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Foreign Aid and Economic Development
Does foreign aid boost hinder economic development?
In theoretic perspectives, foreign aid should be capable of triggering social and economic growth, mostly in developing nations through financial assistance offered by affluent developed nations. Thereafter, this foreign aid should trigger economic growth by improving infrastructure, introducing modern technologies and innovative ideas, reinforcing fundamental social amenities, for instance, education, health and political structures (Brautigam, Deborah & Stephen, 2004)
In addition, the aid offers humanitarian support in the course of crises, and replenishes the economy after an economic downfall. However, the donors offer the aid on conditional basis. In most cases, only the countries with good governance receive the aid. Latin America shares similar features with Africa in terms of strong presidential features and poor legislature. For this reason, Latin America embraces the aspect of accountability and reshapes their weak institutions by enhancing the rule of law and…
Angeles, L and Kyriako C. (2009). "Aid Effectiveness: the Role of the Local Elite." Journal of Development Economics 90 (1): (2009): 120-134
Barro, J. (1990). "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth." Quarterly Journal of Economics 98(5): 103-125
Barro, R. (1991). "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 106(2): 407-443
Barro, R. (1996). "Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study." National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper 5698, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Foreign Aid Effects on Nigeria
AN HONEST ASSESSMENT
Effects of Foreign Aid Use in Nigeria
Nigeria or the Federal Republic of Nigeria is located in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and lies between enin and Cameron (LOC 2008). As of the latest count, it has a population of 138 million at an annual growth rate of 2.38%. Nigeria is the fourth largest exporter of oil to the United States. Yet in the face of vast natural fossil fuel reserves, it suffers from extreme personal poverty for 57% of its people. Economists describe this as a "paradox of plenty" or the "curse of oil." Nigeria, like other developing countries in similar situations, is provided foreign aid to help promote democracy and economic stability. Foreign assistance attempts to deliver these countries' people from poverty, and provide security, military assistance and counter-terrorism measures. Of the countries outside Western Europe, Canada and…
Articles (2013). Impact of foreign aid on Nigeria socio-economic development.
ArticlesNG: WordPress. Retrieved on January 30, 2014 from http://www.articlesng.com/impact-of-foreign-aid-on-nigeria-socio-economic-development
Chukwuka, C. (2013). Nigeria's socio-economic development -- the impact of foreign aid. Doublegist:doublegist.com. Retrieved on January 30, 2014 from http://www.africamaster.web.com/AdSense/NigerianLeadersLooted500b.html
LOC (2008). Country profile: Nigeria. Federal Research Division: Library of Congress.
Although the UN Mission was present in the region and tried to ensure a safe passage from a regime which lacked all regard for democracy, human rights, or economic development, the perspectives and the time frame instituted for these were not optimistic. Indeed, the UN aims to secure a strong, coherent, and secure form of government through its missions and interventions. However, the most important element for a state is to provide a strong central government that would deal with organization matters, with management of aid relief in situations such as the one in Haiti. Still, given the political turmoil experienced by the country it is difficult to be able to manage such an operation. Therefore, from this point-of-view, it is fair to say that an important element in the failure of the aid relief actions was the lack of a strong government organization.
Another crucial issue to be taken…
Academy International Affaires. "Why Foreign Aid to Haiti Failed." National Academy of Public Administration: Washington, 2006.
Buss, Terry. Haiti in the Balance: Why Foreign Aid Has Failed and What We Can Do About it. Brookings Institution Press: New York, 2008.
Cawthorne, Andrew, Bremer, Catherine. "Haitians receive little help despite promises." Reuters Press Agency, Online editions. January 17, 2010. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60B5IZ20100117
CNN. "Aid groups rush to Haiti." Complete coverage of Haiti earthquake. Available at http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/01/12/haiti.aid/index.html
S. AID and other donors within the years 1960 and 1980 has vanished into oblivion. According to Brain Atwood, U.S. AID administrator who mentions about the doles extended to Zaire that the investment of more than $2 billion of American foreign aid was fruitless. The 1980s has been branded by the United Nations Development Program as the "lost decade" in case of a number of poorer nations.
Over a greater part of this phase, the economic downturn or stalemate has impacted 100 nations, curtailing the earnings of 1.6 billion individuals which are once more greater than 25% of the population of the world. The average earnings of 70 of these nations are lower than what they were during the 1980s and in 43 nations less compared to what their state were in 1970. Global evaluation are generally weighed down with problems, however total aid intensities does not compare absolutely with…
Bandow, Doug. Help or Hindrance: Can Foreign Aid Prevent International Crises? Cato Policy Analysis. No. 273. April 25, 1997. Retrieved at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-273.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005
Foreign aid. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9034854Accessed on 28 June, 2005
Miskel, James F. The Debate about Foreign Aid. 17 January 1997. Retrieved at http://www.jha.ac/articles/a016.htm. Accessed on 28 June, 2005
Osterfeld, David. The Failures and Fallacies of Foreign Aid. The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty. February, 1990. Retrieved at http://www.fee.org/vnews.php?nid=2191Accessed on 28 June, 2005
Foreign Aid vs. Economic Growth: A critical evaluation of the success/Failure of foreign aid in Africa (Ethiopia)
In this paper, explore the concept of foreign aid and economic development in an African. We focus on a critical evaluation of the success as well as failure of foreign aid in Africa (Ethiopia). What are investigated are the factors that affect growth, the scopes behind foreign aid and reasons for failure. The aim of the study however, is to explore and survey the impact of foreign aid on economic growth and the country as a whole. We then focus on five major objectives. The first one is such as the relationship that exists between foreign aid and a country's economic growth. The second objective is the investigation of the economic impact of foreign aid on consumption and investment. The third objective is the investigation whether recipient government misuse aid as a result…
Alesina, A. And D. Dollar (2000), "Who gives foreign aid to whom and why?" Journal of Economic
Growth, vol. 5, p.33 -- 63.
Burnside, C. And D. Dollar (2000), "Aid, policies, and growth," American Economic Review, vol.90,
P.847 -- 868.
aid (foreign aid) is the financial aid which the government gives out to help in supporting the economic, environment, political as well as, social development of developing countries. Today, aids projects seem to work; however, the project does not fully aggregate into major development breakthroughs. Therefore, if aid effectiveness is to be linked firmly to development strategies, then the balance of today's allocation will definitely change. The impact of foreign aid on economic growth has become a controversial issue. According to Boone (1996), he argues that foreign aid flows as a moral obligation of the rich countries that will send forth mighty hopes of ending poverty. In summary, this paper will discuss development aid and ways of making development aid effective.
