Forensics Essays (Examples)

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Forensic Fabric Analysis

Words: 2310 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67517095

Forensic Fabric Analysis

Some of the basic tools that a fabric examiner should at least have at any given moment include a stereomicroscope, along with a composite light microscope that is fitted with polarized light capability, and a comparison microscope. When examining both questioned and known fabric, the examiner must do this side by side, and within the same magnifications in terms of visible light. Alternative lighting, which includes fluorescent lighting and polarized light, is not necessary but when the equipment used allows, is highly recommended. In certain types of analyses, such as when testing for solubility, you may need to examine the questioned and known fabric near each other, and on one slide, or in the spot plate's wells that are adjacent to each other. However, you need to exercise extreme caution where loose fabric is concerned not unless you have no problem with identifying the source of each…… [Read More]

References

Innes, B. (2000). Bodies of Evidence. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Press.

Lyle, D.P. (2004). Analyzing Trace Evidence. Forensics for Dummies. Chapter 17, pgs. 269-275. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Saferstein, R. (2004). Hair Fibers, and Paint. In Criminalistics, An Introduction to Forensic Science. (8th Ed.) Chapter 8. Pgs. 194-219. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Bartos, L. (2012). No Forensic Background? No Problem. Pro-Publications.
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Forensic Accountant Must Possess Accounting

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13793429

Assets in the investment portfolio were overvalued. Financial transactions were structured to report smaller amounts of debt and create the appearance of greater cash flow. Financial results were represented in a false and misleading manner.

Forensic accountants also played an important role in the Enron case by doing audits and investigating accounting practices to gather evidence of how the fraud was performed. They played vital roles in the court room in presenting the evidence against cross examination and scrutiny. The forensic accountants were highly valued for their objectivity in the way evidence was presented.

Accounting, auditing, investigation, business, and understanding human behavior enabled forensic accountants to gather evidence for prosecution of fraud in court cases involving fraudulent accounting practices. These are vital skills forensic accountants are required to maintain. Forensic accountants must maintain competency, due care, objectivity, integrity, confidentiality, and proper conduct at all times, whether working with a client…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Code of Professional Ethics. (2012). Retrieved from Institute of Certified Forensic Accountants:   http://www.forensicglobal.org/ethics.html  

Homan, P. (2006, Mar - Apr). Fraud Buster. Retrieved from CPA Magazine: http://www.utoronto.ca.difa/PDF/Articles/FraudBuster.pdf

Jury Finds Former Master Graphics, Inc. CEO Liable for Securityies Fraud Arising From Accounting Scheme. (2008, Sep 8). Retrieved from SEC: http://www.sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/2008/li20705.htm

Shields, a. (2010, Mar 29). The role of forensic accountants. Retrieved from dolmanbatemen.com: http://www.dolmanbateman.com.au/1323/the-role-of-forensic-accountants
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Forensic Lab Forensic Crime Labs Are Important

Words: 975 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89844619

Forensic Lab

Forensic crime labs are important institutions within the criminal justice system and each lab must be up to standard in order for this system to operate at a high and fair level. A good crime lab begins with a good design based on solid fundamentals and thorough planning. The purpose of this essay is to design a digital forensic crime lab that can be used in a university setting. In order to this, the essay will explain the budgeting process while keeping business objectives in mind. The next step of the design will introduce how the physical controls can be used to implement this design. Criteria for success will also be discussed as well as a suggested floor plan to house the lab.

