Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The most important priority for the army in today's increasingly sophisticated defense landscape is to ensure it has adaptive leaders for a complex world. Today, the army as part of the military faces an ever more uncertain world due to factors such as greater proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), augmented cyber threats, increased threat of terrorism from groups such as Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), as well as reduced government spending on the military. These events pose a significant challenge to leadership in the army. Army operations are now more complicated than ever before, demanding leaders with enhanced skills, knowledge and experience. Accordingly, leaders in the army must remain strategically adaptive if they are to effectively address the increasingly complex responsibility of defending the country.
In a constantly evolving environment, leaders must continuously adapt their tactics, strategies, and processes to the…
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. 2014 Army Strategic Planning Guidance Excerpt. U.S. Department of the Army, June 2014.
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Joint and Army Capability Development. U.S. Department of the Army, December 2014.
U.S. Department of the Army. The U.S. Army Operating Concept. TRADOC Pamphlet 525- 3-1, 31 October 2014.
The use of Internet or Web-based applications for the recruitment and selection process is becoming increasingly used so that hiring companies can measure applicants on their knowledge and skills. Further, Web-based recruitment and selection applications can also measure the judgment of applicants by asking them to respond to a variety of selling scenarios. That way, the hiring company can see what level of selling skill the applicant has today. There are also a series of conflict resolution scenarios and affiliation scenarios that can assist the hiring organization in seeing how adept the applicant is in managing conflicts, both within the company and with potential customers. In addition, using the online tools to measure affiliation or the ability to create and be a contributing member of a team is also critical. The online Web-based hiring and screening applications can in effect tell a hiring company much more than a traditional interview…
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (iccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth…
Hemphills, H., & Hayne, R. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Westport, CT: Quorum Book. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/23366693/discrimination-harassment-and-the-failure-of-diversity
King, A.S. (1995, December). Capacity for Empathy: Confronting Discrimination in Managing Multicultural WorkForce Diversity. Business Communication Quarterly, 58(4), 46+. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-18023663/capacity-for-empathy-confronting-discrimination-in
Ollapally, A., & Bhatnagar, J. The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 454+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-210224380/the-holistic-approach-to-diversity-management-hr
Riccucci, N.M. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/100875091/managing-diversity-in-public-sector-workforces
Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
Knudsen T.(2003).Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(2),42-45.
Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.
Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.
Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
Managing Risks Associated With Stress
Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress
Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.
Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…
Abukhzam, M. & Lee, a. (2010). Factors affecting Bank Staff attitude towards E-banking adoption in Libya. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries: 42(2): 1-15.
Ali, S.N.A. (2010). E-government services: an exploration of the main factors that contribute to successful implementation in Libya. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
Bartol, K.M. (1982). Managing Information Systems Personnel: A Review of the Literature and Managerial Implications. MIS Quarterly.
Boh, W.F. & Yelling, D. (2007). Using Organizational Architecture Standards in Managing Information Technology. Journal of Management Information Systems. 23 (3): 163 -- 207.
The second step taken may be to convince staff that changes are essential for surviving in the business and this would provide a new force in support which may be called survival with strength of 2. Then there may be an action to convince the workers that new machines would increase variety to their jobs and this would introduce a new positive force with strength of 1. Even existing negatives can be changed into positive and wages can be increased providing a positive of 1 and a simultaneous loss of 2 due to removal of overtime. (Force Field Analysis - Understanding the Pressures For and Against Change)
Another possible change is of filters which would eliminate pollution and this would remove a negative strength of 1. All these actions would make the balance which was against the change by 11 to 10 to a balance in favor of the plan…
Cost/Benefit Analysis-Evaluating Quantitatively Whether to Follow a Course of Action.
Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_08.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Force Field Analysis - Understanding the Pressures for and Against Change" Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_06.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Minimizing Stress in Your Working Environment" Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/stress/EnvironmentalStress/WorkingEnvironmentStress.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Some or all such authority may be in fact unlimited. This is when a committee can counterbalance authority and diffuse power within an organization since effectively only a small faction is making important decisions. The best use of committees is to have limited power to make decisions but have unlimited power to make recommendations on how things should be done.
2. Identify the initial issue that should always be thoroughly addressed when the establishment of a committee is recommended.
The initial issue that should be addressed is that of making sure that those on the committee are the people capable of carrying out the agenda of the committee and that the committee will have limited power to make organizational decisions.
3. In what ways may committees be said to dilute the recognition and diffuse the blame or responsibility? Where, based on your personal experience, have you seen one of these…
Baker, L. 2002. "Managed care, medical technology, and the well-being of society," viewed 21
February 2011, < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12055455 >
Carlson, Gail. 2009. "Managed Care Understanding Our Changing Health Care System," viewed
21 February 2011,
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008
2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008
If one takes the broad generalization of the mega-environment (general environment); one finds the conditions and trends that make up the organizational culture or even the society in which one operates. This term actually encompasses a number of similar and disparate factors. The technological part of the environment tends to focus on knowledge; the economic element the means of production, distribution and consumption of wealth; the legal-political element focuses on the governmental or rule-based systems to organize the society; the international element the external relationships, and the socio-cultural environment the attitudes, values, norms, believes and behaviors of a particular group or organization (Organizational Environment and Culture, 2008). All these forces are a sum total of how organizations act and react -- whether regionally or internationally.
The legal-political element of the environment is the systems that organize that environment, the rules that are enforced, and the overall manner in…
Organizational Environment and Culture. (2008). Zainbooks.com. Retrieved from:
Bendell, T. (2005). Structuring Business Process Improvement Methodologies. Total Quality Management, 16(8-9): 969-78.
Brown, L.M. And B.Z. Posner. (2001). "Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership," Leadership and Organizational Development. May, 2001: 274-80.
Management Approach That Offers the Best Outcomes
for Knowledge Development
Understanding business, and what that process contains, is extremely complex. It takes years of study and focus to gain even a rudimentary idea of all a company has to do to remain viable. A company has to have employees who understand their jobs, clear work goals for all concerned in the business, accounting practices that tell the actual financial workings of the company and keep government agencies happy, along with many other processes among the strata. Threads run through all of the working practices of an organization which tend to bind it together. These can be tangible communication channels (email, phone lines, other forms of information technology), or they can be intangible. These intangible communication lines are another layer of complexity which the organizations managers have to control and mold. How people deal with one another is the way an…
Cohen, Debra J. "Knowledge Development -- Future Focus: Emerging Issues -- in Human Resource Management." HR Magazine (2003). Web.
de Dreu, Carsten K.W., and Evert van de Vliert. Using Conflict in Organizations. New York: Sage Publications, 1997. Print.
Fischler, Michael L. "From Crisis to Growth…Race, Culture, Ethnicity, Conflict and Change." Education 124.2 (2003): 396-398. Print.
"Knowledge." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2011.
Management esponsibility and Accountability
Define Accountability and esponsibility
The positions assumed by workers imply a responsibility to complete particular functions associated with those positions. A number of studies have described the term responsibility, when employed in company affairs, as referring to an area of obligation or perhaps duty designated to an individual because of the dynamics of the individual's position, function, or perhaps job. esponsibility might therefore be viewed as being a package of commitments associated with employment or operation. Narrowly outlined, role explains employment classification, which, subsequently, includes, although is not necessarily limited to, functionality (Pimpa, 2010).
