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Human Resources: Informal Groups
The objective of this study is to examine the differences between informal groups and formal groups.
Informal groups are those comprised by individuals who share the same interests or participate in the same type of activities. Individuals involved in informal groups generally share similar practices or adopt similar identities. Informal groups are characterized by a "sense of community" with leaders of informal groups often opposing the organization's formal directives. Informal groups enable the organization to work in a more effective manner and for example may serve to "ease communication between employers and provide encouragement to managers for planning and acting in a careful manner. The downside of informal groups is that they often serve to provide encouragement for less than desirable attitudes and often "foster interpersonal and intrapersonal conflict." (Boundless, 2013, p.1)
Informal Groups are often referred to as a community of practice and…
Formal vs. Informal Groups/Organization (2006) Management Skills. Retrieved from: http://managementskills-information.blogspot.com/2006/07/formal-vs.-informal-groupsorganization.html
Informal Groups (2013) Boundless. Retrieved from: https://www.boundless.com/business/organizational-structure/teams-within-organizations/informal-groups/
Leadership Style and Basis of Power (2013) Encyclopedia of Business. Retrieved from: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Int-Loc/Leadership-Styles-and-Bases-of-Power.html
Formal and Informal Groups
In workplaces two types of groups are commonly created—formal and informal groups. Formal groups are constructed deliberately by the company with the purpose being for the group members to work together to achieve a specific task. Informal groups are formed by the people themselves with the purpose being simply to “satisfy their social needs on the job” (Surbhi, 2015). The main differences of these two groups and why managers should pay attention to informal groups will be discussed in this paper.
Formal groups are those created by the organization, typically with a hierarchical structure—i.e., a group leader, who reports to a higher manager and who has followers fulfilling roles within the group. The formal group is presented with a defined mission and is tasked with accomplishing a clear goal or objective. The size of the formal group is often large and can include several members from…
Next, the facilitator will pose an introductory question that will stimulate brainstorming by engaging students in the "why" of their involvement in the group (Bouassida et al., 2006). Next a transitory question will lead to examination of the problem at hand, where the members of the group attempt to answer key questions including (1) what is the foundation of the problem (2) what tools are available to solve the problem (3) what are the most probable outcomes of a problem given the information provided (Bouassida, et al., 2006).
Bouassida et al. (2006) provide the rationale for this protocol, suggesting it enables group members to participate in a manner that allows greater collaboration and verification of the results. This form of focus group enables each member to participate on an equivalent basis. The outcome will result in rapid resolution of complex problems including those presented in the future to students…
Bouassida, M.S., Chridi, N., Chrisment, I., Festor, O. & L. Vigneron. (2006, Jun).
Automatic verification of a key management architecture for hierarchical group protocols, in, Cuppens, F. And Debar, H., editors, 5th Conference on Security and Network Architectures.
CEISMC (2006). Focus Group Protocol, Center for Educational Integrating Science,
Mathematics and Computing at Georgia Tech College of Sciences. Retrieved October 18, 2007: http://www.ceismc.gatech.edu/MM_Tools/FGP.html
Zeff & Higby (2002) also point out that respect is a common feature enhancing communication within teams. Therefore, quiet members can be encouraged to participate more readily in the informal and supportive team environment than they might in a group environment.
A diverse workplace benefits especially well from teamwork because of the enhanced communication potential. Moreover, minority voices are more likely to be acknowledged within the respect-oriented setting of a team. The team has no choice but to work together to achieve goals meaningful to each individual. In the group, individuals only care about their own performance. The motivation to help others in the group is low, and the desire to seek help by expressing concerns is also low especially when some members of the group are domineering. Quiet members of a group will feel dominated by the more aggressive ones ("Teams & Groups" 1996). This is especially true when…
"Differences between Work Groups and Teams." (nd). For Dummies. Retrieved May 3, 2010 from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/differences-between-work-groups-and-teams.html
"Teams & Groups." (1996). Retrieved May 3, 2010 from http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/MECD/gf1.html
Zeff, L.E. & Higby, M.A. (2002). Teaching more than you know. Academic Exchange Quarterly 6(3). Retrieved May 3, 2010 from http://www.rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/6jan2118j2.htm
Humans tend to e social and group animals. Some anthropologists even elieve that it is cohesive nature of eing group animals that contriuted to the eventual civilization of humanity. Because we are group animals y nature, it is typical for us to compare ourselves with others. Social motives are the interaction or the glue that helps the group stick together and descries the people in the group are either satisfied or dissatisfied. One way to account for this is called Equity Theory; theory that helps us understand satisfaction in terms of fair or unfair distriution of resources within groups or interpersonal relationships. These resources may e monetary, emotional, intellectual, ut center on the issue of how an individual perceives themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded, and the stress this causes that person. Equity theory holds that the actual perception of unfairness is a significant and powerful motivating force…
From the inception of the group at the beginning of the group work engagements, the team had little idea about the personalities of the members of the group, there was a lose relationship that was purely based on the issues to be discussed or the research to be conducted and each person went his way after that. This changed with time as the group members got more and more acquainted with each others' personality and there was more understanding that grew among the group members. This meant that the group members did not just talk about the real academic issue in the meetings but there was opening and closing issues and comments that had nothing to do with the matter being discussed. In the process, there grew several contentious sections of disagreements, discontent as well as too much unanimity on an issue that made it uncomfortable for the…
Chattillon R., (2013). Tuckman's Five Stages of Group Development. Retrieved September 30,2014 from http://www.slideshare.net/perspectum/5-stages-of-group-development-norms-tuckman-16474067
The first thing that Christine should have done is formed a personal relationship with each member of the group; it would not have to be anything real formal, instead it could be something as simple as have a 15-minute conversation with each member. During this initial forming stage group members usually are looking to know that the group is safe; it's obvious to see that Mike does not feel safe within the group, nor does he feel that the group members are being upfront with him. Mike believes that the group is excluding him, and that they are doing so primarily because he is different than they are. One recent study determined that "there is growing evidence that the existence of shared mental models (SMM's) among the members of a work team has a great impact on team processes and task effectiveness" (Jo, 2012, p. 290). Christine could have…
Holmes, B. & Douglas, K.; (2012) The nature of the beast, New Scientist, Vol. 214, Issue 2861, pp. 38 -- 43
Jo, I.; (2012) Shared mental models on the performance of E-learning content development teams, Journal of Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 15, Issue 1, pp. 289 -- 297
Thompson, P. & White, S.; (2010) Play and positive group dynamics, Reclaiming Children and Youth, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 53 -- 57
Wachtel, T.; (2010) What is restorative practice, accessed at www.iirp.org/whatisrp.php on June 18, 2012
The relevance of understanding group behavior as well as group properties cannot be overstated. This is more so the case for those keen on becoming effective managers and/or members of various groups. Managers who happen to be familiar with group behavior within organizations are more likely to fast track the accomplishment of the various goals and objectives of their respective organizations by amongst other things using groups more effectively.