Budgeting

The setting for this digital forensic lab is within a university setting which denotes that funds could most likely be attained for these purposes.…… [Read More]

References

Al Falayleh, M. (2013). Building a Digital Forensic Laboratory For an Educational Institute. American University in the Emirates, 2012. Retrieved from http://sdiwc.net/digital- library/web-admin/upload-pdf/00000357.pdf

Mount, M. & Denmark, A. (nd). Digital Forensics: Architectural and Engineering Facility Design Requirements. AIA, . Retrieved from  http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_members/documents/pdf/aiab092706.pdf 

Taylor, M. (2012). NIST Offers Guidance on Building 21st Century Forensics Labs. NIST Law Enforcement Standards. Retrieved from  http://www.nist.gov/oles/forensics/facilities_forensics.cfm 

Vacca, J. & Rudolph, K. (2010). System Forensics, Investigation and Response. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 1 edition (September 24, 2010)
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Forensic Pathology

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91852648

Forensic Pathology as Scientific Evidence

Forensic Pathology is generally understood as having to do with the investigation of causation of injuries or death as a legal requirement. In the pursuit of this, pathologists usually investigate injury or death scenes and other relevant records to ascertain the cause of death.

Practically, forensic pathology incorporates the performance of post-mortem examination, which is an examination of body tissues and organs as well as investigations such as X-rays and toxicology testing. Forensic pathology makes it possible to interpret such results and reveal cause of end point of death as required by the law.

Interpreting Evidence

The results driven from forensic pathology are bound to be subjected to interpretations. The body can transform during the process of death or after, this transformation or changes are referred to as post-mortem changes or "artefacts," these changes can be misinterpreted as ailment or injuries that took place when…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goudge, S.T. (2008). Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario. Qubec: Ministry of the Attorney General.

Hickman, M., Hughes, K., Ropero-Miller, J., & Strom, K. (2007). Medical Examiners and Coroners Offices. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

National Research Council of the National Academics. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. washington DC: The National Academies Press.

R. v. Sherret-Robinson, [2009] O.J. No. 5312 . (n.d.).
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Forensic Case Study Enrique Camarena the Abduction

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79150009

Forensic Case Study

Enrique Camarena

The abduction of Enrique Camarena

The abduction of Enrique Camarena presents numerous interesting and unusual features regarding the gathering of forensic evidence. Many of obstacles that arose over the course of the investigation can be traced to the fact that the DEA Special Agent was apprehended in Mexico, where U.S. laws about preserving evidence did not apply. The Mexican police force (at least at the time of the abduction in 1984) was much more prone to corruption and bribery by persons engaged in illegal drug trafficking than U.S. law enforcement. ather than seeing to assist the DEA in bringing the murderers of Camarena to justice, the Mexican police often acted as obstacles, not assistants.

The real perpetrators of the murder of Camarena concocted a scheme with certain select members of the Mexican policy whereby Camarena's body (and the body of Capt. Alfredo Zavala, a Mexican…… [Read More]

References

Collecting evidence from human bodies. (2001). CA Department of Justice. Retrieved:

 http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/CAbodies.pdf 

Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:

Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
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Forensic Nursing in the Past

Words: 2240 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87651556

atchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.

In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal ureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allert, L. & Becker, M. (2003). Death investigation: Nursing on the cutting edge.

Retrieved March 26, 2007, from: http://www.forensicnursemag.com/articles2811lifedeath.html.

Batchen, M. (2005). Forensic Nurse Death Investigators. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.lifeloom.com.

Hufft, a.G. & Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2000). Forensic nursing: An emerging specialty. Nursing now: Today's issues, tomorrow's trends (pp. 427-448).
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Forensic Entomology

Words: 1904 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3275813

Forensic

According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online:  http://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm 

Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online:  http://www.forensicentomology.com/info.htm 

Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online:  http://www.esf.edu/efb/parry/fsc%20lectures/sampling.pdf
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Forensic Nursing Goes Far Beyond Traditional Medical

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41015000

Forensic nursing goes far beyond traditional medical care; it is "an innovative expansion of the role nurses will fill in the health care delivery system of the future," (Lynch, 1995, p. 489). This is why the Vice President of the United States Joe Biden has stated, "Forensic Nurses play an integral role in bridging the gap between law and medicine. They should be in each and every emergency room," (cited by the International Association of Forensic Nurses, 2006). Until recently, I was not aware that the profession existed. I learned what I know about forensic science from television, and also from years spent watching autopsies being performed at the morgue near by dad's office. Oddly, I would spend hours watching actual autopsies so when television shows started to depict forensic science in documentary and fiction shows more and more, the field broadened and opened up to me. I soon learned…… [Read More]

References

Hammer, R. & Pagliaro, E.M. (2006). Forensic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice. Jones & Bartlett.