Development aid is renowned to take many forms. The most significant with regards to its size and influence is the official aid. From the definition of development aid, it…
Bauer, L., & Onslow, M. (1999). Journal Of Economic Development . Evaluating The Impact Of Foreign Aid On Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Study . Retrieved December 9, 2012, from http://www.jed.or.kr/full-text/30-2/J02_702.PDF
Boone, P. (1996). Centre For Economic Performance . Politics And The Effectiveness Of Foreign Aid. Retrieved December 9, 2013, from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/20690/1/Politics_and_the_Effectiveness_of_Foreign_Aid.pdf
Burnside, C., & Dollar, D. (1997). Aid, Policies and Growth. Macroeconomics and Growth Division. Retrieved December 9, 2013, from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.195.7209&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Easterly, W. (2002). Can Foreign Aid Buy Growth? . Can Foreign Aid Buy Growth? . Retrieved December 9, 2013, from http://www.nyudri.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/canforeignaidbuygrowth.pdf
Urbanization and Foreign Aid
Africa has long been the site of urbanization and foreign aid since the so-called Scramble for Africa (Hopkins, 1993, p. 489). Other sources, however, indicate that if one were to look at the formal influence of colonization, the many different countries in Africa have been receiving a sort of 'forced' foreign aid even prior to the Scramble of Africa. As such, there has been a substantial amount of urbanization fueled by foreign interest in a country such as South Africa. It is important to note that this foreign aid is not necessarily altruistic. Africa in general has long been revered for its rich mineral resources, fertile areas, and abundance of what was appropriated as human labor. This sentiment certainly applies to South Africa, which was long desired by Europeans for its "gold mines" (Cox et al., 2004, p. 2), diamonds, and other abundantly available resources. A…
Cox, K.R., Hemson, D., Todes, A. (2004). Urbanization in South Africa and the changing character of migrant labor. South African Geographical Journal. 86(1), 7-16.
LEDNA. (2013). Government. www.ledna.com. Retrieved from http://ledna.org/info/government
Hopkins, A.G. (1993). 'Blundering and plundering': The Scramble for Africa relived. The Journal of African History. 34 (3): 489-494
Stoddard, E. (2013). South Africa's waning gold industry braces for more strikes. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/08/30/us-safrica-strikes-idUSBRE97T0OT20130830
Foreign Aid and Stratification in Afghanistan: Solving the Problem or Exacerbating Current Imbalances?
The following research proposal is built on a background and extensive literature review regarding the nature of aid dispersal in Afghanistan. Significant problems with foreign aid use have been noted in the country, and this research would aim to determine where aid is most needed, where it is actually going, and the reasons behind any noted discrepancy in these elements. A literature review shows that regional differences and corruption are major contributing factors in perceive aid inefficiencies, and a qualitative research methodology as described and recommended to further address these issues and develop practical recommendations for addressing and correcting the situation.
Despite ongoing efforts in recent history to establish a more democratic and stable state in Afghanistan, the nation largely remains in a state of chaos and disarray, especially in certain regions (Ahmad, 2002;…
Ahmad, K. (2002). Regional instability further slows Afghanistan's reconstruction. The Lancet 360: 736.
Barfield, T. (2010). Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Constable, P. (2007). A wake-up call in Afghanistan. Journal of Democracy 18(2): 84-98.
Ford, N. & Davis, A. (2001). Chaos in Afghanistan: Famine, aid, and bombs. The Lancet 358: 1543.
Withholding Foreign Aid From Countries that Violate Human ights
Withholding Aid: estructuring Foreign Policy to Advocate Greater Standards for International Human ights
Even in the modern era, there are gross violations of human rights taking place all over the globe. Unfortunately, most programs put in place to persuade nations committing such violations to stop such inhuman activities are relatively ineffective at actually securing greater protection for vulnerable populations. As a result, many nations continue to be in violation of international laws, yet go relatively unpunished. The primary purpose of this research is to examine the current situation, and how international aid strategies are dealing ineffectively with particular nations that are clearly violating human rights. From a general understanding of the current situation, an idea of where the true problems lie can be extrapolated, highlighting specific elements of international policy strategies that have proved least productive in helping influence nations to…
Allendoefer, Michelle Giacobbe. (2010). When do human rights matter? Finding a place for human rights in foreign policy. University of Michigan. Web. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/78938/1/mallendo_1.pdf
Chishti, Ali. (2011). Leahy Amendment stronger on paper than practice in Pakistan. Crimes of War. Web. http://www.crimesofwar.org/commentary/leahy-amendment-stronger-on-paper-than-practice-in-pakistan/
Committee on International Relations. (2003). Legislation on Foreign Relations through 2002. U.S. Government Printing Office.
Hunt, Luke. (2012). Thailand human trafficking problems continue to draw scrutiny. Voice of America. Web. http://www.voanews.com/khmer-english/news/Thailand-Human-Trafficking-Problems-Continue-to-Draw-Scrutiny-142618736.html
Sociology -- Effects of ar and Peace on Foreign Aid
Foreign aid has been an organized effort since the end of orld ar II. Through I outright aid, investments, loans and grants, industrialized countries sought to help underdeveloped countries recover from the devastation of war. Predictably, some nations also used foreign aid to further their own interests, sometimes to the detriment of nations such as India, which relied heavily on foreign aid. India's leadership, mindful of the dependence and ravages on the country's resources, eventually developed a more India-centered system that has developed India and reduced poverty and war. However, poverty and war are not completely erased and are still problems in that the vast country of India must face.
Body: Effects That ar and Peace Have on the Distribution of Foreign Aid
a. Analyze how funding in the form of aid, investment and loans moves from industrialized nations to…
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2013, November 15). Country statistical profile: India. Retrieved January 18, 2014 from www.oecd-ilibrary.org Web site: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/table/csp-ind-table-en
Sachs, J. (2005). India's market reforms: The triumph of hope over fear. New York, NY: Penguin Group.
Singh, A.K. (2008). Overseas development assistance: An Indian perspective. Retrieved January 18, 2014 from Sandad.org Web site: www.sansad.org.in/ODA_paper.doc?
Zee Media Corporation Ltd. . (2011, April 3). Police need to be trained to tackle internal security: Modi . Retrieved January 18, 2014 from zeenews.india.com Web site: http://zeenews.india.com/news/gujarat/police-need-to-be-trained-to-tackle-internal-security-modi_697474.html
What is the military-industrial complex? Which president first expressed concern about this trend and why?
Lately the world has seen an increase in conflict and war. This is because war and armed conflict is increasingly being used in place of negotiations and talks to resolve crisis. The use of brute force, especially by America in the wake of the war on terror has increased with America spreading its armed forces all across the globe, be it Afghanistan, Iraq, the Arab Spring uprisings, Pakistan and the list goes on. The military-industrial complex is seen by a few experts as the reason behind increasing conflict, and this in turn has affected the equilibrium and the rationale of comparative politics. Before we go on to discuss the relationship of the military-industrial conflict to the increase in world conflicts, it is important to know what it entails.
The military industrial complex refers to…
Hook, Steven, W. Foreign Policy: The Paradox of the World Power. CQ Press, 2008.
Moyo, Dambisa. Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and how There is Another Way for Africa. Penguin Books, 2011.
-- . "Why Foreign Aid is Hurting Africa." Wall Street Journal 21 March 2009.
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:
Summary of chapter on "Alternative Futures:
The United States as an Ordinary State"
In this chapter, the author argues that (despite appearances to the contrary), there are always choices as to the future direction of any state. America seems to be committed to a war on "terror" by the events of September 11th and the subsequent conquests in the Middle East. This author argues that no such commitment exists, but that America still has the freedom of action to allow any number of future policy directions to exist. The United States, the reader is asked to remember, has not always had an expansionist perspective or sought to save the world.
