components of field research are observations and interviews. Ideally, observations should take place in the natural setting or environment of the subjects that are being observed. Observations are key not only in field research, but also in life. Observing is a greater challenge than most people may think. Even though, to a certain extent, all people are observers, observation for the sake of field research takes training and research. The observer should make use of as many sense as possible when making observations of the subjects. The data should be as complete as possible, meaning, observations for field research can include what is seen with the eyes, heard by the ears, and smelled by the nose. It is possible for observation to include as much sensory information as possible. The observations that the field researcher makes is the source of the data that will be used later on in the…… [Read More]
If the account does this it has exhausted what matters to the person in constructing the agent's well-being. Thus a person could not care about anything beyond the extent to which it serves her interests. Self-sacrifice would be impossible." (Sobel, 1998)
But, I understand that it is important to know going in that our healthcare system and all the world around us is in a state of constant change. As important is the fact that there is a need for reevaluating systems and the enacted laws and policies that empower these systems. The notion and concept of Family Health Centers of Southwest Florida, Inc. puts to rest any preconceived notions about the healthcare system.
I felt that the professional employed at Family Health Centers of Southwest Florida, Inc. would be unique and totally different than any other medical professional. I thought that financial gain would be the only driving factor…… [Read More]
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…… [Read More]
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]
Marketing esearch: The Marketing esearch Plan of Extreme Exposure ock Climbing Center
The need for marketing research
The marketing research problem
Information types and sources (primary and secondary)
Methods of accessing data
Methods of collecting Data
Design data collection forms (or scripts)
The sample plan and size
Marketing esearch: The Marketing esearch Plan Extreme Exposure ock Climbing Center.
The need for marketing research
With the climbing market exploding, the creation of a modern climbing centers necessitates an incredible amount of making sure that it is competitive. It is clear that modern climbing gyms are real businesses that are out there generating real proceeds. They provide specialized services like corporate team building and youth climbing programs, and they have to deal with real issues like taxes and workman's compensation audits. The best climbing facilities are run by experienced management professionals who appreciate their success depends as much on customer…… [Read More]
This process does not just help to gain complete understanding of the tasks in hand but also to regularly serve as a reminder of all the legal processes which guide appropriate nursing documentation.
The documentation characteristics which are spread all over the nursing field properly addresses the need to efficiently communicate through written methods. One of the main property of proper documentation is that the ability of a nurse to document legibly. This might look like an easy process to carry on but the fact is that many nurses, medical doctors or any other personnel associated with the nursing field do not follow a single standard of legibility.
Documentation in nursing field should also achieve the factor of being accurate and based on facts, by giving actual data, the process of care and appropriate channel of communication is maintained as this documentation can be used by the nurses in the…… [Read More]
Complexities and Simplicities of Research
Whether an academic or a working professional, research is often the primary objective of one's daily activity. Research not only imparts knowledge, but also allows one to understand how things work better, whether complex or simple, and present this information to bosses, professors, etc. thereby allowing these individuals to also broaden their knowledge and move the world forward. Research is thus very important. This paper will commence by addressing the question as to why research is conducted, and will continue with stressing the importance of clarity, assumption, literature, quality and data in research.
Why Do We Conduct Research?
The introductory paragraph above touched on this question a bit as well. Research is conducted because, frankly, we could not live our daily lives without knowledge, and this is exactly what research gives us. But what is research, exactly? Well, it could be defined as anything from…… [Read More]
Qualitative research is different from quantitative research methodologies on the premise that it does not rely on numerical data. Qualitative research rely on text and image since it's a type of scientific research that seeks to provide contextual descriptions of the experiences of people regarding as specific research issue. In most cases, qualitative research methods are considered suitable in identifying intangible factors through a scientific inquiry such as socioeconomic status, religion, social norms, and ethnicity (College of Computer and Information Science, n.d.). In this regard, there are several aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing, which are brought by specific designs, steps of analysis, and data collection procedures. An understanding of these aspects of qualitative research writing helps in enhancing the effectiveness of the research process and research findings.
