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Forensics: Signature Analysis
Forensic examination and analysis of writer identification and verification are reported as having "applications in various domains. Especially in the field of biometric recognition. Forensic Document Examination (FED) is a process that clarifies the writer of a handwritten document. Applications included are signatures verification. FED is such that is reported to have been based primarily on manual examination by experts with only recent automation of analysis methods being initiated.
State of the Art Systems
Two state of the art systems presently exist to "address the tasks of writer identification and verification" and include: (1) the system that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs); and (2) the system based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) to model a person's handwriting. (Sclapbach and unke, nd) In addition, there are reported to be "various feature selection methods applied to improve the performance of an existing off-line writer identification system. The performance of…
Will, EJ (2008) Applications - Some Typical Document Examination Applications. Retrieved from: http://qdewill.com/oldsite/applications.htm
Will, EJ (2008) PROFICIENCY and its application to FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINATION. Retrieved from: http://qdewill.com/oldsite/proficiency.htm
Srinivaan, H, Beal, MJ, and Srihari, SN (2002) Machine learning approaches for person identification and verification. Computer and Information Science. Retrieved from: http://www.mendeley.com/research/machine-learning-approaches-person-identification-verification/
Sita, J, Found, B. And Rogers, DK (2002) Forensic handwriting examiners' expertise for signature comparison. Journal of Forensic Sciences (2002) Volume: 47, Issue: 5, Pages: 1117-1124.
Forensic analysis has also been used successfully in many paternity cases. Furthermore, the advantages of Forensic DNA technology are extensive and have been employed in forensic fields such as the detection of bacteria and various other pollutants in water and in the matching of recipients in organ donor programs.
It should also be noted that forensics is a field that covers many areas and fields of knowledge and which can provide careers in a number of related disciplines. One of the careers in this discipline is that of a medical examiner. This requires a medical degree and specialisation in forensics. A forensic odontologist specializes in dental forensics, while a crime laboratory analyst usually requires a degree in chemistry.
A crime scene examiner analyses the crime in any situation, whether indoors or outdoors. This specialization is possibly one of the most interesting but involves direct contact with crime victims, which can…
Career in Forensic Science: What is Forensic Science? Retrieved Feb 1, 2008 From http://www.forensic-science-society.org.uk/information/careers.html
DNA Forensics. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008 from, http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml
Handbook of Forensic Services. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008 from, http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/handbook/intro.htm
What is Forensics? Retrieved Feb 1, 2008 at http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/science/forensic/whatis/
Forensics, Law, & Psychology: False Confessions
It is a well accepted law in the forensic field, that only recently slipped through, that investigations can be helped by compelling people to confess. However this forensic law that encourages and enables forced confession spirals off methodological research in psychology that shows that such confessions can be harmful to the field since many prisoners end off confessing under duress and admitting to actions that they actually never perpetrated.
More than 80% of criminal cases are settled by a coercive confession (Zimbardo, 1967) and indeed, Dr. W. Sargant said that without confessions convictions may be reduced by about 70%. Confessions are an accepted part of the forensic scene and an "attractive way of solving crimes" (cited in Brandon & Davies, 1973). However, many confessions are elicited under duress -- an acceptable law in forensics -- and consistent empirical research shows that this may well…
Brandon, R., & Davies, C. (1973). Wrongful imprisonment. London, England: Allen and Unwin
Conti, R.P. (1999) The Psychology of False Confessions. The Journal of Credibility Assessment and Witness Psychology, 2, 14-36.
Huff, C.R., Rattner, A., & Sagarin, E. (1996). Convicted but innocent: Wrongful conviction and public policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This phase is described by Carrier as the phase where we "...use the evidence that we found and determine what events occurred in the system" (Carrier, 2005).
2.2. The United States Department of Justice's (USDOJ) digital forensic analysis methodology
The second methodology under review in this paper has been put forward by the United States Department of Justice. This consists of four basic phases: collection, examination, analysis and reporting (Shin, 2011). More specifically, stages of this digital forensic methodology are comprised of the following central aspects. Firstly, there is the obtaining of the data, followed by the forensic request; the preparation and extraction phases; identification and finally analysis and forensic reporting leading to case level analysis (DIGITAL FOENSIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY).
The preparation and extraction phase is characterized by the examiner's question as to whether there is sufficient information to proceed and to ensure that there is sufficient data available to…
. Brian Carrier ( 2002) Defining Digital Forensic Examination and Analysis Tools Using
Abstraction Layers. Retrieved from http://www.digital-evidence.org/papers/opensrc_legal.pdf
This study discusses the link between digital forensic analysis tools and their use in a legal setting. The article provides insight into the necessary methodologies used to meet evidentiary and legal demands.
DIGITAL FORENSIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY. Retrieved from http://www.cybercrime.gov/forensics_chart.pdf
He noted the uneven pattern, which he knew would make a match easier.
Crime library's Kathleen Ramsland writes in the Most Famous ite Mark,
"In his expert testimony, Souviron described the bite mark on Lisa Levy as the jury examined the photographs. He pointed out how unique the indentation mark
was and showed how it matched the dental impressions of undy's teeth. He showed them the structure of alignment, the chips, the size of the teeth, and the sharpness factors of the bicuspids, lateral, and incisor teeth. Then he put up on a board an enlarged photo of the bite-mark and laid over it a transparent sheet with an enlarged picture of undy's teeth."
There was no question that Ted had made the bite marks on Lisa Levy's body. The photos would be the biggest piece of evidence the prosecution had linking Ted to the crime (ell).
Finally, the chief…
Bell, Rachel. "Crime Library: Ted Bundy." n.d. TruTV. 31 March 2009 .
"Look Into My Eyes: Forensic Hypnosis in Famous Court Cases." 2004. lifeloom.com: Mystery Magazine Web. 31 March 2009 .
Lotter, Karen. "Taking a Look at Human Bite Marks." 5 April 2008. suite101.com. 31 March 2009 .
"The Capture of Ted Bundy." 12 April 2008. suite101.com. 31 March 2009 .
From the onset, it is important to note that in criminal investigations, one type of evidence commonly encountered is hair evidence (Oien, 2009). As Oien further points out, "during the course of the normal hair-growth cycle, hairs are readily lost from individuals, and these hairs may be transferred during the course of a criminal activity." The hairs collected from the seat of the car in the scenario recounted could have, therefore, been transferred during the commission of the said criminal activity. However, the hairs could have come from either a human being or an animal. In that regard therefore, further analysis and comparison would have to be made to determine their origin.
To begin with, in my analysis, I would start by examining the medulla. According to Merck (2012), while the medulla of animals is particularly thick, that of humans is characteristically thin. I would also expect…
Deedrick, D.W. & Koch S. (2004). Microscopy of Hair Part II: A Practical Guide and Manual for Animal Hairs. Forensic Science Communications, 6(3). Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/july2004/research/2004_03_research02.htm
Houck, M.M. & Siegel, J.A. (2010). Fundamentals of Forensic Science (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.
Merck, M.D. (2012). Veterinary Forensics: Animal Cruelty Investigations (2nd ed.). Iowa: John Wiley & Sons.