Accountability is actually a notion with numerous meanings. It is almost always utilized synonymously through the use of these ideas as responsibility, answerability, as well as administration. However what specifically can this idea imply? Within the most literal meaning, the term accountability indicates simply the "ability" or perhaps the "possibility" that a…
Ackerman, J. (2004). Co-Governance for accountability: Beyond exit and voice, World Development, 32 (3), pp.447-463.
Bazerman, M.H., & Banaji, M.R. (2004). The social psychology of ordinary ethical failures. Social Justice Research, 17(2), 111 -- 115.
Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., & Rhodes, C. (2007). Business ethics as practice. British Journal of Management, 17, 1 -- 16.
Fisscher, O., Nijhof, A., & Steensma, H. (2003). Dynamics in responsible behavior. In search of mechanisms for coping with responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2 -- 3), 209 -- 224.
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Evaluate the impact of globalization and management across borders
After its retrenchment in the U.S., Starbucks is still considering expanding its operations China. "Despite its long presence in the Chinese market -- Starbucks opened its first shop in Beijing in 1999 -- the Seattle coffee giant only has 376 stores on the China mainland, compared with 878 in Japan" (Sanchanta 2011). Starbucks has tried to learn from some of its mistakes domestically in the U.S., such as its super-saturation of certain marketplaces, while incorporating many of the successful lessons of its other ventures, such as its ability to tailor product offerings to local needs. "Cracking the code in China for any company is not an easy task -- there will be a number of winners and lots of losers of people who go there and rush to judgment and don't succeed…The thing I am most interested in when I go…
Clark, Taylor. (2008). How Starbucks colonized the world. The Sunday Times. Retrieved July
21, 2011 at http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article3381092.ece
Leadership and management. (2011). Team Technology. Retrieved July 21, 2011 at Retrieved July 21, 2011 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/leadership-basics.html
Sanchanta, Mariko (2011). Starbucks plans major China expansion. The Wall Street Journal.
(Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
Agencies are required to develop a good understanding of their individual strengths and weaknesses so as to plan their programs to their best advantage. An agency acquires this information by evaluating the views of the employees on diversity issues. Analysis of the trends and projections of the workforce in determination of the skills gaps and necessitates and devising successive planning strategies are crucial moves for agency strategic and business planning. Such efforts facilitate the managers with the required facts so as to be aware of the assignment of resources and the making the necessary planning for the future work of the organization and the points of concentration of their energy to produce a high performance organization. (Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
The successful managers understand the necessary skills for producing a successful diverse workforce. Firstly they should be aware of the discrimination and…
Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce" (25 June 2000) Retrieved at http://www.opm.gov/Diversity/diversity-3.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Creating a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved from Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/adsections/diversity/diversework.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved at http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&cat_id=1102Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Green, Kelli A; L. pez, Mayra; Wysocki, Allen; Kepner, Karl. "Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools" University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved at http://www.minoritygraduate.com/feature27.asp. Accessed on 15 January, 2005
There is a major difference in launching any new initiative where adoption is key to its success relative to introducing one where compliance can be demanded. B Management, by not informing employees of the change, is in effect saying through their actions that compliance is demanded or they will lose their jobs. The sobering fact of 13,000 people let go or nearly 25% of the workforce is a force in the B culture that implies compliance is critical if one is to stay employed. The swipe card is introduced by management through a compliance-driven strategy with none of the business benefits defined that are relevant to those most affected. Consequently, it fails as a program and serves as the volatile catalyst of a wildcat strike.
The lessons learned include the following. First, B Management needed to be more transformational as a leadership team, less authoritarian and transactional. Transformational leadership seeks…
Assume that you have been retained as a change consultant by BA management to advise them on how to avoid such a situation in the future. What lessons emerge from each perspective and what recommendations would you draw from each in constructing your advice to BA management?
BA Management first needs to realize that this type of program, which affects thousands of employees and their lives, must be launched to maximize adoption, not compliance. There is a major difference in launching any new initiative where adoption is key to its success relative to introducing one where compliance can be demanded. BA Management, by not informing employees of the change, is in effect saying through their actions that compliance is demanded or they will lose their jobs. The sobering fact of 13,000 people let go or nearly 25% of the workforce is a force in the BA culture that implies compliance is critical if one is to stay employed. The swipe card is introduced by management through a compliance-driven strategy with none of the business benefits defined that are relevant to those most affected. Consequently, it fails as a program and serves as the volatile catalyst of a wildcat strike.
The lessons learned include the following. First, BA Management needed to be more transformational as a leadership team, less authoritarian and transactional. Transformational leadership seeks to create trust by being authentic, transparent and showing how the vision of change is relevant to the better performance of an enterprise (Nussbaumer, Merkley, 2010). BA Management failed to deliver a transformational vision for the program or even consider the people it would affect the most. Second, BA Management could have explained in detail why the swipe program would be essential for the airline to stay competitive, and designed it to provide employees with more flexibility and freedom to interchange schedules. If Southwest Airlines can do this with a regional operation, surely BA has the ability to do the same. The lack of vision and explanation of benefits to the employees, and
"A well-written, widely publicized, strictly enforced fraternization policy won't prevent office romances from developing. It will, however, make life a lot easier, and less litigious, for you when you have to deal with it" (eh, 2010).
Amble, B., 2007, Office politics the biggest cause of stress, Management Issues, http://www.management-issues.com/2007/1/18/research/office-politics-the-biggest-cause-of-stress.asp last accessed on October 29, 2010
Bailey, J., omantic and sexual relationship can cause workplace stress -- a word from the office, Ezine Articles, http://ezinearticles.com/?omantic-and-Sexual-elationships-Can-Cause-Workplace-Stress-A-Word-From-the-Office&id=1920949 last accessed on October 29, 2010
Bowers, T., 2007, Love (gone bad) in the office, Tech epublic, http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/career/?p=152 last accessed on October 29, 2010
Fennel, A., 2003, omantic relationship at work: does privacy trump the dating police? All Business, http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/careers/1077844-1.html last accessed on October 29, 2010
Kernesten, D., 2000, Office romances can be risky, rewarding, Work elationships, http://www.workrelationships.com/site/articles/officeromancerisk.htm last accessed on October 29, 2010
eh, F.J., 2010, Office romance, About, http://management.about.com/cs/people/a/Officeomance.htm last accessed on October…
Amble, B., 2007, Office politics the biggest cause of stress, Management Issues, http://www.management-issues.com/2007/1/18/research/office-politics-the-biggest-cause-of-stress.asp last accessed on October 29, 2010
Bailey, J., Romantic and sexual relationship can cause workplace stress -- a word from the office, Ezine Articles, http://ezinearticles.com/?Romantic-and-Sexual-Relationships-Can-Cause-Workplace-Stress-A-Word-From-the-Office&id=1920949 last accessed on October 29, 2010
Bowers, T., 2007, Love (gone bad) in the office, Tech Republic, http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/career/?p=152 last accessed on October 29, 2010
Fennel, A., 2003, Romantic relationship at work: does privacy trump the dating police? All Business, http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/careers/1077844-1.html last accessed on October 29, 2010
It is not that managers do not see the benefit in conflict that they eschew it; it is that conflict is high-risk and can have significant negative externalities, some of which linger with the organization for a long time. Managers are less enthusiastic about conflict because they are taking into account a longer time frame and the totality of externalities, which makes their views a reflection of better information and therefore more accurate than the views of academic researchers.
