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Among the many challenges that law enforcement and firefighters face every day in America fires are near the top in terms of danger to the public and to property. In this paper a review of the problems that fires cause -- and the incidences of fires in America -- plus some historical perspective is provided.
In 1972, President Richard Nixon established a commission to research and report back to the nation as to the problem of fires in the United States. The report he received from The National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control called "America Burning" explained that each hour about "…300 destructive fires will rage somewhere in this Nation." The financial loss in those 300 fires will be about $300,000 and "…at least one person will have died" while 34 people will be injured, some of them seriously.
The report emphasized that destructive fires…
U.S. Fire Administration. (1972) America Burning. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://www.usfa.fema.gov .
U.S. Fire Administration / National Fire Data Center. (2007). Fire in the United States. FEMA.
Retrieved October 1, 2012, from
Fire service personnel undergo a battery of tests and training modules to prepare themselves for fire safety service prevention. The specific types of preparation programs differ depending on the jurisdiction and needs of the community, as well as local budget and resource restrictions. "There is no 'cookie-cutter' way to become a firefighter," ("How To Best Prepare Yourself To Become A Firefighter," n.d.). There are also areas of specialization within the profession, which will determine the type of preparation and training provided to personnel. Fire technology, emergency response services, and hazardous materials specialization are all critical components of a comprehensive fire safety program. Not all individuals can fill all roles at once, which is why firefighting is a team effort.
Emergency medical technician training can be a core preparatory strategy and starting point for future fire personnel. Even when the career of the firefighter veers in different directions or areas of…
"How To Best Prepare Yourself To Become A Firefighter," (n.d.). Don McNea Fire School. Retrieved online: http://www.fireprep.com/how_to_best_prepare_yourself_t.html
United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics (n.d.). Firefighters. Retrieved online: http://www.bls.gov /ooh/protective-service/firefighters.htm
Fire Safety - Education
The three "E" in fire prevention are: Education, Engineering, and Enforcement. This paper delves into those three components of fire prevention, including their significance and including practical examples of both.
The Three E's - Education
Meanwhile, the authors -- in Chapter 1 of the Municipal Fire Service orkbook -- offer the point that the difference between fire prevention and fire suppression is "somewhat fuzzy." But there is no fuzziness in the materials presented in Chapter 1 because the authors emphasize fire prevention over fire suppression. A key component of spreading the word about fire prevention in communities is of course one of the E's -- education. On that subject, one practical example to use is smoke alarms.
The authors say more homes are using electrically connected smoke alarms, but renters and homeowners are not all appraised of this technology; and hence many people continue to change…
National Fire Protection Association. (2014). Domino's Pizza. Retrieved October 10, 2014,
From http://www.nfpa.org .
The Municipal Fire Service workbook. Chapter 1.
fire investigation. The writer explores some of the challenges that fire investigations face as well as some of the methods used to overcome those challenges. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Decisions in fire investigations have the power to impact many aspects of life. The decisions in a fire investigation can make the difference between insurance payouts, cause of death issues, and criminal charges or accident charges being filed. The work of fire investigation is complicated, technical and intuition all mixed together to create an ability to determine the cause of a blaze.
Fire investigation can be extremely complicated for several reasons (Walker, 2002). Often times the damage impedes the ability to process evidence. In addition there are sometimes underlying pieces of evidence that have to be pieced together for the purpose of finding a cause of a fire.
There are many steps to be taken in…
CASE Management TECHNIQUES
for MAJOR FIRE LOSSES http://www.interfire.org/features/casemanagement.asp
Before the Fire: A Checklist by: Cathleen Corbitt http://www.interfire.org/features/beforethefire_checklist.asp
Hot commodity; Fire investigation firm makes a big move.(Business)
Tips and Educational Instructions to Help Homeowners Prevent Fires
Who is responsible for prevention of fires?
Defining the problem
Causes of the problem
Solving the problem
WHO IS ESPONSIBLE FO THE PEVENTION OF FIES?
WHAT IS THE BEST COUSE OF PEVENTION OF FIES?
TIPS AND EDUCATIONAL INSTUCTIONS FO HOMEOWNES
The sudden increase in fires in history has caused nationwide concern. ecently, many homes, businesses and forests have exploded into flames without any warning. Statistics are reporting that fires recently destroyed 849 homes and 800 buildings. Some of the causes of these fires are failure to cut the underbrush, types of roofs on buildings or homes, and not only keeping the shrubs trimmed but also being careful about what type of shrubs that are growing close to the house. Firefighters have been deciding on different plans of action that will prevent forest fires. Educators have…
N.A. Listed, (7/2002)
N.A or Date Listed
The codes also serve as a model, in themselves, of an integrated, comprehensive regulatory framework for public safety in buildings.
City of Dallas uilding Code (2006)
City of Dallas Fire Code (2006)
http://www.dallascityhall.com//pdf/uilding/Chapter52ooklet.pdf - p. 10 Enforcement
Annual check not required, Questions arise about what city could have done to ensure safety
MICHAEL GRAELL and RENDAN M. Dallas Morning News, July 27, 2007.
Dallas to add more safety inspectors, MARK WROLSTAD and SELWYN CRAWFORD.
Dallas Morning News. February 22, 2003.
Code violations shut down homeless shelter. CYNTHIA VEGA. WFAA-TV. Thursday, December 11, 2008
Team didn't have roof work inspected, Cowboys were contractor for '08 project; inquiry may take months
RANDON FORMY. Dallas Morning News. May 5, 2009.
City of Dallas Building Code (2006)
In 1033 of the National Fire Protection Association's guide, the responsibilities and details are defined for the fire inspector role. Essentially, it is the responsibility of this specialist to investigate the sources and causes of fires. To fulfill this role, it is the responsibility of the specialist to 'thoroughly examine the fire scene, document the scene completely, collect and preserve all evidence associated with a scene, conduct interviews and interrogations, provide post-incident investigation, and present findings to the appropriate institutions or persons' (NFPA, 1998). It is essential to fire prevention, protection, and safety to understand how fires are initialized and this is the job of the fire investigator.
Clearly, it takes a detailed oriented person to fill any of these positions. Further, the person must possess excellent organizational skills and observational skills. Additionally, the most suited fire protection specialist must also possess excellent oral and written communication skills. Obviously, the…
National Fire Protection Association (2009). Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire
Inspector and Plan Examiner. NFPA, 1031, 1-43. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from Scribd. website: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60449685/NFPA-1031
National Fire Protection Association (1998). Standards for Professional Qualifications for Fire
Investigator. NFPA, 1033, N.p. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from Scribd. website:
There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.