Nature of Groups and Group Behavior within Organizations
A group according to Griffin and Moorhead (2011, p.240) "is two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person." It is however important to note that apart from this definition, several other definitions of a group have been proposed by various authors.
Types of Groups
In basic terms, groups can be divided into two. On one hand…
Griffin, R.W. And Moorhead, G. 2011. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hellriegel, D. And Slocum, J.W. 2007. Organizational Behavior. 11th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Martin, J. 2005. Organizational Behavior and Management. 3rd ed. Bedford Row, London: Thomson Learning.
elationship Problems Support Group
Support groups are usually created to bring together individuals facing similar problems or issues such as relationship problems. The concept behind the formulation of a support group is that members can get help for their issues through talking with others in a similar situation. In this case, relationship problems support group exist so that people facing relationship issues can share their experiences and advice each other on how to handle them. Support groups help individuals deal with their problems through providing better ways of coping and making members feel less isolated as they make important connections with others in the same situation. While relationship problems support groups are not group therapy sessions, they help members to deal with relational issues through providing emotional support and shared experiences.
A support group is basically defined as a gathering of individuals who share similar interests or concerns…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Support Groups: Make Connections, Get Help. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/support-groups/art-20044655
Peretti, A.G., Martins, P.P.S. & Guanaes-Lorenzi, C. (2013). The Management of Social Problems Talk in a Support Group. Psicologia & Sociedade, 25. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-71822013000500012
"Relationship Support Group."(n.d.). Divorce Dialogue. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.divorcedialogue.com/relationship-support-group-home.php
Sroufe et al. (2000). 5 Relationships, Development, and Psychopathology. In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed). Arnold J. Sameroff, Michael Lewis, and Suzanne M. Miller (Eds). Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/sroufe_rel_pathology.pdf
group MGN42 ( 300 words section) critically analyse incident models theories levels organisational behaviour ( individual, group organisation) show understandings gained group experience draw conclusions recommendations manage future recommend manage work occurrence future.
Group Incident Analysis
The following pages focus on analyzing an incident in a company. This incident is represented by a conflict between the sales manager and the account managers in the company. The conflict is analyzed on individual level based on the hierarchy of needs model, and on organizational level based on the diversity theory.
The workplace environment and its characteristics are very important in determining employee satisfaction. The level of satisfaction of companies' employees significantly influences their performance, which affects the performance of these companies. It is important that managers understand these issues and focus on analyzing the organization behavior in their companies in order to develop workplace environment that are in accordance with employees' needs…
1. Rahim, A. (2001). Managing Conflict in Organizations. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://raqi148.weebly.com/uploads/3/6/7/2/3672942/managing_conflicts_in_organizations.pdf .
2. Chapman, A. (2010). Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Motivational Model. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm .
3. Lieberman, S. (2002). Diversity Benefits Organizations and Communities. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.simmalieberman.com/articles/diversitybenefits.htm .
1% greater than the Texas average.
The cost of living in Canyon is 2.6% less than the national average.
The cost of living index is based on a national average of 100.If the region shows a cost of living index that is lower than 100, it means it is living below national standard, and the reverse shows it is living above national standards. Canyon's living standard is 97, which shows that it is living below average national standards. At the same time, however, it is significantly greater than cost of living in Texas in general. Its groceries, its goods, and its transportation are one or more notches higher than Texas in general. Its housing index is considerably higher. Its utilities index is however significantly lower than Texas and certainly than the Nation as a whole. Its health care index is also slightly lower than Texas in general.
Misc. The price…
Social Work Groups
Definition of Three Types of Groups
Most of us have participated in a task group at one point, and indeed many of us participate in tasks groups on a regular basis. A task group is any group of individuals who come together (or who are brought together) to produce a particular outcome, either a particular product or a specific action. Such groups exist in every aspect of life. Such groups can be found in business, such as a group formed to assess whether a company should shift to a new software system. Such a group might do research on different types of software, interview managers at other companies to determine how well different software systems work in similar situations, and survey the staff on their needs.
Task groups also exist in the political realm. Many communities across the country have recently been hosts to such groups as…
The family clearly regarded it as important and meaningful, as reflected in the careful attention to detail expressed in the layout of the table, but not as an extraordinary, anticipated event like Passover or Christmas for Christians. The family's good dishes and napkins were used, and everyone was dressed to denote the fact that this was a formal occasion. However, the very 'best' china was not used, as it would be for a High Holy Day in Judaism. On one hand, this sense of formality combined with informality made me feel more at ease. On the other hand, I was aware that I was intruding into a private family ritual, albeit one connected to a larger cultural tradition.
My preconceived notions about the observation of the Jewish Shabbos were that it was or should be a profoundly religious experience, and one that was very different from my own observance of…
Group Performance: Individual Assessment
It is stated in our team charter that "teams work better when members have a common understanding of the team's goals and the ground rules for team activities." I found this to be true in my experience working on this team. We did set some basic ground rules and we decided on our goals. Because we did this at the beginning, I feel we were able to avoid a lot of the misunderstandings that could have happened. Also, in writing down the things we agreed on, we made it official. This seemed more formal and business-like, but it turned out to be a good idea, although in some areas it would have been helpful to be more specific about what we meant.
My role in the group was to contribute to the group performance and do my part. I felt very committed about doing this, and…
group is the percentage of people that actually make a purchase after placing the item in the shopping cart. The case states that about seventy five percent of the shoppers fail to make the purchase after adding items to the basket while 25% actually complete the checkout.
It is apparent the company needs to better understand their customers and online consumer behavior. Although these figures might seem abnormally large, that might necessarily be the case. If these rates are comparable to the industry standards then the company might be better off focusing on increasing their overall traffic.
Andrew used outside research and when this was mentioned it made him nervous and uneasy.
Using outside research is not necessarily a bad thing. In fact, the best research uses data and findings from multiple perspectives.
Jack wants more than just one ASRS.
I would start with just one…
Strategies to Autocratic Leadership
Before analyzing the strategies of becoming an effective autocrat in the leadership field, there has to be an understanding of the tasks obliged to the formal organizations and bureaucratic groups. The study of formal organizations entails organizations that are rationally designed so that objectives and goals are achieved. The organizations in most cases have well established rules that govern its transactions, and the organizations run their duties using well-formulated regulations and stipulated procedures. Most of the bureaucratic organizations are formal in nature, due to the leadership styles that are used. Weber's theories admit a drastic increase in the development of formal organizations in Europe and the United States. Currently, formal organizations are dominative, as the regulations for development of organizations increase with global impacts. Almost all the human transactions involve organizations; ranging from educational facilities, healthcare organizations and many others.