Recommendations. Carefully manage conflict -- do not use it wantonly. Conflict does not always create positive outcomes sufficient to outweigh the negative ones that are certain to accrue. Take steps to ensure that the conflict is task-focused and not personal. This will limit the amount of damage that accrues from conflict. Create conflict only when necessary -- large scale conflict for small scale problems is dangerous. Conflict is a powerful tool…
Vazquez, E. (2008). Managing conflict across generations in the workplace. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/50103/462996891.pdf?sequence=1
Rahim, M. (2001,a). Managing conflict in organizations. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Cohen, C., Birkin, S., Cohen, M., Garfield, M. & Webb, H. (2006). Managing conflict during an organizational acquisition. Conflict Resolution Quarterly. Vol. 23 (3) 317-331.
Rahim, M. (2001, b) Towards a theory of managing organizational conflict. The International Journal of Conflict Management. Vol. 13 (3) 206-235.
Giving them the opportunity to participate in the product launch decisions from a marketing standpoint also highlighted an embarrassing point for marketing, and that was engineering often understood the competition and its true functionality better than anyone in marketing. The reason is that the engineers had taken great pride in working on their product features they were responsible for to make them the best in the industry, and it was clear some had taken great pains to make a statement in their work. Creating shared ownership of product outcomes strengthens morale of technical professionals and infuses an entire development team with more accountability (Voss, 1993) and willingness to internalize a strong commitment to the success of the product (Kochanski, Ledford, 2001).
The risk of recommending this strategy would be that the more dominant engineers would overrule marketing and turn the entire marketing strategy into more of a features discussion than…
David Baccarini, Geoff Salm, & Peter ED Love. (2004). Management of risks in information technology projects. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 104(3/4), 286-295.
Jain, S.. (2008). DECISION SCIENCES: A Story of Excellence at Hewlett-Packard. OR-MS Today, 35(2), 20
James Kochanski & Gerald Ledford. (2001). "How to keep me" -- retaining technical professionals. Research Technology Management, 44(3), 31-38.
Li, Y., & Zhu, K.. (2009). Information acquisition in new product introduction. European Journal of Operational Research, 198(2), 618.
This can come in a number of forms, including rules, "best practices" and job descriptions. Output controls place the focus squarely on the output, with significantly less attention on the behaviors that lead to the output. For example, when a sales person has a quota, that is an output control because the behavior is driven entirely by the end result. Input controls works by placing constraints on process inputs as a means of exerting control. An example might be setting a strict budget for a project. This focuses the manager on sticking to that budget, a process that the organization feels will result in the goals being achieved.
Benchmarking is useful for most firms. The exception would be firms that for one reason or another are not in a competitive environment. For those firms that are in a competitive environment, they can benefit from benchmarking because the benchmark sets the…
McNamara, Carter. (2008). Basics of Action Planning. Free Management Library. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from http://managementhelp.org/plan_dec/str_plan/actions.htm
No author. (2009). Create an Entrepreneurial Culture Among Your Employees. Score. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from http://www.score.org/culture_employees.html
Wheelen, T.L., and Hunger D.J.,(2008). Strategic Management and Business
Policy, (11th ed) Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall
"The most important issues which have to be addressed here are precise monitoring (diagnosis) of current results and their comparison with what has been planned. Effective managerial control must always be followed by feedback for correcting initial plans " (http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm).
The observation of the way in which people within an organization behave is of extreme importance. ut leaders and managers obtain feedback not just from observations, but directly from people. This provides them with a better understanding of the relation between the actions performed by the individuals and the beliefs which guide their behaviour. An efficacious control upon these factors implies the contribution to the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture.
There are various strategies that an organization can choose to implement in order to make sure it preserves a healthy organizational culture. Among them we can mention the adoption of various principles, such as the following: a…
Baker, Kathryn (2002), Organizational Culture, 19 May, 2007, <
Four Management Functions, 19 May, 2007, http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm
Schein, Edgar, H (1992), Organizational Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey -Bass Publishers
Leadership styles: Switching from authoritarian to participatory leadership
Leadership styles: Switching from authoritarian to participatory leadership
There is no singular style of leadership that is appropriate for all situations. The type of leadership that is required to command soldiers in the field of battle is very different than the type of leadership demanded at an advertising agency. The latter situation requires soliciting creative input from all employees, not reflexive obedience like a wartime scenario. At the organization in question, the manager is deploying an authoritarian style of leadership at a company where individuals believe they can make a positive contribution to the organization's growth and development. ather than effectively keeping people in line, the manager's style is merely causing anger and resentment. Also, through manipulating the staff, the manager is 'playing' certain staff members 'off' against one another, rather than creating an effective and united team dynamic. This…
Bartle, Phil. (2007, May 17). Participatory management. CMC (Community Empowerment
Collective). Retrieved December 23, 2010 at http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/pm-pm.htm
Management Case Study
Where the Rubber Meets the Road
Total quality management (TQM), defined in the most simplistic of terms, is the incremental improvement of all facets of a business to increase customer satisfaction and, in turn, company viability. Although TQM is often applied first to manufacturing functions in an organization (zero defects, on-time production), the intent of TQM is equally meaningful in all aspects of business, from administrative (zero defects in billing and timely collection of accounts receivable), to distribution (no breakage, just-in-time delivery) to management (appropriate incentive structures, timely and accurate stakeholder reporting). The increased efficiency and competitiveness created through TQM initiatives is not limited to only the manufacturing sector, with many of the benefits of TQM occurring in the service sector, too.
In the case of ridgestone/Firestone, TQM was not pursued prior to the recall of its 6.5 million tires in 2000, as evidenced by the magnitude…
Case study: Where the rubber meets the road
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue
Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.
Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
Maintaining professionalism, when communicating the physical security, ensures its adoption by the stakeholders. In addition, providing a cost estimate for the whole process makes the management team understand the need for the adoption of the physical security in the business/organization (Chapter 7 of Broder, & Tucker, 2011).
Cost benefit/benefit analysis enables the business to assess the risks and advantages associated with the security option. This entails evaluating the efficiency of the security program with the perceived operational costs and implications on organizational performance. This ensures proper development of security design for ensuring effective management operations management. Some of the risk management options that ensure physical security include the development of effective policies, procedures, hardware, and labor that promote utilization of security programs. ecovery can be achieved by ensuring developing the desired hardware that stores data related to operations management in the organization. Evaluating the effectiveness of a security program is…
Chapter 5 of Broder, JF. & Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Upper Saddle River,
Chapter 7 of Broder, JF. & Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Upper Saddle River,
The World ank model centers on a five-person team called the Performance Advisory Service or PAS (Yandrick 1995). PAS trains supervisors to analyze work performance and personality problems. The supervisor first determines if a skill deficiency is involved or there are personal and environmental factors. He does this by reviewing the employee's records in search of troubled behavioral patterns; consulting with work team leaders, colleagues and support staff in investigating possible problems within the organization; and/or directly exploring the employee's work performance and conduct.