It is important, the author claims, that as America considers going to war that we also consider the "victor's strategy," which is the way in which the world will be ordered after the war. Many of the greatest…
Aid to Dependent Corporations
The government of United States is incurring heavy revenue loss on account of the corporate sector subsidies and other special rebates. The friendly policies of the government aimed at promoting a positive business climate are sadly being exploited. In their interests to evade tax, businesses today are taking undue advantage of the favorable federal policies. In this regard I feel that our governments tax policies and corporate procedures need to be reexamined in order to eliminate the loopholes in them and at the same time support the common welfare schemes. Let us analyze the scenario in a little detail so that we can better appreciate the situation.
One by one our leading business corporations are reeling under accounting scams. I need not mention how well such a giant corporation like 'Enron' managed to disguise its financial information from the government and the stockholders. In the prevailing…
Chuck Collins, "Dollars & Sense," 'Aid to dependent corporations: exposing federal handouts to the wealthy', May-June 1995, pg 15
Foreign Monetary System
A monetary system is any structure initiated by the government and mandated to issue currency, acknowledged as the medium of exchange by its citizens and governments of other nations. The central bank manages the monetary system of a country; this same bank has the responsibility of printing money and controlling the economy. Since the colonial period, coins from the European colonies had circulated in all the colonies. The Spanish coins gained dominance due to the scarcity of coins, during this time; the main form of trade was barter trade. The trade-involved items such as rice, tobacco, or animal skins, which took the form of money paper and notes, had varying rates of discount in different colonies rendering them of very low value (onald & Wright, 2006).
The high population in the U.S. called for increased trade and commerce. This forced the United States government to look for…
Ronald, M. & Wright, R.E. (2006). Development of the U.S. Monetary Union. Journal of Financial History Review, 13(1), 19-41.
Anonymous, (2011). Challenges and risks of the International Monetary System. Journal of Economic Review, 22(5), 768.
Eichengreen, B.J. (2008). Globalizing capital: A history of the international monetary system.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Foreign Banks India
Foreign Banks in India
It was recently announced that foreign banks, for the first time in decades, will be allowed to enter into the Indian banking industry and "set up 'wholly owned subsidiaries' in India." ("India Eases ules for Foreign Banks") Since the nation obtained independence in the late 1940's, the Indian banking system has undergone radical changes, none more so than in the late 1960's when then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi began to nationalize the entire banking system. The effort was an attempt to change the focus of Indian banks from institutions of profit to ones that could aid in the economic transformation of the Indian economy, primarily the development of rural areas. This system of government direction for the banking system kept Indian banks somewhat isolated from the international banking industry. In 2008, when the collapse of the American banking giant Lehman Brothers precipitated a…
Bandyopadhyay, Tamal. (11 Sept. 2013). "How India's Banking Sector Weathered the Global Storm." The Live Mint and the Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Specials/Jz0STkDuhEehFlOb6kVfoM/How-Indias-banking-sector-weathered-the-global-storm.html
Big Banking Reforms Coming Soon: Raghuram Rajan." (13 Oct. 2013). The Hindu.
Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/big-banking-sector-reforms-coming-soon-raghuram-rajan/article5231410.ece
"India Eases Rules for Foreign Banks." (13 Nov. 2013). BBC News: Business. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-24846760
Foreign Policy of President eagan
Before the disastrous Vietnam War, the U.S. held an undisputed dominant position worldwide, recognized locally as well as by other nations. The nation's historic actions towards defending freedom, by restraining the fascist faction during the Second World War, followed by organizing a large free-state coalition for combating communism, were supported by profound and sweeping domestic consensus. This consensus was destroyed by America's decision to wage war on Vietnam. Despite the rationale being the protection of free peoples battling communism, the Vietnam War resulted in caustic doubt and destabilizing discord among Americans. This suspicion and discord incited and guided by people opposed to the war, rather than the enemy's weaponry and zeal, explains America's failure, above every other factor. The U.S. had to battle internal resistance more than resistance from the Vietnamese adversary, and resulted in a self-inflicted defeat (Brenes 2015; LAISON 2013). Extremely serious repercussions…
Anderson, Martin. 1990. Revolution: The Reagan Legacy, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Armstrong, Scott and Peter Grier. 1986. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream, New York: Foreign Policy Association.
Arquilla, John. 2006. The Reagan Imprint: Ideas in American Foreign Policy from the Collapse of Communism to the War on Terror, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Baucom, Donald R. 1992. The Origins of SDI, 1944-1983, Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas.
Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.
The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…
Bonime-Blanc, a., 2011. The Fight Against Corruption Goes Global. Foreign Affairs, pp. 44-49.
Caldwell, W., 2009 . Learning to Leverage New Media. Military Review, May, pp. 256-260.
Carafano, J., 2011. Mastering the Art of Wiki. Joint Force Quarterly, pp. 266-271.
Clinton, H., 2010. Leading through Civilian Power. Foreign Affairs, pp. 199-209.
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…
Globalization: Daniel Yergin's "Giving Aid to orld Trade" and Helena Norberg-Hodge's "The March of the Monoculture"
In their respective articles about the effects of western influence on developing nations and areas of the world, Daniel Yergin, in "Giving Aid to orld Trade" and Helena Norberg-Hodge, in "The March of the Monoculture," express very different viewpoints on the benefits (or lack thereof) of western foreign presence in these places. Yergin is more sanguine about such presence overall. Norberg-Hodge is less so. hile Yergin writes from a purely economic perspective, Norberg-Hodge writes from a cultural one, which perhaps explains the differences in their viewpoints on this issue.
As Yergin suggests in "Giving Aid to orld Trade," for example, foreign aid may "improve health, education and national infrastructure . . . build legal and lending institutions . . . Such improvements can attract long-term foreign investment that creates jobs and encourages transfers of…
Norberg-Hodge, Helena. "The March of the Monoculture." Retrieved May 26,
2005, from: .
Yergin, Daniel. "Giving Aid to World Trade. Policy Matters, Vol. 2, Issue 34 (July
2002). Retrieved May 26, 2005, from: .
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov .
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
US Aid to Afghanistan
The issue of United States' aid to Afghanistan is a topic of interesting consideration given the current U.S. budget deficit and ongoing economic uncertainty. Over the years the United States has spent billions providing money and food aid to help build strength and confidence in Afghanistan's rising new government. Unfortunately, the results of this have not been entirely positive nor have they been driven by the purest of motives; there is some level of profiteering occurring using aid money, and there is also a practical U.S. interest in the stability and viability of the Afghan nation and people. If the United States were providing purely humanitarian aid without military or political involvement and requirements, the situation would be quite different. As it is, U.S. aid in the country is a complex and controversial issue.
Since Afghanistan was taken over by the Taliban, the country has been…
Agnieszka, Flak. "INTERVIEW-Afghanistan Food Aid at Risk as Donors Trim Support |
Agricultural Commodities | Reuters." Reuters.com. 24 Dec. 2011. Web. 04 Feb. 2012.
