Film Analysis Essays (Examples)

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One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest Summary

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98053453

Summary: One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest
This particular film is about Randle McMurphy, a criminal who upon serving a brief stint in prison for rape pleads insanity and is relayed to a mental institution. On being moved to the said institution, McMurphy rallies up colleagues (the rest of the patients) against a harsh and cruel nurse. The film is based on a novel by the same name.
One of the psychiatric concepts displayed in the film is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). ECT is, in essence, a process that attempts to adapt brain chemistry via the passage of small electric currents through a person’s brain. In this film McMurphy is taken through this procedure. It is important to note that in the past, as is demonstrated in the case of McMurphy, the process was largely brutish and harsh in that it involved the passage of intense doses of electricity (often times…… [Read More]

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Psycho 1960 Film Movie Analysis

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23661421

Movie Analysis: Psycho (1960 film)

The movie's most relevant cast for this discussion includes Norman, Norman's mother (Mrs. Bates), and Marion. After the death of his dad, Norman becomes entirely dependent on the love, attention, and support of his mother. It is for this reason that when she (Norman's mother) takes in a lover, Norman feels as if he is no longer a priority in his mother's life -- he feels as if he has been replaced. Apparently, he can't stand sharing her and as a result of his intense jealousy, he ends up killing not only his mother's lover but also his mother, through poisoning. However, he elects to preserve the corpse instead of having it buried -- in what could be seen as an attempt to perpetuate the illusion that his mother is not dead but is, instead, still alive. As a consequence, he begins to not only…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hickey, Erick W. Serial Murderers and their Victims. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.

Jenkins, Philip. Using Murder: The Social Construction of Serial Homicide. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2009. Print.
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Film Leverage

Words: 2153 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9490327

Film Awards

The film industry produces experience goods for consumer enjoyment and consumption, and substantively relies on consumer differentiation for the economic success of movies. Moviegoers appear to differentiate films primarily on the basis of genre, starring actors, exposure to promotion, recommendations from other moviegoers and film critics, and -- for the dedicated film buffs and connoisseurs -- directors, cinematographers, and even screenwriters associated with the film production (Albert 1998, De Vany 2004, Eliashberg and Shugan 1997, Hand 2002, Krider and Weinberg 1998, Nelson et al. 2001, avid 1999, Smith and Smith 1986, Wallace, Steigermann and Holbrook 1993). Access to information about films is related to the resources and networks that moviegoers enjoy, and on the attention that films garner, as expressed by the media and through social networks. Information about films is accessed by moviegoers from many sources: 1) The genre of the film; 2) the rating of the…… [Read More]

References

Albert, S 1998 "Movie stars and the distribution of financially successful fitness in the motion picture industry." Journal of Cultural Economics, 22(4), 249-270.

Chang, B-H and Ki, E-J 2005, Devising a practical model for predicting theatrical movie success: Focusing on experience good property. Journal of Media Economics, 18(4), 247-260.

Chen, Andrew. "Forecasting Gross Revenues at the Movie Box Office" Department of Economics, University of Washington June 2002. 20 July 2006 http://www.econ.washington.edu/user/startz/OldCourses/482_SP2002_studentPapers/econ-482-finalpaper%20Chen.pdf

Decanay, JC, King-Calvo, MT, Santos, AA 2010, Information cascades as social learning: The case of box-office ticket sales in the Philippines. Proceedings of the European Conference on Knowledge Management, 2010 p.334-344.
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Movie Analysis on What Women Want

Words: 1651 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94825903

Women Want is an American romantic comedy brought to the big screen in 2000, staring Helen Hunt and Mel Gibson. The story revolves around Nick Marshall (played by Mel Gibson), a Chicago advertising executive and ultimate alpha male personality and considered to be a chauvinist. He is considered highly skilled at selling what men want and seducing women. Although Nick thinks he is next in line for a big promotion, he is faced with new competition from Darcy McGuire (played by Helen Hunt), who is hired in the position Nick aspired to, to broaden the company's general appeal to women. In a freak accident, Nick is electrocuted and develops the ability to hear the innermost thoughts of women. He subsequently uses that ability to advance his ideas vicariously through Helen Hunt; encouraging her as if the ideas were her own or even a collaboration of their two ideas. Nick also…… [Read More]

References

Baxter, J. (1970). Interpersonal spacing in natural settings. Sociometry, 33, 444-456.