In the last option, the supervisor may ask or remind the employee about the consequence of poor performance; if he or she is being rewarded for poor or nonperformance; if performance matters to him or her; if there are health or stress factors conducing to his or her poor or low-level performance; or if there are external stimuli behind it. Armed now with the different angles…
Brown, J. (1992). How Would You Handle These Prickly Management Problems? Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n11_v24/ai_13806643
Business Wire. (1999) a.M. Best Company Says Technology Can Solve Insurance Management Problems. Gale Group 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_56542486
Day, CM. (1987). Three Diagnostic Clues to Management Problems. Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_v19/ai_5118836
Heisler, DL. (1989). The Wrong Response to Today's Problems. American Metal Market. Reed Business Information. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_7565287
Diversity is a fact of American and International business and is a broader, more complex issue than one might initially believe. A universally vital element of global commerce, Diversity has spawned an abundance of theorists, journals and specialists, some of whom are encountered in this composition. Addressing the remarkable breadth and complexity of Diversity, this essay reviews: the nature of Diversity; legally protected classes within the United States; aspects of Diversity that fall outside the scope of U.S. legal protections; the benefits of Diversity for employers; the differences/challenges presented by Diversity for employers; general business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity; and suggested specific business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity. Though this work cannot exhaustively address all aspects of Diversity, it is meant to give a good overview of modern businesses' Diversity issues and possible solutions.
Nature of Diversity:
"Diversity" involves legally protected classes of people but also involves other classes of…
Akbari, H. (2008). Education business professionals for year 2010 and beyond: Six critical management themes and skills to emphasize. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 7(7), 57-62.
Comperatore, E., & Nerone, F. (2008). Coping with different generations in the workplace. Journal of Business & Economic Research, 6(6), 15-30.
Domina, C.S. (2011). Our strength is in our Diversity: Fact or fancy? Journal of Diversity Management, 6(1), 1-9.
Figiel, V.L., & Kummel Sasser, M.A. (2010). Factors contributing to employee decisions to ignore Diversity policies. Journal of Diversity Management, 5(4), 11-17.
' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.
The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…
Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.
Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
Anything that appears challenging or threatening in the external environment needs to be taken seriously and this is where management plays a key role.
Internal factors or forces on the other hand are more concerned with organizational culture, mission and values and human resource. While all managers are required to remain true to organization's culture and uphold its values at all times, a real manager is the one who knows when to mould the culture in such a way that it would remain close to its original values while at the same time also become more accepting of external changes. A manager who is blinded by his organization's culture and beliefs is likely to miss signs of external change. Management needs to understand that internal forces are within its control and thus can be used constructively for the benefit of the entire organization instead of allowing it to control the…
Lawton, P. (1995, September). Initiating and managing change in your organization. CMA Magazine, 69 28-32.
Anamnesis, A. (1996). The root ideas in dealing with change. Physician Executive, 22 41-45.
Managing Professionals in Virtual Environment
As technology has evolved, the reality of virtual organizations has begun to take hold in a variety of industries. It is now commonplace for employees to work, at least in part, from offsite. Telecommuting is a reality that has allowed companies to reduce costs, become more competitive, and facilitate happier more productive employees. Virtual employees, or "telework is one of the most radical departures from standard working conditions in the suite of flexible work practices now gaining widespread acceptance." (Daniels, Lamond, & Standen, 2001)
Managing Professionals in Virtual Environment
As technology has evolved, the reality of virtual organizations has begun to take hold in a variety of industries. It is now commonplace for employees to work, at least in part, from offsite. Telecommuting is a reality that has allowed companies to reduce costs, become more competitive, and facilitate happier more productive employees. Virtual employees, or…
Allert, J.L. (2001, Mar.). You're hired, now go home. Training & Development, 55(3). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
Broadfoot, K.J. (2001, Aug.). When the cat's away, do the mice play? Management Communication Quarterly, 15(1). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from ProQuest database.
Cascio, W.F. (2000, Aug.). Managing a virtual workplace. Academy of Management Executive, 14(3). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Conner, D.S. (2003, Mar.) Social comparison in virtual work environments: An examination of contemporary referent selection. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 76(1). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
Yes, managers are important to organizational success. But this is a logical fallacy question. All organizations, both the successful ones and the utter failures, have managers. So the question isn't about whether managers are important to success -- mathematically there is 100% correlation between having managers and being successful, but also 100% correlation between having managers and being unsuccessful.
Then there is the issue of where organizational success comes from. First, one must define success -- is it profitability? Or exceptional profitability? Short-term, long-term? And there are a lot of variables that contribute to organizational success, not just the actions of management. Further, to determine whether managers are integral to success, and to what degree, would require a control. It is almost impossible to define a control. You could say the managers at Google are really good, but unless there is a parallel universe Google with different managers, how…
Burns, T. & Stalker, G. (1961). The management of innovation. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship
Courtright, J., Fairhurst, G. & Rogers, L. (1989). Interaction patterns in organic and mechanistic systems. The Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 32 (4) 773-802.
Eyre, E. (2015). Mintzberg's management roles. MindTools.com. Retrieved July 5, 2015 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/management-roles.htm
MSG (2015). Steps in strategy formulation process. Management Study Guide. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/strategy-formulation-process.htm
Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)
Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…
Building Emotional Capital. (2004, June 24). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Executive Education website: http://executive.education.insead.edu/programme/documents/Nissan_004.pdf
Contingency Theory. (2010). Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Values-Based Management website: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html
Babineck, M. (2006, March 13). The Enron Trial. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Chron website: http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/enron/3718892.html
Bissonette, Z. (2008, August 1). How Does General Motors CEO Rick Wagoner Still Have a Job. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Blogging Stocks website: http://www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/08/01/how-does-general-motors-ceo-richard-wagoner-still-have-a-job/
Where, the benchmarks will show if the system is helping or hindering the company from achieving its objectives. This is significant, because when it is used in conjunction with flexibility, you can be able to effectively adapt to changes in the markets. With flexibility providing the necessary ingredients to implement such changes, while the use of benchmarks will identify when a management system is becoming unproductive. (Ireland, 2008, pp. 33 -- 39)
The use of knowledge management is when an organization is collecting and analyzing the total amounts of knowledge at their disposal. This would include analyzing all available: resources, employee / managerial skills and documents. This is significant, because it provides a way for an organization to quickly collect and analyze a wide variety of information. At which point, managers can be able to effectively place the different resources and personnel of the company, in those areas where they…
Symptoms of a Dysfunctional Organization. (2005). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Copper Comm website: http://www.coopercomm.com/dysfnorg.htm
What are Management Control Systems. (2010). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Wisegeek website: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-management-control-systems.htm
Flamholtz, E. (1998). Case Studies in Changing the Game. Changing the Game. (pp.81 -- 90). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ireland, D. (2008). Promoting Integrity and Ethical Behavior. Understanding Business Strategy. (pp. 33 -- 39). Mason, OH: South Western.
