Formative Assessment Essays (Examples)

View Full Essay

Formative Mathematical Assessments

Words: 4585 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84627369

Group Activities as Formative Assessment in Mathematics Classroom

The modern educational system is characterized by an increase demand for accountability and high-stakes testing. The demand for such accountability and testing is demonstrated in the quest for the use of summative assessments that provide a summary of the learning progress of students. Generally, the push for increased accountability and high-stakes testing has contributed to the use of different kinds of assessments that are administered at the state, district, school, and national levels. The use of these various kinds of assessments is not only geared towards realization of increased accountability but also act as a means for comparing and ranking students and schools. An example of the type of assessments that can be used in this process is formative assessments for various topics such as mathematics. Formative assessments are defined as systematic procedures of collecting evidence regarding students' learning to inform teaching…… [Read More]


Benjamin, A. (2013). Math in plain English: literacy strategies for the mathematics classroom.

New York, NY: Routledge.

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998, March). Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 1-65.

Callingham, R. (2010). Mathematics Assessment in Primary Classrooms: Making it Count.
View Full Essay

Assessment Strategies K 12 Nationally

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95793614

President X of Education:

Even proponents of high-stakes standardized testing for grades K-12 have argued that such tests should be only one measure amongst many to validate the effectiveness of a school or student. Yet the emphasis placed upon such tests in determining school ratings and the increasing proportion of the day devoted to preparing for such exams has inevitably fostered teaching to the test rather than teaching higher-level concepts. There are concerns as well that students are being placed largely due to their scores based solely on a single result on a high-stakes state test (Hamilton, Halverson, Jackson, Mandinach, Supovitz, & Wayman16). Furthermore, the pressure on many teachers to demonstrate that students are performing well as a collective group often causes them to focus unduly upon 'bubble' students (students who are just below the cutoff) rather than raising the academic performance of the class as a while (Hamilton, et…… [Read More]


"Appropriate use of high-stakes testing in our nation's schools." APA. Web.

21 Nov 2015.

Breakstone, J., Smith, M., & Wineburg, S. "Beyond the bubble: New

history/social studies assessments for the Common Core." Phi Delta Kappan.
View Full Essay

Teaching Allows Learning and Assessment for Those

Words: 2519 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97759434

teaching allows learning and assessment for those that are my learners, as a painting and decorating tutor with the view to self-develop and progress. e will learn how to make the most of and inspire learning and how diversity and fairness play a significant part for both teachers and learners.

Most would probably know that assessment is getting the measurement of the learners' reaction to understanding and competence in teaching instruction (Curzon pg 383). In the job as a painter and decorating tutor, assessment are very important and foremost, as in the way learners are measured against usual standards prior to exams and attaining combined standing. My proficient and personal thoughts upon assessments are that as a teacher we need to be able to utilize various of methods and skills that will be employed to inspire and really keep learners motivated while giving feedback that is constructive in allowing them…… [Read More]

Works Cited

APPLEYARD, N. a. (2010). Communicating with Learners in the LifeLong Sector. Glasglow: Learning Matters.

BLACK, P. a. (2010, May 13). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment, Phi Delta Kappan. Retrieved from 

COWLEY, S. (2008, March). Teaching Skills For Dummies. Atlanta: Cowans Publishing.

CURZON, L. (2006). Teaching in Further Education, an Outline of Principles and Practice. Oxford: 6th Edition. Continuum.
View Full Essay

Clinical Assessment of Learners Clinical Assessment Involves

Words: 2688 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35872340

Clinical Assessment of Learners

Clinical assessment involves the evaluation of technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, knowledge base, and teaching skills, where applicable, of students who are about to enter independent practice. Technological changes have made it possible to assess clinical performance in ways that are far more advanced than pencil and paper tests relied on in the past (Dauphinee, 1995). In the late 1970s, clinical training programs utilized continuous practical assessments to evaluate learner competencies and as means of providing formative assessment feedback. These continuous practical assessments were considered to be "a much more valid, reliable, and realistic method of assessment" (Quinn, 1989). As clinical placements grew shorter and the number of staff, including those with "supernumerary status" grew larger, the quality of continuous practical assessments was substantively impaired (Girot, 1993). The goal of assessment has always been to identify a "competent practitioner" and to support the educational efforts required…… [Read More]


Andrews, M. And Chilton, F. (2000) Student and mentor perceptions of mentoring effectiveness, Nurse Education Today, 20 (7), 555-562.