Organizations as bureaucracies
Group Development in Alfred Hitchcock's Lifeboat
The development of groups is divided into five stages. These stages are used to describe the evolutionary process of a group from its formation to its dissolution. These stages represent milestones in this process, such as establishment of leadership or authority or determination of the group's goals. The five stages, in order, are the group formation stage, the intra-group conflict stage, the group cohesion stage, the task orientation stage, and the termination stage. These stages are also identified by a series of easily remembered descriptive names that are indicative of the stage's characteristics. The respective names of the stages are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.
Lifeboat was a movie produced by Alfred Hitchcock in 1944. It is an adaptation of a John Steinbeck novel. The movie opens with a view of a sinking ship, a lifeboat with a lone woman comes into view.…
Using Mediation to Achieve Productivity
Anyone who has ever spent time overseeing small children - or business work teams - knows that such groups can function perfectly well for long periods of time - and then collapse for no apparent reason into chaos and disfunctionality. Knowing how - and even more importantly when - to intervene in a usually highly functioning group is one of the most important skills that a consultant can bring to the group intervention process. A consultant both must understand the nature of the process in particular (and so must have what are essentially anthropological skills to allow the consultant to determine how the "natives" think) as well as a general, in some sense idealized sense of how work processes should work in the abstract. Such a knowledge of how work processes can be their most effective allows consultants to diagnose what the problem…
ABA Task Force Agrees Mediation Not Practice of LawADR World. Available: http://www.adrworld.com/index.asp.
Alternative dispute resolution may avoid health care litigation. Cancer Weekly, p. 85.
Black's Law Dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Ebert, R.J. & Griffin, R.W. (2003). Business Essentials, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Unilever Company has a formal structure which represents the manner in which the organization is established by the stakeholders and those personnel who are responsible for the management of the organization. Under this formal structure the organization is able to meet its objectives. The company's individual organizational structure is a formal composition of responsibilities, tasks and reporting relationships which allow the organization to control coordinate as well as motivating the employees so that a common goal can be realized (on, 2002).
Unilever has a hybrid form of formal organization. The company operates with two product segments, three divisional regions, and five functional segments. The company developed and implemented this system of organizational structure for the organization so that it could foster and improve on the communication and also to take advantage of the resources that they could access. Typically this kind of organization is structured in a to-down basis. Once…
Ron, Williams, 2002, Self-Directed Work Teams: A Competitive Advantage, new jersy; prince hall
Canadian Forces, small group military relationships
Within the Canadian Forces, how are small group military relationships on operational deployments in Kabul, Afghanistan?
A group is mostly defined to be two or more people interacting together so they can achieve a common specific goal. The main purpose of the group would be towards a shared and desired outcome. With this in mind, Military groupings are formed to achieve a common interest like defeating a common foe, or lobbying for a specific cause. The group will have some form of leadership structure to ensure it is not mistaken for a crowd. The leadership for military groups is formal. Military groups report to one leader, and follow the orders or instructions given by their leader. For the effectiveness of the military groups, the group members should work together. Working closely together, and for long periods, the group members will form certain bonds, and…
Cox, D.R., & Snell, E.J. (1974). The Choice of Variables in Observational Studies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics), 23(1), 51-59.
Jiroutek, M.R., Muller, K.E., Kupper, L.L., & Stewart, P.W. (2003). A New Method for Choosing Sample Size for Confidence Interval-Based Inferences. Biometrics, 59(3), 580-590.
Johnson, B.A., & Tsiatis, A.A. (2004). Estimating Mean Response as a Function of Treatment Duration in an Observational Study, Where Duration May Be Informatively Censored. Biometrics, 60(2), 315-323.
Morgan, D.L. (1996). Focus Groups. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 1996 / Copyright © 1996 Annual Reviews), 129-152.
These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.
Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.
Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK
Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…
Baue, B., 2013. Threading the Needle: How BT Integrates Climate Stabilization with Economic Prosperity (Economics). [Online]
Available at: http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/new-metrics/bt-climate-stabilization-economic-prosperity [Accessed 30 March 2014].
BT, 2014. BT Trace. Supply chains that flow. [Online]
Available at: http://www.globalservices.bt.com/uk/en/products/bttrace [Accessed 30 March 2014].
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
The American President is said to be the most powerful man in the world, but it is also said that the President has limited influence over domestic policy. Even if the President is relatively weak in terms of domestic policy, he still has tremendous power, more than just about anyone else. This paper will analyze the different formal and informal ways in which the President exerts influence over domestic policy. The paper will then examine the question of whether or not the President's authority on domestic affairs is relatively weak. This is an interesting question because it is a question of relativity in which the comparable matters. Compared with the President's powers on foreign affairs, Presidential powers in the realm of domestic affairs are relatively weak. Compared with anybody else's powers, the powers of the President in the realm of domestic affairs is strong; nobody else has as…
Groups and Team Motivation
Groups and Teamwork Essays
First Essay: Analysis of the Differences between Informal and Formal Groups
There are significant differences in the norms, values, strategy and structure of formal vs. informal groups across the communication, strategic planning and problem-solving dimensions of how each type operates. Formal groups are more oriented towards hierarchical and clear lines of authority, including the use of formalized recognition and nonmonetary rewards for exceptional sacrifice and performance on behalf of the group (Meyer, ecker, Vandenberghe, 2004). Formal groups also concentrate more on the specific roles of each member, often clarifying their assignments and expectations. There is significantly more rigidity across the strategic planning and problem solving dimensions of formal groups as well. Communications tends to be more structured and focused on accountability, auditability and traceability over immediacy and quickness.
Informal groups also have specific assignments and requirements for each of their members, however…
Leavy, B. (2012). Michael Beer on higher ambition leadership. Strategy & Leadership, 40(3), 5-11.
Meyer, J.P., Becker, T.E., & Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Employee commitment and motivation: A conceptual analysis and integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 991-1007.
Exert Leadership Without Any Formal Position
Discuss TWO strategies enable a nurse interdisciplinary team exert leadership occupying a formal leadership position. 1. Form a clearer picture real situation - gathering data, ot listening opinion. 2. Start strong idea solve problem.
A leader is a person who directs others towards a goal. He or she is meant to influence fellow workers positively, and helps them work towards achieving a common purpose Kathleen Jennison and Stoltz, 2004.
Leadership is not a position but an attitude. A leader takes responsibility of problems that arise within the organization and does not blame others for the problems that arise. A good leader is able to communicate with the subordinates and should not feel that he or she is superior to them. This will enable him to be able to gather information on what the workers want to boost their morale of working.