Another trait of leadership Zinni and Klotz (2009) explore is the ability of a leader to communicate clearly and articulately with the organization and the public. He can no longer afford to be the faceless top of a chain of command. It behooves the modern leader to develop a variety of decision making skills, such as honing his intuition, learning to quickly recognize developing patterns and trends, and quickly communicating his directions and intentions. This also means that today's leader must be able to show the way through times of crisis and change. A leader's ability to calmly steer a course in times of turmoil is crucial to the survival of any enterprise. Finally, a modern leader needs to think and act strategically. He must plan out the future course of action and guide the organization toward achieving the vision he has articulated. He must be able to hold fast…
Cooper, I.D., (2007, May/June). The impotence of importance -- reflections on leadership. Annals of family medicine, 5:261-262. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from www.annfammed.org (25)
Li, C., (2010). Open Leadership: How social technology can transform the way you lead. San Fransico, CA: Jossey-Bass Wiley.
Shulstad, R.A., (2009, summer). Perspectives on leadership and management. Air & space power journal, 11-17. Superintendent of Documents. Retrived June 28,2010, from http://www.airpower.au.af.mil (24)
Spurgeon, P., & Cragg, R., (2007). Is it leadership or management? Clinician in management. 15: 123-125. In R. Chambers, K. Mohanna, P. Spurgeon, & D. Wall, (Eds.). How to succeed as a leader. Oxford, U.K.: Radcliffe Publishing. (21)
What needs to first be improved upon is the lack of ownership on the part of the unionized workers, yet even more systemic is the challenge that Perrier management has in how workers are accustomed to prosperity in an era of economic downturn. Gaining consensus with unions during a contraction of their business cycles is going to be difficult. What needs to first happen is that the Perrier and Nestle' management teams needs to first focus on being transparent and honest about the need to change, and taking pay cuts, reductions in bonuses and in generals being the champions of the needed change first (Brown, Cregan, 2008). This will help to increase their credibility with the union workers, and also show they are willing to make sacrifices they are calling on others to do as well. Second, Perrier and Nestle' management must focus on creating measures of progress that equally…
Michelle Brown, Christina Cregan. (2008). Organizational change cynicism: The role of employee involvement. Human Resource Management, 47(4), 667.
Retrieved January 22, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1598548371).
Christina Passariello (2004, March 17). Nestle's Dispute With Perrier Could Be Coming to a Boil Soon. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. 1. Retrieved January 22, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 580630441).
Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…
(1.) Abou-Zeid, E.S. "A Knowledge Management Reference Model." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(5), 2002. pp. 486-499.
(2.) Bender S. And Fish A. "The Transfer of Knowledge and the Retention of Expertise: The Continuing Need for Global Assignments." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 2008. pp. 125-135.
(3.) Beveren, V.J. "A Model of Knowledge Acquisition that Refocuses Knowledge Management." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 2002. pp. 18-22.
(4.) Bhatt, G. "Organizing Knowledge in the Knowledge Development Cycle." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 2009. pp. 15-26.
The Manager's Basic esponsibility
It has been said that the manager's most basic responsibility is to focus people toward performance of work activities to achieve desired outcomes. Is this a true statement? Certainly, it describes part of the manager's role and that part of the manager's role is a significant one. However, focusing people towards the performance of work activities is only part of the manager's role and may not be the most crucial part. A manager might have other responsibilities that are more basic and more essential to their role. At the same time, this description of the manager's role may actually undermine the manager's ability to perform their job effectively. These issues will now be considered further.
Management is defined as "the attainment of organisational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organising, leading, and controlling organisational resources" (Daft 1997, p. 8). This definition includes…
Bruch, H & Ghoshal, S 2002, 'Beware the busy manager', Harvard Business Review, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 62-69.
Daft, R 1997, Management, The Dryden Press, Sydney.
Furedi, F 2005, 'Treat employees like adults', Harvard Business Review, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 22-23.
Mintzberg, N 1975, 'The manager's job: Folklore and fact', Harvard Business Review, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 49-61.
Managing Diversity in Organizations
Diversity can be described as the manner of recognizing, appreciating, accepting, respecting, and reveling dissimilarities among individuals with regards to age, class, ethnicity, sex, physical and intellectual capability, race, and sexual orientation (Esty et al., 1995). Diversity has become a significant and beneficial component for organizations. With the constant increase in globalization, organizations have been forced to diversify their set of personnel in the work environment. Employees come from diverse backgrounds, geographical areas, tribal and ethnic origins and bear distinctive diverse abilities and aptitudes. It is essential for people to work together and combine abilities and manage diversity commendably in the environment. Every individual's opinions, activities, and also principles are molded by his or her culture. Organizations have to institute diversity into their structures and policies in order to attain the projected goals and objectives (Esty et al., 1995).
The issue of diversity does not just…
Bolen, L., &Kleiner, B. H. (1996). Managing diversity in the workplace. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 3(4), 3-8.
Cox, T., & Beale, R. L. (1997). Developing competency to manage diversity: Readings, cases & activities. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
Estyy, K., Griffin, R., Schorr-Hirsh, M. (1995). Workplace Diversity: A manager's guide to solving problems and turning diversity into a competitive advantage. Massachusetts: Adams Media Corporation.
Benefits and Limitations of Mechanistic and Organic Mgmt. Structures the benefits of the mechanistic structure include clear lines of authority, a definite command-and-control structure for making decisions, and very clear role definitions. This organizational structure is excellent for business models where variability is costly and there needs to be a high degree of conformity of processes overall. The downside of this organizational structure is the lack of agility and flexibility, the tendency to limit employee's initiative and creativity, and lack of opportunity to rise on intelligence and creativity instead of seniority. Examples of companies with mechanistic organizational structures include process-goods manufacturing including steel, textile and chemical processing. In addition, armed forces are highly driven by mechanistic structures.
Organic organizational structures have the advantages being very flexible and agile in response to opportunities and threats an organization faces, in addition to support for multi-directional communication and flexibility in job and role…
Deborah Dougherty. (2001). Reimagining the differentiation and integration of work for sustained product innovation. Organization Science, 12(5), 612-631.
Robert Waldersee, Andrew Griffiths, & Jessica Lai. (2003). Predicting Organizational Change Success: Matching Organization Type, Change Type and Capabilities. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 8(1), 66-81.
Catherine L. Wang, & Pervaiz K. Ahmed. (2003). Structure and structural dimensions for knowledge-based organizations. Measuring Business Excellence, 7(1), 51-62.
These form the foundation for creating more agile, and responsive change management strategies. What makes the 7-S Model stand out however is the integration of its seven core factors with a Balanced Scorecard (BSC), which seeks to equate organizational strategies to financial performance. Specifically included in the BSC approach are financial and customer perspectives, internal process perspective, and learning and growth perspective (Kaplan, 2005). The integration of the 7-S Model and BSC Methodology taken together create the most useful framework for initiating and managing change in organizations.
obert S. Kaplan (2005). How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model. Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 41-46. etrieved January 21, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 858853681).
Diane Moody, Andy Smith. (2004, October). Marching to the same beat. Personnel Today,23-24. etrieved January 20, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 723783371).
Philip . Walsh (2005). Dealing with the uncertainties of…
Robert S. Kaplan (2005). How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model. Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 41-46. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 858853681).
Diane Moody, Andy Smith. (2004, October). Marching to the same beat. Personnel Today,23-24. Retrieved January 20, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 723783371).
Philip R. Walsh (2005). Dealing with the uncertainties of environmental change by adding scenario planning to the strategy reformulation equation. Management Decision, 43(1), 113-122. Retrieved January 19, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 828881461).