Salient Aspects of Qualitative Research Writing
In his discussion on qualitative research procedures, Creswell (2014) proposes ten aspects that differentiate qualitative research…… [Read More]
oles of Theory in Qualitative esearch & Application
Write a two page Journal entry on how well you are understanding the roles of theory in qualitative research and how this applies to your Final Project and to your Dissertation.
Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness (which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches). When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…… [Read More]
Among the negative effects of living in a violent relationship include increased depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress (Bogat, et. al, 2004). There is some evidence that suggests that social support may influence a woman's reactions to domestic violence, and may in fact influence whether or not a woman decides to stay or leave a relationship (Bogat, et. al, 2004). When support exists it is related to a positive outcome more often than not for women (Bogat, et. al, 2004). There are some studies that find that women who are in violent relationships often lack positive support role models and even when they do they are reluctant to ask for help (Bogat, et. al, 2004).
There is adequate empirical evidence which suggests that most battered women tend to be socially isolated and thus do not have a readily available network of people they can rely on for support and encouragement when…… [Read More]
When ordinary 'beat cops' act unethically, it immediately garners negative media attention because it affects the public in such a visceral and immediate fashion. Police officers are the average citizen's main source of contact with the justice system and so they are carefully watched. However, prosecutors may decide to proceed with a prosecution despite questionable evidence or act unethically in other ways, and unless it comes to the media's attention or there is very stringent oversight over the office from an outside authority, prosecutors' transgressions may go unnoticed. Prosecutors and police officers both have the most serious and complex obligations of members of the justice system: not to get a conviction, but to pursue justice.
What suggestions might you offer to avoid errors in human inquiry?
First and foremost, to prevent errors in human inquiry causing errors in judgment, it is essential that members of law enforcement staff are cognizant…… [Read More]
Marine Biology & Drones
Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered up dramatic images of studies underway, for example of orca populations off the coast of British Columbia, but there are many studies around the world that are using drones. The advantage of drones is that they can fly above marine environments, providing an overhead view of those environments. This can be valuable in terms of counting animal populations for example, because with drones animals typically do not change their behaviors (Schiffman, 2014). Drones have become a popular tool for field biologists in part because drone technology is improving and the cost of these devices is falling (Schiffman, 2014).
In some fields, such as the observation of marine life in Antarctic sea ice, it has been noted that the normal observation is…… [Read More]
Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…… [Read More]
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…… [Read More]
.....mission of the Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) exerts upon the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
The Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) was established with the main purpose of addressing and coming up with resolve for current issues being faced by professionals in the accounting field, which were not addressed by announcements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Prior to the establishment of ETIF in 1984, the FASB constantly faced challenges of not being able to offer well-timed and sensible solutions to developing practice problems. The EITF was therefore designed to disseminate and propagate carrying out guidance within the structure of the Accounting Standards Codification to decrease multiplicity when it comes down to it on a well-timed basis. In their field of profession, accountants experience a wide range of issues that are not comprehensively addressed in accounting pronouncements, and, which necessitate prompt resolve. In addition, such professionals insist that…… [Read More]
International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security
The study will be based on the question that "What is the impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security." Answers will be sought to have this question addressed adequately.
The study feels that the ISPS Code has some impacts upon the Maritime Security in the world. Thus, the study seeks to uncover the various impacts that are realized by the Maritime Security as offered by the ISPS.
The influence and functionality of the existing ISPS Code run globally. Its effects, as part of its usefulness and importance, are felt by the Maritime Security among other agents of security in the world. Thus, the study will uncover the impacts caused by the ISPS Code on the Maritime Security in various parts of the world. The study will seek further knowledge from different materials; research…… [Read More]
Selection of Research Paper Topic
An analysis of the link between hopefulness, quality of life (QOL) and internalized stigma among autistic kids' parents is the objective of the current research. Autism impacts the patient as well as their parents, who require wide-ranging support services. The entire family of autism patients gets distressed during its attempts at raising the patient/child, potentially leading to diverse psychological and social problems among family members. Therefore, when catering to special needs kids and developing interventions and initiatives for autism-diagnosed kids, mental healthcare providers and social workers need to consider parental mental health status. Family members who are able to enjoy appropriate levels of societal acceptance and assistance tend to adjust better to challenges encountered in the course of raising autistic kids (Papageorgiou & Kalyva, 2010).