An interdisciplinary team…
AVOLIO, B.J. & GARDNER, W.L. 2005. Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315-338.
DAVIDSON, J. & WOOD, C. 2004. A Conflict Resolution Model. Theory into Practice, 43, 6-13.
KATHLEEN JENNISON, G. & STOLTZ, P.K. 2004. Leadership and Management Principles for Outcomes-Oriented Organizations. Medical Care, 42, 31-38.
Two Cultural Groups
Contrasting Cultural Psychology between the East Asian and the Western Part of the World
The different fear level for the super-ordinates and ordinates in Westerns and East Asians
Globalization is considered to be the phenomenon that owns a positive tendency to tame the behaviors of the individuals dwelling in all parts of the world in an accord of productivity and peace. It is for this reason that the inclination of the global economy is tilting towards the studies of cross cultures and its implications is a result of progressive development of the world towards a multicultural and cosmopolitan state of behavior- in individuals as well as in the nations. But yet the fast fact paced technological advancements and the tamed behavior does not guarantee the homogeneity of psychology (Shweder, 1999). Psychology as a matter of fact is a complex framework of individuals' perceptions, cognitions, apprehensions…
L Berry, J.W. (2002). Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hui, C.H. (2000). Measurement in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 19-32.
Jung, K.D. (1994). Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asia's Anti-Democratic Values, 4-8.
Lehman, D. (1995). Cultural variation in unrealistic optimism: Does the West feel more vulnerable than the East? . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 595-607.
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…
Dillon, Sheila. Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, And Styles. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Dillon, Sheila. The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Giannakopoulou, Liana. The Power of Pygmalion: Ancient Greek Sculpture in Modern Greek Poetry, 1860-1960, Volume 3 of Byzantine and Neohellenic Studies. Peter Lang, 2007.
Formal Proposal -- my future in Informational Technology, my future in my internship at Benefit Concepts, Inc.
Why I want to take part in an internship -- the benefits of Benefit Concepts, Inc. For my education, and the benefits I can bring to Benefit Concepts, Inc.
It's time to come out of the comforting confines of studying information systems in the classroom and venture into the real world of information technology as it is deployed in the workplace. Much as I have been gratified regarding the technical expertise that I have gleaned over my years of education, I look forward to putting those ideas and my education as a whole into real and vital practice in the world of business and work. My internship with Benefit Concepts, Inc. would be an ideal way for me to do this. Not only would I have the benefit of receiving an education…
Over the course of my internship at Benefit Concepts, Inc., I will be responsible for processing the company's incoming and outgoing electronic eligibility files. The software tools I will be using to fulfill this function will include, but not be limited to, that of Microsoft SQL Server 2000, Access 2000, Data Junction 7.5, DOS, as well as the larger technical and informational resources of the World Wide Web. Of course, as a result of this experience I hope to become more technically proficient in all of these programs, and more fluent in the range of information available to someone in the discipline of computer technology on the Internet.
Additionally, given my responsibility for viewing and detecting problems regarding the company's outgoing and ingoing files into its variety of databases, I hope to become more aware of protective devices to insure that things run smoothly with as little impingement from viruses, worms, and other hacking devices regarding data storage and warehousing.
Thus, I hope to gain thus a greater knowledge and comfort level of the software applications I have learned over the course of my education, and a greater knowledge base in general of the field I hope to be entering after my fulfillment of my education, although of course the ever-changing world of computer science requires an individual to be a constant student in the field, no matter what his or her age. I wish to grow more fully cognizant of the field's current concerns and its current needs of potential and working employees. An internship at Benefit Concepts, Inc. would allow me to put the software applications I have learned about into practice. It would allow me to work independently and in the context of a team and to realize various group projects and strategies with the hopes of achieve the company's overall aims in an effective manner.
Fire services are on the front lines of community safety, and are occasionally integrated with other community organizations. However, fire service affiliations with other community groups are frequently underutilized. Fire service organizations sometimes fail to form effective alliances with community groups, and vice-versa, leading to breakdowns in communication and diminished delivery of service. Given the relationship value inherent in forming deeper and broader affiliations within the community, fire service organizations and the areas they serve benefit tremendously from relational and institutional embeddedness. Relational and institutional embeddedness refers to the comprehensive coordination of communications and other critical services, not just when responding to disasters. Relationship value is created throughout the processes of disaster prevention.
One of the ways community group affiliation with the fire service creates value is through the process of education, public relations, and public awareness, and how awareness promotes public safety. Affiliated groups need to establish ongoing information…
The best that they can hope for is to influence a political party to get behind their cause and vote to have it adopted. Political parties on the other hand, have the power and ability to change laws and mandates by their voting clout.
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
epublican Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Walker, Jack L., Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America (Univ. Of Mich. Press 1991).
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
"For those older adults who are still employed, the workplace is an important forum for social relationships" that fall into the category of secondary groups" (Berkman, et al., 2003).
Primary and Secondary Groups I Have Been Involved ith
I have a group of close friends that I grew up with, played sports with; we email almost daily and support the Green Bay Packers and we get together each year to attend a Packer game. e exchange Christmas presents; we go canoeing into Canada every year; it is my original peer group of childhood friends. Another primary group for me, is my neighbors; we share religious values, attend social events together, have dinners together and share political beliefs. Another primary group is my retreat group, several male close friends that go camping and have poetry readings in the forest around a campfire.
A secondary group I have been involved with is…
Berkman, Barbara, and Harootyan, Linda K. (2003). Social Work and Health Care in an Aging
Society: Education, Policy, Practice, and Research. New York: Springer Publishing
Cooley, Charles Horton. (1909). Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. New York:
The Group Behavior Model is a framework for conceptualizing how various aspects of the external and internal environments of a work group influence the group's performance of its task(s) and the group members' level of satisfaction with the experience of group work. External conditions include an organization's authority structure, rules and regulations, corporate culture, resources, setting, and market competition. Internal factors include the individual skills, talents, and experiences each member brings to the work group; the nature of the group's structure; and the dynamics of the group's work processes. The model helps one understand how the interplay of these four components -- external conditions, group member resources, group structure, and group processes -- determine how the group performs its task and how much satisfaction the members of the group derive from the experience of doing performing the task and the outcome of their efforts (Henderson, n. d.).
Nakata, C., & Im, S. (2010). Spurring Cross-Functional Integration for Higher New Product
Performance: A Group Effectiveness Perspective. Journal of Product Innovation
Management, 27(4), 554-571.