Management and Leadership
Impact of management and leadership
The aspect of management and leadership are very crucial in the success of any organization as long as they are practiced in the right manner and leadership as well as management tenets are put into proper use. These two principles cannot do without each other and they have a kind of symbiotic relationship where one cannot efficiently operate without the presence or influence of the other.
A leader is noted to be that person who has the ability to influence others in order to achieve a common goal that has been agreed upon. A true leader for that matter is one who does not have selfish interests but the interests of those whom he or she relates with and leads in the process of achieving a required goal (Woodroffe Noel, 2012).
The issue of leadership has for long been the subject of…
Center for Creative Leadership, (2009). Developing a Leadership Strategy: A Critical Ingredient for Organizational Success. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/LeadershipStrategy.pdf
Drew Stevens, 2003. Finish Line Leadership - Qualities for Successful Leadership. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.expertmagazine.com/EMOnline/030103/finishline.htm
George Ambler (2008). Leaders vs. Managers….. Are they really different? Retrieved May 11, 2012 from http://www.thepracticeofleadership.net/2008/04/08/leaders-vs.-managers-are-they-really-different/comment-page-2/
Larry C. Spears, (2010). Character and Servant Leadership: Ten Characteristics of Effective,
Developing organizational strategy through the Balanced Scorecard also minimizes participants' subjectivity as they take part in the strategy-setting process and enhance managers' ability to assess all programs for strategic impact without bias (onchetti, n.d.).
While financial and customer actions are defined and available in commercial organizations, the corresponding is less easily found in non-profits. A good measure is one that management can significantly control. Non-profit organizations goals are usually influenced by many influential factors and actors beyond its authority. Commercial Balanced Scorecards usually have a financial viewpoint at the peak of the strategic reason and mapping. For the non-profit, financial goals are not the end; they are part of the means. Customary practice is to push the finance viewpoint down to the bottom of the strategy map for non-profits, treating financials as input to the strategic representation. This is difficult because financially oriented goals are also sought after by non-profits.…
Can I apply Balanced Scorecard in a non-profit organization? (2008). Retrieved August 9, 2010,
from Web site: http://www.2gc.co.uk/pdf/2GC-FAQ08-090216.pdf
Ronchetti, Jan L. (n.d.). An Integrated Balanced Scorecard Strategic Planning Model for Nonprofit Organizations. Retreived August 9, 2010, from Web site:
Innovation in its simplest form can be termed as something new or newly introduced into the market. Innovation in the business field is quite necessary since it forms the backbone of a company's growth and that of the economy as a whole. Innovation is the success of every business and must be managed effectively and efficiently (Limerick, 2002).
The ever changing technology and instant global communication have made it easier for companies to find answers to some problems they encounter and more so come up with innovations to improve on the current ones. Companies are also faced with pressures arising from global competition and by this; most of them are seeking the need to manage their innovations. Companies are nowadays attracting and managing innovations by having rewards or prizes for individuals within the company who manages to come up with brilliant and innovative concepts. This will give the…
AFUAH, A. 2003. Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation, and Profits, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press.
ALEXY, O. & REITZIG, M. 2012. Managing the business risks of open innovation. McKinsey Quarterly, 17-21.
BROWN & HELEN 2008. Knowledge and innovation: a comparative study of the U.S.A., the UK, and Japan London Routledge.
DANNEELS, E. 2002. The Dynamics of Product Innovation and Firm Competences. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 1095-1121.
Please see Appendix a for a give year ratio analysis of Starbucks Corporation illustrating the significant effect the recession is having on gross margins. Yet despite this pressure, Starbucks continues to be successful in keeping its gross margins above industry average at 9.67% for the latest fiscal year. Also noteworthy about their financial performance is the increase in evenue Per Employee from $53,864 in 2004 to $59,156. This speaks to the fact that Starbucks is being successful with their long-term strategy of delivering exceptional customer experiences, so much so that there is greater levels of repurchase of drinks and food even in a recession (Churchill, 2008). All of these factors point to the critical need for managing customer experiences more closely than ever, with a strong orientation towards giving customers and opportunity to have their voices heard on potential new products. Starbucks has excelled in the area of social networking,…
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Chris Churchill. (15 July 2008). Starbucks competitors get jitters: Local coffeehouses, facing woes of their own, cast wary eye on chain's recent closings. McClatchy - Tribune Business News
Fridell, G. (2009). The Co-Operative and the Corporation: Competing Visions of the Future of Fair Trade. Journal of Business Ethics: Supplement, 86, 81-95.
Burt Helm. (2007, April). SAVING STARBUCKS' SOUL: Chairman Howard Schultz is on a mission to take his company back to its roots. Oh, yeah -- he also wants to triple sales in five years. Business Week,(4029), 56.
All identified causes within CDE Apparel indicate that the high employee turnover is due to voluntary reasons, rather than involuntary. In other words, the staff does not leave because they are forced to, due to restructuring, firing or retirement, but rather because they choose to (Adorno).
6. Alternative Courses of Action
The solution to the current problems facing CDE Apparel resides in reducing the employee turnover. And this can theoretically be done through the implementation of a wide array of managerial strategies, such as employee selection programs, outsourcing, corporate culture or motivational forces, briefly presented below:
Employee selection programs encompass numerous strategies and measures implemented by the employer in the hiring process and can be used to efficiently reduce turnover (Adorno). This basically means that the manager at CDE will select those candidates which are best skilled to do the job and which perfectly integrate within the corporate culture, whichever…
Adorno, a.J., Understanding and Combating Employee Turnover in Call Centers, DeGarmo Group, Retrieved at http://www.degarmogroup.com/pdf/Employee_Turnover_Article.pdfon March 17, 2008
Droege, S.B., Hoobler, J.M., 2003, Employee Turnover and Tacit Knowledge Diffusion: A Network Perspective, Journal of Managerial Issues, Volume 15
Johnson, C., 2006, Employee Turnover, Reference for Business, http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Employee-Turnover.html , last accessed on March 17, 2008
Sheehan, E.P., Hockett, C., 1988, the Effects of Employee Turnover on Those Who Stay, University of Northern Colorado, Retrieved at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED299500&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED299500on March 17, 2008
To avoid all these hassles, corporates should take the lead. They should ensure that the environment is not harmed in any way and people are treated with respect and dignity without exploiting the people or the environment in any unfair way. Such initiatives get publicity too and this has a positive impact on the company's business interests. Therefore, technology has been another driving factor that induces companies to take the right steps to preserve and protect the environment and the people who depend on it.
Steps that should be taken by the company
Companies should have a clear strategy of how they are going to address their issues and this should be decided after taking into account its impact on the environment as well as its business interests. ecent years has seen more importance being given to shareholders and so company executives do everything possible to increase the returns for…
Melville, Nigel. (March 2010). Information Systems Innovation for Environmental Sustainability. MIS Quarterly. Vol 34(1). p1-21.
Livesey, Sharon; Hartman, Cathy; Stafford, Edwin; Shearer, Molly. (October 2009). Performing Sustainable Development through Eco-Collaboration. Journal of Business Communication. Vol 46(4). p423-454.
Bansal, Pratima. (March 2009). Corporate Social Responsibility: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Administrative Science Quarterly. Vol 54(1). p182-184
Margolis, Joshua. Walsh, James. (June 2003). Misery Loves Companies: Rethinking Social Initiatives by Business. Administrative Science Quarterly. Vol 48(2). p268-305.