Stigma internalization represents a process wherein patients' family members might exhibit elevated negative emotions, withdrawal from society, negative self-assessment and…… [Read More]
Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.
The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.
Statement of Purpose
For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.
In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…… [Read More]
St. Patrick's Cathedral: Field Trip
Patrick's Cathedral's design is not only original but also distinct. Its proportions are also evidently harmonious. With impressive twin spikes characterizing its west facade and enormous bronze doors ushering in visitors and worshipers alike, St. Patrick's Cathedral is every inch an architectural masterpiece.
At the time of my visit last Friday at around 12:30 PM, there was an ongoing restoration and renovation exercise which as I was made to understand takes a pause during Masses and continues thereafter. The three-phase undertaking will take five years to complete. It should be noted that although the scaffoldings did of course obstruct some spectacular observations of the Cathedral such as the Great Rose widow, a majority of the Cathedral's other aspects are still visible. As I gathered from yet another visitor, a number of renovation projects have been undertaken within the Cathedral during the last several decades. In…… [Read More]
Forensic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that applies the techniques and concepts of chemistry to provide evidence and testify in court. Some federal agencies such as FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and National Institute of Justice use forensic chemistry experts to investigate the crimes committed against the society, which include environmental pollution, food adulteration, and distribution of unsafe chemical substances. In the United States, cocaine and other illegal drugs can put society at risks. Thus, experts in forensic chemistry uses different processes to perform a laboratory test to identify the presence of substances. A chemical analysis carried out in the laboratory can help to detect illegal drugs, which will assist the police or other law enforcement agents to prosecute offenders in the law courts. (Drug Enforcement Administration 1).
Moreover, the forensic chemistry analyzes non-biological materials to detect a trace of evidence from the crime scenes to found unknown material…… [Read More]
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…… [Read More]
"A population is thus an aggregate of creatures, things, cases and so on," ("Populations and Samples," n.d.). The population samples for this research will consist of product developers and engineers, market researchers, Apple employees, and consumers. Using a broad population base like this allows for the most thorough insight possible into how Apple can improve their innovation strategies. The product researchers, engineers, and developers are the people who are most in tune with what can be done, and what is within the pragmatic realm of possibility. For example, if product developers were asked what they would design if money were not an issue, they could help determine some new directions for Apple. Product researchers, engineers, and developers will be contacted directly by our research team. Our research team will phone or email a list of product researchers and developers working for different companies all over the world. The initial…… [Read More]
The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.
The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…… [Read More]
Benefits Obtaining a College Degree
ecently, students have been paying huge amounts of money to attend a college but earned less upon graduation (Arai, 1998). Such trends have caused many observers to question if a college degree is a worthwhile investment. To be precise, college students endure the following expenses: supplies such as textbooks, tuition fees, food, and room and board among others. Supplies, tuition fees and books are the direct costs of education, but board and room are indirect costs as they are incurred to sustain a subsistence level of education. Besides the above, opportunity cost is one of the most important costs as these students forgo earnings while in school. While it is categorized under indirect costs, it accounts for nearly 40% of the total college degree costs (eynolds et al. 2007). In addition to the above costs that students endure, a college education is also associated with…… [Read More]
Counsultation in the field of counseling is a concept by which a person is able to consult with a counselor in order to develop a better sense of self. There is often a biblical aspect to this type of counseling, but that is not a requirement. People can also be counseled by those who address financial concerns, tax implications, or other types of personal and professional issues. Anytime someone sees a counselor for a counsultation on his or her status in some aspect of life, this type of activity takes place. Often, a counsultation takes place as the first line of defense in treating a mental health issue. A counselor can look over information provided by the patient as well as any past medical history in order to make some determinations about patient care and potential problems. At that time, there can be a counsultation appointment scheduled that will allow…… [Read More]
The general field of human resources has become more and more difficult as well as more perilous. That is not just a simple generalized statement made for dramatic effect and just for the purpose of setting up the introduction of this paper. Indeed, there are some questions that can and should be posed by human resources professionals that do not have clear answers because of how complicated and how contradictory the field's body of work has become. The ethical implications and obligations pertaining to human resources have been made very muddled by contradicting laws and guidelines thus making real compliance beyond a reasonable doubt very hard to pull off.
