's Utopias" Rohrlich, Ruby, Baruch Elaine Hoffman, (eds.), Women in Search of Utopia, New York, Oxford University Press
Brody, Miriam (1983), "Mary Wollstonecraft: Sexuality and Women's Rights (1759-1797)." In Spender, Dale,(1983), Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Key Women Thinkers, Pantheon Books
Crawford, Elizabeth, (2006), The women's suffrage movement in Britain and Ireland: a regional survey, Taylor & Francis
de Beauvoir, Simone, English translation 1953 (1989). The Second Sex. Vintage Books
Love and the Developing and Unstable Female Sense of Self
Lord Byron, in his epic poem "Don Juan," famously noted that although love may be an all-consuming passion for men and women, only for women does it provide the reason for their existence, only for women does love constitute their reason for the self's existence alone. Although this point-of-view may be said to be that of a misogynist, both Marguerite Duras' The Lover and Love in a Small Town provide the same textual narrative for the reader, as did Byron's 19th century version of the young, dashing Don Juan. Both author's works suggest that, only by being exposed to a new, sexually awakened sense of body and self, does a woman gains her full identity as a human being.
Marguerite Duras presents a vision of forbidden love that on its surface may seem to challenge the reader's conventional assumptions…
Duras, Marguerite. The Lover. New York: Pantheon, 1998
Matlock, Curtiss Ann. Love in a Small Town. New York: Avon, 1997
Hill, Leslie. Marguerite Duras: Apocalyptic Desires. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Hoffman, Carol. Forgetting and Marguerite Duras. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1991.
Feminism and International elations
Tickner discusses Morgenthau's 'six principles of political realism', refuting the notion that international politics is a realistic, masculine domain. Tickner offers a feminist perspective on Morgenthau's theory. She believes that the fundamental flaw in Morgenthau's article is that it is defined by masculinity. She argues that men are overrepresented in the upper levels of international politics, specifically the realms of the military, diplomacy, and science. Women are making strides but not enough are advancing to the upper echelons. If a woman were to advance high enough, she would find herself in a hostile environment. Tickner (2012)writes on why international politics is dominated by men, she argues that the language is masculinized, women are portrayed as more apt to domestic interests, and that the world of international politics and academia is inhospitable to women.
Tickner (2012) summarizes Morgenthau's six points. The first point is that politics is…
Wendt Alexander. (2012). Anarchy is What States Make of It. In Robert, J. Art & Robert, Jervis (Eds.), International Politics: Enduring concepts and contemporary issues (11th ed., pp. 65-72). Boston: Pearson.
Tickner, Ann. (2012). A Critique of Morgenthau's Principles of Political Realism. In Robert, J. Art & Robert, Jervis (Eds.), International Politics: Enduring concepts and contemporary issues (11th ed., pp. 22-32). Boston: Pearson.
Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer
Chaucer appears to create the Wife of Bath shine intentionally from the rest of the characters in the novel; she has been possibly one of his most controversial figures since her contradictions as to what she states and just what she does. The writer's formation of her character offers one significant objective which has been to surprise his readers. Chaucer chooses to consider each and every bad attribute that ladies were thought to have in those times and also the outcome has been Alisoun. This kind of vivacity and boldness had been seldom observed in female fictional figures of that era (Oberembt 287).
The Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales had been written towards the end of the Fourteenth century, however it was left incomplete. It has been setup as numerous stories within one story. The primary frame has been a travelling crowd…
Chance, Jane. The Mythographic Chaucer: the Fabulation of Sexual Politics. Minneapolis: The University of Minnisota Press, 1995.
Coghill, Nevill trans. Chaucer The Canterbury Tales. London: Penguin Books, 2003.
Cook, A. Feminism in Chaucer's "The Wife of Bath." Books, 2010. Available at: http://alisoncook.xomba.com/feminism_chaucers_wife_bath
Fjalldal, M.J. Forever Young: Chaucer's Wife of Bath and Her Fear of Losing Her Outer Beauty. Haskoli Islands, 2010.
This is similar to third wave thinking; however, post modern feminists tend to embrace academic writing and academic feminism, and third wave feminists generally reject academic feminism (Frederick, 2004). In addition, postmodern feminists are considered more grounded in theory, and very specific with regard to their intent and vocalizations, whereas third wave are also seen as appealing more to the masses (Frederick, 2004; Tong, 1998). Postmodern feminism is also viewed as embracing the idea of 'disruptive sexuality' without analysis (Frederick, 2004).