Oien, C.T. (2009). Forensic hair Comparison: Background Information for Interpretation. Forensic Science Communications, 11(2). Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2009/review/2009_04_review02.htm/
126). Finally, both genders of offenders are likelier to marry criminals or antisocial individuals than are non-offenders (Cauffman, 2008, p. 125).
Female offenders differ from male offenders in a number of striking aspects. Though both genders suffer from abnormal brain activity, female offenders tended to have developmental brain patterns with more right frontal lobe activity, similar to non-criminal males, while male offenders tended to have no differences in the activities of either brain lobe (Cauffman, 2008, p. 127). Also, while poor parenting highly influences both genders of offenders, it seems to have a more pronounced effect on female offenders than on male offenders (Cauffman, 2008, p. 128). In addition, though both genders have a high degree of victimization in childhood, females tended to be victimized more often and report being the actual victim (Chesney-Lind & Pasko, 2004, p. 25) while males tended to report witnessing the victimization of others (Cauffman,…
Thus, the link between mental disorders and criminal behaviors is more complex than the simplistic question would assume. If the question must be answered with a clear yes or no, then the answer would be no: criminal behavior is not in and of itself a mental disorder. Criminal behavior can be used as a warning sign to test for mental disorders, and then that would allow psychologists to treat the underlying cause of the criminal behavior. As Cauffman (2008) puts it, "effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems," (p. 119).
Some criminal behaviors are not indicative of mental illness because they are acts arbitrarily defined as crimes. When Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was put into a Birmingham jail, he wrote a letter that describes why some laws are unjust and simply meant to be broken. It takes…
Bartol, C.R. & Bartol, a.M. (2008). Crime and mental disorders. In Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. Prentice Hall.
Cauffman, E. (2008). Understanding the female offender. The Future of Children, 18(2), 119 -- 142. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ815076.pdf
National Criminal Justice System Reference Service (n.d.). Women & Girls in the Criminal Justice System http://www.ncjrs.gov/spotlight/wgcjs/Summary.html
The two paragraphs are very different, not only in tone, but in the style of writing. The first paragraph is a peaceful letter which expresses gratitude whilst the second paragraph is very angry and critical. They are also very different in their length, where the first paragraph was very concise and straight to the point. However, both paragraphs seem to share the topic of marital or family issues. Because of their different writing styles, I believe that the two paragraphs were written by two different people.
At first, after I read through the two paragraphs, I believed that they were written by the same author. However, after much analysis, in my opinion, the two paragraphs are written by two different people. I initially thought that they shared the same author because of the last line in the first paragraph, and the first line of the second paragraph. This is…
DIS Forensic Workstation - Complete solution for problems faced by investigator of computer crimes;
FREDDIE - Forensic recovery of evidence deice diminutive interrogation equipment;
EnCASE - Fully integrated forensic application for Windows; and ProDiscover DFT - completely integrated Windows ™ application for the collection, analysis, management and reporting of computer disk evidence. Designed specifically to meet NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) standards. (Timberline Technologies, 2005)
Harris (2005) states that if anti-forensic methods are to be successful "...they must rely on inherent problems with forensics. Anti-forensics often makes use of attacks on the investigators and may also take advantage of our dependency on specific tools or processes. Inherent physical and logical limitations of the investigative process and world in general can be exploited as well. Since anti-forensics rely heavily on the forensics process being susceptible to these issues, resolving these concerns would theoretically solve the anti-forensics problem. Unfortunately, we…
Timberline Technologies (2005) Alphabetical List of Computer Forensics Products. Online available at http://www.timberlinetechnologies.com/products/forensics.html
Harris, Ryan (2006 Arriving at Anti-Forensics Consensus: Examining How to define and Control the Anti-Forensics Problem. Digital Investigation 3S S44-S49. Online available at http://www.dfrws.org/2006/proceedings/6-Harris.pdf
Rogers M. (2005) Anti-forensics, http://www.cyberforensics.purdue.edu / docs/Lockheed.ppt; 2005; in Harris, Ryan (2006 Arriving at Anti-Forensics Consensus: Examining How to define and Control the Anti-Forensics Problem. Digital Investigation 3S S44-S49. Online available at
The DNA and fingerprints matched to a particular suspect would provide verification that the suspect had handled the gun. It would also rule out any other suspects if no other DNA or fingerprints were found on the weapon. Last but not least would be any traces of blood found on the suspects clothing. Blood evidence is very powerful evidence since current technology allows for establishing identities through the analysis of blood that is very effective. George Schiro, a forensic scientist with the Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory writes, "a blood source can now be statistically narrowed down to one person out of several million or even several billion" (Schiro). Most importantly, according to Schiro, blood evidence can eliminate prospective suspects while providing strong evidence in regards to establishing identities of other suspects. All four of the above mentioned evidence types can provide helpful evidence for the prosecutor(s) and often times…
Kaasa, S.O.; Peterson, T.; Morris, E.K.; Thompson, W.C.; (2006) Statistical inference and forensic evidence: Evaluating a bullet lead match, Law & Human Behavior, Vol. 31, pp. 433-437
Noble, a.A.; (2006) Introduction: DNA fingerprinting and civil liberties, Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 149-152
Pollman, C.; (2004) Suspect identities, the British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 44, No. 2, pg. 297-300
Schiro, G.; (1999) Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence from Crime Scenes, http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/blood.html , Accessed March 8, 2009
Such evidence could be invaluable in attributing criminal activity related to such a business to someone in particular.
Additionally, efforts were made in the United Kingdom to utilize aspects of saliva to aid in the usage of forensics for potential criminal investigations. Largely attributed to the vast numbers of attacks on truck drivers within Cardiff, drivers in that part of the world are now utilizing what is known as a "spit kit" so that they can retrieve a sample of saliva if it is exchanged during any sort of potential robbery or attack (Dobson 2011). The DNA garnered from this sort of methodology can prove very beneficial to forensics efforts in their attempts to find the attacker.
In terms of what the future for forensics DNA research and employment holds, it is more than likely that there will be a nearly universal adoption of the utilization of partial DNA matching…
1. Branicki W, Kayser M. et al. (2011). "Model-based prediction of human hair color using DNA variants." Human Genetics. Retrieved from http://scienceblog.com/41438/hair-color-of-unknown-offenders-is-no-longer-a-secret/
2. Dobson, a.W. (2011). "Recent Developments in Forensic DNA." Genomicslawreport. Retrieved from http://www.genomicslawreport.com/index.php/2011/02/01/recent-developments-in-forensic-dna/
Statistics can help describe these relationships by providing a new model or language to present difficult concepts where words often fall short.
Not all of statistical ideas make complete sense to me. One such concept is the idea of "significance." The Statsoft text introduced a revealing concept: " There is no way to avoid arbitrariness in the final decision as to what level of significance will be treated as really "significant." That is, the selection of some level of significance, up to which the results will be rejected as invalid, is arbitrary." It appears that significance as no truly objective value. This is ironic due to the fact that the whole purpose of research is to signify something.