International Association of Forensic Nurses (2006). What is forensic nursing? Retrieved online: http://www.iafn.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=137

Lynch, V.A. (1995). Clinical forensic nursing: a new perspective in the management of crime victims from trauma to trial. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1995 Sep;7(3):489-507.
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Forensic Pathology

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22642945

Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA

DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…… [Read More]

References

Calaluci, J. (2010). Guide to Forensic Pathology. New York: CRC Press.

Dvorsky, G. (2012, October 1). How forensic pathologists used maggots to identify an "unrecognizable" body. Retrieved from io9.com: http://io9.com/5947925/how-forensic-pathologists-used-maggots-to-identify-a-badly-burned-body

Norrgard, K. (2008). How ethical is it to keep a database of convicted felons' DNA profiles? Can we rely on DNA fingerprints for conviction? Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology. Retrieved from Nature.com:  http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/forensics-dna-fingerprinting-and-codis-736 

Rosner, D. (2004, May 20). How does DNA Fingerprinting Work. Retrieved from thenakedscientist.com:  http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/dalyacolumn8.htm/
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Forensic Research The Psychology of

Words: 2415 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30870356

Usually, it is more likely that the ruse is discovered by a forensic psychologist, and/or that there is simply too much evidence pointing to the fact that the criminal knew what he or she was doing when the crime was being committed (Adler, 2004).

The Likelihood of eoffending

Whether a criminal is likely to reoffend is something else that has to be considered by forensic psychologists. They are often asked to give their opinion on this issue when inmates are coming up for early release or when they are eligible for parole. There are other factors and opinions that are taken into account, of course, but having a professional, psychological opinion about whether a criminal has been "cured" of his or her behavior or will be likely to repeat it is very significant (Adler, 2004; Dalby, 1997). It can be difficult to determine what goes on in the mind of…… [Read More]

References

Adler, J.R. (Ed.). (2004). Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice. Cullompton: Willan.

Dalby, J.T. (1997) Applications of Psychology in the Law Practice: A guide to relevant issues, practices and theories. Chicago: American Bar Association.

Duntley, J.D., & Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology. Social Biology, 51, 161-165.
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Forensic Tests Two Forensic Psychological

Words: 490 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37574365

The construction/validation sample of 96 juvenile sexual offenders ranged in age from 9 to 20, with an average age of 14. To administrate the exam, the test is not directly administered to the juvenile: instead the trained professional calculates the boy's relative risk factors, based up his past history, such as a history of violence, of being a victim of abuse himself, caregiver consistency, and history and preoccupation with sexuality. The problem with the test is that it to some degree stereotypes the boy and tries to predict the likelihood of negative behavior based upon negative past and family circumstances. However, it can be useful in family court settings for flagging 'at risk' teens who have already entered the system and may be helped by receiving additional social support to prevent future acts of violence.

orks Cited

Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI). Tacoma, A: Nichols & Molinder Assessments.

http://ibs.colorado.edu/cspv/infohouse/vioeval/vioevalDetails.php?recordnumber=312&vio_name=vioeval

Prentky, Robert.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI). Tacoma, WA: Nichols & Molinder Assessments.

http://ibs.colorado.edu/cspv/infohouse/vioeval/vioevalDetails.php?recordnumber=312&vio_name=vioeval

Prentky, Robert. Sue Righthand, Ph.D. (2003). Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II