One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…
1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:
2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118784304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
Fire Prevention Week from a Physical Educator's Perspective" by ichard D. Wetzel and Amrit Chima (2011)
The annual Fire Prevention Week observed in the United States represents a valuable opportunity for educators to highlight the need for remaining physical fit as well as the responsibilities that go hand in hand with being a citizen. Although offerings differ, many schools provide educational materials for use at home by students and their parents. For instance, the authors report, "Typically, conversations about fire prevention focus on safety measures and emergency procedures. Some teachers provide students with take-home worksheets on home safety or create assignments that include testing smoke alarms and planning emergency escape routes with their families" (Wetzel & Chima, 2011, p. 12). During school hours, though, the offerings are frequently much more exciting and engaging for young learners and provide opportunities for demonstrating the latest in firefighting technologies. In this regard, Wetzel…
Wetzel, R.D. & Chima, A. (2011). Fire Prevention Week from a physical educator's perspective.
JOPERD -- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(4), 12-13.
The Needs for Improved Technologies in the Operations of the United States Fire Administration for More Efficient Performances
February 25, 2019
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a division under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Created on the 1st April 1979 by the US former president, Jimmy Carter and was brought under DHS in 2003. For almost four decades of its creation, FEMA has been relentlessly committed to helping people before, during, and after disasters, which are its obligations as stated in its statutory mission statement. The agency has been helping US residents to prevent and avert impending dangers, and also providing succor to some in the event of natural and human-made disasters in the country. One of the responsibilities the agency is saddled with is the prevention and management of fire incidents in the country, which is managed by the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA). In carrying…
Fire Suppression Systems
Fire results when fuel, oxidant, and sufficient heat combine in time and place (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The fuel is typically a carbon-based material like paper, wood, oil, or gas, while ambient air typically provides the oxidant in the form of oxygen. Other oxidants include nitrates, chlorates, and peroxides and therefore should never be stored alongside fuel materials. For combustion to occur the heat must sufficient to ignite the fuel. Once ignited the chemical reaction is typically extremely exothermic and becomes self-perpetuating in the presence of fuel and oxidant. If heat accumulates faster than it can be dissipated to the surrounding environment an explosion will occur.
The three ways in which heat can be dissipated is through conduction along a temperature gradient, convection due to movement of the gaseous fire matter, and radiation to other surfaces (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The primary method…
IFSTA (International Fire Service Training Association). (2009). Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement, Seventh Edition. Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publications.
Knowlton, B.E. (2012). The effects of using fire-fighting foams: GC-MS pattern analysis of fire debris. (Masters of Science dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. UMI No. 1520731.
Moore, P.E. (1996). Suppressants for the control of industrial explosions. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 9(1), 119-123.
New Zealand Institute of Chemistry. (n.d.). Chemistry in fire fighting. Retrieved from http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/environment/14C.pdf .
Fire Investigation Unit
How important is it to a city fire department to have an investigation unit? Since police departments in most cities have an investigation unit -- it seems logical given the issues related to fire and arson that fire departments should also incorporate investigation units into their programs. This paper provides positive arguments in favor of an investigation unit, arguments that the fire chief can use in his presentation to the county council.
The field of fire investigation is "…extremely specialized" and there are a very limited number of "truly certified individuals" that have the needed training and experience to conduct "thorough, competent investigations" (United Professional Fire Fighters). In other words, fire departments should hire a proven professional in this field -- or select one or more quality firefighters from the current department to be sent to a training program -- and in either case this will cost…
Flannery Associates. (2008). Section 4 -- Fire Investigation & Arson / Unit 1 -- Fire Investigation
& Fire Loss. Retrieved October 26, 2012, from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~tglan/documents/101docs/FIS101fireinvestigation.pdf.
United Professional Firefighters of Contra Costa County. (2010). Fire Investigation Unit.
Retrieved October 26, 2012, from http://www.iafflocal1230.org .
Fire services are on the front lines of community safety, and are occasionally integrated with other community organizations. However, fire service affiliations with other community groups are frequently underutilized. Fire service organizations sometimes fail to form effective alliances with community groups, and vice-versa, leading to breakdowns in communication and diminished delivery of service. Given the relationship value inherent in forming deeper and broader affiliations within the community, fire service organizations and the areas they serve benefit tremendously from relational and institutional embeddedness. Relational and institutional embeddedness refers to the comprehensive coordination of communications and other critical services, not just when responding to disasters. Relationship value is created throughout the processes of disaster prevention.
One of the ways community group affiliation with the fire service creates value is through the process of education, public relations, and public awareness, and how awareness promotes public safety. Affiliated groups need to establish ongoing information…
It association with the DH means that the UFA is closer to the ecretary's office, with a direct presence at the DH headquarters.
The UFA's association with the DH brought a number of new opportunities to represent the nation's fire service. The National Operation Center (NOC), for example, works closely with the U.. FA in order to create a safe environment for citizens. The Center provides the DH with data regarding national and global situational awareness. According to Dickinson, it is vital that the fire service be represented in this organization, as it can only protect the country's citizens properly if it has access to the most relevant, up-to-date information regarding threats to the country.
Another contribution by the UFA within the Preparedness Directorate is the Incident
Management Teams created in order to handle emergencies. These teams are trained according to the best, most up-to-date training techniques of the fire…
Dickinson, Charlie. USFA Transition to the Federal emergency Management Agency (FEMA). United States Fire Administration, May 4, 2007. http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/about/chiefs-corner/
Nicholson, John. Fire Service and homeland security. NFPA Journal, Mar/Apr. 2003. Online database: FindArticles.com
The requirements are more specific in terms of the size and placement of the fire extinguishers. These shall be located no further than 75 ft (23 m) from the Class D hazard. In this case, the placement of the fire extinguishers will be determined by the location of the metal fabrication facilities. Assuming that these are located in the center of the room, and that the distance from the center to the corners is not longer than 75 ft, the fire extinguishers can be located in the four corners of each of the rooms in which the metals are produced. The size will be determined by the particular metals being produced, however, it appears that 40 should be sufficiently strong to counter a potential fire hazard.
All fire extinguishers will be inspected every 30 days, with regular maintenance every year. Given the class of fire hazard, regular maintenance can be…
1. Fire Alarm System Categories. On the Internet at http://www.sdfirealarms.co.uk/fire-alarm-systems-categories. Last retrieved on August 17, 2011
2. NFPA 10. On the Internet at http://www.minhbao.com.vn/userfiles/file/A-%20NFPA_10 (2).pdf. Last retrieved on August 17, 2011
Fire Alarm System Categories. On the Internet at http://www.sdfirealarms.co.uk/fire-alarm-systems-categories. Last retrieved on August 17, 2011
NFPA 10. On the Internet at
The analysis as described William E. Koffel, P.E., FSFPE of Koffel Associates in the Fire Protection Engineering magazine article, "A Methodology to Analyze the Concept of Balanced Design," states, the fire impact can be managed by either managing the fire or managing the exposed. The fact that the diagram contains an "or" gate indicates that one need only manage the fire or manage the exposed. However, the use of the "or" gate also assumes 100% effectiveness and reliability associated with the chosen strategy, assuming that the fire safety objectives are to be achieved in all reasonably credible fire scenarios (Koffel, 2002, ¶5).
The concept evaluates all scenarios that can happen and any failures that can occur with the fire safety and prevention equipment.