The shape of the normal distribution curve being in the shape of a bell is also quite interesting and mysterious. Somehow, normality, as a quality, can now be identified through a pictorial…
Dunifon, R. (2005). How to read a research article. Retrieved from http://www.human.cornell.edu/pam/outreach/parenting/research/upload/How-20to - 20 Read-20a-20Research-20Article.pdf
StatSoft. (2008). Elementary concepts in statistics. Retrieved from http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/elementary-concepts-in-statistics/
Forensics and Digital Evidence
Forensics is a discipline which uses standardized techniques to pull apart an event, analyze what happened, and find a more accurate conclusion to the data analysis than just witness testimony. For centuries, lacking even rudimentary techniques like fingerprinting or blood type analysis, the legal system relied on confessions and witness testimony. We may turn to Ancient Greece for one of the first recorded examples of a type of forensic inquiry. In the anecdote of Archimedes, the scholar was asked by the King to determine if a crown made for him was pure gold or contained silver. It seems the King had supplied pure gold, but suspected the goldsmith of being dishonest. Archimedes had noticed that while bathing the level of the water in the tub rose. He surmised that different objects displace different levels of water. Using a mathematical calculation he determined during his famous "Eureka"…
ACPO. (2012, March). Good Practice Guide for Digital Evidence. Retrieved from datarecoveryspecialists.co.uk: http://www.datarecoveryspecialists.co.uk/cms/ckfinder/userfiles/files/digital-evidence-2012.pdf
Ami-Narh, J., & Williams, P. (2008, May). Digital forensics and the legal system: A dilemma of our times. Retrieved from Edith Cowan University Research Online: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1040&context=adf
Archimedes' Principle. (2004, January). Retrieved from Physics.Weber.edu: forensics is a discipline which uses standardized techniques to pull apart an event, analyze what happened, and find a more accurate conclusion to the data analysis than just witness testimony. For centuries, lacking even rudimentary techniques like finge
Casey, E. (2010). Handbook of Digital Forensics and Investigations. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Access Data Forensics Toolkit v. EnCase:
Digital or computer forensics is currently one of the rapidly growing and significant industries because of technological advancements. The growth and significance of this industry has been enhanced by the increase in digital crimes, which has contributed to the need for organizations to adopt quick and reliable tools to collect and offer digital evidence. Digital forensic teams need some items in the forensic toolkits regardless of whether these teams are part of the organization or law enforcement agency. One of the most important processes in computer forensics is drive acquisition, which must be a forensically relevant sound image i.e. flat file bit stream image. In addition, the process also requires volatile data in order to enhance the findings of the process. As digital forensics continues to grow and become important, there are various toolkits that have been developed including Forensic Toolkit (FTK) by AccessData…
"FAQs." (n.d.). Global Digital Forensics. Retrieved August 31, 2013, from http://evestigate.com/computer-forensics-faq/
"Forensic Toolkit (FTK): Recognized around the World as the Standard in Computer Forensics
Software." (n.d.). AccessData. Retrieved August 31, 2013, from http://www.accessdata.com/products/digital-forensics/ftk
"Top Forensics Tools for Business" (2010, April 29). Computer Security Training. Retrieved August 31, 2013, from http://www.computer-network-security-training.com/top-forensics-tools-for-business/
Generally, forensics can be described as the process of using scientific knowledge in the gathering, evaluation, and presentation of evidence to the courts. Since forensics deal with the presentation of evidence to the courts, it basically deals with the analysis and recovery of hidden evidence. In this case, the hidden evidence may be in several forms including fingerprints, blood stains, and DNA evidence. On the other hand, computer forensics can be described as the discipline that merges fundamentals of law and computer science to gather and evaluate data from computer systems in forms that are admissible as evidence within the courts. These computer systems include wireless communications, computer networks, and storage devices. Computer forensics has emerged as a new discipline and field in the recent past due to the recent increase in cyber terrorism. Consequently, there is minimal standardization and uniformity across the computer forensics industry and the…
"Computer Forensics." (2008). U.S.-CERT. Retrieved from United States Computer Emergency
Readiness Team website: http://www.us-cert.gov/reading_room/forensics.pdf
Hailey, S. (2003, September 19). What is Computer Forensics? Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://www.csisite.net/forensics.htm
"New Jersey Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory." Partner in America's Premier Digital
This means that no deeper view into the system and its underlying infrastructure is provided to the customer." The constant flow of information makes compiling a forensics report on any given item very difficult.
Legal issues may also hamper digital forensics in dealing with cloud issues. Cloud computing raises some unique law enforcement concerns regarding the location of potential digital evidence and its subsequent forensic analysis. When a savvy and knowledgeable customer or business becomes the target of a criminal investigation, they could migrate their working environment to a cloud environment. This would provide a means for the business to continue its routine operations while the migrated environment is forensically analyzed. The migrated data only represents a temporary snapshot of when it was sent to the cloud. Since the data can be stored anywhere in the world, its scattering could be to a location or country where privacy laws are…
Birk, D. (2011). Technical Challenges of Forensic Investigations in Cloud Computing Environments. Advances in Digital Forensics, Jan 11. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.zurich.ibm.com/~cca/csc2011/submissions/birk.pdf
Riley, D. et al. (2011). Cloud Computing: Pros and Cons for Computer Forensic Investigations. International Journal Multimedia and Image Processing, 1,1, March 2011. Retrieved from http://infonomics- society.org/IJMIP/Cloud%20Computing_Pros%20and%20Cons%20for%20Computer%2 0 Forensic%20Investigations.pdf
Siddha, V. (2011). Cloud Computing: Challenges and possible solutions for digital forensics. Nimbula, 3 Nov 2011. Retrieved from http://blog.nimbula.com/corporate/2011/11/cloud- computing-challenges-and-possible-solutions-for-digital-forensics/
Ward, C. (2011). Digital Forensics: the cloud challenge. Business Cloud News, 1 Nov 2011. Retrieved from http://www.businesscloudnews.com/security/635-digital-forensics-the - cloud-challenge.html
cybercrime forensics lab work received approval purchase a software suite aid investigations. Your supervisor (Mr. Turtle) asks create a proposal comparing computer forensic software utilities recommend purchase-based research.
Security forensic software tools
Security information and event management has experienced much progress in recent years and there are currently a great deal of software providers that direct their attention toward the field. Through analyzing security alerts, SIEM creators make it possible for individuals and companies to understand instances when they are vulnerable and address these respective cases. The SIEM industry concentrates on assisting users as they review their condition and as they search for a method to provide a response in cases when they take on attitudes that might put them in a position where they have a limited understanding of their options.
Logpoint is designed to address SIEM-related concepts by providing users with a less challenging opportunity to deal…
Kanellis, P. (2006). "Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace." Idea Group Inc. (IGI).