In Worklife Report's (2002) survey study of the effect of socialization in work relationships, it was found out that "...workers who regularly socialize with their colleagues are likely to be happier at work, have stronger team working skills and stay in one job for a longer period of time" (14). This finding illustrates how unity among members of the organization leads to better working performance and environment. Of course, it is inevitable that conflicts between or among members of the organization happen, but even these conflicts function to improve the efficiency and performance of the workers. However, it is also vital these conflicts function under a healthy working environment; otherwise, these conflicts can lead to disunity among the organization's members and dissolution of cohesiveness among groups.
However, there is also counter-evidence on the high productivity yield and high group cohesiveness relationship as illustrated in Lindorff's (2001) survey research, wherein the…
Kreitner, R. (1995). Organizational behavior. Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Lindorff, M. (2001). "Are they lonely at the top? Social relationships and social support among Australian managers." Work & Stress, Vol. 15, Issue 3.
Roundup." (2002). Worklife Report, Vol. 14, Issue 3.
Schultz, K. et. al. (1999). "The effects of low inventory on the development of productivity norms." Management Science, Vol. 45, Issue 12.
Traditional Organized Crime Groups
The task at hand is to report upon the organized criminal activities of the Italian mafia that is partially transplanted from Italy and its islands, as well as the mafia culture that is indigenous to the United States. The mafia is somewhat of an open secret. People know and believe that it exists, yet it is not a topic that people often discuss publically, and for good reason. Secrecy and discretion is key to the existence of the traditional organized crime group of the Italian O.C., also known as La Costra Nostra. The mafia, like the media, the government, the prison system, and education, is an industry. As the world changes, the mafia diversifies its activities to keep up with the times, creating as many streams of revenue from as many directions as possible. The Italian mafia has long since been a group that…
ABC News. (2013). Latest La Costra Nostra News. ABC, Available from: http://abcnews.go.com/topics/news/la-cosa-nostra.htm . 2013 May 04. Web.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Italian Organized Crime. The FBI, Available from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/italian_mafia . 2013 May 04. Web.
eligious Group's Statement
William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "eligious Diversity and eligious Truth"
is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process
In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.
The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of…
Kaufman, Gordon D. Religious Diversity and Religious Truth. In God-Mystery-
Diversity, 172-206. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Schleiermacher, Friedrich. 1969. Romanticism. In Attitudes Toward Other Religions:
Some Christian Interpretations, ed. Owen C. Thomas, 49-69. Notre Dame:
In 1998, Citicorp acquired Traveler's Group in a merger of financial services giants. The combination created the world's largest financial services company at the time, combining banking, investments and insurance (Martin, 1998). Under terms of the deal, it was a stock swap, with Traveler's paying $70 billion for Citicorp's shares, though the deal was sold as a $140 billion deal (Ibid). The deal paved the way for expectations that future similar deals would be allowed (Carow, 2001). This paper will analyze the deal in retrospect, to see if the deal delivered value for the shareholders of the two firms. Since it was described as a merger, the shareholders of both firms were expected to benefit.
In the late 1990s, there was tremendous excitement in the markets about the possibility that major mergers in the financial services industry would be allowed by Congress. Carow (2001) noted that market expectations…
Carow, K. (2001). Citicorp-Travlers Group merger: Challenging barriers between banking and insurance. Journal of Banking and Finance. Vol. 25 (8) 1553-1571.
Elkind, P. (2010). Ex-Citigroup chief says bankers behaving wildly. CNN Money. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from http://money.cnn.com/2010/10/27/news/companies/john_reed_citigroup.fortune/index.htm
Martin, M. (1998). Citicorp and Travelers Plan to merge in record $70 billion deal: A new no. 1: Financial giants unite. New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/1998/04/07/news/07iht-citi.t.html
Business -- Change Management Project
DopplerShift, Inc. is a full-service professional business consulting firm. Our mission is to provide the necessary assistance for successful business organizations to identify their optimal future strategic vision with clarity of purpose and the functional approach to implement the changes through which major shifts can be accomplished. Our goal is always to enable organizations to make significant changes without disrupting the current success of those organizations.
The client, Dr. Pepper Snapple Group is a licensed subsidiary of the Coca Cola Group that has built a two-century-long reputation for success in conjunction with a historic brand recognized worldwide. According to the organization's most recent Annual eport, Dr. Pepper Snapple Group recorded $202 million in revenue in the first fiscal quarter of 2011, representing a $15 million increase in earnings compared with the same quarter in 2010 (DPSGroup, 2011).
Nevertheless, DopplerShift analyses of the market and wider…
Akin, G., Dunford, R., and Palmer, I. (2006). Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Daft, R. (2005) Management. Mason, GA: Thomson South Western.
DPSGroup (2011). "Dr. Pepper Snapple Group Reports First Quarter 2011 Results." Retrieved June 26, 2011 from: www.Drpeppersnapple.com
Fisk, P. (2008). Business Genius: A More Inspired Approach to Business Growth. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Capstone.
12 Step groups
step programs are famous for their role in the breaking of addictions. The programs cover such areas of addiction such as gambling, drug, and alcohol. Below is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 step program in breaking addiction to alcohol.
Background of Alcoholism
Facts concerning the abuse of alcohol are often overlooked as it is a frequently used drug that can be obtained from the nearest store or ordered from a menu in a restaurant. Alcohol abuse statistics raise several alarms but focusing the attention of the public to the alcohol effects can help raise awareness and help in the fighting of alcoholism (Get The Facts).
Just a few drinkers of alcohol stop consumption with the first bottle. Also, an evening of heavy consumption is not always done alone (Get The Facts). Chronically consuming alcohol leads to a host of effects. When done over a…
Get the Facts on Alcohol Abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://drugabuse.com/library/get-the-facts-on-alcohol-abuse/
The Birth of A.A. And Its Growth in the U.S./Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://www.aa.org/pages/en_US/historical-data-the-birth-of-aa-and-its-growth-in-the-uscanada
Many nations do not use restorative justice as a policy, but eventually bright, progressive leaders worldwide will hopefully learn the value of restorative justice, and implement it at some level.
Youth Justice Process in New Zealand. (2005). Family Group Conference. Retrieved 29 June 2008, at http://www.justice.govtnz/youth/fgc.html.
This government-produced review of the ideologies and practical implementation of the Family Group Conference was a valuable and basic article in terms of the understanding the process and how it works well in most cases.
The Family Group Conference in New Zealand
The Family Group Conference (FGC) was established in New Zealand in 1989, with the purpose in mind of more skillfully and more fairly dealing with problems and issues of boys and girls (under the age of 14) and young people (14-16) who get in trouble with law enforcement. According to information provided by the Youth Justice Process (www.justice.govt.nz),the FGC has modernized and…
Groups for Relationship Issues
Support groups do what their title implies that they do -- they provide emotional, psychological and community support for individuals that are struggling with problems. This paper discusses support groups that exist to help people resolve romantic and other relationship issues that can stand in the way of a normal, peaceful existence. This paper delves into several kinds of support groups that deal with relationship issues, and discusses the potential solutions that different support groups offer to troubled participants.
hat are Support Groups? hat do Support Groups actually do?