Analysis of the fire at the Watts Bar Hydroelectric Plant and the NFPA 550, Guide to the Fire Safety Concepts Tree, indicates that the fire could…
Francis, G. 2003. "TVA Concludes Watts Bar Hydro Fire Investigation." Retrieved on October
5, 2010 from http://www.tva.gov/news/releases/janmar03/fire.htm
Koffel, W. 2002. "A Methodology to Analyze the Concept of Balanced Design." Fire Protection
Engineering. Retrieved on October 5, 2010 from http://www.fpemag.com/archives/article.asp?issue_id=10&i=208
aising standards and building codes makes fire prevention a priority and legal requirement that will save the government and community money and protect lives. Another critical recommendation by FEMA and the USFA is to ensure the health and safety of fire fighters. Fire departments are staffed with paid employees, and often volunteers. These individuals deserve adequate funding to invest in necessary training, equipment, and technology to make their jobs more efficient and protect their lives (Bernstein, 2002).
The fire problem in the U.S. spans across the decades and infects the entire nation. Today, in regards to both frequency and total losses of life, America has the highest total fire losses than any modern technological society, the fact of which can no longer be ignored. The tens of thousands of deaths and injuries and the billions of dollars in property losses each year to fires are a testament to the severity…
Bernstein, G.U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency.
(2002). America at risk findings and recommendations on the role of the fire service in the prevention and control of risks in america (FA-223)
Federal Emergency Management Agency, United States Fire Administration National Fire Data
Center. (1999). Profile of the urban fire problem in the United States (FA-190)TriData Corporation.
Rodgers, Jr. (Rodgers, 2006). The "no contest" plea, said Rodgers, will "…alleviate the victims' families and broader community from being subjected to an emotional reliving of the tragedy at trial."
Moreover, the judge said the "no contest" plea actually means that the defendants (Jeffrey Derderian and Michael Derderian) accept responsibility for installing foam in the club that was not fireproof. The Rhode Island Fire Code requires fireproof insulation and foam for buildings like the club in question.
Duval, Robert F. (2006). NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires. National Fire Prevention
Association. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files//PDF/Research/case_study_nightclub_fires.pdf.
Madrzykowski, Daniel, Bryner, Nelson, and Kerber, Stephen I. (2008). The NIST Station Night
Club Fire Investigation: Physical Simulation of the Fire. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/fire08/PDF/f08033.pdf.
Parker, Paul Edward. (2007). Tally of a tragedy: 462 were in The Station on night of fire.
Duval, Robert F. (2006). NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires. National Fire Prevention
Association. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.nfpa.org /assets/files//PDF/Research/case_study_nightclub_fires.pdf.
Madrzykowski, Daniel, Bryner, Nelson, and Kerber, Stephen I. (2008). The NIST Station Night
Club Fire Investigation: Physical Simulation of the Fire. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/fire08/PDF/f08033.pdf.
fire in U.S. history and the codes/Regulations it may have influenced
Fire safety: The 'Big Blowup' of 1910
Only five years after the U.S. Forest Service was established in 1905, a series of deadly forest fires engulfed Idaho, Montana, and ashington. Fire season began unusually early that year, starting with a larger wildfire in the Blackfeet National Forest in northwestern Montana on April 29, 1910. Conditions remained extremely parched throughout the summer. On August 10, brushfires began breaking out in Montana, Idaho, ashington and Oregon. Over 4,000 troops as well as firefighters were called into action. The men appeared to have the fires contained until hurricane-force winds on August 20 reactivated the fires, causing flames hundreds of feet high. "Trains raced to evacuate towns just ahead of the flames" ("1910 Fires," U.S. Forest Service History, 2012).
Over the summer of 1910, "1,736 total fires burned more than 3 million acres…
"1910 Fires." U.S. Forest Service History. 3 Mar 2012. 22 Apr 2012.
Egan, Timothy. The Big Burn. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2009. Exercpted:
The apathy of private landowners discussed earlier may be due to the feeling that one may not feel that individual efforts are important. However, the case in Waldo, Florida demonstrates just how important the actions of one individual can be in averting danger.
Bend, Oregon has developed large community efforts to help reduce fuel in the area. They open up the landfill several times a year free of charge to allow citizens to dispose of debris from thinning and pruning (NCS, 2003). Thinning and pruning around houses creates a barrier of defensible space should a fire threaten. The landscape and fire resistance efforts in Bend have become a social factor.
These case studies demonstrate how communities can be spurred into action. The study conducted by eams, Haines, & enner et al., (2005) found owner apathy as the number one obstacle that they faced in preparing communities in case of a…
Bureau of Land Management (BLM)(2005) Snapshots: Successful BLM Projects Supporting the National Fire Plan. May 13, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2009 at http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc./medialib/blm/nifc/snapshots0/2005.Par.64322.File.dat/05-13-05.pdf
Davis, C. (2001). The West in Flames: The Intergovernmental Politics of Wildfire Suppression and Prevention. The Journal of Federalism. 31-93): 97-110.
FireWise. (2009). About Firewise. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at http://www.firewise.org .
FireWiseCommunities/USA. (2009). Fire wise Communities/USA. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at
Recommendation: The training staff must ensure all participants in a "live" fire training exercise "have received the training and opportunities to properly perform the job." And this is pivotal to safety measures for recruits: A student's first experience "in a live burn exercise should not be in an acquired structure" (IIL).
Structures and Facilities (NFPA 1403 4.2 & 4.2.2): Buildings selected for structural fire training exercise must be properly prepared -- which in this case, the row house at 145 South Calverton Road, it was not properly prepared. A previous ventilation drill, which opened several upper floor walls to the outside air (and the wind which was 20 miles per hour at that time) made the building "unsuitable" for live fire training. Adding to the mistakes made in the exercise at 145 South Calverton Road was the serious question as to whether the fire department had permission to burn that…
BCFD Preliminary Investigation Into The Line Of Duty Death Of Recruit Racheal M. Wilson
On February 9, 2007. (2007). Retrieved November 12, 2009, from http://www.minnesotafireservice.com/pubs_open/20070226bcfd_wilsonreport.pdf.
Goodrich, Art. (2007). Baptism by Fire or Death by Diversity? Retrieved November 12,
2009, from http://chiefreasonart.com/about-2/.
Emergency personnel occupying the fire and emergency services make day-to-day decisions and their behavior contributes to the constant evolving of public perceptions. The negative perception of the public due to their scrutiny of fire and emergency operations, budgets, and behavior has slowly tarnished the image of these departments. Therefore, measures should be undertaken in saving the image of the fire and emergency services field through talking openly, reflecting on honesty, working collaboratively, taking responsibility for upcoming issues and acting professionally. The following study looks at the perceptions of the public concerning the Fire Department and the factors influencing their opinions. In addition, the paper looks at what they do in an attempt to either increase or decrease the perceptions of their communities. Furthermore, it identifies the Fire Department’s activities aimed at establishing positive perceptions from community members.
Fire Departments continue to be under scrutiny, and they continue to…
Since ownership of the building had not changed recently, there was no requirement to upgrade to a sprinkler system, and combined with the building's historic status, this was never done. There were also problems with water pressure and receiving water during the fire, which they recommended should be addressed.