The hypothesis that underlies this report comes down to one main statement, and that is as follows:
The different ethics, laws and vagueness that exists in both has made it possible to become completely and reliably compliant with the…… [Read More]
The field of nursing is shaped by a range of ethical principles; while all of these concepts are important, one could argue that perhaps the most crucial ethical principle is that of beneficence. "Beneficence is the obligation to do good and avoid harm. Nurses help others to gain what is beneficial to them, which promotes well-being and reduces the risk of harm" (Young et al., 2009, p. 75). Having a clear understanding of beneficence is important as nurses are often presented with a range of complex ethical situations and dilemmas and they need strong principles to help guide their actions and nursing practice. As Young and colleagues explain, avoiding the harm that comes to a patient involves balancing this against the perceived amount of benefit. Other theorists see this concept in a slightly different perspective: "Beneficence is the principle of promoting the legitimate and important aims and interests of…… [Read More]
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]
role of research problem in choosing an appropriate methodology. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study. The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance. The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities.
Vietnam -- The Economy, Marketing Landscape, and Brand Perception of Consumers
Economic System and Macro-Economic Environment of Vietnam and its esponse to Globalization:
After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy (Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, 2010). All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More]
The behavior of both botnets and worms in peer-to-peer networks have been empirically examined and models or simulations of their behavior have been attempted, and the manner in which different nodes in peer-to-peer networks develop in and of themselves and in terms of their relationships with other nodes -- the very architecture of the network itself, in other words, which is necessarily dynamic in a peer-to-peer network -- makes it easier for these threats to spread and evolve undetected due to this architecture and to the patterns of information flow over such networks (Fan, 2011; Xu et al., 2011). When it comes to worms propagating in peer-to-eer networks, the activity of the worm itself has been demonstrated to be the most necessary knowledge in terms of tracking and preventing the continued spread and damage of such a threat, while botnets generally show more "robustness" an are better impacted by shifts…… [Read More]
Human esource Issues in Health Field
The field of health human resources in the health field deals with issues such as planning, performance, management, development, information, retention, and research on human resources in the health sector Successful realization the mission and goals in this field is determined by the dedication and skills that the specialists possess. This study identifies various issues that often arise and bedevils this field. Current trends relating to technological advancements affecting the success and performance of employees in this field are also identified (Fried, & Johnson, 2002). Therefore, in order to improve service delivery in the health sector and consequently promote a healthy society, it is critical to identify and analyze the various challenges facing human resources in the health sector. This will provide a basis for developing various interventions aimed at dealing with the identified challenges and consequently improving the quality of service delivery in…… [Read More]
Perhaps one of the best description of the painting is made by the painter himself in a letter to his brother: "I have a canvas of cypresses with some ears of wheat, some poppies, a blue sky like a piece of Scotch plaid; the former painted with a thick impasto . . . And the wheat field in the sun, which represents the extreme heat, very thick too."