(J-SOAP-II) Retrieved May 14, 2009 at  http://www.csom.org/pubs/JSOAP.pdf
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Forensic Psychological Evaluation

Words: 1732 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77865714

Forensic Psychological Evaluation

Confidential Psychological Evaluation

IDENTIFYING INFORMATION:

Gender: Male Date of Report: 05/07/2012

Date of Birth: 10/01/1981 Age

Marital Status: Single Occupation: Unemployed

Race: Caucasian Education: GED

Referred by: Dr., B. Wynter

REASON FOR REFERRAL:

A Psychiatric Evaluation on May 19, 2006 by Barbara Wynter, License psychologist who is

Clinical administrator of Central Treatment Facility ward 1, 2, 3, was requested to further assist in diagnosis.

LIMITS OF CONFIDENTIALITY:

EVALUATION PROCEDURE:

INSTRUMENT-

DR, B. Wynters

MMPI (Spell out the name Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)

Is a depressive component of scale 6. The items connote extraordinary emotional sensitivity or vulnerability that is dysphonic in tone. These items have a "poor little me" flavor, portraying the self as meek and innocuous, emotionally fragile, incapable of being a threat to others, and perhaps as being entitle to special concern and consideration for one's tender sensibilities. There is an implicit theme of resentment…… [Read More]

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Forensic Accountants and Their Role

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53076989

In the late 1990s, this was not a problem as the stock was continuing to climb to all-time highs. However, once the economy began to slow, is when this strategy backfired by forcing them to issues more stock to cover these losses. As shares were declining, many investors became weary of continuing to participate in these activities. (Healy, 2003)

In late 2001, these activities were brought to the attention of regulators and investors (which resulted in the eventual bankruptcy of the firm). This is illustrating how forensic accounts overlooked or ignored key areas that could have uncovered fraudulent activities. As a result, one could argue that the lack of ethics and the close relationship with company executives helped to perpetuate these abuses. (Healy, 2003)

Insider Trading

Another type of fraud that is most prevalent is insider trading. This is when executives will have specific knowledge of the financial situation surrounding…… [Read More]

References

Albrecht, S. (2006). The Ethics Development Model. Australian Accounting Review, 16 (38), 30 -- 40.

Bettis, J. (2000). Corporate Policies. Journal of Financial Economics, 57 (2), 191 -- 220.

Golden, T. (2011). A Guide to Forensic Accounting. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Gray, D. (2008). Forensic Accounting and Auditing. American Journal of Business Education, 1 (2), 1 -- 12.
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Forensic Dynamics in the Interviewing Process

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29996921

Alter the Forensic Dynamics during an Interviewing Process

In this paper, we reveal how professional's attitudes, views, and knowledge do not necessarily match forensic research findings. Witness issues will then be discussed concerning research community. The study identifies some of the key factors that can alter or improve forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. This study focuses primarily on forensic dynamics relating to the interviewing young children and the associated challenges.

Expert knowledge and attitudes

It has been proven that professionals and social researchers (biased) towards information confirming their initial beliefs by refuting established opinions. Once established, beliefs and impressions challenged to contrary proof. Thus, belief systems and generalization can create a confirmation prejudice that may result in faulty understanding and wrong presentation, adversely affecting important decisions. egarding child victimization situations, such prejudice may result in dramatic repercussions presenting a serious risk to a person's legal rights or presenting a…… [Read More]

Reference

Bull, R., Valentine, T., & Williamson, T. (2009). Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: Current developments and future directions. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
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Forensic and Clinical Roles and Assessment While

Words: 1410 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27727725

Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment

While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.

Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
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Forensic Toxicologist

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89546765

Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom

Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, S.J. & Volker, J.X. (2008, Winter). The forensic marketing case study methods.

SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 4-9.