In conclusion, the Mizpah fire was a tragic fire that did not need to occur. Had the building been equipped with a sprinkler system, the tragedy and damages could have been avoided. The City of eno has begun inspections as a result of the fire, and there have been some changes in procedure. The entire building was eventually demolished, and the site is empty today. Twelve victims might be alive today if a working sprinkler system had been installed in the building, and it is a lesson for other fire departments across the nation. They need to make it easier to…
Ockershausen, J. And Cohen, H. (2008). Twelve-fatality hotel arson: Reno, Nevada. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the USFA Web site: http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/tr_164.pdf .
O'Malley, J. (2007). Deaths in Mizpah fire rise to 12 as investigators sift through ruins. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site: http://www.rgj.com/article/20061108/NEWS06/101190030/0/NEWS .
Powers, L. (2008). Chief: Mizpah justifies checks. Report: firefighters saw mattresses less than an hour before blaze. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site: http://www.rgj.com/article/20081115/NEWS/81115032&OAS_sitepage=news.rgj.com%2Fbreakingnews .
Turner, Laura. (2007). Firefighters use hotel for training. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the High Beam Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-163865675.html .
National Fire Academy
Established in 1971, the purpose of the National Fire Academy is to provide up-to-date training in fire service coursework, including a 4-year executive-level course. In addition, the Academy collaborates with other federal agencies, including the Fire esearch Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire esearch Laboratory, the International Association of Arson Investigators, the United States Fire Administration, and the National Fire Protection Association to develop improved investigative, prosecutorial and training methodologies (Donahue, 2002). The responsibilities for the administration of the National Fire Academy fall to Academy Superintendent, Dr. Denis Onieal and the stated mission of the Academy is to, "Promote the professional development of the fire and the emergency response community and its allied professions" (National Fire Academy, 2013). In addition, the Academy is also tasked with developing, delivering and managing educational and training programs with a national focus that transcends state and…
Application forms. (2013). U.S. National Fire Academy. Retrieved from http://www.usfa.fema.
Donahue, M.L. (2002, January). The ATF Fire Research Laboratory: A new forensic resource for fire-scene investigations. Forensic Science Communications, 4(1), 37-39.
Eligibility. (2013). National Fire Academy. Retrieved from
Organizational structure and physical structures are the two main components of fire departments in any community. The following is a proposal for a newly designed fire department in a suburban area. Occupational safety, integration with community infrastructure, and strategic alliances with other public service sectors will all be included in the department design proposal.
Organizational structure in fire departments is in dire need of change. In some departments, that change is happening from the top down, as departments respond to the needs of young recruits and rookies who may be unfamiliar or uncomfortable with the “paramilitary” culture that has permeated the service (Shaw, 2011). However, it is not just a matter of matching organizational culture to suit the norms of the next generation. Restructuring fire departments is best practice for safety. According to Brauer (2016), organizational structure problems have been directly linked to increased ratios of fatalities: “the…
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
The idea of this and similar programs is to keep physical demands high of fire fighters in order to keep them in the best physical health possible. outine medical checks are required, along with a strenuous exercise routines and expectations. Additionally, there are other support and safety programs that focus on working to increase mental and behavioral health as well as just physical health. These aim to help keep the firefighter's mentally cognizant, and thus better capable of doing their difficult job with less incidents and greater motivation to come out alive and well out of every fire situation. Stronger first responder health care provisions and options allow preventative programs to focus on generating a support system for first responders, including firefighters (Bourgeois 2013). This aims t strengthen fire fighter's mental as well as physical capacities on the job, reducing mistakes and resulting injuries.
In regards to preventing fatalities more…
Bourgeois, Paul. (2013). Behavioral health programs in the fire service. Firefighter Nation. Web. http://www.firefighternation.com/article/firefighter-safety-and-health/behavioral-health-programs-fire-service
National Fallen Firefighters Foundation. (2013). The 16 safety initiatives. Everyone Goes Homes. Web. http://www.lifesafetyinitiatives.com/
Noe, Rebecca S., Proudfoot, Steven L., Jackson, J. Scott, Hales, Thomas R., & Baldwin, Tommy N. (2008). NOISH Fire Fighter Investigation and Prevention Program: Leading Recommendations for Preventing Fire Fighter Fatalities 1998-2005. Department of Health and Human Services. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2009-100/pdfs/2009-100.pdf
Pescibed Buns to Pevent Wildland Fies
While technology may help solve many poblems in fiefighting, it is man's use of the pescibed bun that is ultimately his best weapon against unwanted wildland fies and the theat they pesent.
Wildland fies continue to theaten the foest aeas of United States at an alaming pace. Although we can neve eliminate them, we can limit the damage caused by wildland fies by using a combination fie suppession, fie pevention, and most impotantly, fie use.
This is the belief of seveal diffeent fie management oganizations including the Society of Ameican Foestes, the U.S. Depatment of the Inteio and the USDA Foest Sevice.
Pevention of foest fies is the message that has been hammeed home to us since we wee all young by eveyone fom Native Ameicans with teas in thei eyes to Smokey the Bea. But nonetheless, pevention still emains a top pioity of…
references several works: a. Society of American Foresters. 1984. Forestry Handbook. Second Edition. Karl Wenger, Editor. p 235. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience; b. MacCleery, D.W. 1992. AMERICAN FORESTS: A History of Resiliency and Recovery. FS-540. Washington, DC: States Department of Agriculture; c. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior. 1995. Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review. Final Report. Boise, ID: National Interagency Fire Center; d. Northern California Society of American Foresters. 1997. Position Statement: The Need for Expanded Wildland Fuel Management in California. Rancho Cordova, CA. ( http://www.safnet.org/policy/psst/psst20.html )
National Interagency Fire Center, Boise, Id.; National Fire News, June 17, 2002.
Medford Fire -- Rescue Liability Checklist
MF-R liability checklist
Does your department have copies of all legislation, regulations, bylaws, codes, and standards that are relevant to your department's operations?
The Department has access to all legislation at Federal, State, County, District and municipal levels, including regulations, bylaws where applicable, extensive codes, and standards issued by government, agency and professional associations. These documents are dispersed widely throughout government and agency literature, but most of the relevant operational policy documents are public and available on request if not accessible through the Internet. This regulatory detail is so extensive and widespread that a large part of Department administration's continuing education is devoted to simply keeping up with the ongoing changes and amendments to these laws, codes and best practices.
Has your municipality passed a fire bylaw? If so, was it tailor-made to suit the particular needs of your department? Does it accurately reflect…
Residential Fire Sprinklers
Fire Administration data shows that the most dangerous fire damage happens at home. The residential fire sprinklers installation is in high demand in the coming years as people grow high awareness for their home safety. While this trend varies from every other community and locations regarding the sufficient information and instrument availability, the need to see the quality equipments and service is a must to meet the standard security purpose. The trend should also give another light for the economy and construction business; therefore it requires good industrial handling of the products and service. The research will examine how the trend affects all sectors in community and constructions.