"Logpoint," retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.logpoint.com/en/
"ProDiscover Forensics," Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.techpathways.com/prodiscoverdft.htm
"SANS Investigate Forensic Toolkit," Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://digital-forensics.sans.org/community/downloads
The issue at hand involves the examination of a scene from an office space within Widget Corporation. We find that this is the assigned office for a Mr. Didit. The information we have at hand is digital -- a photograph taken from an approximate distance of 3 feet from the occupant's desk. Using the photograph, we find that there are a number of electronic and non-electronic devices and our initial inspection finds an inventory made up of computers, keyboards, monitors, hard drives, a mouse, a digital box or receiver, a usb drive, a backup hard drive, cords and various office supplies and personal items (National Institute of Justice, 2008)
Our very preliminary analysis of the material shows that:1. Types of computer equipment
Schedules or Instructions
Disks, external and internal storage
Potential Digital Evidence
The best way to establish a complete inventory of the…
Evident Crime Scene Products. (2014, January). Orion-Lite DNA Kit. Retrieved from evidentcrimescene.com: http://www.evidentcrimescene.com/cata/kits/kits.html
Federal Evidence Review. (2008, September 18). Using Hash values in Handling Electronic Evidence. Retrieved from federalevidence.com: http://federalevidence.com/blog/2008/september/using-%E2%80%9Chash%E2%80%9D-values-handling-electronic-evidence
Garfinkel, S. (2012, November). Using bulk_extractor for digital forensics triage and cross-drive analysis. Retrieved from simson.net: http://simson.net/ref/2012/2012-08-08%20bulk_extractor%20Tutorial.pdf
Krotski, M. (2011, November). Effectively Using Electronic Evidence Before and At Trial. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice: http://www.justice.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usab5906.pdf
The rapid development of predictive routing algorithms that seek to anticipate security breaches are also becoming more commonplace (Erickson, 2009). Evidence acquisition through digital forensics seeks to also define preservation of all patterns of potential crime, regardless of the origination point (Irons, 2006). The collaboration that occurs in the open source forensic software industry acts as a catalyst of creativity specifically on this point. There are online communities that seek to define more efficient approaches to this area of evidence acquisition through collaboration of development efforts. Their results over the long-term are changing the use of forensic software, both from an open source and proprietary standpoint.
The authentication phase of gathering digital evidence centers on the integrity of the data captured and stored. This specific phase relies heavily on evidential integrity and authenticity of records (Barret, 2004) in addition to compliance to ISO 15489:1 (2001) a records management standard that…
Abel, W. (2009). Agents, Trojans and tags: The next generation of investigators. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology,23(1/2), 99.
Barbin, D., Patzakis, J. (2002), "Computer forensics emerges as an integral component of an enterprise information assurance program," Information Systems Control Journal, Vol. 3 pp.25-7.
Barret, N. (2004), "Computer forensics an introduction," Records Management Society Bulletin, No.121, pp.9-10.
Bates, J. (1997), "Fundamentals of computer forensics," International Journal of Forensic Computing, December, 2005.
For example, the main goal in the typical forensic science investigation would be to identify the source and full extent of a breach in security at some level and in which system it occurred; if sufficient evidence was found by forensic scientists to prove that a crime had been committed, the next objective would be to assist law enforcement in gathering the additional evidence needed for prosecution through careful coordination with the law enforcement authorities (Sartin, 2004).
Therefore, it is vitally important for forensics examiners to possess the same types of communication skills needed for comparable positions in the criminal justice field, plus some that may not be typical of the field. In this regard, Piazza (2003) reports that human resource managers are having a tough time recruiting and retaining qualified forensics personnel in almost every setting. This author provides the example of a Secret Service human resource manager lamenting…
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Cordesman, A.H. (2002). Terrorism, asymmetric warfare, and weapons of mass destruction: Defending the U.S. homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Piazza, P. (2003, April). On patrol in cyberspace: A look at progress among local, state, and federal efforts to combat cybercrime, including credit card fraud and identity theft. Security Management, 47(4), 111.
Rauschart, L. (2001, November 5). Law & scholarship. The Washington Times, 4.
DNA has improved the Forensics Field
As technology and science have progressed, DNA evidence and its use within criminal forensics and trials have become more prevalent. This is not to say that every case hinges on DNA evidence, or that every crime scene can be worked over in order to obtain a criminal's DNA, but the knowledge of this tool within the forensics realm has reshaped the way in which many investigations are conducted. DNA evidence has also acted to shed a new light within the trial realm, as experts in the field offer their opinions as to the efficacy and accuracy of such evidence. It is also being used to shed new light on old cases, helping people get out of jail and clear their names in many cases.
DNA was first used by authorities to help convict a murderer in England in 1984. In the U.S., it was…
Bieber, F., Brenner, C.H, and Lazer, D. (2006). "Finding criminals through DNA
of their relatives." Science, Vol. 2: Pp. 312.
Kayser, M. And Schneider, P.M. (2009). "DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics in forensics: Motivations, scientific challenges, and ethical considerations." Forensic Science International: Genetics. Vol. 3, No. 3. Pp. 154-161.
Lynch, M., Cole, S.A., McNally, R. And Jordan, K. (2008). Truth machine: the contentious history of DNA fingerprinting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp. 21-23.
Forensic Fabric Analysis
Some of the basic tools that a fabric examiner should at least have at any given moment include a stereomicroscope, along with a composite light microscope that is fitted with polarized light capability, and a comparison microscope. When examining both questioned and known fabric, the examiner must do this side by side, and within the same magnifications in terms of visible light. Alternative lighting, which includes fluorescent lighting and polarized light, is not necessary but when the equipment used allows, is highly recommended. In certain types of analyses, such as when testing for solubility, you may need to examine the questioned and known fabric near each other, and on one slide, or in the spot plate's wells that are adjacent to each other. However, you need to exercise extreme caution where loose fabric is concerned not unless you have no problem with identifying the source of each…
Innes, B. (2000). Bodies of Evidence. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Press.
Lyle, D.P. (2004). Analyzing Trace Evidence. Forensics for Dummies. Chapter 17, pgs. 269-275. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Saferstein, R. (2004). Hair Fibers, and Paint. In Criminalistics, An Introduction to Forensic Science. (8th Ed.) Chapter 8. Pgs. 194-219. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Bartos, L. (2012). No Forensic Background? No Problem. Pro-Publications.
Assets in the investment portfolio were overvalued. Financial transactions were structured to report smaller amounts of debt and create the appearance of greater cash flow. Financial results were represented in a false and misleading manner.
Forensic accountants also played an important role in the Enron case by doing audits and investigating accounting practices to gather evidence of how the fraud was performed. They played vital roles in the court room in presenting the evidence against cross examination and scrutiny. The forensic accountants were highly valued for their objectivity in the way evidence was presented.
Accounting, auditing, investigation, business, and understanding human behavior enabled forensic accountants to gather evidence for prosecution of fraud in court cases involving fraudulent accounting practices. These are vital skills forensic accountants are required to maintain. Forensic accountants must maintain competency, due care, objectivity, integrity, confidentiality, and proper conduct at all times, whether working with a client…
Code of Professional Ethics. (2012). Retrieved from Institute of Certified Forensic Accountants: http://www.forensicglobal.org/ethics.html
Homan, P. (2006, Mar - Apr). Fraud Buster. Retrieved from CPA Magazine: http://www.utoronto.ca.difa/PDF/Articles/FraudBuster.pdf
Jury Finds Former Master Graphics, Inc. CEO Liable for Securityies Fraud Arising From Accounting Scheme. (2008, Sep 8). Retrieved from SEC: http://www.sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/2008/li20705.htm
Shields, a. (2010, Mar 29). The role of forensic accountants. Retrieved from dolmanbatemen.com: http://www.dolmanbateman.com.au/1323/the-role-of-forensic-accountants
Forensic crime labs are important institutions within the criminal justice system and each lab must be up to standard in order for this system to operate at a high and fair level. A good crime lab begins with a good design based on solid fundamentals and thorough planning. The purpose of this essay is to design a digital forensic crime lab that can be used in a university setting. In order to this, the essay will explain the budgeting process while keeping business objectives in mind. The next step of the design will introduce how the physical controls can be used to implement this design. Criteria for success will also be discussed as well as a suggested floor plan to house the lab.