Buker, H. (2012). Fraudulent forensic evidence: Malpractice in crime laboratories. El Paso,

TX: LFB Scholarly.
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Forensic Unit Justification

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95676396

Justification of a Forensic Unit

Our Agency has just received $3 million grant from the federal government because of the efficient method that the unit employs in running the department. Additionally, the City Council has agreed to continue assisting the unit with additional funding at the end of the three years provided the department is productive and serve the citizens well. However, the department requires presenting a different budget from the previous budget. This proposal will create a new budget for the forensic unit to describe where all the funding will be allocated. The budget will consider the specialized personnel for the unit because smooth running of the unit depends on the specialized personnel.

Mission Statement of the Specialized Unit

The specialized forensic unit will deliver highest quality forensic services to all our customers, and our unit will deliver accurate service through analysis and the state of art technology. We…… [Read More]

Reference

Bureau of Forensic Service (2009). California Crime Laboratory Review Task Force. California Department of Justice.

Police Executive Research,(2002). Police department budgeting: A guide for law enforcement chief executives. Washington, D.C: Police Executive Research

Forum.

Spence, D. Webster, B. & Connors, E.(2009). Guideline for Operating a new Police Department. U.S. Department of Justice.
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Forensic Procedure for Digging Up

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86572126

But on the other hand, a reader who is also interested in the subject doesn't have to necessarily enjoy the idea of decomposing human corpses - or have really thick skin - to get educated regarding the forensic science / anthropologic value of this book.

Being a student in Forensic Anthropology in fact makes it easier to get through the potentially offensive parts of the book, because there are many things to be learned from the novel. This book reflects real-life issues pertaining to forensic research and crime-related applications to forensic science. The book is dedicated to "All victims of murder, all those who mourn them, and all who seek justice on their behalf."

Bass's "Body Farm" is designed so that cases where bodies are found in similar circumstances may have a foundation in terms of the forensic police personnel being able to know how and when - if not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bass, Bill; & Jefferson, Jon. (2003). Death's Acre: Inside the Legendary Forensic Lab the Body

Farm Where the Dead Do Tell Tales. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.

Burns, Karen Ramey. (2006). Department of Anthropology Faculty. Retrieved July 29, 2007, at http://www.anthro.uga.edu/people/burns.htm.

Cornwell, Patricia Daniels (1990). Postmortem. New York: Charles Scribner's Son.
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Forensic Interviewing

Words: 1319 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5610564

forensic interviewing of rape victims. It addresses the often asked question to postpone the interview. That request comes from the victims and their families. This study provides evidence that it is important to conduct the interview with the victim within 72 hours of the attack.

On television, forensic interviewing is often dramatized to the point of being illegal. Interviewers on the big screen hit the interviewees, intimidate them, lead them and coerce them into providing the information needed to neatly wrap up the crime in the allotted hour. While this makes for good entertainment and it almost always leads to putting the bad guys away, it is far from realistic. In real life, forensic interviewing can be a tedious process that does not always bear fruit. Forensic interviewing is something that can help uncover valuable information or lead to a dead end. The key elements to how successful a forensic…… [Read More]

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Forensic Assessment in The Role of the

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16584089

Forensic Assessment

In "The role of the Violence isk Appraisal Guide and Historical, Clinical, isk- 20 in U.S. courts: A case law survey," Vitacco et al. discuss the use of the psychological forensic assessment in predicting future dangerousness. The authors are very critical of the use of psychological assessments for these purposes because of their belief, which is affirmed by investigation into case law, that psychologists often get their predictions wrong. In other words, psychologists are not necessarily able to predict future dangerousness, which can make an assessment of future dangerousness little more than guesswork.

One of the cases mentioned by Vitacco et al. was the seminal case of Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983). The defendant, Thomas Barefoot, was convicted of murdering a police officer. He was charged with a capital offense and the jury had to determine whether or not Barefoot was eligible for the death penalty.…… [Read More]

References

Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983).

Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Introduction in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). The nature and evolution of forensic mental health assessment in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Relevant sources of authority for developing best-practice standards in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Forensic Tools for Computers

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42756780

Zilla Data Nuker

Test: Zilla Data Nuker

Software Title

Files created or downloaded leave a trace even when deleted. These traces allow skilled computer forensic professionals to retrieve the data. Zillasoft, LLC, a New England-based software developing entity provides Zilla Data Nuker that "Shreds sensitive files so they cannot be recovered or undeleted" according to the promotional material for the software. (Zilla Data Nuker 2.0) Zilla Data Nuker is freely downloadable from the ZDNet site at www.zdnet.com or can be obtained directly from the Zillasoft website at www.zillasoft.ws.

Software Functionality

Zilla Data Nuker uses what the company terms as "shredding algorithms" to obliterate data. Ostensibly the software is designed to be used to improve the functionality of a home or office computer by deleting unnecessary files from the hard drive. Zillasoft also claims that the software can function to help protect the user's privacy by completely destroying information targeted by…… [Read More]

References

General Test Methodology. v1.9. (2001). National Institute of Standards and Technology

U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from http://www.cftt.nist.gov/Test%20Methodology%207.doc

Kuchta, Kelly J. (2001). Your Computer Forensic Tookit. Information Systems Security, (10) 49.

Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
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Bullet Holes in Glass Lab Forensic Investigation

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45528095

Forensic Investigation: Bullet Holes in Glass Lab

Bullet Holes in Glass

Glass broken through a projectile forms two distinct fracture types -- radial fractures and concentric fractures (Orthman & Hess, 2012). The radial fractures will often form on the glass side, on the opposite side of the impact, and will spread outwards from the point of impact (Hess & Hess, 2012). Concentric lines form after the radial fractures, on the same side of the impact, and will often encircle the point of impact (Woods, 2013). adial fractures terminate if they encounter fractures caused by an earlier projectile, which basically means that they can be used to determine the order or sequence of force, or rather, which bullet hole was created before the other. In cases where multiple shots are fired from the opposite sides of a glass surface say a window, forensic investigators will often need to establish the order…… [Read More]

References

Orthman, C.H. & Hess, K. (2012). Criminal Investigation (10th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning

Woods, D.D. (2013). O'Hara's Fundamentals of Criminal Investigations (8th ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers
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Field of Forensic Chemistry Investigation

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83961468

Forensic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that applies the techniques and concepts of chemistry to provide evidence and testify in court. Some federal agencies such as FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and National Institute of Justice use forensic chemistry experts to investigate the crimes committed against the society, which include environmental pollution, food adulteration, and distribution of unsafe chemical substances. In the United States, cocaine and other illegal drugs can put society at risks. Thus, experts in forensic chemistry uses different processes to perform a laboratory test to identify the presence of substances. A chemical analysis carried out in the laboratory can help to detect illegal drugs, which will assist the police or other law enforcement agents to prosecute offenders in the law courts. (Drug Enforcement Administration 1).

Moreover, the forensic chemistry analyzes non-biological materials to detect a trace of evidence from the crime scenes to found unknown material…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buffalo State SUNY. Forensic Chemistry, B.S. Program. 2015 02 December. 2015.

http://chemistry.buffalostate.edu/forensic-chemistry-bs-program

The Buffalo State SUNY is one of an accredited universities in the United States that offers a forensic chemistry. The university mandates all students wishing to pursue the study to have a strong background in chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Forensic Science Technicians, United States Department of Labor. 2015. 02 December. 2015. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/forensic-science-technicians.htm
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Skills That a Forensic Accountant Needs to

Words: 1770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85402287

skills that a forensic accountant needs to possess and evaluate the need for each skill.