People say that Feminism is messier today (third wave) than in the first and second wave because feminists have complicated the very nature of feminism. In the second wave women were dealing with traditional things such as basic human rights, but now most women don't know what is happening. Women already have many basic freedoms thus don't know where to turn. Feminists in the third wave still attempt to…
Bailey, Cathryn. (1997). "Making waves and drawing lines: The politics of defining the vicissitudes of feminism." Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 12(3) 17-28
Frederick, J. "Breaking the Waves: Continuities and Discontinuities between Second and Third Wave Feminism." (2004). Available:
Rosen, R. (2001). "The world split open: How the modern women's movement changed
Marxism and Feminism
Marxism is a theory of economic system while feminism is exclusively connected with relationship between men and women so how do these two could possibly unite. An interesting question- the answer to which lies in understanding the basic structure of Marxism on which feminism is loosely based. Alternatively, we can first understand what feminism is all about and see how it gets its inspiration from Marxism. Feminism is the result of women liberation movement, which began somewhere in the 18th century and gained momentum in late 19th century. During this time women realized that they were not being treated the same way as men and everything was viewed through masculine binoculars. In other worlds, it was found that males were completely dominating every area including 'thinking' and this resulted in women liberation movement, which ultimately led to feminism. Feminism today exists in various forms and is characterized…
1. Cliff, Tony 1984. Class Struggle and Women's Liberation. London: Blackwell.
2. Dunayevskaya, R. Women's liberation and the dialectics of revolution: Reaching for the future. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1996
3. Hartmann, Heidi. 1981. "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union." In Lydia Sargent, ed. op. cit., 1981:1-42.
4. Terrell Carver, Department of Politics, University of Bristol, Marxism and Feminism: Living with your 'Ex', PSA Annual Conference 6-8 April 2004
The Women's Movement has tried to challenge such ideas. Changes in the law and societal thinking are partially due to the efforts of individual women, but there have always been strong women in history: only by uniting together in a movement have women and men been able to make a collective difference in creating a society with more equitable opportunities for all. The Women's Movement has also had a positive spill-over effect for all marginalized people -- when gender identities are questioned, racial, ethnic, religious, and sexual assumptions are questioned as well.
Even now, there is an atmosphere of reactionary fear regarding the progress women have made. True, there are women U.S. Supreme Court justices and U.S. Senators but many people complain that women are beginning to outnumber men on a number of college campuses. Interestingly, while women's lack of prominence in fields such as art and medicine was seen…
Throughout her novels and short stories, Jewett uses the weakness or malicious of the male characters to allow her female characters more power and therefore independence. Many scholars also believe that Jewett was also commenting on the decreased importance of the old New England male image of fisherman and provider of the household. As New England itself became industrialized, the role of the sole provider as the male failed to keep its significance which would then increase the separation between male and females. Therefore, Jewett sometimes intentionally paralyzes the male characters within New England contexts, and then places more social and economic power within the hands of the women of New England; who she portrays as much more adaptable then their male counterparts.
In the midst of this failing male patriarchal system, Jewett presents a myriad of strong female characters who are more than amble to handle life without such…
Blanchard, Paula. Sarah Orne Jewett: Her World and Her Work. Addison-Wesley. 1994.
Jewett, Sarah Orne. The Country of the Pointed Furs. Signet Classic. 2000.
Jewett, Sarah Orne. "The White Heron." VOA News. 2006. Retrieved 30 Nov 2008 at http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/archive/2006-03/2006-03-19-voa1.cfm?CFID=73945542&CFTOKEN=65579149 .
Roman, Margaret. Sarah Orne Jewett. University of Alabama Press.
It tends to emphasise social policy to provide better opportunities for professional, higher-paid and prestigious jobs to women and the elimination of laws discriminating against the political, property and social rights of women. On the other hand, radical feminism places emphasis on the "celebration" of femininity, rather than seeing femininity as a social construct that merely constitutes a form of oppression and discrimination (Encyclopedia of Marxism).
In addition, liberal feminism focuses on socialized "myths of women's inferiority," social attitudes and economic inequality. It does not offer critiques of the capitalist system and has a rather simplistic view of gender hierarchy. Usually, liberal feminism seeks to gain power for women within existing economic, political and social structures. To the contrary, radical feminism sees male forms of sexuality imposed upon women as a primary means of enforcing women's inequality. Its philosophy normally includes a critique of capitalism, but also socialist theory and…
Bromberg, S. (1997) Feminist issues in prostitution. In Elias, J. et. al (Eds). Prostitution.