International Humanitarian Aid: Aims vs. Outcome
Humanitarian aid represents a commitment to support vulnerable host populations that have experienced a sudden emergency, requiring ongoing assistance to maintain or improve their quality of life. Over the past 15 years the number of humanitarian agencies, private organizations, governments (taxpayers), corporations, individuals and other stakeholders have grown enormously. This group of diverse donors have differing mandates, values, goals, strategies, actors and activities, but most function under one universal humanitarian principle: to protect the vulnerable by decreasing morbidity and mortality, alleviate suffering and enhance well-being, human dignity, and quality of life. However, many stakeholders believe that humanitarian aid has been unsuccessful in delivering on these promises through lack of coordination and duplication of services. This results in a failure to meet the needs of those meant to benefit. Indeed humanitarian aid with its diverse mandates, roles, people, time lines and funding, as well as…
National Interest as a key determinant in Foreign Policy
National Interest and Foreign Policy
National Interest Defined:
The national interest is, very simply, the objectives of a country ranging from the macro goals i.e. economy, military to the micro goals like social use cyber space. National interest is an integral part of international relations as it is a concept based out of the realist school of though. This will be discussed in more detail in the paper.
Foreign Policy Defined:
Foreign policy, very simply, is the strategy that guides all international dealings and associations of a country
When dealing with national interest, one has to wonder about the degree to which domestic politics is vital for the comprehension of that country's foreign policy. Domestic politics is not of immense significance; this has been depicted by an eminent assumption related to structural realism, global association. The systemic vigour of the global…
Bond, J.R., and R. Fleisher. 1990. The President in the legislative arena. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Clarke, K.A. 2001. Testing nonnested models of international relations: Reevaluating realism. American Journal of Political Science 45(3): 724 -- 744.
Clarke, K.A. 2003. Nonparametric model discrimination in international relations. Journal of Conict Resolution 47(1): 72 -- 93.
Fearon, J.D. 1998. Domestic politics, foreign policy, and theories of international relations. Annual Review of Political Science 1: 289 -- 313.
Ronald Reagan Foreign Policy: Annotated Bibliography
ucker, Robert W. 1989. "REAGAN'S FOREIGN POLICY." Foreign Affairs 68, no. 1: 1-27.
he author of this article maintains that Ronald Reagan assumed the Presidential role rebuking the 70s' arms control attempts. As a majority of Reagan's fellow politicians were highly suspicious of any arms control pacts with Russia, the general belief was that the newly sworn-in President shared the same view. he cold-war agreement with respect to foreign policy remains consistently idealized since Vietnam. Rarely did it function with the now-envisaged efficacy and smoothness. his re-formation's key feature was, evidently, the restitution of a prevalent public opinion that perceived the exercising of U.S. power without guilt or distrust, once again. herefore, the chief Reagan foreign-policy legacy might well be that: the 40th President of the United States altered the inclination not to suffer for USA's global position into something of a firm resolve…
This article is an analysis of the cognitive style of Reagan as manifested through his statement on the U.S. and the USSR and the nature of the 1964-1972 international conflict. The analysis shows the black-and-white dichotomy thinking and the rigid perception. However, the authr argues that Reagan was able to modify his notion on winning or losing in war through the reorganization that the U.S. and the USSR had some common interests in the war, for example, constraining the nuclear arms race.
Fischer, B.A., 2000. The Reagan reversal: Foreign policy and the end of the Cold War. University of Missouri Press.
Even though there is the assumption that Reagan was reactive in bringing to conclusion the cold war, this book shows that the president had actually began seeking for rapprochement with the USSR earlier than Gorbachev took office. The author demonstrates how Reagan began calling for dialogue, understanding and cooperation between the superpowers. In general the book shows that Reagan was at time the driving force for the U.S.-USSR policy of his administration.
Aid strategies or Trade Agreements more likely to relieve poverty in Sun-Saharan Africa?
Please a postgraduate essay. GUIDELINE FO THE ESSAY LINE. In assessing coursework, criteria: • elevance question • Sound ordering structuring material • Quality clarity written expression • Effective evidence • Appropriate theory • Demonstration sound understanding topic • Adequacy research analysis • Identification major themes arguments • Critical evaluation judgement • ange sources • Consistent referencing AND page numbers • Insight originality • Grammar language Please aware questions require critical analysis consideration: A] The nature continuity change global politics B] An analysis historical, politico-economic geo-political context C] Use case studies.
The development of African countries has been for decades now one of the most discussed subjects in the international arena, especially in the area of international development. There have been numerous attempts to find the proper solutions to be implemented in countries on the Black continent; however,…
CNN "Gem-of-a-deal spares Botswana from blood diamonds," in World, 15 decembrie 2006, available at http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/africa/12/11/koinange.botswana/index.html
CNN. "Your world today (transcript)" in Your World Today, 12 decembrie 2006, available at http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0612/12/ywt.01.html
Horvath, Ronald J. "A Definition of Colonialism." Current Anthropology, Vol. 13, No. 1, (Feb., 1972), pp. 45-57
Ministry of Education in Botswana. "The Revised National Policy On Education" in Government Paper No. 2, 1994, available at http://www.moe.gov.bw/headquarters/rnpe/RNPE%20Pages/rnpeone.htm
The United States has been one of the most affluent countries of the world. Because of this fact, the country has established a history of providing aid and comfort to other groups around the world who are suffering because of economic, agricultural, or other turmoil for whatever reason, whether it be failure of government, war, or natural disaster. Some advocate that this is the rightful position of more wealthy countries and populations, to provide assistance to those who are less fortunate. This is certainly true to some extent. However, when a nation is in times of difficulty itself, like the United States is currently embroiled in, it is more important that the government provide aid to its own citizens than looking at what it can do outside the nation's borders. On an individual level, it would certainly be nice for wealthy persons to assist their fellow men and women…
Narveson, Jan. "We Don't Owe Them a Thing." The Monist. 86:3. 419-433. Print.
Singer, Peter. "Famine, Affluence, and Morality." Philosophy and Public Affairs. 1:1. 1972. 229-
aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.
Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…
Bush's tax cut' Retrieved from;
http://amateurpundit.hypermart.net/features107_bushtaxing.htm Accessed on March 5, 2004
Economy: Job Creation' Retrieved from;
http://ipsnews.net/africa/interna.asp?idnews=22469 Accessed on March 5, 2004
Amalberti, ane & -Sarter, N.B. (eds.). (2000). Cognitive engineering in the aviation domain. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bennis, W. & Biederman, P.W. (1997). Organizing genius: The secrets of creative collaboration. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Boeing. (1994). Maintenance error decision aid. In Amalberti & Sarter (2000).
Butzgy, M. (2003). LSET team to visit 23rd FG. Pope Air Force Base, N.C. Available: http://www.carolinaflyer.com/11Nov/111403/111403_13.shtml.
Clark, G.. (1990). Words of the Vietnam war: The slang, jargon, abbreviations, acronyms, nomenclature, nicknames, pseudonyms, slogans, specs, euphemisms, double-talk, chants, and names and places of the era of United States involvement in Vietnam. Jefferson: McFarland & Co.
Davis, W.A. (1993, October). Human factors in the global marketplace. Keynote address presented at the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, annual meeting, Seattle. In Amalberti & Sarter (2000).
Graeber, .C. (1996, May). The value of human factors awareness for airline management. Paper presented at the oyal Aeronautical Society conference…
Amalberti, Rane & -Sarter, N.B. (eds.). (2000). Cognitive engineering in the aviation domain. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bennis, W. & Biederman, P.W. (1997). Organizing genius: The secrets of creative collaboration. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Boeing. (1994). Maintenance error decision aid. In Amalberti & Sarter (2000).