Over the last several years, the role of forensic accountants has been continually evolving. This is because there have been a number of cases surrounding their ability to identify and prevent possible frauds. As a result, various skills must be utilized in the process that will help to improve the effectiveness of actuaries. These include: good communication, the ability to work well with others, determination, the ability to simplify information and investigative intuitiveness. The combination of these factors is allowing forensic accounts to identify and detect possible fraud. When this happens, the negative impact of these activities can be limited. (Davis, 2011)

Good communication is an important skill because it requires talking with different parties during the process of conducting any kind of investigation. This means collaborating on various ideas and identifying potential red flags.…… [Read More]

References

Forensic Accountants. (2009). Accounting Today. Retrieved from:  http://www.accountingtoday.com/news/Forensic-Accountants-Reconstruct-Madoff-Books-50484-1.html 

Forensic Accountants. (2010). Accountant Next Door. Retrieved from:  http://accountantnextdoor.blogspot.com/2010/06/forensic-accountants-roles-and.html 

Davis, C. (2011). Characteristics and Skills. AICPA. Retrieved from:  http://www.aicpa.org/interestareas/forensicandvaluation/resources/practaidsguidance/downloadabledocuments/forensicaccountingresearchwhitepaper.pdf 

Greier, R. (2004). Bringing Figures into Focus. MDD. Retrieved from: http://www.mdd.net/us/news/forensic_insight/octnov04-1.php
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Alternative Approach to Computerized Tomography in Forensic

Words: 1983 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82013039

altenative appoach to Computeized Tomogaphy in foensic pathology.

Thomsen, A.H., Juik, A.G., Uhenholt, A.G., Vesteby, A. (2009).

Jounal: Foensic Science Intenational.

Publication Infomation: 2008, 183, 87-90.

Publishe Infomation:

The main pupose of this aticle is to see whethe o not CT scans ae necessay as a means of augmenting autopsies. The eseach question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effot equied to implement this technology? Thee is no hypothesis fo this aticle; the authos wee cetainly non-patisan in thei appoach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans pefomed by the Depatment of Radiology at Aahus Univesity Hospital. I eviewed this aticle to ascetain the elevance of CT scans to foensic pathology.

Abstact: This aticle denotes the boons and the detiments associated with using CT scans as compaed to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies fo foensic pathology. Oiginal eseach…… [Read More]

references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.

Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology

Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.

Journal: Medical History

Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.
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Unnecessary Presence and Poor Communication in the Conduct of Forensic Investigation

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88791627

obstacles to prompt and efficient forensic investigation in major crime scenes. The presence of too many unnecessary personnel in the crime area and poor communication or reporting of the details are these obstacles. The applicable FI rules and an analysis of each issue follow. A conclusion is also provided for each issue.

Too Many Unnecessary Personnel at the Crime Scene

The presence of too many extraneous personnel is considered the biggest hindrance to effective and prompt crime investigation (Schiro, 1999). What makes it worse is that most of these unnecessary people are police officers themselves (Schiro).

Rule

The policy mandates the initial responding officer or officers to identify all personnel or persons at the crime scene and to oversee their movements (FI, 2000). Then the officer or investigator in-charge shall evaluate the scene in order to come up with a list of specialized resources needed in the investigation (FI).

Analysis…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

FBI (2000). Crime scene investigation. Office of Justice Programs: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.fbi.gov/about.-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/twgcsi.pdf

Schiro, G. (1999). New crime scenes -- same old problems. Southern Lawman Magazine:

Forensic Science Resources. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.forensicsciencresources.com/NewScenes.htm

Yolasite (2012). Crime scene analysis. The Investigation, Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.theinvestigation.yolasite.com/crime-scene-analysis.php
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Inadequacy of Forensic Hair Analysis

Words: 6513 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4071943

Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).

Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…… [Read More]

43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).

44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).

45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
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Margin of Error the Forensic

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67455240

Instead, a representative sample is used. The larger the sample the better, obviously, because the larger the sample the less wiggle room there is going to be between the sample looked at and the entire body.