The setting for this digital forensic lab is within a university setting which denotes that funds could most likely be attained for these purposes.…
Al Falayleh, M. (2013). Building a Digital Forensic Laboratory For an Educational Institute. American University in the Emirates, 2012. Retrieved from http://sdiwc.net/digital - library/web-admin/upload-pdf/00000357.pdf
Mount, M. & Denmark, A. (nd). Digital Forensics: Architectural and Engineering Facility Design Requirements. AIA, . Retrieved from http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_members/documents/pdf/aiab092706.pdf
Taylor, M. (2012). NIST Offers Guidance on Building 21st Century Forensics Labs. NIST Law Enforcement Standards. Retrieved from http://www.nist.gov/oles/forensics/facilities_forensics.cfm
Vacca, J. & Rudolph, K. (2010). System Forensics, Investigation and Response. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 1 edition (September 24, 2010)
Forensic Pathology as Scientific Evidence
Forensic Pathology is generally understood as having to do with the investigation of causation of injuries or death as a legal requirement. In the pursuit of this, pathologists usually investigate injury or death scenes and other relevant records to ascertain the cause of death.
Practically, forensic pathology incorporates the performance of post-mortem examination, which is an examination of body tissues and organs as well as investigations such as X-rays and toxicology testing. Forensic pathology makes it possible to interpret such results and reveal cause of end point of death as required by the law.
The results driven from forensic pathology are bound to be subjected to interpretations. The body can transform during the process of death or after, this transformation or changes are referred to as post-mortem changes or "artefacts," these changes can be misinterpreted as ailment or injuries that took place when…
Goudge, S.T. (2008). Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario. Qubec: Ministry of the Attorney General.
Hickman, M., Hughes, K., Ropero-Miller, J., & Strom, K. (2007). Medical Examiners and Coroners Offices. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
National Research Council of the National Academics. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. washington DC: The National Academies Press.
R. v. Sherret-Robinson,  O.J. No. 5312 . (n.d.).
Forensic Case Study
The abduction of Enrique Camarena
The abduction of Enrique Camarena presents numerous interesting and unusual features regarding the gathering of forensic evidence. Many of obstacles that arose over the course of the investigation can be traced to the fact that the DEA Special Agent was apprehended in Mexico, where U.S. laws about preserving evidence did not apply. The Mexican police force (at least at the time of the abduction in 1984) was much more prone to corruption and bribery by persons engaged in illegal drug trafficking than U.S. law enforcement. ather than seeing to assist the DEA in bringing the murderers of Camarena to justice, the Mexican police often acted as obstacles, not assistants.
The real perpetrators of the murder of Camarena concocted a scheme with certain select members of the Mexican policy whereby Camarena's body (and the body of Capt. Alfredo Zavala, a Mexican…
Collecting evidence from human bodies. (2001). CA Department of Justice. Retrieved:
Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
atchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.
In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal ureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage…
Allert, L. & Becker, M. (2003). Death investigation: Nursing on the cutting edge.
Retrieved March 26, 2007, from: http://www.forensicnursemag.com/articles2811lifedeath.html .
Batchen, M. (2005). Forensic Nurse Death Investigators. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.lifeloom.com .
Hufft, a.G. & Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2000). Forensic nursing: An emerging specialty. Nursing now: Today's issues, tomorrow's trends (pp. 427-448).
According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…
Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm
Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online: http://www.forensicentomology.com/info.htm
Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.esf.edu/efb/parry/fsc%20lectures/sampling.pdf
Forensic nursing goes far beyond traditional medical care; it is "an innovative expansion of the role nurses will fill in the health care delivery system of the future," (Lynch, 1995, p. 489). This is why the Vice President of the United States Joe Biden has stated, "Forensic Nurses play an integral role in bridging the gap between law and medicine. They should be in each and every emergency room," (cited by the International Association of Forensic Nurses, 2006). Until recently, I was not aware that the profession existed. I learned what I know about forensic science from television, and also from years spent watching autopsies being performed at the morgue near by dad's office. Oddly, I would spend hours watching actual autopsies so when television shows started to depict forensic science in documentary and fiction shows more and more, the field broadened and opened up to me. I soon learned…
Hammer, R. & Pagliaro, E.M. (2006). Forensic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice. Jones & Bartlett.
International Association of Forensic Nurses (2006). What is forensic nursing? Retrieved online: http://www.iafn.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=137
Lynch, V.A. (1995). Clinical forensic nursing: a new perspective in the management of crime victims from trauma to trial. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1995 Sep;7(3):489-507.
Forensics is a very important part of a crime scene investigation. There used to be a time when murders or crimes were left unsolved due to the lack of evidence. However with the advances in technology and research in forensics, crime solving has become a lot easier. The branch of science, which helps out in finding out important evidence, is known as Forensics Chemistry. Forensics Chemistry employs methods, which help in finding clues, which couldn't be found in any other circumstances. We can simply call it the application of a brand of chemistry at the scene of a crime. This is a science which helps us investigate chemical substances and can help trace the cause of the death of a human being by finding useful evidence. However it's not important that the crime scene may be a site of murder or theft. It could also be due to…
Neufeld, Peter L. & Colman, Neville 1990, 'When Science Takes the Witness Stand', Scientific American, vol. 262, no. 5, May, pp. 46-53
Coelli, Andree 1989, 'One Chance in 165 Million', Australian Law News, September, pp. 22-6
Scutt, Jocelynne 1990, 'Beware of New Technologies', Legal Service Bulletin, vol. 15, no1, February, pp. 9-12.
Introduction to Forensic Chemistry
Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA
DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…
Calaluci, J. (2010). Guide to Forensic Pathology. New York: CRC Press.
Dvorsky, G. (2012, October 1). How forensic pathologists used maggots to identify an "unrecognizable" body. Retrieved from io9.com: http://io9.com/5947925/how-forensic-pathologists-used-maggots-to-identify-a-badly-burned-body
Norrgard, K. (2008). How ethical is it to keep a database of convicted felons' DNA profiles? Can we rely on DNA fingerprints for conviction? Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology. Retrieved from Nature.com: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/forensics-dna-fingerprinting-and-codis-736
Rosner, D. (2004, May 20). How does DNA Fingerprinting Work. Retrieved from thenakedscientist.com: http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/dalyacolumn8.htm/
Usually, it is more likely that the ruse is discovered by a forensic psychologist, and/or that there is simply too much evidence pointing to the fact that the criminal knew what he or she was doing when the crime was being committed (Adler, 2004).
The Likelihood of eoffending
Whether a criminal is likely to reoffend is something else that has to be considered by forensic psychologists. They are often asked to give their opinion on this issue when inmates are coming up for early release or when they are eligible for parole. There are other factors and opinions that are taken into account, of course, but having a professional, psychological opinion about whether a criminal has been "cured" of his or her behavior or will be likely to repeat it is very significant (Adler, 2004; Dalby, 1997). It can be difficult to determine what goes on in the mind of…
Adler, J.R. (Ed.). (2004). Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice. Cullompton: Willan.