With Monet, La Grenouillere seems a simple artistic exercise, an expression of his creative style in a purely rational manner. The combination between a realistic expression of the external environment and his capacity to innovate comes naturally in this case: there are people on a boat on the water, with trees surrounding them and the sky above them. The people are barely sketched, but this is in no way an expression of mental disorder, because it fits wonderfully in the work and…… [Read More]
esearch Issues on the Topic of Terrorism
Written into the very word, terrorism is a fascinating social problem worth inquiry. The meaning of terrorism is an act of violence or other that paralyses the individual or society with a feeling of terror. That terror can be a product of the relative infrequency and therefore surprise and seeming senselessness associated with the event, such as in the case of large scale and broad violent acts against larger populations (like 9/11, or the Oklahoma City bombing in the U.S.). The form of terror might also grow out of the expectation of debilitating acts against others as a standard operating procedure during certain circumstances (like the support and at the very least complicity of commanders in times of often ethnic war where women of the "enemy" are frequently and violently raped as an act of aggression and show of power).
Though the…… [Read More]
Pragmatic Linguistic Awareness Motivation
Research Study Outline on Pragmalinguistic Awareness
A helpful one-line summary of the research study, indicating the topic area and including all the key concepts to be studied.
Takahashi tested eighty Japanese students with a noticing-the-gap activity after administering a motivation questionnaire and an L2 proficiency test, finding that pragmalinguistic awareness was correlated with motivation subscales, but not with proficiency.
Link to previous research: What the author (SATOMI TAKAHASHI) had done on this topic area and what he had found; unanswered questions that your research study plans to answer.
The role of attention in pragmalinguistics was introduced in Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis, which claimed that learners have to notice L2 features in the input for subsequent development to occur in the L2. (Schmidt, 1990). Schmidt argues that noticing is central to SLA, and learners must first notice the surface structures of utterances inthe input to acquire virtually every…… [Read More]
Still, the concept of guided imagery tends to stray far from traditional methods of pain management. Pharmaceuticals have long been a major method of treatment for pain, but have resulted in major backlashes in regards to patients becoming addicted, especially in long-term and chronic cases of pain. If guided imagery could be a successful method, it may reduce pain or increase pain tolerance, without the threat of chemical dependence.
There are a number of benefits which are seen in the ongoing discourse today. As such, the expected improvements include things like drops in blood high blood pressure, lower heart rates, and reduction of chronic pain symptoms, lessoning of headache pain, and increasing overall pain tolerance (Cornelius, 2010). In situations were patients going into a major surgery were coached with guided imagery, it was "shown to decrease stress and anxiety before and after surgery," thus helping reduce additional pain issues during…… [Read More]
It is helpful for oth the author and the readers. The literature review must identify works that have een pulished on the topic in case y accredited scholars and researchers (Taylor, 2010). Usually, the literature review is an introduction to the research project.
The purpose of the literature review consists in introducing the readers into the knowledge and ideas referring to the selected topic for the research project in case, and to help the readers adjust to the research topic. Also, a good literature review should not only list these issues, ut also identify and explain their strengths and weaknesses in order for the readers to e ale to develop a more clear idea on the researched topic.
As mentioned aove, conducing the literature review also helps the author of the research report to develop new directions that the research process can follow. This helps the author to develop more…… [Read More]
The results of this study found that some negative bias towards a patient's socioeconomic standing -- particularly from less-experienced dental students -- can result in "differential treatment" (e.g., less attentive care) (Carson, 675). But by "heightening awareness" of potential biases (that are based on accent or perceived lower socioeconomic status, or on racism) among dental students, through educational initiatives, stereotyping and bias can be reduced if not eliminated (Carson, 678). Another suggestion (Carson, 678-79) in terms of ensuring the quality of treatment is to "inhibit social categorical thinking." This would require not treating the patient as "unique" but rather as a "collections of symptoms."