Generally speaking, support groups for relationship problems or other issues provide a mechanism that offers some kind of therapy in response to "...the needs of people dealing with stress caused by life transitions, crises, or chronic conditions" (Fagan, et al., 1996). There has been a "proliferation of support groups in recent years," Fagan writes, which is a…
Brown, N.W. (2011). Psychoeducational Groups: Process and Practice. Milton Park, UK:
Taylor & Francis.
Fagan, T., and Warden, P.G. (1996). Historical Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Santa
Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing.
Thirdly, health care costs were rising. "The number of people without any health insurance climbed to 15.9% in 2005 from 14.2% in 2000, and the share of people with employer-provided health insurance dropped to 59.5% from 63.6% over the same period, according to the Census ureau data released in 2006. The number of uninsured Americans is now the highest since 1998" (Middle Class in Turmoil).
Finally, the debts were rapidly increasing. "The increase of debt relative to income averaged 1.3 percentage points per quarter from March 2001 through March 2006, compared to an average increase of 0.4 percentage points from December 1995 through March 2001.[...]Middle class families' financial wealth declined in inflation-adjusted dollars by 9.2% from 2001 to 2004, and the share of households with positive financial wealth declined by 6.1 percentage points from 52.0% in 2001 to 45.9% in 2004, the smallest share ever recorded" (Middle Class in Turmoil).…
R. Reich. America's Anxious Class. New Perspectives Quarterly (Winter, 1995)
Halpin, John and Weller, Christian. "The $871,000 Job Subsidy." Nov. 2006.Center for American Progress. 11th Dec. 2006 http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2006/11/job_subsidy.html
Weller, Christian. "Continuing the Slump." Nov. 2006. Center for American Progress. 11th Dec. 2006. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2006/11/slump.html
Weller, Christian and Staub, Eli. "Middle Class in Turmoil- Economic Risks Up Sharply for most Families Since 2001." Sept. 2006. Center for American Progress. 11th Dec. 2006 http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2006/09/midclassreport.html
The analysis of the scenario involves copying by hand devoid of utilizing excel formulae. The terminology 'What if ' scenarios mainly refer to the underlying base case of the numerical figures in the tables of the financial planning business model. It is significant to undertake checking of the entire changed cells that have altered back to their corresponding original numerical values prior to processing to a new 'What if '.
In order to aid Kitchenware Product in visualizing the underlying table that pertains to figures within the scenario 3,an individual require to draw a graph utilizing Excel's chart depicting the prevailing comparison of the corresponding profits for the diverse sales volumes taking note of the profit peak within year 3 (ARLOW, 2005, pp23-56). In the underlying report that pertains to every scenario's of net profit after tax is adequate. Nevertheless, in case there is complete spreadsheet details are demanded for…
BARLOW, J. (2005). Excel Models for Business and Operations Management. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=241134userid= ^u.
Barlow, J., 2005, Excel Models for Business and Operations Management, 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons
BOSLAUGH, S. (2012). Statistics in a nutshell. Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly Media.
Kirca, O., Koksalan, M., 1996, "An Integrated Production and Financial
At the same time there are also many areas of contention and criticism of these groups. In order to put this debate into perspective one has to take into account that the concept of democracy is complex and that there are many views of what true democracy is and how it should function. As suggested above, the pluralist notion of democracy is different in many respects to the more formal or 'elitist' views of democracy. One's assessments of pressure groups will therefore depend to a great extent on one's concept and understanding of democracy.
On the one hand the pluralistic view that pressure groups expand involvement in the democratic process and bring important issues to the attention of both the public and the state is a view that many pundits tend to accept. But there are many other arguments against these groups; such as the view that they can in…
Do pressure groups add to democracy?, viewed 8 August, 2010,
Bhandari J. 2003, Democracy of pressure groups, viewed 8 August, 2010,
Potential for denial of service attacks.
Section 4. ecommendation.
Based on the company's current adult student enrollment percentages and identified trends and opportunities, it is recommended that Apollo Group, Inc. more aggressively pursue the domestic 46 years-and-over market which currently stands at just over 10%. As Arsenault and Anderson (1998) emphasize, "The needs, interests, and expectations of retiring baby boomers will be significantly different than those of their parents and grandparents. Future generations of elders will seek continued personal growth in their retirement years, and hence the demand for educational programs and services designed to meet the needs of older adults will intensify" (p. 27). The positive aspects of this recommendation include the fact that this segment of the American population is growing more rapidly than most others and as Arsenault and Anderson point out, "Older adult learners are in an envious position because many have the luxury of enrolling…
About Apollo Group. (2008). Apollo Group, Inc. [Online]. Available: http://www.apollogrp.edu/About.aspx.
Apollo Group profile. (2008). Yahoo! Finance. [Online]. Available: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=APOL .
Arsenault, N. & Anderson, G. (1998). New learning horizons for older adults. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 69(3), 27-28.
Dohm, a. (2000). Gauging the labor force effects of retiring baby-boomers. Monthly Labor Review, 123(7), 17.
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Companies have been progressively integrating project management practices into their operations; executive and managerial meetings have also been increasingly incorporating specialist project management language. The trend will persist and managers have to familiarize themselves with the terminology, systems and functions of project management. This paper will attempt to acquire an understanding of the constituents of each process group, and processes required to be carried out in individual groups in the course of a project. Process groups are as follows: initiating process group (2 processes); planning process group (24 processes); executing process group (8 processes); monitoring & controlling process group (11 processes); and closing process group (2 processes).
Initiating process group
PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) defines initiating processes as those conducted for outlining any new phase in a project or new project itself, through procurement of sanctions for beginning with the phase/project (Snijders, Wuttke & Zandhuis, 2013). These processes…
Project Management Institute Global Standard (2008), A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK"3° Guide), 4th edn, Project Management Institute.
Snijders, P., Wuttke, T. and Zandhuis, A. (2013), A Pocket Companion to PMI's PMBOK Guide, 5th edn, Van Haren Publishing.
Team, F. M. E. (2013). Project Management Process Groups.
adult learner, including statistics, and self-directed learning. Adult education has seen dramatic growth since the introduction of online and self-directed courses, and the numbers show it. As noted, in 1991, approximately 58 million adults participated in adult education courses, while in 1999; the number grew to 90 million. The latest figures show an even more dramatic rise in numbers. The National Center for Education Statistics indicates that by 2005, 53.9% of adults aged 16 to 64 had participated in adult education, for either business or pleasure, jumping to 133 million people (Editors, 2009).