Butzgy, M. (2003). LSET team to visit 23rd FG. Pope Air Force Base, N.C. Available: http://www.carolinaflyer.com/11Nov/111403/111403_13.shtml .
Globalization and Education
Globalization involves a number of different elements, including economic integration, freedom of capital movements, and the increasing "transfer of knowledge, cultural stability" and an increase in cultural interactions (Al-odhan, 2006). The process of globalization has been fostered by industrial-age improvements in transportation, communication and through political and economic liberalization. One of the antecedents of the era of globalization was the creation of the European Common Market. When this was extended to not only allow for goods and capital to move more easily across borders but labor as well, this ushered in a new era of mass migration. Today, many of the world's leading cities have incredibly diverse populations, as people from all over the world are drawn by the economic promise of major urban hubs. One of the areas where this trend can be seen is with education. For decades, education has been trumpeted as a pathway…
Al-Rodhan, N. (2006). Definitions of globalization. Geneva Centre for Security Policy. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/30929642/Definitions_of_Globalization_-_A_Comprehensive_Overview_and_a_Proposed_Definition.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1447724149&Signature=KHFcmax%2BQD8oIUr9BWJZz%2BFEzb4%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DDefinitions_of_Globalization_A_Comprehen.pdf
Grootaert, C. (1994). Education, poverty and structural change in Africa: Lessons from Cote d'Ivoire. International Journal of Educational Development. Vol. 14 (2) 131-142.
Kwiek, M. (2001). Globalization and higher education. Higher Education in Europe. Vol. 16 (1) 27-38.
Vaira, M. (2004). Globalization and higher education organizational change: A framework for analysis. Higher Education. Vol. 48 (2004) 483-510.
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…
Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point
Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:
Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
Therefore, it is fairly evident that U.S. foreign policy certainly aided in worsening the political situations in much of Latin America during the Cold War. It did so by serving as a source of enmity for many nationalist groups that arose to oppose its domination in the area, by attempting to undermine the reform measures of governments erected in place of those that it favored, and by formally supplying weaponry, funding and training to opposing factions that represented U.S. interest. The effect of all of these measures was that they led to greater and greater reactionary measures among the groups that were infringed upon. This fact is particularly true of Central American involvement in the Cold War, the regimes that were erected and dealt with insurrections and counter insurrections in El Salvador and Guatemala were among some of the bloodiest in the Cold War, excluding those in Vietnam. Yet…
Brand, Hal. Latin America's Cold War. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2004. Print.
Despite increased student fees, the UC still encountered a $500 million shortfall or $2,500 per student. It has been undergoing severe pressure from the impact of the cuts. The quality of education at the U.S. has remained high, but there have been disturbing signs of erosion, nevertheless. The widening gap between the UC and the best private university has been alarming because the UC competes for the top teachers and students with these private universities. This widening gap should be a critical concern to the state and the federal governments because even excellent private universities are too small to meet California's or the nation's needs for a well-educated workforce in the future, to come up with innovations needed to fuel the economy and to generate jobs, and to introduce medical advances for the use and care of the sick and disabled. In the past decade, California's private research universities, Stanford,…
Clinton, P. (2002). The student aid conundrum. University Business: 4 pages.
Professional Media Group LLC
Darling, B.B. (2005). Hearing testimony. 5 pages. California Senate Subcommittee on Higher Education. Retrieved January 26, 2007 at http://www.ucop.edu/uersvp/speeches/Speier_Hearing_Nov_9_2005.pdf
Dervarics, C. (2006). Congress approves cuts to student loan programs. 1 page. Diverse Issues on Higher Education: Cox, Matthews and Associates
" Regan was able to discourage Congress' previous prohibitions for aid to UNITA and instead launched into the covert plan to leverage American weight on the side fighting the Marxist supporters. The Soviet Union reacted quickly; Cuban expeditionary forces were sent to the region in their satellite guerilla's aid and, in the bloody fight between ethnic groups in Angola, the larger Soviet-American conflict played out.
In 1987, the struggle came to a head. The United States assumed its supportive role for UNITA as reason preside over the tripartite negotiation that would end the civil war. At the bargaining table were also Cuban and South African forces, reaffirming the battle as one led by other issues more than directed by the cause of Angolan success. Cuba agreed to leave Angola, ultimately, but South Africa also agreed to relinquish its control over Namibia. Twenty years earlier, Marxist South-West Africa eople's Organization launched…
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…
An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.
Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp
Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok
Thailand as a tourist destination
Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)
Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…
"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.
Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.
Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.
Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
In addition the United States has provided many new products to be used for agricultural production so that the war torn fields can again become fruitful and prosperous (Adamson, 2002).
The infrastructure assistance provides the roadways so that the agricultural products can be transported into needed areas and crops can be transported out for sale and for export.
While helping the nation rebuild the roads and highways and bridges that were destroyed during the conflict the United States also has devoted time and funding to the development of the nation's communication system. Engineers, technical training and technical instruments have all been provided by the U.S. To Vietnam in the attempt to use the international strategy of development for the purpose of defining and carrying out the United States foreign policy toward Vietnam (Adamson, 2002).
The second international strategy being used by the United States for the purpose of…
Ambassadorial roles and foreign policy: Elbridge Durbrow, Frederick Nolting, and the U.S. commitment to Diem's Vietnam, 1957-61. (Articles). Presidential Studies Quarterly; 6/1/2002; Adamson, Michael R.
S., Vietnam develop military ties By David Lamb LOS ANGELES TIMES
S. has unilaterally imposed sanctions to punish ran for its support of these activities. To address the shortages from this embargo, the ranian government has been working on developing nuclear power. They claim that this will help to tackle the nation's current and future energy needs. (Khan, 2010, pp. 77 -- 110)
This has led to the UN imposing another embargo against the slamic Republic for their continuing incompliance with international law. At the heart of the issue, are concerns that ran is using their nuclear energy program as a cover for developing an atomic bomb. The fear is that the ranians will pass on nuclear related materials to terrorist groups or they will use these weapons to attack the U.S. To prevent this from happening, America is leading an international effort to further isolate ran. n response, ran has been defiantly working on their program. This has caused the…
In the case of Iran, they are at the far end of the spectrum by wanting to destroy the U.S. And everything that it stands for. This has increased the amount of covert actions that are taken against the Islamic Republic. At the same time, this helps the U.S. To push its trading partners to isolate Iran (which is causing their economic situation to become even worse). This is showing how America's approach can be used as way to reward or punish a country for their activities. (Sutter, 2012, pp. 37 -- 59)
In the case of China, the fact that they were willing to work with the U.S. And implement many of the economic reforms led to improved relations between both countries. This is when China received favored trading status and was provided with tremendous amounts of foreign direct investment capital (which helped to increase economic development). These changes were occurring despite China's terrible human rights record and lack of political changes. This is showing how efforts to implement at least some of the reforms led to more support in the future from the U.S. (Sutter, 2012, pp. 37 -- 59)
These different approaches are illustrating how the U.S. is rewarding those countries that are in support of international standards with various forms of economic and military aid. While nations that are unwilling to do this, will face the possibility of isolation. This is designed to put pressure on
The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).
Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.
The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…
CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION
An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
These steps have been reiterated within the effectual conditions in the market. The marketing techniques used normally relate to the essential features of reflecting the best approaches of work within the government. This happens as done in the United States of America and many other nations that strive to live within a sound mechanism of growth and development in the field. As a way reflecting the best forms of performance, it has become a common feature to analyze the consequences of the Federal grants in aid programs under the legal frameworks and other humanitarian theories. These are theories that try to bring the best forms of growth and development in the field (Araral et al., 2001).
The policy problems that can be reflected in such a way are those related to the equality to access and make use of the grants as offered by the government. The mechanisms of performance…
Araral, E, et al. (2001). Routledge Handbook of the Policy Process. New York: Routledge
Dervarics, C. (2009). Financial Aid Program Changes Take Effect. Diverse Issues in Higher
Education, Volume 26, Issue 11, p. 8-16
Edwin B.J. (2007). George W. Bush's Federal Aid Legacy. Publius, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp.
Proctor does not merely repeat of make empty allegations that horrific violations are occurring in Cuba upon the natives at the hands of the Spaniards. He has witnessed these abuses with is own eyes on an observational visit, where he went as a skeptic, with, in his own words, "a strong conviction that the picture had been overdrawn," regarding the terrible conditions of the Cuban populace. (Proctor, 1898)
Proctor came back to the United States convinced that, more so than the destruction of the Maine, the barbarities inflicted by the Spanish forces cry out for United States intervention. ("March 17, 1898: Senator Proctor's Visit to Cuba," 1999, Crucible of Empire: PBS Online) In his words, "if our people could see a small fraction of the need, they would pour more 'freely from their liberal store' than ever before for any cause." (Proctor, 1998)
The call of the advocates of intervention…
March 17, 1898: Senator Proctor's Visit to Cuba." (1999) Crucible of Empire: PBS
Online. Retrieved 2 Sept 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl11.html
Paterson, Thomas. (1998) U.S. Intervention in Cuba, 1898:Interpreting the Spanish
American-Cuban-Filipino War." OAH Magazine of History. Spring 1998.
China and Foreign Policy
With reference to any ONE country you have studied, how far does interdependence shape its foreign policy and in what ways
A Brief History of Chinese Foreign Affairs
Current Foreign Policy
Foreign elations and Interdependency
China is an emerging force in the world, and it seems only to be natural, as the Chinese civilization is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. In fact theorists seem to question the reasons for its downfall, as it is the largest and has historically been the cultural and educational center for the world.
As far as its foreign policy is concerned, the Chinese government deals with it in a unique way, where the foreign affairs are the business of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which falls under the ambit of a department called the "Foreign Affairs Leading Small Group of the Communist Party of China."…
Barboza, D. 2011. Entrepreneur's Rival in China: The State. New York Times .
Chen, J. 1979. China and the West . Hutchinson.
China. n.d. [Online] Available at: (26 January 2012)
China's Foreign Affairs and International Relations. 2012. . [Online] Available at: (26 January 2012)
U.S. Foreign Policy
American foreign policy occupies a unique place in the world. American foreign policy regarding interacting with other nations is a non-homogeneous mixture of politics, economics, and the unique American culture which believes that both the success of political and economic agenda's cannot be separated from the ways which a country treats it's people. To be specific, American has a difficult time forming positive relationships with nations that oppress, imprison, or otherwise trample their people's basic human rights to life, liberty and the individual pursuit of happiness. As he stated during his administration, President Jimmy Carter described the connection between human rights and American foreign policy this way.
Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy, because human rights is the very soul of our sense of nationhood."
American foreign policy is also seen as a function of the president, and the president must take the lead…
Allen, M., and P.P. Pan. Bush touts U.S. values to Chinese. Washington Post, 2002, February 22, p. A01.
Carter, J. Openings to Cuba: We must find common ground. Washington Post. 2002, May 24, p. A35.
Kane, John. American Values or Human Rights? U.S. Foreign Policy and the Fractured Myth of Virtuous Power Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 33. 2003
Sullivan, K. Carter urges democracy for Cuba. Washington Post, 2002, May 15, p. A14.
The international community can obviously respond by seeking to marginalize the Taliban and similar movements as extremists. However, it has become clear following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that western governments have not been effective in infiltrating terrorist networks and pre-empting attacks. It has also become clear that there will be no shortage of people in the Islamic world who are willing to martyr themselves for as long as there are legitimate grievances against the U.S. And other countries. It is therefore in the interest of the Americans that actions are taken by its government that seek to address both the legitimate concerns of moderate elements within the Islamic world and American's own relative ignorance as to what is happening in the world beyond the U.S. (Marsden, 2002 pp. 153-155).
The Afghanistan military action of the U.S. wherein the Taliban regime was overthrown is…
Marsden, P. (2002) the Taliban, War and Religion in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books Ltd.
Rashid, a. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
Roy, O. (1986) Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, J. (1991) Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in Nuclear Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
ismarck's Impact On Foreign Policy In Germany And On The alance Of Power In Europe
Otto von ismarck (1815-98) is unquestionably one of the dominant figures of modern German, and European, history. Much of his fame as a statesman has always rested on his handling of foreign policy and diplomacy. His consistent policy was to position Germany as a unified and dominant power in continental Europe, consolidating her territorially and diplomatically to the point where she was, to use his own term, "satiated."
ismarck pursued an aggressive policy, involving Germany in three localized wars, seeking to isolate France and build alliances with Austria, and maintaining a suspicious distance from Great ritain, but did not seek war or territorial expansion when he believed such activity would threaten German stability. His achievement was to leave Germany stable, peaceful, and at the heart of the European states system; to integrate a dynamic and…
Stefan Berger, 'Historians and nation-building in Germany since reunification', Past and Present, no. 148 (August 1995), pp. 187-222.
F.R. Bridge and Roger Bullen, The Great Powers and the European States System, 1815-1914 (London: Longman, 1980).
Gordon A. Craig, Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).
George O. Kent, Bismarck and his Times (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978).
Far from being contrite, Southerners more emphatically held to the perceived, innate superiority of their race and breeding, comparing themselves to Biblical patriarchs as a means of validating these perceptions and justifying slavery (432). If Perry's journey had demonstrated Northern hubris, Stowe's novel generated its Southern equivalent.
Then, there was an ironic unification of the British and the Americans in the development of Samuel Colt's revolver in these years. hile the new gun was proving remarkably effective in aiding American conquest of Native American territories, it meant more than this; it was evidence of Anglo-Saxon superiority, which inspired the British as well (424). Old animosities, it seems, were lost in the greater commonality of a shared idea of racial superiority. On the strictly American front, this belief in Protestant and white superiority was also fueled by challenges coming from other nations. Long before the great tide of European immigration at…
Maier, P., & Keyssar, A. Inventing America, 2nd Ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.
The Democrats took over Congress in the 2006 mid-term elections, and while the party wished to have the administration adopt a policy to either "get out now" of Iraq, or "stabilize, then withdraw."