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
A Constraint in Children's Action Planning? The Journal…… [Read More]
esearch and the Scientific Method: A Concise Definition
esearch as a term does not have an assigned definition. Indeed, different authors have in the past offered varying definitions of the same. In the opinion of Goddard and Melville (2004), research does not limit itself to information gathering. esearch as the authors point out "is about answering unanswered questions or creating that which does not currently exist" (Goddard and Melville, 2004). In that regard, an individual who seeks to systematically gather new information in an attempt to find answers to specific questions is in one way or the other involved in research. On the other hand, when it comes to the scientific method, the same according to Jackson (as cited in Coon and Mitterer, 2010) can be defined as "a form of critical thinking based on careful collection of evidence, accurate description and measurement, precise definition, controlled observation, and repeatable…… [Read More]
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…… [Read More]
" This madness likely leads to Ophelia's suicide but, consistent with the entire theme of this play, the exact nature of Ophelia's demise is left to speculation.
The fascination with Hamlet is uncanny. hat provides this fascination is the fact that there is always more to what is going on in the play than what actually appears to be. Observers of the play are left with an overwhelming feeling that they do not really understand what has gone on inside the confines of the play or why. As a result, one leaves the play questioning nearly everything. Halmet, the main character, is the personification of this confusion. Throughout the entire play he is plagued by a never ending incapacity to make a decision.
This confusion continues through nearly every character in the play. Claudius is an immoral murderer but, at the same time, he is a fair and competent ruler.…… [Read More]
It is projected that at least 10% of the individuals receiving the survey will respond.
There are a variety of reasons for using qualitative methods in a study such as this one. Even though there are drawbacks to the qualitative method including (but not limited to) the fact that respondents are not known and could be lying, the responses are very subjective, and the questions themselves are quantitative in nature, it is still deemed that the expense and time necessary to employ other methods would be to exorbiant in nature.
It is also determined that there are a number of others studies currently available that can provide data that shows the effectiveness of direct mail advertising, therefore, the focus would be on the sports magazine aspect rather than direct mail per se. Qualitative methods are therefore deemed the most appropriate for this study.
De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009)…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…… [Read More]
Models of leadership and management
Comparison and contrast of leadership models
Application of leadership model: Case of Mark Zuckerberg
Table 1- Leadership Table
Leadership in public and private sector businesses is important for the growth of these businesses. Of late, many researchers have thoroughly investigated the role leadership in promoting businesses. Researchers have also tried to explore the common characteristics of global business leaders that have led their businesses to successful heights. Different models of effective leadership in corporations have also been drafted. One major aspect of leaders being explored in their ability to inspire people surrounding them and use this inspiration to achieve results that could be achieved without having complete trust of followers. While followers might be hard to make for a leader, and yet harder to retain, few researchers have put forth consolidated models of inspirational leaders that effectively make and retain followers.…… [Read More]
population for my proposed research will be college students ages 17-22 at three different educational institutions. The purpose of the cross-sectional study will be to survey the study habits of college students and the effect of those study habits on student's grades. Students will be asked to identify themselves on the questionnaire in terms of their age, gender, ethnicity, college major, whether they are the first member of their family to attend college full-time and their GPA. They will then be surveyed upon a variety of study habits, such as what time of day they study, where, how frequently, if they study alone or in a group, if they study with music playing and for how long.
All of the categories will be narrowed down in the final statistical analysis, for ease and clarity (such as noting if their major is in the humanities, social sciences, or natural sciences). GPAs…… [Read More]
The problem being researched or evaluated
The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.
• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)
The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.
• ationale for the design based on the problem
The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…… [Read More]
The field of environmental psychology is a specialized discipline within psychology whose major developments have been totally adopted into mainstream psychology. In past few decades, the much of the positive and negative visibility of environmental psychology have been lost. One of the significant visibilities to be lost is the initial enthusiasm that came from the common desire by designers and social scientists in developing buildings that would work better for people. In addition to being incorporated into mainstream psychology, environmental psychology has also been adopted into other areas of psychology including social psychology and health psychology. Consequently, environmental education has now become a major area within education and various organizations are increasingly studying human behavior and the physical environment.