The truth is that "creative" people and "geniuses" aren't any different than anyone else. They've only spent more time doing the things they wanted to be doing and pursuing the things they wanted to pursue. They had the courage and strength to persevere when others told them "no" it couldn't be done, or "you're wasting your time," "you're not going to make any money doing that," etc. And for their perseverance and strength in the face of adversity -- not their intellect or artistic ability - they've been awarded these labels "genius" and "creative."
Jobs closed out his speech with the following adage from an old publication he used to read, "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish." What that means is exactly is this, one should keep pursuing his/her dreams and never stop, never be satisfied. And, in the eyes of some he/she will be a fool, but eventually, with time, courage,…
There are two things that concern the new facility in Walkerton and that need to be addressed. The first relates to the equipment and machines in use within the plant. As we have seen, one third of the equipment is obsolete and up to 50% will have to be renewed. However, clear steps have already been taken in this direction. The company is committed to transferring new product lines into Canada and the local government has a favorable tax treatment on the purchase of equipment. In this sense, the problem of obsoleteness may be successfully solved.
An even more serious problem, however, relates to the employees. As we have seen, and this is perhaps the best description which accounts for the current situation within the plant, the working environment reminds us of high school, only with adults. It is clear that, in order for the plant to become efficient…
Managing Organizational Change
Cincom and Accountability of Sales epresentative for esults
Cincom is a 43-year-old developer of enterprise software applications and by virtue of the designed-in nature of their applications, has been able to literally coast on a comfortable wave of recurring revenue for a decade. This recurring revenue stream is comprised of license payments, maintenance fees, and the continual need for updates to mission-critical systems the company sold, in some cases, decades ago. With the majority of revenue being generated through a recurring revenue stream, the urgency and intensity to sell which is often found in smaller, younger, and more cash-starved businesses is not as prevalent inside Cincom. The framework for change model provides an invaluable construct in which to analyze the complacency of Cincom, what contributed to that false sense of security, and the path back to being a competitor in their core markets (Kotter, 2008).
Kotter, J.. (2008, December). Transformation. Leadership Excellence, 25(12), 20.
John P. Kotter & Leonard A Schlesinger. (2008, July). Choosing Strategies for Change. Harvard Business Review, 86(7,8), 130-139.
Anthony J. Mento, Raymond M. Jones, & Walter Dirndorfer. (2002). A change management process: Grounded in both theory and practice. Journal of Change Management, 3(1), 45-59.
Michael W. Phelan. (2005). Cultural Revitalization Movements in Organization Change Management. Journal of Change Management, 5(1), 47-56.
Managing People -- Wal-Mart
Summary of the Company and Facts
Wal-Mart is among many multi-national retail businesses that are well-known. It runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouses all over the world though it's an American multinational retailer corporation. It is also the biggest private employer in the world, to employ such a big number of workers can be very challenging and hence the employee relationship with the management requires thorough evaluation. With corporations such as Wal-Mart always chasing to grow higher and getting better returns come with the temptations to go really wrong in many ways. Wal-Mart does a lot right; it has expanded its productivity by being more efficient and leaner when compared to many companies. Shoppers accrue a lot of benefits from the expansion of Wal-Mart. Like all this retail businesses the employees in Wal-Mart are given low wages, they work on part-time conditions…
Ludensky, A. (2008).Wal-mart's Labor problem. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://campusprogress.org/articles/wal-marts_labor_problem
Cherry, K. (2009).Hierarchy of needs. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Unlimited marketing. (2012). Walmart Workers For Change.Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://www.walmartworkersforchange.org/2012/08/walmart-works-to-empower-women/
DE-DE Group LLC (2012). Wal-Mart Workers on Strike. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from https://www.thunderclap.it/projects/653-walmart-workers-on-strike
The change in the world structure population and the trend of migration of people from developing to developed countries raises critical issues that no company can ignore. Demographic changes are already influencing human resource and other departments of companies across major cities of developed nations like Japan, United States and German (Florian Kohlbacher, 2010). Demographic, therefore can be defined as the study of composition of social entity in terms of its members attributes which includes such factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, seniority, salary level and marital status (Kirton. Greene 2011).
However, during times of global economic and financial crisis, many companies usually deal with issues that seem to be more urgent, but with demographic change the issue is more complex, for example German's companies doing business in Japan need to face the challenges of demographic change in Japan population if they want to be successful in…
Resources in Latin America,
An Agenda for International Leaders book third edition
(2010). A Demographic Analysis -- Part II: Recruitment and Retention Issues
In the P & C. Insurance Industry In Canada
Constantinos, Fotakis (2010). DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING, EMPLOYMENT GROWTH
The content language adopted for white collar workers will be a simple, plain one as the goal is for the message to be understood best and used by the employees in their interaction with the customers. In global communication campaigns, the language will be the same for white and blue collar workers and therefore a simple and plain one for everyone. In specific communications, the language can increase in complexity if the auditorium that needs to receive the message had a higher education level.
The content will take under consideration the cultural differences between the corporate headquarters country (e.g. UK) and the local offices (e.g. Korea) and adapt global campaigns to the local requirements. Additionally, the content will be designed to match company objectives and how these objectives can be understood by personnel. Therefore, a specialized team will be dedicated to understanding the personnel, the company values the personnel needs…
Acosta, C., Leon, V.J., Conrad, C., Gonzalez-Cervantes, R. And Malave, C.O. 2004. Case Study on Culture and the Implementation of Manufacturing Strategy in Mexico. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, vol. 23(3): pp. 173-181.
Davis, Alison. 2005. Applying Employee Demographics. Strategic Communications Management. August 1st, http://www.allbusiness.com/technology/computer-software-management/943392-1.html
Hofstede, G. 1984. Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning, Asia Pacific Journal: pp.84-99.
Internal Comms. 2006. The Top Seven Macro-Trends in Internal Communications. April edition, www.internalcommshub.com
The most recent trajectory for China's economy has been notable for its absence of emphasis on heavy industry. Mao's original plans focused on heavy industry the major driver of Chinese economic growth. Deng, too, had wanted to build out China's capacity in steel and heavy manufacturing industries. In recent years, service industries and light manufacturing have taken a more prominent role in the Chinese economy. The sense is that during the first years of the reforms, it was essential for China to build out its industrial capacity. Having done that, the only role left is to leverage the heavy industry infrastructure in order to help build out the fledgling service industry.
It was the heavy industry that facilitated productivity growth in China in the past couple of decades. Productivity has contributed 13.5% of China's economic growth since the early 1930s (u, 2003). Substantial improvements in infrastructure and technology were able…
BBC: China's Economic Reform website. (2005). Retrieved May 1, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/quick_guides/05/asia_pac_china0s_economic_reform/html/1.stm
GDP figures from the International Monetary Fund. (2009) Retrieved May 2, 2009 from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2008
History Learning Site. (n.d.) Retrieved May 1, 2009 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/china_five_year_plan.htm
Harms, William. (1996). China's Great Leap Forward. University of Chicago Chronicle. Retrieved May 1, 2009 from http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/960314/china.shtml
Monetary Considerations for the Retirees
Costs to Society
Forcing individuals to arbitrarily retire once they reach a certain age, no matter what that age might be, is not only counterproductive in its contribution to society, but it also serves as a form of discrimination against a particular segment of the population. This argumentative essay will provide clear and unfettered evidence that this policy is both ineffective and unjust. It adversely affects the individuals being forced into retirement both monetarily as well as psychologically. It indirectly affects society as a whole by limiting great segments of the population from employment; many who are often extremely well qualified and experienced. Therefore under no circumstance is this policy a plausible solution.