Those suggestions were met with patriotic, even nationalistic opposition from Bush and his very vocal vice president, Dick Cheney (Hartung, 44-45). "However reasonable the merits" were of Congress cutting off funding for the war in Iraq, Hartung continues, Cheney and others supporting the administration held a hammer over their heads in the form of jingoistic phrases like, if you vote to cut off funds you are "voting against the troops" (Hartung, 44). Leaving American troops hanging out there in Iraq would be unthinkable, it was argued from the Bush point-of-view.
Meanwhile, author Lewis B. Smith points out that arguing against the Bush invasion of Iraq was pointless for Congress, due to the sense of patriotism in the…
Bennet, Douglas J. (1978). Congress in Foreign Policy: Who Needs It? Foreign Affairs, 57(1),
Delaney, Kate. (2006). What's New? Don't Forget Capitol Hill. The Journal of American
History, 93(2), 437-440.
They however fail to see the strategic linkage in the U.S. foreign policy. Israel is the most trusted ally of United States in the region. It has the same strategic interest as the United States and has a firm foundation of democratic support.
The Arab governments on the other hand are unpopular, non-democratic and are in power due to the western interest in maintaining the status quo. Overthrow of the Shah of Iran, a most trusted ally of United States shows that the governments maintained in power by western support without the popular support could not be relied upon for maintaining U.S. strategic interests in the region.
Saddam Hussein of Iraq is another example of a government following pro-U.S. policy and then working against its strategic interests in the region. Dictator Saddam Hussein was a virtual proxy in the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) and protector of the pro-American dynastic regimes. His…
Aruri, N., The U.S. And the Arabs: a woeful history - U.S. Middle East policy, Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ), 1997
Nakhoul, S., Arabs Seethe with Anger at U.S. Mideast Policy, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. Volume: 21. Issue: 9. Publication Date: December 2002.
Nixon's State of the World Message, The New York Times, 4 November 1969
Prestowitz, C., Rogue Nation: American Unilateralism and the Failure of Good Intentions, 2003, Cited by Pasquini, E., Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Volume 22, Issue 8, October 2003.
S. resident George W. Bush. Thus, when the blast in Bali, at the
southern point of Indonesia, directed the fury of 9/11 at a popular
attraction to Australian holiday-makers, Australia became a nation
motivated in foreign policy by the apparent threat of global terrorism.
This would be demonstrated by its unwavering willingness to follow the
United States even into its poorly-informed and ill-advised invasion of
Iraq, providing combat troops and civilian military aid. During the lead-
up to this war, in fact, John Howard would perhaps have been noted as only
second to Britain's rime Minister Tony Blair in the ranking of Iraq War
cheerleaders, appearing frequently in the media in order to endorse the
alleged provocations made by the U.S. and later proved false. Howard
echoed well the terms which Bush used to prompt war, remarking in a
February 2002 appearance that the Australian government was firm in
Proportionate Response to the Terrorist Threat? Studies in Conflict &
Terrorism, 28(4), 321 - 339.
Wesley, Michael & Allan Gyngell. (2007). Making Australian Foreign
Policy. Cambridge University Press.
Discussion Questions on International Terrorism
Explain the origins and evolution of long-term separatists and ethnic and nationalistic terrorism. Also, provide group names and their respective parts of the world.
Ethno- separatist/nationalist terrorism is not specifically a modern phenomenon. Historically, two Jewish movements in Judaea that desired to provoke the local population to rise against the oman occupiers used ethno-racial terrorism. However, it was only in 60s and 70s that terrorism came to be associated with ethnic- separatist/nationalist movements (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). During that time, terrorism was seen as paying off on the reasons for effective, aggressive campaigns launched and won. The Palestine Liberation Organization's terrorist movement between 1968 and 1980 confirmed to other nationalist groups that internationalizing their cause could be valuable. The variety of ethnic-national/separatist terrorist movements effective worldwide, therefore, increased from three in 1968 to 30 in 1978 (Cassara, 2006).
Psychologists argue that the…
Conser, J.A., Paynich, R., & Gingerich, T. (2013). Law enforcement in the United States. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Cassara, J.A. (2006). Hide and seek: Intelligence, law enforcement, and the stalled war on terrorist finance. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.
Dintino, J.J., & Martens, F.T. (2003). Police intelligence systems in crime control: Maintaining a delicate balance in a liberal democracy. Springfield, Ill: C.C. Thomas.
Fijnaut, C., & Paoli, L. (2004). Organized crime in Europe: Concepts, patterns, and control policies in the European Union and beyond. The Netherlands: Springer.
The administration's disregard for international norms led to the excesses at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, and attempts to circumvent congressional oversight over the activities of the Administration backfired. Faced with increasing criticism at home and the inability to stabilize Iraq, the Bush Administration began to temper its approach with realism. The Administration agreed to a bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by former Secretary of State James Baker and Democratic Congressman Lee Hamilton (Baker & Hamilton, 2006). The report prepared by the group was quite critical of the Bush Administration's policies in Iraq, and though many of those criticisms were rejected, the Administrated still took the criticism seriously, and a year later began to pursue a new approach, which eventually helped to decrease the level of violence in Iraq.
The Obama Administration's approach to Iraq War reflects the liberal views of Obama who warned in 2002 that "a U.S. occupation…
Ahmad, I. (2010). The U.S. Af-Pak Strategy: Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 37(4), 191-209.
Bacevich, a. (2010) Washington Rules: America's Path to Permanent War. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Bacevich, a., (November 6, 2005) the Realist Persuasion. The Boston Globe, retrieved on March 13, 2011, from http://rempost.blogspot.com/2006/04/realist-persuasion.html
Baker, J.A., & Hamilton, L.H. (2006) the Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward -- a New Approach. New York: Vintage Books.
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.
A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).
The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
China's Economy And Foreign Policy
There have been radical changes in the internal political and economic scenario of China during the last two decades. (Lampton, 2001) The growing economic stability and control has increased the status of china to a great extent among its trading counterparts. Further, it has become obligatory on the part of the Chinese Government to make it certain that the economic development to restructure the political discipline whose ideology had a severe jolt with the fall of Soviet Union. (Part Two - Chinese Foreign Policy) Ever since the inception of economic reforms in China during 1978 there is a considerable enhancement in the Gross Domestic Product to the tune of 9.5% per annum on average. It is pertinent to probe on the factors responsible for such a great success. The success is attributed to the adoption of institutions and policies by the Chinese Government that could…
Burns, Robert (1997) "Gore, Gingrich set missions to woo China" The Associated Press.
Carr, Earl. (February 19, 2004) "U.S. Diplomacy Needs Chinese Characteristics" Asia Times. pp: 5-7
Chinese Foreign Policy. Program for Contemporary Silk Road Studies. Retrieved from http://www.silkroadstudies.org/china.htm Accessed on 18 March, 2005
Chow, Gregory. (2000) China's Economic Reform and Policies at the Beginning of the 21st Century. Perspectives. Vol: 2; No: 1; pp: 47-53
“As Long as The Personal and Societal Safety of American Citizens Is at Risk from External Threats, Historical Precedents Suggest That Rather Few Limits Will Be Placed on The Use of American Military Power, Or on The Constraints the United States Will Impose on The Peoples of Other Countries.”