The Discipline of Environmental Psychology:
The discipline of environmental psychology can be defined as the study of the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment. Since this discipline…… [Read More]
The sportsmen and the team enter competition to win prizes and they end up as winners, runner ups, or other positions, which are crucial in sports; they come in first place or second place and yet score that many goals. The performances of the sportsmen are records to be remembered for years to come and these are all quantitative variables, rather than qualitative.
Also, at the level of the increased attention offered by the business community on sports and sporting events, the measures used are again quantitative ones. Some examples in this sense include the money brought in by the investors in the sports teams, the number of people attracted by a sports event, the commercial value of a sports events and so on; for instance, the Olympic games can also be measured in terms of the investments allocated to improve the infrastructure in the region, the increase in the…… [Read More]
The field of clinical psychology emerged as a viable method through which the theoretical foundations of cognitive studies could be effectively applied within the clinical setting to prevent and treat psychological syndromes. Derived from the first clinical psychology work conducted by Lightner Witmer in the late 19th century, and expanding throughout the 20th century as diagnostic tools were refined and classification systems for mental disorders were standardized, modern clinical psychology has been adapted to fulfill a niche within a whole host of divergent fields, including criminal justice, the social sciences and gender relations. Clinical psychologists premise their work on the use of empirical analysis to accurately investigate matters of cognitive processing, psychological assessment and mental illness, with the administration of personality tests, neurological scans and clinical interviews the most frequently utilized diagnostic resources. As clinical psychology expanded the base of knowledge pertaining to the human brain's highly refined…… [Read More]
Religious Field Search
AHMADIS: THE OTHER FACE OF ISLAM
For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…… [Read More]
Legal esearch and Argument
To begin the research for this case and the argument that follows, one must first examine the case and determine what is essential. It is assumed that the engineer was negligent because he should have known about the circular which advised that further structural support would be required for the type of building he was constructing. It is not enough to rely upon 20 years-worth of experience in the field because situations change which may negate all of that experience. Thus, this does not seem to be a legitimate argument for the engineer. It could be argued that the engineer was not made aware of the circular and that this was not his negligence but the persons who filed the document before he had seen it. Unfortunately, this would seem to be immaterial because it is the engineer's responsibility to stay abreast of important changes within…… [Read More]
Broadbent's esearch On Attention
Donald Eric Broadbent an influential English experimental psychologist who was the first person to pull together the mass of diverse work on information theory that gave the area the coherence it lacked. In his experimental work he demonstrated that there was a possibility of studying attention rigorously. The data he used was from behavioral experiments to make inferences on the functional stages of processing and their order of occurrence. In a nutshell he invented the modern study of attention with an experimental approach to it (Driver, 2001).
He brought about a revolution on how research on mental processes was conducted. He put emphasis on how psychological theory and research could come from putting into consideration practical problems. He truly bridged the gap that existed between the laboratory and field. He regarded all theories as temporary accounts of the current information, likely to need revision and improvement…… [Read More]
ole of esearch in Social Work
esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.
Social Worker's need to understand research
The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…… [Read More]
Cloud Computing esearch Question and Experimental Design
Develop a research question that addresses one of the unknowns you identified in Part I of the literature review and sketch a quantitative or qualitative study that can answer the question about what is unknown and contribute to theory. Draw on the additional resources for this course for guidance in understanding the concepts (e.g., internal validity, threats to validity, and operationalization) needed to address this question.