New York: Promethus
Encyclopedia of Marxism. Retrieved online March 2, 2005. http://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/f/e.htm
Nancy Woloch's Chapter 14 "Feminism and Suffrage" (1994, 2nd ed, pp. 326-363) from the general to the specific and back again. Remarkable to me was how three generations (357) of women reacted to a complex and evolving institutional and social environment to adapt and specialize toward the primary goal of woman suffrage. hey achieved this core objective by targeting the strongest leverage, from the woman on the street to their male 'representatives' in the state house, "deliberately and collectively" (Woloch 359), and I add 'persistently,' over five decades (355) through changing leadership and constituent characteristics and preferences. Woloch asks what this achievement contributed toward "the overhaul of attitudes demanded in 1848" (359). he result was a model for accomplishing massive structural social change that led directly from Seneca Falls through the labor movement, the Great Society era Civil Rights Movement, to Stonewall and Section 503 of the Civil Rights Act…
This all being said, the sacrifices were difficult for some, maybe not for others; the painful decisions seem to have been tactical rather than rejections in principle, and in easier circumstances may have been different. Achieving the vote took partnership and pragmatism, building on the contribution of the English suffrage movement (351) and the struggle for equality going back to the Underground Railroad. Those women hung out a quilt pointing the way to a freedom and equality which, while still persistently elusive today, is far closer for our generation than it was for theirs. What is important now is for feminists of all genders and heritage, not to succumb to illusions "[t]here is nothing for women to rally around" (Anna Shaw, qtd. In Woloch 358). Knowing this story makes our work seem less of a burden than an obligation, if we can finally rise above "the indifference, the inertia, the apathy of women" (Susan B. Anthony, qtd. In Woloch 328) that may be our only remaining obstacle today.
Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Feminist Movement or Organization Challenging Globalization
What are the circumstances / background that gave rise to the movement or organization?
UN Women (UNW) was created in 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly, which also created the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UNEGEEW). Creation of these two bodies was intended to increase the rate at which the UN and its Member States were working towards empowerment of women and addressing gender equality, making this an historic step. The UN itself was undergoing change, with a reform agenda directed to unify mandates and resources in order to achieve a greater impact. The overall UN organization combined four separate older organizations to create UN Women. These were the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women…
Elmendorf, Edward. "UN Women." PEACE In Action. 25 Nov. 2010. Web. .
"Executive Board of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women." (2011): 2-25. Web. .
Huang. "Forms of Feminist Movement in Europe and China." Comparative Study in Cross-cultural and Political Perspective 2005, 1-6. Web.
Girl Power Feminism and the Illusion of Control
Girl power feminism ala the sort represented by today’s new age pop starlets like Miley and the other graduates of the Mickey Mouse Club school of adolescent sexuality have embraced their sexuality—as they say—though what it appears objectively to symbolize is their willingness to be objectified by the male gaze so long as they can control the discourse, the narrative, the image—and not be “shamed” for what earlier generations would have deemed “slutty,” “trashy,” or “tasteless.” In other words, there is a tendency for today’s post-Feminists or “girl power feminists” to attack or fight back against any criticism of their use of their sexuality, even if that criticism is valid. The attention-getting that comes from flaunting one’s sexuality, or joining in the bandwagon of the #MeToo or #TimesUp movements, is the reward that the girl power feminists seek—or as Miley so aptly…
Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.
Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…
Angier, N. 2000. "Women: An Intimate Geography." Anchor.
Barker, P. 1998. "Michel Foucault -- An Introduction." Edinburgh University Press.
Beccalli, B. 1994. The Modern Women's Movement in Italy, in New Left Review. Volume a, Issue 204: 86-112.
Boccia, M.L. 1991. "The Gender Representation." In Bono and Kemp, "Italian Feminism." Blackwell.
Fear of Feminism
As a young male, what did I gain from reading Lisa Maria Hogeland's "Fear of Feminism"? hat could Hogeland's article teach me, and how can I adapt her essay into a discourse meaningful for others like me? Furthermore, how can I apply Hogeland's ideas to my life and to the actions I take?
As a young person today, I hold the assumption that feminism has already taken root. The days when women were expected to be housewives seem like the distant past. Nowadays, women are expected to be independent, financially and emotionally. However, Hogeland's article shows that while feminism has helped women overcome some of the problems that faced them in the past, many young women today are afraid to further the feminist cause and advance the political ideals of feminism. Reading this article forced me to face the many contradictory aspects of feminism today, especially the…
Hogeland, Lisa Maria. "Fear of Feminism." Ms. Nov./Dec. 1994. Online at < http://www.rapereliefshelter.bc.ca/volunteer/fearoffem.html >.
For centuries women have entered into political struggle in order to secure the livelihoods of their families and communities." What is new is the advent of women in leadership positions and political office who have incorporated women issues into their programs which offers new hope and presents new possibilities. Just as British women felt their country was full of freedom even though they did not have the right to vote there are cultures in the world that freedom within that specific society would be prison within another in the view of women.
In order for feminism to become transnational the elite women in the richer countries must be able to consider and conceive the plight of the rural women in a third world country and as well all within the feminist movement must be able within their own consciousness to cross a deep chasm in order to comprehend women of…
Brenner, Johanna (2003) Transnational Feminism and The Struggle for Global Justice [from New Politics, vol.9 no.2 whole 34, winter 2003) Online available at http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue34/brenne34.htm .