Berger, C., & Calabrese, R. (1975). Some exploration in initial interaction and beyond: toward a development theory of communication. Human Communication Research, 1, 99-112.

Felipe, N., & Sommer, R. (1966). Invasions of personal space. Social Problems, 14, 206-

Griffin, E. (2009). A first look at communication theory. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Movie Analysis Dead Man's Walk

Words: 1820 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73098172

Dead Man's Walk

In the stories of the Wild West, there is always a white man in a white hat who serves as the hero of the story. The villain is always the other white man in the black hat. Symbolically, the villain becomes a racial other because of the color of his hat. When a black hat cannot be found, the other villain of a western will be the Native American, more commonly referred to as the Indian, since calling them by the more politically correct term would be anachronistic. This is a tradition of American stories of the Wild West where the white man, no matter what his character is, will always be heroic in comparison to the villainous other. In the movie version of Larry McMurtry's novel Dead Man's Walk, the heroes of the story are intended to be the Caucasian Texas Rangers and the villains are…… [Read More]

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Film Auteur Theory in Tim

Words: 2585 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61136258

Gotham is a dark place, which manifests evil in the character of the Joker (Jack Nicholson). Bruce Wayne, Batman, is the force with which evil must reckon. Batman, however, has his own dark side, which is manifest in his costume, his gothic style mansion, and the technology he employs to combat the Joker and other criminal elements.

In this film, Burton needed only a few big name and talented actors -- Jack Nicholson (the Joker), Michael Keaton (Bruce Wayne aka Batman), Billy Dee Williams (Harvey Bent), and Kim Bassinger (Vicky Vale) to attract that audience that might otherwise have opted out of a comic book to film production. Yet the actors in this instance by virtue of their talent need minimal direction, and that allows Burton to focus on the structure of the film. The film is not structured around the actors, but the actors fill the structure of the…… [Read More]

Reference List

Dudley, Andrew (1984). Concepts in Film Theory, Oxford University Press.

Caughie, John (1982). Theories of Authorship: A Reader, Routledge, New York, New

York.

Valicha, Kishore (1988). The Moving Image: A Study of Indian Cinema, Orient
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Movie Analysis of Criminal Justice Film

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31742899

Twelve Angry Men

Criminal Justice

Courts and procedures in the film version of Twelve Angry Men (1957).

The title of the film Twelve Angry Men (1957) is somewhat misleading: there are actually eleven angry men depicted in the film and one rational man who is capable of seeing the facts. The classic courtroom drama depicts twelve male jurors who have recently heard a trial where a young Puerto ican boy stands accused of the murder of his father. At the beginning of the film, all of the jurors (and the weary judge) seem resolved to convict the defendant. They believe the case is open and shut. The one exception is a single juror who refuses, based upon his belief that when a man's life is at stake, no decision can be made lightly. The movie (actually a filmed stage play, given its static nature) dramatizes how the other jurors come…… [Read More]

References

D'Angelo, M. (2012). Did Twelve Angry Men get it wrong? The AV Club. Retrieved from:

 http://www.avclub.com/article/did-i12-angry-meni-get-it-wrong-83245 

Ebert, R. (2002). Twelve Angry Men. Retrieved from:

 http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-12-angry-men-1957
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Movie Called Holy Motors

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61832341

Holy Motors Movie Analysis

Holy Motors: An Analysis

Director Leos Carax has done it again. He has shocked the film industry with an abstract film focusing on the damaging power of our obsession with gazing into another's life. Voyeurism is a destructive force in the 2012 film Holy Motors, one which destroys the life of Oscar, the never-ending actor.