After a thorough review of the prevailing research and literature on the adoption and implementation of cloud computing technology, it is clear that the base of knowledge on this emerging field is continually expanding. A number of critical questions are still left unanswered, however, as is befitting an innovation which was only recently made available for public and private use. Namely, what are the implications for widespread adoption of cloud computing on the overall information security management…… [Read More]
Landmark Legal Cases, Informed Consent:
Implications for the Counseling Field
Many seek counseling each year and do not understand what services are offered, or even that the counselor they see is required by law to maintain the confidentiality of the conversation that the two of them are going to have. These issues have been clouding in the past and have led to many court cases that have helped counselors in every state outline exactly what is required of the document. The American Counseling Association (ACA), and the associations of the different states, have specific ethical guidelines which require members to provide new clients with an informed consent document to sign. State and federal legal cases have shown the need for a document which spells out what the counseling services of a particular practice are, what confidentiality is, and oftentimes how the counseling services will be paid (Walsh & Dasenbrook, 2005).…… [Read More]
gaps between the academic research and practitioner knowledge with respect to HR that are identified by Saari & Judge (2004) are: "the cause of employee attitudes, the results of positive or negative job satisfaction and how to measure and influence employee attitudes." The authors note this in context of the lack of understanding in practice with respect to employee satisfaction. Employers do not fully understand how employee satisfaction arises (cause of employee attitudes). They also have a lack of knowledge about the outcomes associated with positive or negative job satisfaction. Some employers believe that happy workers are more productive, others disagree. Practitioners generally do not know the answer and are not familiar with current research in the area. The authors assert that practitioners generally are not able to measure employee attitudes, much less influence them.
Saari and Judge point out that academic research has more or less answered each of…… [Read More]
Purpose Statement: To determine whether or not one's political affiliation has an impact on their views regarding public policy.
Applicable Literature: The relationship between political affiliation and behavior has been studied extensively, dating back decades. Studies in the 1960s and 70s explored the impact of party affiliation on judge's decisions (Nagel, 1961), and on the war in Vietnam (Verba et al., 1967). In some of these studies, political affiliation is considered to be a demographic variable that can be measured and used to help analyze results, and this tactic has continued to be popular fifty years hence. For example, a recent study examined the impact of political affiliation on trade issues (hite, 2009). Recent literature in psychology and sociology has gone further, to study how political affiliation impacts on one's thinking process (Gerber et al., 2009; Baldassarri, 2008). This study will approach the issue again from a…… [Read More]
Phenomenology, meanwhile, takes into account lived experiences as basis for analysis and interpretation of an event or phenomenon. It takes these experiences in a collective manner, and determines the nature and dynamics of the phenomenon through these collective experiences.
Grounded theory is theory development based on different stages of analysis, starting from the identification of data points which will become codes for the researcher. Codes will then be developed into concepts, and concepts would then be grouped and determined under different categories. From these categories, the researcher would be able to develop a theory that is responsive to the information generated from the even/phenomenon. Ethnography is the observation and/or documentation of everyday life based on the observations of the researcher, either through participant observation, interviews, or group discussions. This method takes note of everything about everyday life, from the mundane and trivial to the extraordinary and significant.
In determining which…… [Read More]
Service Quality esearch
The research discussed in this paper is based on the application of the SEVQUAL model to the restaurant sector of the hospitality service industry. The SEVQUAL model was developed in 1985 and has been refined since for use in the service industry. In contrast to goods, service quality has been difficult to measure because of the intangibility, variability and heterogeneity of the service. Moreover, the service quality depends on the interaction between service provider and consumer. The SEVQUAL model was developed to overcome these limitations. The research articles discussed in the following sections were all conducted to apply the model in the restaurant sector to evaluate the service quality of various kinds of restaurants.
In addition to the SEVQUAL model, another useful model is the DINESEV model which has also been used by a couple of the researches discussed in this paper. The researches discussed in this…… [Read More]
This is yet another reason we cannot assume that data is 'objective' because it is quantitative in nature. For example, when constructing an experiment "an extreme groups design (e.g., assigning participants to high or low conditions) maximizes the variances of the components of the product term, it also results in much more power with respect to the interaction effect than would the corresponding observational design" (Cortina 2002: 343). Conversely, doing an experiment 'in the field' is likely to yield a less statistically-significant impact because of the inability to control the extremity of the variables. A recent study of the statistical power of research in the social sciences revealed that only 40% of all MIS studies had adequate statistical power to ensure that the probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected correctly at all times (Baroudi & Orlikowski 1989: 87). Significance criteria, sample estimate, and effect size, can all influence…… [Read More]