Adult learning has taken off in the Internet age, and it is very interesting to note that the very highest percentage of adult learners returning to school, for various reasons, is the group who has already completed at least a bachelor's degree. Sixty-five percent of these adults have participated in adult education classes for business or pleasure.…
Editors. (2009). Participation. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the National Center for Education Statistics Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_370.asp .
Smith, C.B. (2009). Self-directed learning. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 at the University of Indiana Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~reading/ieo/digests/d169.html .
ise and Fall of Peoples Temple From a Group Dynamics Perspective
The paper will cover the concept of group dynamics by analyzing power, status, role, and authority with an aim to establish what was actually happening to the individuals who joined the Peoples Temple. Following Jim Jones as their leader will also be analyzed in an attempt to understand why they were willing to follow him to the grave. This paper will attempt to answer the question that most people have when they hear or remember the events that took place in Guyana. This topic is vital because it allows us to have a concrete understanding of how groups form, and how they are influenced, which would explain some of the events that have taken place in the past relating to groups and their followers.
The Peoples Temple was a religious movement that was founded by Jim Jones in 1955…
Coleman, J. A. (2013). Authority, power, leadership: Sociological understandings. New Theology Review, 10(3).
French, J. R., Raven, B., & Cartwright, D. (1959). The bases of social power. Classics of organization theory, 7.
Hofmann, D. C., & Dawson, L. L. (2014). The neglected role of charismatic authority in the study of terrorist groups and radicalization. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(4), 348-368.
Lin, N. (1999). Social networks and status attainment. Annual review of sociology, 25(1), 467-487.
Public Hearing -- Heroin Epidemic
The hearing attended for this paper was on Tuesday, August 26, from 9:30 A.M. To twelve noon. It was held at the Penn State Schuylkill, which is a campus that is part of Pennsylvania State University in Schuylkill Haven, Pennsylvania. Schuylkill Haven is located in Schuylkill County in Pennsylvania.
The purpose of the hearing was to present a formal, public discussion on a serious and growing drug problem in the county. Specifically, the hearing was focused on the serious problem in the community of heroin and opioid addiction, and what can be done about it. Also the hearing was held to discuss not just the problems of addiction -- and evidence to support that issue -- but also to bring to the audience's attention preventative measures that can be taken, or are being taken, whether adequate or not in the present context.
This was an…
Pennsylvania House. (2014). Heroin: What you need to know about Pennsylvania's Good
Samaritan Law. Retrieved April 7, 2015, from http://www.pahouse.com .
Quinn, R. (2015). Wolf: Pennsylvania state troopers to carry Narcan. Montgomery News.
Retrieved April 7, 2015, from http://www.montgomerynews.com .
Collaboration and esolution in a Special Education Class
Collaborative groups are basic to the provision of special education services. Professional collaboration eases the problem solving that is inherent to serving students with disabilities (Brownell, et al., 2006). Special education teachers and specialists possess knowledge and skills that are not resident in the population of general education teachers -- unless they have received training in special education techniques and strategies (Brownell, et al., 2006). The literature indicates that both general and special education teachers benefit from opportunities to collaborate, but sustainability research indicates that teachers benefit in different ways when they institute collaborative practice (Brownell, et al., 2006). Teachers who adapt to the demands of collaborative practice and adopt strategies that have been acquired through collaboration evidence differences in the following areas: Adapting instruction, curriculum, pedagogy, student-centered instruction, student management, and reflection on instruction (Brownell, et al., 2006).
Stakeholders in Collaborative…
Brownell, M.T., Adams, A., Sindelar, P., Waldron, N., and Vanhover, S. (2006). Learning from collaboration: The role of teacher qualities. Exceptional Children, 72(2), 169-185.
Ferguson, D.L. (2006). Working together: Groupwork, teamwork, and collaborative work among teachers. National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Retreived from http://www.urbanschools.org/pdf/OP_Work.pdf
Goddard, Y.L., Goddard, R.D., Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers College Record, 109(4), 877-896.
Guarino, C.M., Santibanez, L., & Daley, G.A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 76(2), 173-208. www.aera.net/uploadedFiles/Publications/Journals/Review_of_Educational_Research/7602/04_RER_Guarino.pdf.
The methods used to assess the quality and strength of the evidence by the National Guidelines Clearinghouse include expert consensus (alone and through committee and/or Delphi methods), subjective review, and weighting according to a rating scheme (in which the scheme may be give or not given). The methods use to collect and/or select the evidence that will be evaluated include the following: Hand-searches of published literature (primary sources and secondary sources), searches of electronic databases, and searches of patient registry data. The methods used to create, formulate, or establish the recommendations include: Informal expert consensus, expert consensus (alone, and through Delphi methods, nominal group technique, and/or consensus development conference), and balance sheets.
The guidelines comparisons of the National Guidelines Clearinghouse indicate that the rating schemes for the strength of the recommendations are derived from the weighted scheme used the developer of the guideline. These rating schemes are used…
National Institute for Health and clinical Excellence (NICE). (2012, March). Infection. Prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections in primary and community care. London (UK): National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Clinical guideline no. 139).
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2010). Report: Systems to Rate the Strength of Scientific Evidence.
Woolf, S., Schunemann, H.J., Eccles, M.P., Grimshaw, J.M., & Shekelle, P. (2012). Developing clinical practice guidelines: Types of evidence and outcomes; values and economics, synthesis, grading, and presentation and deriving recommendations. Implementation Science, 7(61). DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-7-61. Retrieved from http://www.implementationscience.com/content/7/1/61
Organizational culture theory and the role and impact of both formal and informal groups on the functioning of modern day organizations.
Organizational culture is the way organizations conducts its business transactions. It also refers to the different perspectives that a company sees things. An organization builds its own organizational culture through structure, history and the traditions of the company (Shafritz 2005). Theories of organizational culture suggest that culture gives an organization a sense of identity and defines what the company stands for. It also tells us what the company is. Culture also gives details to the principles of the company. Organizational culture in broader terms is the collective behavior of humans and the meaning of the actions that people do.
It involves the vision, norms, systems, beliefs and the organization values. Organizational culture contains values accepted by the employees of an organization. There are four main categories of organizational culture.…
Men and women perform different tasks in the society. There are tasks that women cannot do whereas the men are competent. Other tasks are hard for men to perform while the same tasks are easy for the women. The changing world enables women to work in the fields that many people regarded as belonging to the men. Women are now working in construction companies as a form of employment. The tasks affect positively in a bureaucratic performance since women incorporate their skills with that of men to work towards the achievement of an organization's goal. Strong and good working relationships between the employees in a bureau are beneficial (Gormley 2008). The strong relationships ensure that there is competence and effectiveness in performance of the employees.