Grewal, Inderpal & Kaplan, Caren (2000) Postcolonial Studies and Transnational Feminist Practices San Franciso State University and University of California Berkley Online available at http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v5i1/grewal.htm.
Moghadam, Val (2005) Transnational Feminism and Afghan Women's Rights Rubrique: Femmes & Mondalisation Online available at http://www.peuplesmonde.com/article.php3?id_article=269 .
Moghadam, Val (2004) From International to Transnational Organization: A Century's Feminist Journey- Against the Current Online available at http://www.solidarity-us.org/atc/109moghadam.html .
The lack of rights within marriage that makes women basically "property" to the man is obviously central to this story, as indicated by the way in which Maria is imprisoned. There are a variety of ways in which this most disturbing of issues is addressed in the book. Women who are married loose control over their own bodies, and are required to submit to caresses to which their soul does not consent. One woman in the madhouse is, in fact, there specifically because she could not tolerate her husband's caresses. "she had been married, against her inclination, to a rich old man,... In consequence of his treatment... she had... lost her senses." (1.39) Not only is a woman prone to institutionalized rape, but she also has no right to require the man to remain as he was before they wed. Maria declaims bitterly of how her husband deteriorates into a…
Abjection of the Body & Cyborg Jewelry Design
The examples of jewelry located and examined for the purposes of this paper align with the definitions and ideas of the authors that contextualize the conversation. (efinery 29, 2012) Notice how both of the models are positioned side by side, which immediately prompts the audience, viewer, or consumer to compare and contrast. Though their precise background are unknown, it is presumed that both models are Caucasian. Both models have short brown hair. The models do not closely resemble each other, yet there are similarities in the thickness of their lips, the subtlety of their cheek bones, and the composition of the product photos. Viewers are meant to draw more similarities between the models than highlight the differences.
Though we presume that one model is male and one model is female, their similarity highlights their androgyny, their lack of gender or the…
Creed, B. 1993. The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, feminism, psychoanalysis. Routledge, London.
Haraway, D. 1991. A Cyborg Manifesto. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, Routledge, New York.
Mulvey, L. 1999. Cosmetics and Abjection -- Cindy Sherman, 1977 -- 1987. Shiach, M. (ed) Feminism and Cultural Studies, Oxford University Press, New York.
Refinery 29. 2012 Fashion -- Jewelry. Web, Available from: http://www.refinery29.com/fashion . 2012 August 27.
grrrl -- here me roar! We've come a long way since the bra-burning days of yore. Feminists in the 1960s and 1970s helped break down significant barriers for grrrls, and helped us to reclaim that fun-filled word. However, that "second wave" of feminism is long gone. We're back to struttin' our stuff, high heels, lipstick, and all. Now 20-somethings don't have to demand to be called a "woman" to assert feminine strength; grrrl is just fine. In fact, the term reeks of fun and frolic, of grrrl power. As Angela Mcobbie states in her book Postmodernism and Popular Culture, "far from having to relinquish their femininity to achieve 'equality, these girls have demanded their right to hold onto it intact, even excessively," (166). Welcome to the Third Wave of Feminism, grrrls!
Ironically, it took hairy legs and armpits to achieve this linguistic transformation and ride this third wave. We had…
Garrison, Ednie Kaeh. "U.S. Feminism-Grrrl-Style!" Feminist Studies. Spring 2000. Find Articles. 24 Apr. 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0300/1_26/63295343/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22third+wave+feminism%22 .
McRobbie, Angela. Postmodernism and Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.
Straus, Tamara. "A Manifesto for Third Wave Feminism." Alternet. 24 Oct. 2000. Independent Media Institute. 24 Apr. 2003. http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=9986 .
This, to me, is an attempt to be realistic rather than feminist. Today, women are increasingly viewed, and portrayed by the media, as strong, independent creatures who can make decisions, pay bills, and "even" drive cars. They do, however, experience crime in very specific ways, and this is what I believe the show has set out to do.
In terms of women in power, the context of the show is once again ignored in favor of a claim that women are negatively portrayed because they do not form emotional attachments. The nature of the workplace and context provided preclude such attachments. There is, for example, no consideration of how the men in power do not form emotional attachments, either to their female partners or to the other men in the show. This, I feel, is not feminist, but rather sexist.
Sexism can be defined as an unrealistic, preconceived idea of…
Cuklanz, L.M. And Moorti, S. (2006, Oct). Television's "New" Feminism: Prime-Time Representations of Women and Victimization. Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 23, No. 4. Gender, Race, and Class in Media: A Critical Reader, Third Edition. Edited by Gail Dines and Jean Humez).