As Karter (1994) and Holdgate (2001) said, "about 80% of all fire deaths occur in residential properties," which makes clear of no reason why people should delay any home sprinklers installation. There are three major parts that will determine…
PR Newswire Association. Jan 27, 2000. Sprinklers Cut Loss From Fires at Home and Work; Fire Sprinklers Reduce Chances of Loss of Life and Property by More Than 50%. American Fire Sprinkler Association.
US Fire Administration. Nov 09, 1998. Home Fire Safety - Residential Sprinklers. http://www.usfa.fema.gov /dhtml/public/sprinklers.cfm.(Oct 02, 2002).
US Fire Administration. The Case for Residential Sprinklers. http://www.nfsa.org/info/thecase.html .(Oct 02, 2002).
One of the worst nightclub fires in recent U.S. history killed one hundred people and injured 230 people in est arwick, Rhode Island on February 20, 2003. It was the fourth deadliest nightclub fire disaster in American history. This paper reviews the reason for the fire, what the injuries were for the concert-goers, and adds what could have been done to prevent the fire.
The Tragic Station Fire
The rock concert featured a group called the Great hite, and when they opened up their show that night, they had planned a big spectacular pyrotechnic exhibition. As the band began to play, on-stage fireworks went off. "As the crowd cheered, fire engulfed the soundproofing foam behind the state and quickly spread," according to CNN (2003). Video shot by a CNN affiliate shows people at first watching the fire "…or casually" making their way toward the exits. Then panic broke…
Cable News Network (CNN). 2003. At least 96 killed in nightclub inferno. Retrieved October
15, 2012, from http://cnn.usnews.printthis.clickability.com .
Goodnough, Abby. (2008). 5 Years After a Nightclub Fire, Survivors Struggle to Remake Their
Lives. The New York Times. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Hazardous Materials Incident
Key Lessons for Preventing Hydraulic Shock and New Cumberland, WV Metal Dust Explosion and Fire are two case studies that will be examined in this report. One examines a metal dust explosion and fire and the other involves a pipe that catastrophically failed thus leading to the release of more than 32,000 pounds of anhydrous ammonia. Each also gives formal detailed reports on significant chemical accidents and include key findings, root causes, and safety recommendations. With that said, this essay will summarize the findings of each investigation, and compare and contrast the two incidents with respect to the chemicals involved, underlying hazards, accident causes, and recommendations from the CSB.
Casse study one: The New Cumberland, West Virginia Fire Explosion
This case study examines a metal dust explosion and fire at the AL Solutions facility in New Cumberland, West Virginia. The incident resulted in three employee fatalities and…
AL Solutions Case Study. (2010, December 7). AL Solutions, Inc., New Cumberland, WV Metal Dust Explosion and Fire. U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.
Hydraulic Shock Safety Bulletin. (2015, January 5). Key Lessons for Preventing Hydraulic Shock. U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.
Fire-ased providers as the sole form of EMS
EU member states do not follow a uniform EMS model. This often leads to difficulties at the times of crisis as the preliminary response to the situation varies from state to state. Each region is characterized by a unique set of geographical, cultural, linguistic and medical systems. The vast differences that occur can and do hamper response procedures and critical time. Health professionals and politicians need to have instant access to data of updated EMS structure from each member state to enhance proper care promptly.
The main issues that should be addressed in the uniform code for EMS services in the EU should include the academic qualifications to be possessed by the members of the response team, medical facilities and equipments that the in-hospital and out-of- hospital emergency services should mandatorily be equipped with, a reliable mode of communication between…
Axelsson, H. (2012, 08-23). The Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility and Human Resource Division Manager/Deputy Chief Operating Officer. (H. de Joussineau, Interviewer)
Bruce ML, Klonoski E. Schools Out! The pros and cons of distance education in EMS. Emerg Med Serv. 2004;33:49-54.
Boyd DR. The conceptual develop- ment of EMS systems in the United States: part II. Emerg Med Serv. 1982;11:27 -- 35.
http://www.med.und.nodak.edu/depts/rural/pdf/remsi.pdf. Accessed September 24, 2005
role fire has played throughout my life. Perhaps that should not be too surprising that fire should be my frame of reference. After all, I have made my living in the field of firefighting.
Fire itself is a study in contrasts. The substance that can cause searing burns also brings pleasant warmth. Its forms range from flickering candlelight to blazing infernos.
Its power to destroy and consume is matched only by its power to nurture and support life.
Even before I entered firefighting, I believe that the dual qualities of fire can be seen as a metaphor for my life. Like most young boys, I was confident but unfocused, like a flame spread in all directions. With the supreme confidence of one who thought he knew it all, I dropped out of school at ninth grade. Back then, I though that school had nothing left to teach me.
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Forest Fires and Suppression
Fires are a powerful, natural phenomenon that can have a huge impact on the ecosystem and the people living in the area. A forest fire (more commonly referred to as wildfire) is any fire that may occur in a combustible vegetative environment or wilderness area. Forest fires can be ignited by either natural forces or by man's negligence. Other causes are all man-made. Fires are instigated by fuel and sustained by oxygen and heat. In forests, the trees and bushes serve as fuel. Although in a very small percentage, some forest fires are caused by spontaneous combustion. Every object has a temperature at which it ignites. This temperature is known as Flashpoint. [1: Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. (2008). Cambridge University Press.]
The Flashpoint for wood is 572 degree Fahrenheit. hen wood heats up to a temperature 572 degree Fahrenheit, it produces a gas that…
Work Cited (Australia), V.P. Press conference: Bushfires death toll revised to 173. Media Release. 2009.Ambrosia, V.G. Disaster Management Applications -- Fire. NASA-Ames Research Center . 2003.Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. Cambridge University Press. 2008.China Makes Snow to Extinguish Forest Fire. FOXNews.com. 2006.Chronological List of U.S. Billion Dollar Events. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite and Information Service.Fok, C.-L., Roman, G.-C., & and Lu, C.W Mobile Agent Middleware for Sensor Networks: An Application Case Study . 2004.Group, N.W. (March 2003). The New Generation Fire Shelter .Laboratory, M.F. Fire Behavior and Danger Software. 2008. Retrieved 2012, from http://www.firemodels.org/Pyne , S.J. (n.d.). How Plants Use Fire (And Are Used By It). Retrieved from Nova Online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/fire/plants.html Schroeder, D. Evaluation of Three Wildfire Smoke Detection Systems. Advantage (Forest Enginerring Research Institute of Canada) . 2004.Specification 5100-304c Long-Term Retardant, Wildland Firefighting. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service . 2007.Townsend, H. City swelters, records tumble in heat. Melbourne: The Age. 2009.]