Political support is crucial for any bureaucracy to thrive. Political stability and support are the main determinant factor that will enable a bureaucracy to thrive in its activities. Political support enables the bureaucracy to work without any hurdles. This ensures that the bureaucracy works with ease. Political support enables the bureaucracy to receive help and assistance from politicians (Gormley 2008). Political interference is the main factor that leads to the collapse of bureaucracy. Negative working relations between a bureau and politicians are a negative factor that will make the bureau not to function accordingly.
Good leadership helps bureaus to work effectively. Good leadership ensures that there are no corruption cases in many bureaus (Gormley 2008). Bad leadership results in the misappropriation of funds and corruption in the bureaus. Good leadership is a motivator to the junior staffs who look up to the leaders and follow the examples set up by the leaders. This enables the employees in the bureau to perform excellently in all sectors. Good governance and leadership by the officials enable the organization to get funding from the government that helps it in carrying outs its tasks.
The closed meetings would consist of 15 or fewer members, would be conducted on a weekly basis for approximately 2 hours in a private university classroom or meeting area, and informed consent, eligibility screening and other relevant issues would be addressed in a meeting to be conducted prior to the first formal group meeting.
Possible Social Change Impact
The possible impact of this initiative is difficult to gauge without a comprehensive longitudinal study of the participants involved; however, the importance of regaining lost self-esteem and a sense of self-worth to each person is immeasurable.
Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2006). Groups: Process and practice (Seventh Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Markey, C.N., & Markey, P.M. (2005). elations between body image and dieting behaviors: An examination of gender differences. Sex oles: A Journal of esearch, 53(7-8), 519.
Winter, M. (2005). Obesity shows…
Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2006). Groups: Process and practice (Seventh Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Markey, C.N., & Markey, P.M. (2005). Relations between body image and dieting behaviors: An examination of gender differences. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(7-8), 519.
Winter, M. (2005). Obesity shows socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities. Human Ecology, 33(3), 21.
conservative orientation in Public Administration, a concern with order, stability and continuity. I'm not sure that's all bad."
The above statement addresses one of the central concerns - and in many ways the central paradox - of public administration, both in the practice and in the study of this field. A society that is overly resistant to change stagnates. A species that does not adapt to changing environmental and competitive conditions will decline and even become extinct; this is true of societies as well. There must be change, or there will be decline and death.
But just as lack of change can be terribly damaging if not lethal to a society, too much change can also be dangerous. Societies that prosper are those that allow for change within an established structure - and both the change and the structure are important. (This does assume, of course, that the structure is…
subordination of labor" a necessary condition for establishing an employment relationship? Are there other necessary conditions?
The capitalist take-over of production was at first merely formal. Capitalists took control of production methods via ownership and employed workers in their privately owned factories. Workers agreed to labor for the owners, because they believed that this was a more financially and socially beneficial relationship than working for their own farms, on their own privately owned land. The formal subordination of labor to capital thus is necessary in a situation of private enterprise, where labor can be rented cheaply to work on preexisting property owned by capitalists.
Why is the "real subordination of labor" described as a fundamental aspect of management? How does the unique nature of the human factor make this form of subordination problematic?
It is only later, in part under the pressure of workers' struggles, when capitalists begin to invest…
The mixture of public and private endeavors and effects that many bureaucracies, especially those related directly or indirectly to various governments, has made this effect even more apparent, to the point that many bureaucracies can be seen as almost wholly subservient to their client in ways beyond the traditional assumptions of supply and demand. This can make network organization, especially in mixed public-private endeavors, far more complicated and essential than it already is for most bureaucracies.
The resistance to change that many bureaucracies possess due to their size and complexity is actually a strength in an increasingly volatile world. The intense level of network organization which can be seen as a reducer of efficiency also ensures that undue and repetitive change are less likely to occur, thus forming two positives out of bureaucratic aspects that are generally viewed as negatives. This size and complexity also gives bureaucracies a broader…
This became a major roadblock for the project with opposing views on the problem.
Finally, the manager spoke to the client and explained the situation. They agreed to extend the due date by a couple of months and the developers and testers felt that time was good enough to make the changes. So, communication helped to clear this stand-off between the team members.
Leadership style of the manager
The manager followed a democratic style of leadership. According to Daft (2007, p.44), "A democratic leader delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates' knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence." This is the exact approach that was followed by my manager and it proved to be effective. He could manage the entire project and could communicate easily with those located in different parts of the world.
Such a style of leadership was comfortable for all…
Daft, Richard. L. (2007). The Leadership Experience. Publication: Cengage Learning.
Hartley, Peter. Bruckmann, Clive. G. (2002). Business Communication. Publication: Psychology Press.
It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…
American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org: http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm
Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
team consists of a group of individuals who share a common goal or a common reason for joining the group (Chapter 9 p.2). A college classroom resembles a formal group more than a team because the individual group members do not necessarily share a common goal and typically, they are all interested in their own individual goals and the benefits they hope to achieve by their participation rather than sharing an common interest or goal that they hope to pursue for the benefit of the group (Chapter 10 p.5).
There are only very loose parallels between work teams and college classroom groups. For example, college classrooms may evolve through a forming stage (Chapter 9 p.6); and individual members of the class may establish roles and identities (Chapter 9 pp. 8-9) such as contributors and non-contributors to discussions. Otherwise, college classrooms share little with traditional teams, mainly because teams tend to…
Military life and civilian life differ in key ways, and these differences affect families in particular. Since September 11, there have been higher rates of deployment and a correspondingly increased rate of family stress and domestic abuse. Deployment and the stressors associated therewith are especially important to understand. A review of literature shows that PTSD and other problems are linked to increased rates of abuse among military families. esearch also shows that abuse can be prevented, whether or not PTSD exists. The ways to prevent abuse include developing resilience. esilience includes a range of coping mechanisms that help parents be more able to deal with change and uncertainty. Parents can then pass on these traits to their children. Developing a strong social network has been proven especially helpful in both military and civilian families. Both civilian and military parents benefit from the development of resilience, coping skills, and…
Bursch, B. & Lester, P. (2011). The long war comes home: mitigating risk and promoting resilience in military children and families. Psychiatric Times 28.7 (July 2011): p26.
Chandra, A. & London, A.S. (2013). Unlocking insights about military children and families.
"Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully," (2014). MilitaryOneSource. 22 Feb, 2014.
Masten, A.S. (2013). Afterword: what we can learn from military children and famliies. The Future of Children 23(2): Fall 2013.