This intense French film was a major shocker in 2012. It is a very unique story told with incredible cinematic genius. Oscar, an actor, constantly drives around to different appointments, where he plays a number of odd roles. Sometimes he plays his roles in front o a large audience, while at other times they seem to be in front of only a few individuals or even no one at all. There seems to be no rhyme or reason to his roles, as he is random characters without much explanation of what…… [Read More]

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Film Theory

Words: 2093 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29431991

Film Theory

The canonical model of the purely cinematic (Eisenstein, Kracauer, Bazin) starts disappearing in contemporary theory. Most film theorists since the 1970s (Baudry, Wollen, Mulvey, Stam/Shohat, or Jameson, etc.) Explain in different ways how the textual (content and form, the film text itself) and institutional have merged together. Choose two theorists for whom the institutional issues are integrally connected to the textual ones, and explain their insights about reading cinema.

Laura Mulvey's piece, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" is divided into three sections. The first section is the introduction, the next section is called "Pleasure in Looking: Fascination with the Human Form." The third section is called "Woman as Image, Man as Bearer of the Look," which is followed by a summary of the entire work. Mulvey makes numerous assertions in her work, but one of her primary intentions of "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" is to call serious,…… [Read More]

References:

Diawara, M. 1993. Noir by Noirs: Towards a New Realism in Black Cinema. African-American Review, 27(4), 525 -- 537.

Hooks, B. 1991. Micheaux: Celebrating Blackness. Black American Literature Forum: Black Film Issue, 25(2), 351 -- 360.

Hooks, B. 1992. The Oppositional Gaze: Black Female Spectators. Black Looks: Race and Representation. South End Press, Boston.

Mulvey, L. 2004. Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms -- Special Issue. Signs, 30(1), 1286 -- 000.
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Film Is a Comprehensive Work

Words: 2389 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9052026

There is a direct correlation with, say, Henry Hill's cocaine abuse and the increasingly rapid cuts between shots. Faster-paced narrative parallels quicker-moving shots. When viewers finally see the film in the theater, the finished product reads like a cohesive narrative when in fact the filmmakers strung together disparate shots and cuts and combined them later after thousands of hours of painstaking labor. Analyzing a movie must therefore include respect for the editorial prowess of the post-production crew.

Editors must be intimately familiar with the screenplay they work with, especially in films that do not have a linear narrative. For instance, Christopher Nolan's 2000 film Memento describes one man's struggle with memory degradation. elying on a non-linear plot, the filmmaker depended on the post-production crew to adequately convey the disjointedness of amnesia. Other elements like dramatic irony, in which the audience is privy to information that protagonists do not have access…… [Read More]

References

Bellour, R. (2000). The Analysis of Film. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Bertolucci, B. (1993). Little Buddha. Feature film.

Brown, B. (2002). Cinematography: Theory and Practice. USA: Elsevier Science.

Cameron, J. (2009). Avatar. Feature film.
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Film There Are Numerous Influencing

Words: 2583 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45678178

Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) came in a time when the public became fond of funny westerns. The editors carefully made the movie's beginning and its end in order for it to have an exceptional result consequent to the audience viewing it. The silent beginning and the freeze-frame ending gave the movie an exceptional character, showing the public something that they had never seen before.

In times when the whole world filmed in color, a number of directors reached the conclusion that it had not been the color that made the difference between a good movie and a bad one, as it had been the script and the movie crew. Peter Bogdanovich, the director of the Last Picture Show (1971), had been influenced to film the movie in black and white because of a conversation that he had with Orson elles. The two concluded that it had been…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Annie Hall. Dir. Woody Allen. United Artists.

2. Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. Dir. John Foreman. 20th Century Fox.