As the old saying goes, "prevention is better than cure." It is imperative that there is effective wildfire prevention methods employed in order to minimize the risk of eventual suppression. Prevention has its benefits as it reduces the threat of fire to the lives, environment and nearby land and buildings. It also aids in the reduction of the fire damage that is caused and reduces the costs of suppression. Smokey, the Bear was created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, in 1944. He was created as a fire preventive messenger to warn unaware novice campers of the dangers of their careless actions. Other prevention techniques involve the supervising authorities in the area to manage the air quality and maintain the ecological balance of their region in order to prevent conditions that lead to the ignition of forests.
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009
from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx
ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
Protecting Vital Resources
Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems
IDPS and Components
Intrusion from the outside world, for good or bad, is serious concern in the networked global arena (Ierace et al., 2005). The loss of data and important and confidential business information can be utterly disastrous. Network systems that will detect and prevent such intrusions, therefore, are a necessity of the first order among enterprises. Intrusion attacks can come from hackers, malware or other old or new malicious creations from other sources. Intrusion detection is performed by monitoring computer systems and networks to sense indications of potential threats or violations on an organization's security policies. Another added feature is thwarting these threats before they can occur. Together, these are the components of an intrusion detection and prevention system or IDPS (Ierace et al.).
There are four classes of IDPS according to their functions and the methods they use (Ierace et…
Ierace, N., et al. (2005). Intrusion prevention systems. Ubiquity Information Everywhere:
Association of Computing Machinery. Retrieved on February 12, 2014 from http://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=1071927
Kanika (2013). Intrusion detection system and intrusion prevention system -- a review study. Vol. 4 Issue 8, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research;
International Scientific and Engineering Research. Retrieved on February 12, 2014
These costs are far greater than what Ford originally anticipated. In addition, the improvements to the gas tank gave Ford a valuable opportunity. They could use this improvement as a means of differentiating themselves from the competition. Although safety may not have been a primary concern in the 1970s, the proper marketing campaign could have made Ford a leader in safety, like Volvo, which could still be serving the company now, nearly 40 years later.
On paper, the decision to leave the faulty gas tanks on the Pintos as is seemed to be a good business decision. However, it turned out to be a poor ethical decision. Ford failed to realize that they could not put a dollar value on human life. In addition, they failed to take into account a variety of secondary costs that could have led to the downfall of the entire organization. In an effort…
Becker, P., Jipson, a., & Bruce, a. (Feb 2000). The Pinto legacy. Justice Professional, 12(3). Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Gioia, D. (No date). Pinto fires.
Halpern, P. (1982). The Corvair, the Pinto and corporate behavior. Policy Studies Review, 1(3). Retrieved November 4, 2009, from SocINDEX.
Organizations such as habitat for humanity have proven that home ownership is possible for the very poor. The prevention strategy will call for the implementation of a housing plan that is modeled after habitat for humanity.
In addition, the strategy will also address education, healthcare, and economic opportunities. As it relates to education teachers should have the proper credential and pay should be appropriate and consistent with experience. There should be a proper amount of textbooks. There should be no more than 20 students per teacher and computers and internet access should be available at all schools. Certain standards should be in place as it relates to the condition of school buildings and any building that does not meet these standards must be renovated to meet these standards. These standards would be inclusive of working fire alarms, secure entrances and exits, proper lighting, clean floors, clean and operational restrooms, no…
Green, R. And M. White. 1997. Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children. Journal of Urban Economics 41: 441-461.
Haurin D.R. Haurin J., Parcel T.L. (2002) Does Homeownership Affect Child Outcomes?. Real Estate Economics. 30 (4): 635.
Rohe, W., G. McCarthy and S. Van Zandt. 2000. The Social Benefits and Costs of Homeownership: A Critical Assessment of the Research. Working paper No. 00-01. Research Institute for Housing America: Washington, DC.
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
These types of programs should provide refresher courses each year for the purpose of reminding firefighters what they should remember fighting and documenting the fire. The incendiary fire is one that is highly unpredictable because it does not follow the natural progression of a fire due to having been intentionally set and possibly accelerated with some type of flammable substance that may be highly toxic. The high incident of incendiary fires in institutions can only be addressed through cooperative and collaborative efforts with these types of institutions. In relation to Incendiary fires due to cooking equipment, the fire department should initiate campaigns by which to provide public information concerning prevention of these types of fires.
2. Incendiary Fires: Documentation and Evidence
Secondly, in the case of scene and evidence documentation it is stated that the investigation must by "systematic and technically sound" and that: "One of the most common mistakes…
City of Yakima - Budget Strategy Team (2004) Online available at http://www.ci.yakima.wa.us/services/finance/minutes/2004minutes/09-10-04%20Notes.doc
Incendiary Fires (2007) LSU Fire & Emergency Training Institute Glossary. Online available at http://feti.lsu.edu/glossary/browse.php?letter=I
Gilliam, Jason W. (2006) Structure Fires and Fire Deaths within the Jurisdiction of the Farmington, Missouri Fire Department. Online available at http://www.ci.farmington.mo.us/publicworks/forms/Fires.pdf,
Burnette, Guy E. Esquire (2007) Documentation of the Fire Scene: A Legal Perspective. interfere online available at http://www.interfire.org/res_file/docscleg.asp .
It is expected that department's financial resources will be reduced.
This means that the department will be forced to make a series of modifications regarding the allocation of financial resources. The department's financial situation must be assessed in order to find out which areas require the most financial resources, which areas can function with lower levels of financial resources, and how the department's money can be reallocated.
The most important aspect that must be addressed by the department is represented by communication. In order to improve efficiency of the department's activity, it is recommended to develop and implement a strategy regarding communication that helps facilitate the communication flow within the department.
The decision-making process should also be modified. The decisions must be taken by each unit, instead of waiting for top managers to take decisions that affects these units. This strategy is intended to increase the efficiency of the activity…
1. Core Values (2010). El Dorado Hills Fire Department. Retrieved September 17, 2010 from http://www.edhfire.com/about-us/mission-statementcore-values .
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
Lessons Learned for Nightclub Fires
In some ways the historical events that accompanied "The Station" fire were precedent setting. In other ways, however, these historical events were sadly a little too familiar. A perfect example of this sort of dichotomy is found in the trigger to this fire. According to a report compiled by obert Duvall (2006) regarding this particular fire and nightclub fires in general, the conflagration at The Station "resulted from a form of ignition not often seen when comparing other fires in assembly occupancies: pyrotechnics" (p. 22). In this regard, the fire at The Station was unique when compared to the other fires detailed for their historical events in Duvall's document. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has very specific standards and requirements for the utilization of pyrotechnics in "Existing Assembly Occupancies" (Duval, 2006, p. 22). Interestingly enough, even a cursory examination of those standards introduces the…
Duvall, R. (2006). NFPA case study: Nightclub fires. National Fire Protection Association.