The government of America exists for its citizens’ welfare, an obligation which encompasses being in charge of both its internal and external affairs. US foreign policy’s key principles are: defense of the physical territory of America, safeguarding citizens from attacks by enemies, promoting the status and economic interests of America, and promoting the nation’s democracy- and freedom- related values across the world. By end-twentieth century, the US’s foreign policy entailed relationships with a total of 159 states that were typically competitive, supportive at times, and at other times clearly unfriendly (Deutsch, 1997).
The government’s executive wing has largely remained in charge…
September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)
The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…
Spanier, John and Steven Hook. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2004.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the U.S., The 9/11 Commission Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2004,
It also meant greater access to foreign products. Once the American consumer got the taste of the foreign products, the demand for these items exponentially increased. Ultimately, foreign imports allowed for economic growth based on consumption. The sustainability of such a system in questionable and even condemned, but fact remains that it was a real effect of globalization.
Another impact of lifting the trade barriers was felt by the American manufacturers. In this instance, much of the foreign production was sold at prices lower than those of the American manufactured items. Being then unable to compete with the significantly lower prices, some U.S. producers had to declare bankrupt. Consequently, the manufacturing sector of the American economy was damaged. What is even more surprising about this is the fact that the U.S. representatives signed international treaties to allow these negative effects to still occur. A most relevant in this instance is…
Eckes, a.E., Zeiler, T.W., Globalization and the American Century, Cambridge University Press, 2003
Rodrik, D., Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Peterson Institute, 1997
Scheve, K.F., Slaughter, M.J., Globalization and the Perceptions of American Workers, Peterson Institute, 2001
Van Meter Fishback, P., Higgs, R., North, D.C., Libecap, G.D., Government and the American Economy: A New History, University of Chicago Press, 2007
American Foreign Policy
The Policy of Containment post World War II
According to Bernstein (2002), in the post-World War era until the disintegration of Soviet Union in 1989-91, formulation of the foreign policy of U.S. was based on the plan of containment. United States continued following the policy of containment even in the 21st century to deal with countries with communist governments like Cuba, North Korea and China. Generally, containment means American endeavours to curtail spread of communism in the world through military, political and economic channels. Furthermore, this concept emerged after Second World War dynamics of global power and the concerns of U.S. leadership to avoid going into one more global war.
. In the view of Schoon (2011), primarily the concept of containment gained strategic importance and momentum after the author of the doctrine, George F. Kennan, a dominant foreign service officer in 1947 and further a regarded…
Bernstein, B. J. (2002). Containment. 2nd ed. Vol. 1.New York, 345-364.Retrieved December 13, 2015, from World History in Context: http://ic.galegroup.com
Pieper, M. A. (2012). Containment and the Cold War: Reexaming the Doctrine of Containment as a Grand Strategy Driving U.S. Cold War Interventions. Retrieved December 13, 2015, from Student Pulse4(08): http://www.studentpulse.com
Schoon, S. (2011, July 26). Cold War Containment: the role of the military. Retrieved December 13, 2015, from E-International Relations: www.e-ir.info
Evolution of U.S. oreign Policy under Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon towards the Soviet Union
oreign Policy towards the Soviet Union under Presidents Truman through to Nixon (1945-1974) was characterized by the "Cold War" -- a period of heightened tension between the two 'super powers' of the world. Even while being constrained by the compulsions of the 'Cold War,' the relations between the two countries gradually evolved into a less hostile association under successive U.S. Presidents in this period.
Harry Truman who became the U.S. President towards the end of World War II was the architect of the policy of containment of the Communism, led by the Soviet Union, around the world enshrined in the 'Truman Doctrine.' He was also instrumental in establishing a strong Western alliance called NATO in Europe that checked Soviet designs beyond Eastern Europe. Eisenhower continued with his predecessors' policy of "containment" without direct…
Foreign Policy towards the Soviet Union under Presidents Truman through to Nixon (1945-1974) was characterized by the "Cold War" -- a period of heightened tension between the two 'super powers' of the world. Even while being constrained by the compulsions of the 'Cold War,' the relations between the two countries gradually evolved into a less hostile association under successive U.S. Presidents in this period.
Harry Truman who became the U.S. President towards the end of World War II was the architect of the policy of containment of the Communism, led by the Soviet Union, around the world enshrined in the 'Truman Doctrine.' He was also instrumental in establishing a strong Western alliance called NATO in Europe that checked Soviet designs beyond Eastern Europe. Eisenhower continued with his predecessors' policy of "containment" without direct confrontation with the Soviet Union. While he extended U.S. aid and protection to South Vietnam to prevent it from being over-run by the Communists, he did not intervene when the U.S.S.R. crushed an uprising in Hungary in 1956 to avoid a nuclear confrontation. President Kennedy displayed great courage to force the Soviet Union from deploying nuclear weapons in Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1961 but later signed a limited nuclear test ban treaty with the U.S.S.R., which cooled down the Cold War temperature somewhat. President Johnson, though bogged down by the escalating Vietnam War, sought to improve relations with the Soviet Union and managed to attain its co-operation in containing the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Finally, Nixon pursued a policy of detente (based on "realist" rather than "moral" principles) in the 1970s and developed more cordial relations with the Soviet Union. This resulted in signing of important anti-ballistic missile (ABM) and SALT treaties between the two super-powers and lowered the Cold War tensions.
As we saw in this essay, the relations between the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. were by no means static in the post World War II period until the mid-seventies. Although involved in an intense ideological struggle during the Cold War, they managed to avoid direct confrontation and even improved their relations. This was owed in no small measure to the wise foreign policy of the U.S. presidents from Truman down to Nixon.
However, the prerogatives of the presidential office give him this possibility. In this sense, his quality as commander in chef of the armed forces enables him to wage war without the approval of the Congress. Also, the first war in Iraq represented a good precedent for the authority of the President to go to war. Finally, another element that were used as justification for the intervention in Iraq without congressional approval is the Congress's resolution discussing the intervention against terrorism. In this sense, "the President is authorized to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons" (Authorizing Use of Force 09-14-01, 2001). Therefore, these…
Authorizing Use of Force 09-14-01. U.S. Government info. 2001. 25 February 2008. http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/bills/blsjres23.htm
Ehrhart, W.D. "The Authority to Declare War." Intervention Magazine. 2003. 25 February 2008. http://www.interventionmag.com/cms/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=335
Lithwick, Dahlia. "What War Powers Does the President Have?" Slate. 2001. 25 February 2008. http://www.slate.com/id/1008290
War Power Resolution. Findlaw.com 2008. 25 February 2008 http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/casecode/uscodes/50/chapters/33/sections/section_1541.html
In the construction of Panama Canal, Roosevelt's primary objective was to curtail his fears that another nation would come up with the idea of building a passageway, wherein trade between the U.S. And other countries would be detrimentally affected, blocking the U.S.'s access to trade goods from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean and back. Through the Roosevelt Corollary, the then president implemented the Monroe Doctrine, which posits that European nations shall not force Venezuela to pay its debts. Roosevelt's assertion that the U.S. shall take action should the doctrine be violated by the concerned parties. As with the Panama Canal construction, the implementation of the Roosevelt Corollary was imposed by Roosevelt for fear that a European nation shall control or overpower a Latin American nation, which may lead to increased European power, and ultimately, decrease the power and control of America over the Latin American region.