3. Friedrichsen Mike, Vorderer Peter, Wulff Hans J. (1996). "Suspense: Conceptualizations, Theoretical Analyses, and Empirical Explorations." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

4. Lock, Stock, and Two Smoking Barrels. Dir. Guy Ritchie. Universal Pictures.
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Movie American Psycho

Words: 2328 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73672109

American Psycho

The movie American Psycho is written and directed by Mary Harron. The story is adopted from the novel "American Psycho written by Bret Easton Ellis. The movie has presented the life style of a typical young and prosperous broker of the Wall Street, who has a unique way of clothing, dining, listening to music etc. In fact the movie is a social interpretation of extremes of the 1980s.

The character being portrayed in the movie is a kind of a man who believes to spend his life on his own. He used to dine at the finest restaurants of the city, wears the fanciest cloths and has a unique way of living. Working as a Vice President of Pierce and Pierce, he is considered to be one of the most disciplined executives of the company. As Mr. Patrick Bateman keeps on enjoying his routine life, socializing with his…… [Read More]

References

Cinephiles Film Analysis: from the World Wide Web: http://www.cinephiles.net/American_Psycho/Cinephiles-Gate.html

All Reviews: American Psycho: from the World Wide Web:  http://www.all-reviews.com/videos/american-psycho.htm 

Bryan Webster: Apollo Guide Review: from the World Wide Web: http://www.apolloguide.com/mov_fullrev.asp?CID=2056

Anthony Leong: American Psycho Movie Review: from the World Wide Web:  http://www.mediacircus.net/americanpsycho.html
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Film God on Trial

Words: 2172 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27227714

God on Trial: Movie Analysis and Review

The Holocaust of orld ar II spawned many tragedies, one of which was the crisis of faith it precipitated amongst European Jews. The film God on Trial depicts the inhabitants of a concentration camp literally putting God on trial for his crimes against humanity as they wait to be "sorted out" into groups of who will live and who will die at Auschwitz. The film begins set in the present, where various tourists to the concentration camp are shown gawking at the premises. They can hardly believe the horror was once real and then slowly, there is a shift as the camera pans away to reveal a change of time and the viewer is taken back to orld ar II. The event is based upon an apocryphal incident in which the residents of Auschwitz were said to have staged such a mock court,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

God on Trial. BBC, 2008.
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The Theories of Ethics as Depicted in Movies

Words: 938 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67870591

Movie Analysis and Ethics Theories Application

The daily operations of organizations across the globe is faced and directed by the ethical decisions that they make and the ethical approach that they use as a culture will determine the end result of their performance and their stability. Art has always helped in imitating real life and movies often depict the actual happenings within corporations that are hailed as the top corporations in the society, and from such depictions teach the same society lessons they never knew about the corporations. This paper takes a keen look at two movies, 'Wall Street (1987)' and 'Michael Clayton' and the association between these movies and the ethical theories or approaches that are available.

Wall Street (1987 original)

Plot

The movie rotates around two central characters; Gordon Gekko and Bud Fox and the daily undertakings they have in the business arena. Fox is depicted as a…… [Read More]

Reference

Boatright, J. R. (2012). Ethics and the Conduct of Business (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
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Karmen Gei Senegalese Film Review

Words: 900 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95604471

Film Analysis orksheet Karmen Gei / ednesday October 14, 2015

Karmen Gei

Director, Year

Joseph Gai Ramaka, 2001

Mode (for instance, adaptation)

Adopted from novel; influenced by Carmen.

Approximate time code (beg. -- end.) of selected scene

Title or brief description of sequence

Opening dance scene

Number of shots in selected sequence

hat happens, at the level of plot or narration, in this sequence?

As a musical sequence, it sets the tone for the film and introduces the audience to the main character and the overarching themes including sexuality and the cultural constraints upon women of color. The dancer seduces a female prison guard into dancing, and when that happens, the entire group of women express their joy through their bodies.

hat role does this sequence play within the larger action of the film (e.g. rising action, climax, turning point, exposition, character development, motifs, patterns, etc.)?