Perhaps another explanation for the margin of error in this study is noted in the abstract of the document, whereby it is acknowledged that they questionnaire looked at forensic psychologists that were retained or secured by the court as well as situations where one of the child custody parties in question retained the forensic psychologist. It is not immediately clear whether that figured into the margin of error because that would certainly affect the motives and even the outcome of the study in general but whether/how much of an impact was had was not immediately made clear.

Conclusion

In short, the margin of error in this study accounts for the fact that only a…… [Read More]

References

Arch, M., Jarne, a., Pero, M., & Guardia, J. (2011). CHILD CUSTODY ASSESSMENT:

A FIELD SURVEY of SPANISH FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGISTS' PRACTICES. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 3(2), 107-128.
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Ftk Imager the Digital Forensic Toolkit Analysis

Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33361183

FTK Imager, the Digital Forensic Toolkit

FTK Imager is an imaging and data preview tool used for forensic analysis. Typically, the FTK imager can create disk images for USB and hard drives. The FTK can also create forensic images (perfect copies) of data without altering the original evidence. Moreover, the FTK imager can create MD5 or SHAI hashes of files and be able to recover deleted files from ecycle Bin.

Objective of this project is to investigate the strategy of using the FTK for forensic investigation.

Use of the FTK

The first step is to install the FTK Imager, which can be accessed from the following website: http://accessdata.com/product-download/?/support/adownloads

After opening the webpage, the current releases of the digital forensic tools appear ad being revealed below:

Then, click FTK Image and Click the FTK Imager, version 3.4.2, and Click download. After completing the installation, the next section discusses the method of…… [Read More]

Reference

Access Data (2015).Forensic Toolkit® (FTK®). USA.
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Criminal Justice - Mock Forensic

Words: 535 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60112752



After completion of standard measurements and photographs of the victim, the hands were separately bagged to preserve any evidence contained thereon. Subsequent forensic examination and analysis disclosed organic evidence in the form of human skin and blood identified as originating from the same source as the other blood and tissue samples as those not associated with the victim. Thirty-six strands of hair, subsequently positively identified with the victim were recovered from the external clothing, as well as nine strands of human hair not identified with the victim.

Inorganic Evidence Collected:

Shoe imprints were preserved in standard casts and subsequently identified as originating from a size-12 Timberland® men's workboot. Minute quantities of blood were also recovered from within the prints before casting but of insufficient quantity to determine type other than being from a human source. A ballpoint pen and a partial roll of blue tape, subsequently identified as standard "plumber's…… [Read More]

References

Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
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Predictive Forensic and Carrier Genetic

Words: 1365 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5849911

(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology (2003) Using DNA to Solve Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_exsum.htm

DNA Forensics (2006) Human Genome Project. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Online available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml

Genetic Testing - Patient Privacy and Discrimination Considerations (2007) American Cancer Society. Online available at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_6X_Genetic_Testing_-_Patient_Privacy_and_Discrimination_Considerations_5.asp?sitearea=

Guidelines for Genetic Testing (2003) Genetic-Medicine Related Societies. August 2003.
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Insanity Evaluations Represent the Most Challenging Forensic

Words: 1904 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93289250

Insanity evaluations represent the most challenging forensic assessments in the criminal domain" (ogers, 2008, p.126). This is due to the fact that insanity evaluations require the psychologist to assess whether a defendant had a mental illness at the time that an offense was committed, and, whether that mental illness was related to the commission of the crime in a way that would make the defendant "insane" under applicable state laws. First, whether or not the defendant is presenting as mentally ill at the time of the assessment is often not relevant to the assessment; most defendants, processed and in the jail system, have access to medications and treatment that they may have lacked at the time of the crime. Therefore, it is important to realize that a defendant's competency to stand trial is a different issue than whether a defendant is not guilty by reason of insanity. If a defendant…… [Read More]

References

Bonnie, R.J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation.

Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10(3), 291-316.

Frontline. (2013). Instanity defense FAQs. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from PBS website:

  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/crime/trial/faqs.html