Dalby, J.T. (1997) Applications of Psychology in the Law Practice: A guide to relevant issues, practices and theories. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Duntley, J.D., & Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology. Social Biology, 51, 161-165.
The construction/validation sample of 96 juvenile sexual offenders ranged in age from 9 to 20, with an average age of 14. To administrate the exam, the test is not directly administered to the juvenile: instead the trained professional calculates the boy's relative risk factors, based up his past history, such as a history of violence, of being a victim of abuse himself, caregiver consistency, and history and preoccupation with sexuality. The problem with the test is that it to some degree stereotypes the boy and tries to predict the likelihood of negative behavior based upon negative past and family circumstances. However, it can be useful in family court settings for flagging 'at risk' teens who have already entered the system and may be helped by receiving additional social support to prevent future acts of violence.
Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI). Tacoma, A: Nichols & Molinder Assessments.
Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI). Tacoma, WA: Nichols & Molinder Assessments.
Prentky, Robert. Sue Righthand, Ph.D. (2003). Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II
(J-SOAP-II) Retrieved May 14, 2009 at http://www.csom.org/pubs/JSOAP.pdf
Forensic Psychological Evaluation
Confidential Psychological Evaluation
Gender: Male Date of Report: 05/07/2012
Date of Birth: 10/01/1981 Age
Marital Status: Single Occupation: Unemployed
Race: Caucasian Education: GED
Referred by: Dr., B. Wynter
REASON FOR REFERRAL:
A Psychiatric Evaluation on May 19, 2006 by Barbara Wynter, License psychologist who is
Clinical administrator of Central Treatment Facility ward 1, 2, 3, was requested to further assist in diagnosis.
LIMITS OF CONFIDENTIALITY:
DR, B. Wynters
MMPI (Spell out the name Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
Is a depressive component of scale 6. The items connote extraordinary emotional sensitivity or vulnerability that is dysphonic in tone. These items have a "poor little me" flavor, portraying the self as meek and innocuous, emotionally fragile, incapable of being a threat to others, and perhaps as being entitle to special concern and consideration for one's tender sensibilities. There is an implicit theme of resentment…
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…
Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.
Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.
Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
It is thus that technologies which work to yield that crucial data from the memory store of any such device have become so valuable to law enforcement in the age of terrorism. According to the Computer Forensics Tool Testing Program (CFTT), "a cellular forensic tool shall have the ability to logically acquire all application supported data elements present in internal memory without modification" (Ayers, 15)
This is to indicate that such technology should be able to hack into mobile communication devices without detection by the subject, making it a valuable tool in investigating crimes and preventing suspected crimes. The evaluate of its requirements is produced by the CFTT, which is an organization that "provides a measure of assurance that the tools used in the investigations of computer-related crimes produce valid results." (Ayers, 6)
A major drawback of such technologies, and one that invokes a yet far more complex discussion concerning…
Ayers, R. (2008). Mobile Device Forensics-Tool Testing. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Bourque, L. (2008). Five Essential Computer Forensics Tools. Enterprise it Planet.
Online at http://www.enterpriseitplanet.com/security/features/article.php/3786046
In the late 1990s, this was not a problem as the stock was continuing to climb to all-time highs. However, once the economy began to slow, is when this strategy backfired by forcing them to issues more stock to cover these losses. As shares were declining, many investors became weary of continuing to participate in these activities. (Healy, 2003)
In late 2001, these activities were brought to the attention of regulators and investors (which resulted in the eventual bankruptcy of the firm). This is illustrating how forensic accounts overlooked or ignored key areas that could have uncovered fraudulent activities. As a result, one could argue that the lack of ethics and the close relationship with company executives helped to perpetuate these abuses. (Healy, 2003)
Another type of fraud that is most prevalent is insider trading. This is when executives will have specific knowledge of the financial situation surrounding…
Albrecht, S. (2006). The Ethics Development Model. Australian Accounting Review, 16 (38), 30 -- 40.
Bettis, J. (2000). Corporate Policies. Journal of Financial Economics, 57 (2), 191 -- 220.
Golden, T. (2011). A Guide to Forensic Accounting. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Gray, D. (2008). Forensic Accounting and Auditing. American Journal of Business Education, 1 (2), 1 -- 12.
Alter the Forensic Dynamics during an Interviewing Process
In this paper, we reveal how professional's attitudes, views, and knowledge do not necessarily match forensic research findings. Witness issues will then be discussed concerning research community. The study identifies some of the key factors that can alter or improve forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. This study focuses primarily on forensic dynamics relating to the interviewing young children and the associated challenges.
Expert knowledge and attitudes
It has been proven that professionals and social researchers (biased) towards information confirming their initial beliefs by refuting established opinions. Once established, beliefs and impressions challenged to contrary proof. Thus, belief systems and generalization can create a confirmation prejudice that may result in faulty understanding and wrong presentation, adversely affecting important decisions. egarding child victimization situations, such prejudice may result in dramatic repercussions presenting a serious risk to a person's legal rights or presenting a…
Bull, R., Valentine, T., & Williamson, T. (2009). Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: Current developments and future directions. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment
While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.
Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom
Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before…
Anderson, S.J. & Volker, J.X. (2008, Winter). The forensic marketing case study methods.
SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 4-9.
Buker, H. (2012). Fraudulent forensic evidence: Malpractice in crime laboratories. El Paso,
TX: LFB Scholarly.
Justification of a Forensic Unit
Our Agency has just received $3 million grant from the federal government because of the efficient method that the unit employs in running the department. Additionally, the City Council has agreed to continue assisting the unit with additional funding at the end of the three years provided the department is productive and serve the citizens well. However, the department requires presenting a different budget from the previous budget. This proposal will create a new budget for the forensic unit to describe where all the funding will be allocated. The budget will consider the specialized personnel for the unit because smooth running of the unit depends on the specialized personnel.
Mission Statement of the Specialized Unit
The specialized forensic unit will deliver highest quality forensic services to all our customers, and our unit will deliver accurate service through analysis and the state of art technology. We…
Bureau of Forensic Service (2009). California Crime Laboratory Review Task Force. California Department of Justice.
Police Executive Research,(2002). Police department budgeting: A guide for law enforcement chief executives. Washington, D.C: Police Executive Research
Spence, D. Webster, B. & Connors, E.(2009). Guideline for Operating a new Police Department. U.S. Department of Justice.
But on the other hand, a reader who is also interested in the subject doesn't have to necessarily enjoy the idea of decomposing human corpses - or have really thick skin - to get educated regarding the forensic science / anthropologic value of this book.
Being a student in Forensic Anthropology in fact makes it easier to get through the potentially offensive parts of the book, because there are many things to be learned from the novel. This book reflects real-life issues pertaining to forensic research and crime-related applications to forensic science. The book is dedicated to "All victims of murder, all those who mourn them, and all who seek justice on their behalf."