Monetary Considerations for the Retirees
Retirees are detrimentally afflicted by mandatory retirement financially primarily for two reasons. First, they lose their income potential. This may occur even…
Charles, K. (1999). Is Retirement Depressing? Labor Force Inactivity and Psychological Well-Being in Later Life. University of Michigan Dept. Of Economics and School of Public Policy, 1-23.
Clover, I. (2011, August). When I'm 65. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from HR Management: http://www.hrmreport.com/article/When-Im-65/
Maranjian, S. (2007, January 25). Will you retire by choice -- or force? Retrieved August 20, 2011, from The Motley Fool: http://www.fool.com/personal-finance/retirement/2007/01/25/will-you-retire-by-choice-or-force.aspx
Rodin, J. (1986). Aging and health: effects of the sense of control. Science, 1271-1276.
The vision Oracle has is one of unifying all of their enterprise applications into their Fusion architecture and creating a single unifying Service oriented Architecture (SOA) was first announced in 2006 (Krill, 13). Since that time Oracle has continually strived to create an SOA in Fusion that would appeal to its corporate customers. The proposed Fusion SOA platform has been designed to be robust and scalable enough to encompass enterprise-level applications including Enterprise esource Planning (EP) applications while also being flexible enough to provide for individualized application development. There are critics of SOA in general and Fusion specifically, with industry analysts considering it too difficult to create a process-centric model that allows for pervasive, in-depth applications necessary for mission-critical business while at the same time allowing for significant scalability (Handy, 2005). Despite these concerns however Fusion continues to gain market acceptance and provide Oracle with a path to the fulfillment…
Alex Handy. 2005. Oracle Fusion: The 'Frankenstein' of SOA? Software Development Times, October 15, 6
Paul Krill. 2006. Oracle Does SOA. InfoWorld, August 14, 11-13
In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…
Alexander, Kenneth O. "Worker Ownership and Participation in the Context of Social Change: Progress Is Slow and Difficult, but it Need Not Wait upon Massive Redistribution of Wealth. " the American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44.3 (1985): 337. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 25 Oct. 2008
Timothy Bartram, Gian Casimir. "The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader:the mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. " Leadership & Organization Development Journal 28.1 (2007): 4-19. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008
Douglas Brownlie, Paul Hewer, Beverly Wagner, Gran Svensson. "Management theory and practice: bridging the gap through multidisciplinary lenses. " European Business Review 20.6 (2008): 461-470. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008
Huei-Fang Chen, Yi-Ching Chen. "The Impact of Work Redesign and Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment in a Changing Environment: An Example From Taiwan's State-Owned Enterprises. " Public Personnel Management 37.3 (2008): 279-302. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 27 Oct. 2008
These are contained in the Enterprise Operations Center framework. The center has reach to the group of specialized telecommunication commercial and federally concentrated focused professionals within the CSC. These groups of individuals have thousands of certifications for operating Cisco, Microsoft, Sun, Nortel, Ayaya and many other types of equipment that assists any networking or telecommunication requirements of clients who are working with the Center. (Enterprise Network Managed Services Center of Excellence)
In order to entail the network-wide maintenance at the fingertips, Aglient's Network Troubleshooting Center -- NTC indicates a great leap ahead in the management of enterprise-wide networks. NCT includes a centralized view of network health achieved from various sources, including MON and SNMP and from the same console, centralized expert troubleshooting of remote problems applying distributed network analysis tools. The primary advantages are increasingly lesser respond and fix times and greatly lessened operational costs from both declined engineer travel…
Centralized Troubleshooting of Distributed Networks" Retrieved at http://www.phoenixdatacom.com/ntc.html . Accessed 28 August, 2005
Control your network: Why You Need IP Address Management" (July, 2002) Retrieved at http://www.checkpoint.com/products/downloads/Control_Your_Network.pdf?offer=wiwptAccessed 28 August, 2005
Enterprise Network Managed Services Center of Excellence" Retrieved at http://www.csc.com/aboutus/lef/mds68_off/enterprisenetwork.shtml . Accessed 28 August, 2005
Enterprise wide security on the Internet" Retrieved at http://www.newsviews.info/techbytes03.html. Accessed 28 August, 2005
Management class 494, I Executive Summary case title Nascar: A Branding Success. Marketting Strategy book O.C. Ferrel, I international student, I write summary formal words make an international student essay IA, I sounds weird write Executive summary a I write.
NASCA executive summary
NASCA, short for The National Association for Stock Car Auto acing, is a relatively small size firm, but which also has an increased importance within the national and international auto racing events. The success of the organization is based on several key features, including the dedication of the staff members to high quality operations and services, the wide reach of the company outside the geographic borders, but also, the strength of its marketing approach.
The marketing team of NASCA is highly skilled and qualified, and, along the years, has produced some of the more successful measures to attracting the attention of the audience, as well as its…
Ferrell, O.C., Hartline, M., 2010, Marketing strategy, 5th edition, Cengage Learing
Management and Leadership
Strategic Management and Leadership
Strategic management and leadership theories supporting organizational direction
This document focuses on the leadership theories based on transformational and contingency approaches as well as the management theories based on supporting the accomplishment of organizational objectives. It attempts to review the different approaches and deliver a subjective leadership style that will guide the organization to achieving its goals.
Application of leadership and management theories to support organizational direction
Organizations exist to make profit. That is the sole purpose of corporation and combined companies. Effective organizations are those that are able to adapt to ever changing forces in the general and task environment. Therefore strategic management plays a vital role in helping organizations achieve the means necessary to gain profits and build customer loyalty.
Strategic management is the set of decisions and succeeding actions taken by management that will provide a competitively superior fit…
Balakrishnan, M.R., 2007, Transformational Leadership -- A Case Study, Life Insurance Corporation of India, India, viewed 27th September 2011,
Covey, S. 2007, The Transformational Leadership Report, www.transformationalleadership.net, viewed 27th September 2011,
Daft, R.L. 2008, Management, Daft, Nashville, Tennessee.
Kirk Jr., T.G. 2004, 'The role of management theory in day-to-day Management practices of a College Director', library management and leadership special section, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35 -- 38, viewed 27th September 2011,
Managing Out -- the Public Sector in the Community
Two major economic positions have dominated the public sector for more than a decade. One side believes that the government should take primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, while the other contends that greater reliance on the private sector is the method by which an economy can be more effectively managed. The first idea has largely been gleaned from the works of Keynes. He was an economist who believed that government intervention was required to maintain a stable economy and that the state was better equipped to be the central figure in economic management because it has a duty to the citizens which the private sector does not (Pressman, 2011). The counter to this politically liberal position is that of Frederich Hayek. He believed that free markets were the best regulators of the economy ( Griffiths, 2007) and that…
Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.
Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.
Davis, G., & Wood, T. (1998). Is there a future for contracting in the Australian public sector? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 57(4), 85-97.