This scene is critical…… [Read More]

Works cited. Think about and list some specific types of outside sources that may be helpful in your analysis (i.e., historical information, other literary texts, etc.)

Sources include references to the role of women in Senegalese society, including articles that show that Senegalese women are often asserting their identities and power: http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/08/africa/gallery/yz-yseult-the-women-warriors-of-senegal/

Similarly, this United Nations website discusses the role of women in Senegalese society: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15857&LangID=E

16b) Which specific outside sources will you use (based on the information above)? Do you have specific quotations, paraphrases, etc. already identified? What are they?

The CNN article offers messages of hope and empowerment like those given in the film, whereas the United Nations website is more realistic in detailing the daily lives of women in Senegal, where "strong socio-cultural and legal constraints continue to stand in the way of the achievement of gender equality."
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A Full Movie Analysis

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12101265

Suspects

There are many different aspects of life, culture, society, and history that are embedded in the 1996 film The Usual Suspects, however, one of the more prominent themes deals with the notion of stereotyping. In this respect, the film prominently illustrates a sociological issue more so than other issues -- yet there are certainly cultural ramifications that could be construed from these issues as well. However, one of the chief points of brilliance in this movie's portrayal of stereotyping stems from the fact that the film presents this issue in an extremely subtle way which demands the audience to reconcile these points intellectually. It serves as an alternative to the conventions typically employed in which movies often highlight racial, religious, sex, or national bias in a predictable fashion. Instead, this movie deals with a profound subject, central to the nature of humanity itself, by focusing on the perceived nature…… [Read More]

References

Brown, F. W., & Moshavi, D. (2005). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: A potential pathway for an increased understanding of interpersonal influence. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(7), 867-871.
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Movies and Methods Volume I

Words: 2080 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27696935



Not only does Nichols provide a good context for the many paradoxes that can confront film studies with his insightful and thoughtful introduction, but he also shows how sharing approaches and methods can help to stimulate a lot of the best writing regarding film. In addition he shows many of the common problems that are seen and deals with the contradictions that appear. Like the first volume of the anthology, this second volume also provides smaller introductions so that each essay and piece of information can be more easily understood. It also allows a reader to peruse the book and find the pertinent piece of information that he or she needs at that point in time, which can be very valuable, especially for a novice to the film industry trying to find information quickly. Having the smaller introductions before each piece also help to showcase each item within the context…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Nichols, Bill (1976) Movies and Methods: Vol. I. University of California Press.

Nichols, Bill (1985) Movies and Methods: Vol. II. University of California Press.
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Film Journal Comparison of Similarities

Words: 409 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90101323

The leading lady of the film within the film is crazy, without the need for abusing any form of intoxicating substance. But the primary difference between the contemporary and the past film does not lie in any of these imperfect parallel details involved in their mutually chaotic plots, nor the minute distinctions in the minds and portrayals of stock characters. Rather, the difference lies in the way that DiCillo's style of storytelling constantly forces the audience to remain on edge, unaware if they are watching real life or the film that is being filmed -- or the director or actor's idealized dream of what the creative product should be. Thus, the later film has an added nuance about how the creative process can take over the lives of actors and directors, as well as seem absurd to individuals outside of the movie business. It also forces the viewer not simply…… [Read More]

Making a movie about making a movie. This may hardly sound like a gripping subject matter, merely annoying self-commentary and self-analysis on the part of the screenwriters, directors, and actors involved in the self-referential and navel-gazing project. However, this subject matter has proved popular fodder since Francois Truffaut filmed "Day for Night" in 1973. "Living in Oblivion," directed by Tom DiCillo in 1995 is only the most recent film to take up this now familiar plotline.

Truffaut's film despite the French director's reputation as a cutting edge auteur of cinema seems to play to many common assumptions the audience might have about 'creative types' and film. The plotline of the film within a film is melodramatic and inchoate. The film is over its budget, the director's vision, he feels, is being ruined. The leading actress abuses alcohol. The leading actor is sexually involved, to the evident detriment of his performance, with a behind-the-scenes member of the crew.