Bass's "Body Farm" is designed so that cases where bodies are found in similar circumstances may have a foundation in terms of the forensic police personnel being able to know how and when - if not…
Bass, Bill; & Jefferson, Jon. (2003). Death's Acre: Inside the Legendary Forensic Lab the Body
Farm Where the Dead Do Tell Tales. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Burns, Karen Ramey. (2006). Department of Anthropology Faculty. Retrieved July 29, 2007, at http://www.anthro.uga.edu/people/burns.htm.
Cornwell, Patricia Daniels (1990). Postmortem. New York: Charles Scribner's Son.
forensic interviewing of rape victims. It addresses the often asked question to postpone the interview. That request comes from the victims and their families. This study provides evidence that it is important to conduct the interview with the victim within 72 hours of the attack.
On television, forensic interviewing is often dramatized to the point of being illegal. Interviewers on the big screen hit the interviewees, intimidate them, lead them and coerce them into providing the information needed to neatly wrap up the crime in the allotted hour. While this makes for good entertainment and it almost always leads to putting the bad guys away, it is far from realistic. In real life, forensic interviewing can be a tedious process that does not always bear fruit. Forensic interviewing is something that can help uncover valuable information or lead to a dead end. The key elements to how successful a forensic…
In "The role of the Violence isk Appraisal Guide and Historical, Clinical, isk- 20 in U.S. courts: A case law survey," Vitacco et al. discuss the use of the psychological forensic assessment in predicting future dangerousness. The authors are very critical of the use of psychological assessments for these purposes because of their belief, which is affirmed by investigation into case law, that psychologists often get their predictions wrong. In other words, psychologists are not necessarily able to predict future dangerousness, which can make an assessment of future dangerousness little more than guesswork.
One of the cases mentioned by Vitacco et al. was the seminal case of Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983). The defendant, Thomas Barefoot, was convicted of murdering a police officer. He was charged with a capital offense and the jury had to determine whether or not Barefoot was eligible for the death penalty.…
Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983).
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Introduction in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). The nature and evolution of forensic mental health assessment in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Relevant sources of authority for developing best-practice standards in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zilla Data Nuker
Test: Zilla Data Nuker
Files created or downloaded leave a trace even when deleted. These traces allow skilled computer forensic professionals to retrieve the data. Zillasoft, LLC, a New England-based software developing entity provides Zilla Data Nuker that "Shreds sensitive files so they cannot be recovered or undeleted" according to the promotional material for the software. (Zilla Data Nuker 2.0) Zilla Data Nuker is freely downloadable from the ZDNet site at www.zdnet.com or can be obtained directly from the Zillasoft website at www.zillasoft.ws.
Zilla Data Nuker uses what the company terms as "shredding algorithms" to obliterate data. Ostensibly the software is designed to be used to improve the functionality of a home or office computer by deleting unnecessary files from the hard drive. Zillasoft also claims that the software can function to help protect the user's privacy by completely destroying information targeted by…
General Test Methodology. v1.9. (2001). National Institute of Standards and Technology
U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from http://www.cftt.nist.gov/Test%20Methodology%207.doc
Kuchta, Kelly J. (2001). Your Computer Forensic Tookit. Information Systems Security, (10) 49.
Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Forensic Investigation: Bullet Holes in Glass Lab
Bullet Holes in Glass
Glass broken through a projectile forms two distinct fracture types -- radial fractures and concentric fractures (Orthman & Hess, 2012). The radial fractures will often form on the glass side, on the opposite side of the impact, and will spread outwards from the point of impact (Hess & Hess, 2012). Concentric lines form after the radial fractures, on the same side of the impact, and will often encircle the point of impact (Woods, 2013). adial fractures terminate if they encounter fractures caused by an earlier projectile, which basically means that they can be used to determine the order or sequence of force, or rather, which bullet hole was created before the other. In cases where multiple shots are fired from the opposite sides of a glass surface say a window, forensic investigators will often need to establish the order…
Orthman, C.H. & Hess, K. (2012). Criminal Investigation (10th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning
Woods, D.D. (2013). O'Hara's Fundamentals of Criminal Investigations (8th ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers
Forensic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that applies the techniques and concepts of chemistry to provide evidence and testify in court. Some federal agencies such as FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and National Institute of Justice use forensic chemistry experts to investigate the crimes committed against the society, which include environmental pollution, food adulteration, and distribution of unsafe chemical substances. In the United States, cocaine and other illegal drugs can put society at risks. Thus, experts in forensic chemistry uses different processes to perform a laboratory test to identify the presence of substances. A chemical analysis carried out in the laboratory can help to detect illegal drugs, which will assist the police or other law enforcement agents to prosecute offenders in the law courts. (Drug Enforcement Administration 1).
Moreover, the forensic chemistry analyzes non-biological materials to detect a trace of evidence from the crime scenes to found unknown material…
Buffalo State SUNY. Forensic Chemistry, B.S. Program. 2015 02 December. 2015.
The Buffalo State SUNY is one of an accredited universities in the United States that offers a forensic chemistry. The university mandates all students wishing to pursue the study to have a strong background in chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Forensic Science Technicians, United States Department of Labor. 2015. 02 December. 2015. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/forensic-science-technicians.htm
DNC Forensics Workgroup Planning
It is the duty of this committee to set up sufficient security and forensic measures, while still ensuring "that the event continues safely and at the same time respect Constitutional rights, including freedom of speech and assembly" (Connors, 2007). Because of the highly controversy own nature of politics in the United States today, this will be a calculated effort. Undoubtedly, there will be issues with law enforcement dealing with protesters. The forensics task force must then be fully equipped to investigate any crimes committed sufficiently to produce evidence that can convict individuals later in a court of law.
To get started, it is important to understand what agencies are per feeding and how they will need to contribute their services at the time of the event. For planning purposes, it is important to set these responsibilities as early as possible to ensure that those responsible for…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
skills that a forensic accountant needs to possess and evaluate the need for each skill.
Over the last several years, the role of forensic accountants has been continually evolving. This is because there have been a number of cases surrounding their ability to identify and prevent possible frauds. As a result, various skills must be utilized in the process that will help to improve the effectiveness of actuaries. These include: good communication, the ability to work well with others, determination, the ability to simplify information and investigative intuitiveness. The combination of these factors is allowing forensic accounts to identify and detect possible fraud. When this happens, the negative impact of these activities can be limited. (Davis, 2011)
Good communication is an important skill because it requires talking with different parties during the process of conducting any kind of investigation. This means collaborating on various ideas and identifying potential red flags.…
Forensic Accountants. (2009). Accounting Today. Retrieved from: http://www.accountingtoday.com/news/Forensic-Accountants-Reconstruct-Madoff-Books-50484-1.html
Forensic Accountants. (2010). Accountant Next Door. Retrieved from: http://accountantnextdoor.blogspot.com/2010/06/forensic-accountants-roles-and.html
Davis, C. (2011). Characteristics and Skills. AICPA. Retrieved from: http://www.aicpa.org/interestareas/forensicandvaluation/resources/practaidsguidance/downloadabledocuments/forensicaccountingresearchwhitepaper.pdf
Greier, R. (2004). Bringing Figures into Focus. MDD. Retrieved from: http://www.mdd.net/us/news/forensic_insight/octnov04-1.php
Forensic Sciences in the USA and the United Kingdom
Over the last two decades, the forensic science has assisted in producing valuable evidence that has contributed to a successful conviction and prosecution of criminals and exoneration of innocent citizens. Typically, an advanced in forensic science and DNA technology have been a great assistance for law enforcement agency for an identification and prosecution of criminals. In the United States and the UK, many cases that have been formally unsolved have now been solved based on the great assistance of the forensic science investigators. (National esearch Council, 2009). Forensics or forensic science is a field of investigation drawing different scientific disciplines in law, criminal and civil services. This practice requires an application of scientific knowledge, quantitative, qualitative and empirical skills to collect and analyze data that will assist in presenting evidence in a tribunal or court of law. However, the method the…
Butler, J.M. (2015). U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 18: 4 -- 20.