Auditing, Monitoring, Intrusion Prevention, Intrusion Detection, and Penetration Testing
"Unlike IP fragmentation (which can be done by intermediate devices), IP reassembly can be done only at the final destination. What problems do you see if IP reassembly is attempted in intermediate devices like routers?" [ ]
IP fragmentation is defined as the IP (Internet Protocol) that breaks datagrams into smaller fragment to assist packets passing through links and forming a smaller MTU (maximum transmission unit) than its original size. However, the fragments reassemble themselves when reaching the receiving hosts. After the receiving hosts have received the fragmented IP packet, they have to reassemble the datagram before passing it to the higher layer. In practices, the reassembly happens in the receiving hosts, however, a reassembly may be carried out by the intermediate router. For example, the NAT (network address translation) is designed to reassemble the fragments to the translate data streams.…
Reference. San Francisco.No Starch Press Series.
Kukoleca, M., Zdravkovic, M., & Ivanovic, I. (2014). Securing Linux Servers: Best Practice Document. AMRES/RCUB.
Rehman, R.U. (2003). Intrusion Detection with SNORT: Advanced IDS Techniques Using SNORT, Apache, Mysql, PHP, and ACID. Indianapolis, Prentice Hall.
Security Site (2016). Snort Analyzer. Retrieved 23 November 2016 from http://asecuritysite.com/forensics/snort?fname=nmap.pcap&rulesname=rulesportscan.rules
Tews, E., & Beck, M. (2009). Practical attacks against WEP and WPA. In Proceedings of the second ACM conference on Wireless network security, 79-86.
This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.
emoval of Plastic from Municipal Waste
Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags,…
Colls, J 2002, Air Pollution, Spon Press, London.
Friends of Earth 2009, Briefing Pyrolysis, Gasification and Plasma, Friends of Earth Limited Company, viewed 25 January 2011, < http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/gasification_pyrolysis.pdf >.
Hill, T 2010, Pyrolysis and Gasification briefing, UK without incineration, viewed 25 January 2011, <
Quality elationship Memo
John D. Mitch, Department Supervisor
FOM: John Smith, Quality Assurance
Costs of Quality
COPQ or Cost of poor quality are costs related to providing poor quality services or products. There are four categories for COPQ.
Internal failure costs: Costs related to defect found prior to customer receipt of service or product.
External failure costs: Costs related to defects located after customer receipt of service or product.
Appraisal costs: Costs sustained to decide the level of conformance to quality guidelines.
Prevention costs: Costs sustained to maintain appraisal and failure costs to a desired minimum.
The costs are part of cost of quality which is a: "methodology that allows an organization to determine the extent to which its resources are used for activities that prevent poor quality, that appraise the quality of the organization's products or services, and that result from internal and external failures" (ASQ, 2016).…
ASQ,. (2016). Cost of Quality (COQ) - ASQ. Asq.org. Retrieved 10 May 2016, from http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cost-of-quality/overview/overview.html
Unlike our predecessors in the mines and mills and factories - and even offices - we today expect our workplaces to be safe. We consider this a birthright - that our employers should design and monitor the workplace in such a way that we are allowed to do our job without any undue risk for ourselves. And yet, of course, this is not a birthright but rather a legal protection that was fought for by workers and workers advocates (including unions) in previous generations. There seems to be little if any natural inclination of even good employers to ensure the safety of their workers, and it is for this reason that government regulations exist to protect workers. This research project examines one very specific example within the contemporary workforce of the ways in which government regulation is sometimes a necessary supplement - or bulwark - to the good intentions of…
Barch, Richard. Interview, 2002.
Berg, B.L. (2000). Qualitative methods for the social sciences. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Clarke, E.M. etal. (2000). Model Checking. Cambridge: MIT Press. http://digilander.libero.it/cfgames2000/games_usa_sue.html
The existing statement has some strengths, but also some weaknesses. The existing statement is similar to mine in that it provides a clear definition of the department's functions. However, the standards of performance are less well-defined, for example "quality" is less specific than "the highest ethical standards." The statements about workforce diversity are similarly open-ended, but mine is somewhat more specific.
Both statements provide a strong sense of the Department's role within the community, and both mention the word "serve" specifically. However, my organizational statement is stronger is that it specifies service to the community multiple times, an unequivocal statement about the role of the fire department and the nature of its core stakeholder. The existing statement speaks more of excellence but seldom mentions the community that is to be served, which I find to be an important part of a Fire Department's organizational statement. Some of the statements in…
Airport Rescue and Firefighting
Approximately half of all aircraft accidents take place when the pilot is bringing the plane to an initial approach, a final approach, and the phases of landing at an airport (Richardson, 2003). Fewer than 31% of airport accidents occur within "200 meters of the centre line of the active runway," Richardson reports, and within "1,500 meters of the runway threshold," which is the Critical Rescue and Fire Fighting Response Area. during the "final climb or initial descent phases." The airport accident that seems to be the most common is a failed take-off, which results from a tire blown out, or a mechanical failure or human error, Richardson explains. Nearly 10% of fatalities are reported to have been caused by a "post-crash fire" or a design error.
On the subject of fatalities caused by a post crash fire, this paper delves into the equipment that is used…
Canadian Press. (1967). Airport Testing a "Bogmobile" For Crash Rescues in Swamp. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times.
Griffin, D., and Yan, H. (2014). Asiana crash video: Firefighters saw injured girl before she was run over. CNN. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.cnn.com .'
Jones, S.V. (1954). New Foam-Type Firefighting Device is Patented. The New York Times.
Retrieved February 28, 2014, from ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times.
The vertical spread of the fire (with temperatures in the $1,000-1500 range) to the stage area resulted in tensile strength of the steel to weaken which caused the roof to fall on the lobby fire wall. The horizontal spread of the fire towards the hallways made steel pieces fall into the prop assembly (Poole & Stambaugh, 1997)
On receiving the emergency call at 9:19 AM, the Strasburg fire department dispatched their team by 9:21 AM. However due to several instances of false alarms in the past, the dispatch center had informed their units that the warning had not been issued by an alarm system. There were not a lot of windows to see the fire from, so the employees in the theater guided the firemen on where to position their engine. On receiving the signal that all the workers had been removed from the building, the firefighters started their hoses.…
Poole, S & Stambaugh, H.(1997) $15 million sight and sound theater fire and building collapse Retrieved www.usfa.dhs.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/tr-097.pdf
Crisis administrations have one or more committed crisis phone numbers saved for basic crisis calls. In other countries, one number is utilized for all the crisis administrations. However, every crisis administration has its own defined crisis number in very few countries (Whyte, 2002).
In the same way as Emergency Service, firefighter experts are vital to groups everywhere in the country. They are crucial to the principal mission of any Navy. In boats, submarines, airplane and weapons of numerous sorts, risk is a characteristic part of the occupation. If it is ordinary work or continuous missions, conditions might be unpredictable and valuable lives and unreasonable gear are always at stake (egehr & Bober, 2007). As part of the emergency response group, an emergency responder will be there to forestall mishaps and to stabilize the scenario in case of an incident. No professional is obliged to wind up part of the…
Angle, J. (2010). Occupational safety and health in the emergency services. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
McEvoy, M. (2009). Straight talk about stress: A guide for emergency responders. Quincy, Mass: National Fire Protection Association.
Regehr, C., & Bober, T. (2007). In the line of fire: Trauma in the emergency services. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Walter, a.A., Edgar, C.N., & Rutledge, M.L. (2012). First responder handbook: Fire service edition. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.