While Truffaut's film depicts the difficulties of temperamental animal and human actors -- "Living in Oblivion" depicts a temperamental dwarf who is angry about the misrepresentation of his people. "Living in Oblivion" depicts a cameraman, as opposed to a leading actor, who has romantic difficulties. The leading lady of the film within the film is crazy, without the need for abusing any form of intoxicating substance. But the primary difference between the contemporary and the past film does not lie in any of these imperfect parallel details involved in their mutually chaotic plots, nor the minute distinctions in the minds and portrayals of stock characters. Rather, the difference lies in the way that DiCillo's style of storytelling constantly forces the audience to remain on edge, unaware if they are watching real life or the film that is being filmed -- or the director or actor's idealized dream of what the creative product should be. Thus, the later film has an added nuance about how the creative process can take over the lives of actors and directors, as well as seem absurd to individuals outside of the movie business. It also forces the viewer not simply to laugh ironically at the lives of the people before them, but to realize that both the viewer, the actors, and the people behind the set are all engaging in a kind of fantasy, whenever the process of filmmaking or viewing occurs.
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Film Pilosophy Philosophy in Films

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76278246



Humanity seems to unravel altogether in Pi: Faith in Chaos, both written and direct by Darren Aronofsky. Max is a brilliant but socially crippled young mathematician who has built a supercomputer and possibly unlocked the mathematical secrets of the universe, explaining everything from the stock market to God. The mathematical precision with which the world would operate if this is true casts a great deal of doubt on the existence of free will. At the same time, however, the film is asking questions about reality, and whether or not Max's discovery can truly be used in any practical way. Ultimately, both questions are rendered moot by Max's destruction of the mathematical portion of his brain. Though this seems to be an act of free will, it could also be the natural and inevitable next step in the algorithm of his life following his discovery of the sacred 216-digit number. Regardless,…… [Read More]

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Film Psychoanalysis of the Film

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21091058

Grey with a way to accommodate the needs of their Ids and their Superegos. Their Superegos imposed the societal constraints on sexual relationships, which would drive both Lee and Mr. Grey to enter into monogamous sexual relationships. Their Ids drove Lee and Mr. Grey to seek immediate gratification of their aggressive urges through sexual behavior. By entering into a relationship with each other that allows them to fulfill both needs, Lee and Mr. Grey allow their Egos to reconcile the needs of their Ids and Superegos.

Furthermore, the Secretary addresses the issue of sexuality, and highlights the intimate relationship between sexuality and aggression. The unusual thing about the Secretary is that it demonstrates that a relationship that might be viewed as deviant was actually helpful to both members of the relationship. Prior to becoming involved with one another, Lee and Mr. Grey are both in pretty bad shape. Lee was…… [Read More]

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Film Being John Malkovich Sexuality

Words: 3487 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26718878

His stance is also one of superiority as he presents himself as the victim of his own vision and artistic expression. In this context, the generic pronoun "they" symbolizes Craig's detachment from the world around him as he feels superior which he believes, is what causes his isolation.

Craig's wife, Lotte, is perhaps the most radically changed as a result of traveling through the portal. She becomes convinced that she is a transsexual, and consequently, feels the only way she can be true to herself is to assume a new sexual identity, i.e. that of a man. However Lotte abandons her desire of sexual reassignment when she becomes aware that by starting a relationship with Maxine, she can in fact assume a different gender role simply by falling in love with Maxine. Maxine, on the other hand, embarks on a sexual relationship with Malkovich so she can be with Lotte.…… [Read More]

Weeks, Jeffrey. 2003. The Invention of Sexuality. In Sexuality, 11-28. New York: Routledge.

Dragunoiu, Dana. "Psychoanalysis, Film Theory and the Case of Being John Malkovich." Film Criticism 26.2 (2001): 1-7

Gauntlett, David. 2002. Michel Foucault. In Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction, 115-134. London: Routledge.