Goulka, J.E. Matthies, C. Steinberg, P. (2010). Toward a Comparison of DNA Profiling and Databases in the United States and England. Technical report (Rand Corporation).
House of Common (2013). Forensic Science. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.
Mallett, X. & Evison, M.P. (2013). Forensic Facial Comparison: Issues of Admissibility in the Development of Novel Analytical Technique. J Forensic Sci, 58 (4):859-865.
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…
Johns, L.G., Downes, G.F., Bibles, C.D. (2005). Resurrecting Cold Case Serial Homicide Investigations; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 74 No. 8). Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Markey, J. (2007). After the Match: dealing with the New Era of DNA;
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10). Yost, J., Burke, T. (2007). Veterinary Forensics: Animals Curtailing Crime; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10).
In 2002 the crime lab in the state of Mississippi found that the semen in the victim's body belonged to two different men and neither of them was Kennedy rewer. alko concludes by stating: "Forensic scandals have been troublingly common of late, with phony experts, fake results, and incompetent testing recently uncovered in Virginia, Maryland, Kansas, Illinois, and Texas, to name just a few. Courts need to take a more active role in weeding out the Michael Wests of the world before they ever take the witness stand. ut professional organizations also need to be more vigilant about policing their own. Dr. West's peers should more vocally have questioned his methods long before he was permitted to testify more than 70 times in courts across the country. One would think they'd step up their standards to protect the integrity and reputation of their profession. ut these continuing scandals suggest another,…
Danger to Society: Fooling the Jury with Phony Experts (nd) Chapter Three. State of Texas Law Review.
Bite Mark Evidence Dispute in Murder Cases (2008) CNN.com Crime. 29 Feb 2008. Online available at http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/29/bite.marks.ap/
Bowers, C. Michael and Johansen, Raymond J. (2001) Digital Rectification and Resizing Correction of Photographic Bite Mark Evidence. Forensic Science Communications. July 2001. Vol. 3 No. 3. Online available at;
altenative appoach to Computeized Tomogaphy in foensic pathology.
Thomsen, A.H., Juik, A.G., Uhenholt, A.G., Vesteby, A. (2009).
Jounal: Foensic Science Intenational.
Publication Infomation: 2008, 183, 87-90.
The main pupose of this aticle is to see whethe o not CT scans ae necessay as a means of augmenting autopsies. The eseach question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effot equied to implement this technology? Thee is no hypothesis fo this aticle; the authos wee cetainly non-patisan in thei appoach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans pefomed by the Depatment of Radiology at Aahus Univesity Hospital. I eviewed this aticle to ascetain the elevance of CT scans to foensic pathology.
Abstact: This aticle denotes the boons and the detiments associated with using CT scans as compaed to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies fo foensic pathology. Oiginal eseach…
references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.
Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology
Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.
Journal: Medical History
Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.
Opportunities abound in the forensics industry today, and the experts suggest that this trend is going to continue to increase in the future. The term "forensics," though, can be applied to a number of different fields; however, all of these disciplines share a common feature in that their work products are specifically used in courts of law or for other legal issues that can mean the difference between life and death in many cases. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1990), the term "forensic" means "belonging to courts of justice," while "forensic engineering" means "the application of the principles and practice of engineering to the elucidation of questions before courts of law" (p. 648). Genetic forensics refers to the diagnosis of otherwise unknown biological material based on analysis of proteins or DNA; this branch of forensics has resulted in hundreds of death row prisoners being freed after they were exonerated through…
Avise, J.C. (2004). The hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine, and the environment. New York: Oxford University
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Braga, M. (2004, June 10). Tracking data on dead. Sarasota Herald Tribune, D1.
obstacles to prompt and efficient forensic investigation in major crime scenes. The presence of too many unnecessary personnel in the crime area and poor communication or reporting of the details are these obstacles. The applicable FI rules and an analysis of each issue follow. A conclusion is also provided for each issue.
Too Many Unnecessary Personnel at the Crime Scene
The presence of too many extraneous personnel is considered the biggest hindrance to effective and prompt crime investigation (Schiro, 1999). What makes it worse is that most of these unnecessary people are police officers themselves (Schiro).
The policy mandates the initial responding officer or officers to identify all personnel or persons at the crime scene and to oversee their movements (FI, 2000). Then the officer or investigator in-charge shall evaluate the scene in order to come up with a list of specialized resources needed in the investigation (FI).
FBI (2000). Crime scene investigation. Office of Justice Programs: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.fbi.gov/about.-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/twgcsi.pdf
Schiro, G. (1999). New crime scenes -- same old problems. Southern Lawman Magazine:
Forensic Science Resources. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.forensicsciencresources.com/NewScenes.htm
Yolasite (2012). Crime scene analysis. The Investigation, Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.theinvestigation.yolasite.com/crime-scene-analysis.php
I believe I possess a number of personality traits that are relevant to my career goals of becoming a lead forensics psychologist and earning a PhD in clinical psychology. Foremost among these is the fact that I am hard-working in both the intellectual and physical sense of the term. As a result of my solid work ethic, I am goal oriented and extremely driven to succeed in my aforementioned aims. I am also honorable, and have the best of intentions to better the quality of my life for my immediate family, which includes my husband and children.
This program at Walden is an excellent match for me because it is compatible with the timeline that I would like to accomplish my goals in. Furthermore, I am convinced that this institution can offer me an education that will suitably prepare me for the future career and educational…
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).
Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…
43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
Digital Forensics to Capture Data ources
Prioritizing Data ources
Live ystem Data
Intrusion Detection ystem
Event Log Analysis
Prioritizing data sources
Insider File Deletion
Prioritizing data sources
Use of Uneraser program Recovers the Deleted Data
A recent advance in information technology has brought about both benefits and threats to business organizations. While businesses have been able to achieve competitive market advantages through the internet technology, the hackers are also using the opportunities to penetrate the organizational network systems to steal sensitive data worth billions of dollars. A recent wave of cybercrimes leads to the growth of forensic investigation dealing with a collection of evidence to track cyber offenders. The study investigates different data sources that can assist in enhancing digital forensic investigation. The study identifies event log analysis, port scanning, account auditing, and intrusion detection system…
Stallings, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall.
Vigina, G. Johnson, E. Kruegel, C. (2003). Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection: 6th International 6th International Symposium, RAID 2003, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, September 8-10, 2003, Proceedings, Volume 6. Springer Science & Business Media.
Xu, M., Yang, X. Wu, B. et al. (2013).A metadata-based method for recovering files and file traces from YAFFS2. Digital Investigation. 10 (1); 62-72.