There was a stairway in the living room which goes up to a perpendicular second floor hallway. At both ends of the hallway were bedrooms which had the doors closed, but in the middle of the hallway, almost directly across from the stairway was a bathroom with a .61m by 1.98m doorway wide open. To make matters worse, there was a .61m by .43m open window inside the bathroom; which itself was a 2.26m by 2.23m room.
The open bathroom window acted to ventilate the smoke and fire upstairs and into the bathroom, causing higher temperatures and more damage. This can be backed up by the first floor thermocouple temperature graph which clearly demonstrated that the higher in the room the thermocouple, the higher the temperature; as well as the radiant heat flux measurements which indicated that the heat was most intense near the ceiling and most likely traveled up…
Corbitt-Dipiero, Cathleen. (n.d.). "Fire Investigation Mythunderstandings."
InterFIRE.org. Retrieved from http://www.interfire.org/features/indicators.asp
"Report of Test FR 4009" (1998). InterFIRE.org. Retrieved from http://www.interfire.org/features/fire_experiment.asp
An emergency and disaster preparedness plan and program is an important aspect for an organization due to its significance in promoting workplace safety. The preparedness program helps in enhancing safety in the workplace through inclusion of initiatives for lessening injuries and loss of lives, minimizing insurance claims, lessening property damage, and improving employee morale. While emergencies still happen despite of measures to prevent them, an organization's preparedness plan is critical in preventing the frequency of their occurrences, minimizing injury and property damage, and establishing ways for mitigating their impacts. This is largely because the plan consists of basic procedures to handle emergencies in the workplace. In most cases, organizations use preparedness plans and programs to protect workers from fire incidents and other emergencies.
Threats and Vulnerabilities in the Workplace:
Since an organization's workplace involves several employees, threats and vulnerabilities are likely to occur both from within and outside the…
Ball, J.L. (2001). Employee Fire and Life Safety: Developing a Preparedness Plan and Conducting Emergency Evacuation Drills. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.nfpa.org /assets/files/pdf/evacuation.pdf
"Fire Preparedness & Response: What the OHS Laws Require." (n.d.). Labor Tek Safety
Training Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.labortek.com/images/articles/24.pdf
"Fire Prevention Plan." (2009, April 21). JSRCC Fire Prevention Plan. Retrieved from J.
Scottsdale eport Applied to Medford
Medford Scottsdale Savings
The Scottsdale eport distinguishes between reactive and proactive fire control (Ford 1997). Medford Fire & escue has been trying to move toward proactive control since at least 2007 (Patterson 2007), because not only does proactive control saves lives, it also saves the taxpayer cost. This report describes ways the Department may be able to show those cost savings as revenue, or at least as performance improvement in the bottom line for the City.
The Scottsdale report explains how installing sprinklers could save development costs for the city and private sector before the first new building even went up, by allowing higher density for private residences by 4%; reductions in street width which would save the city paving, maintenance and right-of-way costs; removing a 360-degree access rule for fully sprinklered new commercial development, and mitigating existing fire prevention construction code compliance like door…
City of Medford, Oregon Fire & Rescue (2008). Phase two costs. Strategic Plan. PowerPoint
presentation, Slide 35. Retrieved from http://www.ci.medford.or.us/Page.asp?NavID=1830
City of Medford, Oregon Police (2011). Residential structure fire. City News and Events. Media Release prepared by: Lt. Bob Hansen 18 July 2011. Retrieved from Ford, J. (1997). Automatic sprinklers A 10-year study. Rural/Metro Fire Department,
Scottsdale, Arizona, and Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition. Retrieved from Ford, J. (2005). A 15-year update on the impact and effectiveness of the Scottsdale sprinkler ordinance. Rural/Metro Fire Department, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/OSP/SFM/Comm_Ed_Sprinkler_Information.shtml
Building Security Evaluation: Baltimore-Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport
Just a couple of decades ago, travelers, visitors and virtually anyone else could walk freely through the nation's airports without being challenged at any point, and security considerations were generally restricted to concerns over possible so-called "skyjackings" to Cuba, but even these were rare. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, though, all of this changed in fundamental ways as airports across the country implemented a wide range of security measures intended to prevent a recurrence of these deadly security breaches. Indeed, today, security at the nation's airports has never been stricter, and despite the time and trouble these initiatives have created for air travelers, most passengers today appear to accept these measures in stride as part of the post-September 11 climate. To determine what security measures have been taken in a specific airport facility, this paper provides an evaluation of…
Facts & figures. (2009). Baltimore/Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport. [Online]. Available: http://www.bwiairport.com/about_bwi/facts_figures/ .
Fire suppression division. (2009). Maryland Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation. [Online]. Available: http://www.marylandaviation.com/content/aboutthemaa/firerescuedept.html.
Ramstack, T. & Lively, T. (2004, January 7). BWI airport police search entering cars; action taken as a Code Orange precaution. The Washington Times, C08.
Wallis, R. (2003). How safe are our skies? Assessing the airlines' response to terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
EMS single-tier response (ST) or a multi-Tier response (MT) is optimal for a community?
While EMS are present in every community, each community has different needs and the response of the EMS should be tailored in a community-specific fashion. For example, some communities are far more dependent upon EMS to provide critical services because of their demographics. A large city such as New York will often have more critical incidents due to violence or safety hazards. Also, the logistics of mobility within a city can mean that a single-tiered response (ST) is more appropriate. At the other extreme, a rural area, because of a lack of medical resources such as nearby hospitals, can also benefit from a ST, given that aspects of primary care and treatment may need to be given immediately on the scene due to the lack of available resources at point of care. In terms of a…
Blackwell, T.H. & Kaufman, J.S. (2002). Response time effectiveness: comparison of response time and survival in an urban emergency medical services system. Academy of Emergency Medicine, 9(4):288-95.
Criss, E. (1994). EMS research. Retrieved from:
EMS dispatch and response. (1983). Fire Chief Magazine. Retrieved from:
ole and esponsibilities of the Fire Safety Director
Fire safety directors are mandated with the responsibility and task of ensuring the safety of a facility similar to facility managers. This is an important responsibility for fire safety directors because of the need to enhance the well-being and safety of everyone in a facility or building. As part of their role in achieving this goal, fire safety directors are required to carry out a hazard assessment, which primarily focuses on identifying current and probable hazards before their occurrence or before the harm anyone in the building and facility. Once fire safety directors have identified existing and potential hazards, they develop controls or suitable measures for lowering or eliminating the risks through an effective risk management plan for the hazards. Generally, there are several ways through which fire safety directors can prevent and control hazards. Some of these measures include establishing hazard…
"Hazard Assessment for Business." (n.d.). New Zealand Safety Limited. Retrieved from Ministry of Civil Defence and Public Education Advisory Committee website: http://www.napier.govt.nz/assets/Document-Library/Other/cd-part1-hazard-assessment-for-businesses.pdf
High Rise Fire Safety Director Manual (n.d.).
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005