Atkins, S. And Williams, A. (1995) Registered nurses' experiences of mentoring undergraduate nursing students, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21, 1006-1015.

Cahill, H.A. (1996) A qualitative analysis of student nurses' experiences of mentorship,

Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(4), 791-799.
View Full Essay

Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Words: 1743 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47845156

Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Differentiated instruction and assessment recognizes that the individual needs, strengths and weaknesses of students must drive learning (Wormeli, 2007). Changing the outcomes of traditional lesson plans to account for differentiated learning is a fundamental part of ensuring student success. Each student's readiness, interest and learning profile is at the core of this approach. Students are diverse; therefore, instructional and assessment practices should be as well, to improve student outcomes in all content areas.

Many teachers design lessons that have a set of specific learning objectives and standardized assessments for students. However, today's learning models ask teachers to adopt multiple objectives and use different levels of assessment for more individualized learning (Dobbertin, 2012). Differentiation of process, then, refers to the way in which a student accesses material (i.e., one student may explore a learning center, while another may conduct an online search for information).…… [Read More]


Dobbertin, C. (2012). Just How I Need to Learn It. Educational Leadership, 69(5), 66-70

Forsten, Char, Grant, J., & Hollas, B. (2003). Differentiating Textbooks: Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension & Motivation. New Hampshire: Crystal Springs Books.

Heacox, Diane. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing.

Painter, D.D. (2009). Providing Differentiated Learning Experiences Through Multigenre Projects. Intervention in School & Clinic, 44(5), 288-293.
View Full Essay

Educational Assessment Research Bowen G L

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79682554

Formative assessment gives teachers the opportunity to provide students with feedback in time to improve learning. Fluckiger, Vigil, Pasco & Danielson (2010) describe several techniques to provide formative feedback to students more frequently and to involve them more fully in the process. Although their techniques were developed specifically to enhance the learning experiences of postsecondary students across a variety of disciplines, teachers of students at all levels can adapt the ideas to their classrooms. Their goals are to "give feedback in time for revisions to occur, provide scaffolding for learners, inform instruction, and most importantly, involve students as partners in assessment" (Fluckiger et al., p. 140). The researchers believe their techniques result in improved instruction, enhanced student learning and better student products. Helping to build a productive classroom climate in which the emphasis is on learning, not grades achieved. Instructors can improve assessments by incorporating both formative and summative assessments…… [Read More]

Study Island. (2011). Retrieved from 

Tasdemir, M. (2010). The effects of REAP reading comprehension technique on students'

success. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 38 (4), 553-560.
View Full Essay

Constitutes Assessment Why Is Assessment

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15338758

"Summative assessments happen too far down the learning path to provide information at the classroom level and to make instructional adjustments and interventions during the learning process. It takes formative assessment to accomplish this" (Formative and summative assessments, 2010, NMSA). Yet summative assessment, such as midterms, finals, and standardized state tests, are a part of life that must be dealt with. These assessments are extremely important because of their influence on district funding, and also administrators and parents' perceptions that the tests measure whether the school is doing its job or not, and conveying a good education to students. It is difficult not to become obsessed with them, given that one's performance as a teacher and quality as an educator is viewed through the rubric of standardized assessment.

The challenge for a teacher is to prepare students for the summative, standardized assessments they must cope with as a part of…… [Read More]


Formative and summative assessments. (2010). National Middle School Association (NMSA).

Retrieved February 15, 2011 at
View Full Essay

Mathematics Assessment

Words: 1864 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35582929

Mathematics is closely connected to economics, commerce and business modelling, as well as systems for military weapons. Due to the widespread of its use, it was noted that students in the U.S. were beginning to perform a little worse in mathematics than children from other countries worldwide. Mathematical knowledge among citizens was considered a very important factor for a country to be a leading world power. Assessment activities have been a continuing focus of academic research for more than twenty-five years. In that period, there have been new tools developed. In addition, the curriculum has shifted its focus to the results of learning. The shift of focus in the theory of learning to constructivism from behaviourism has greatly influenced the learning and teaching of mathematics. Conventional tests are only centred on the mathematical procedures and skills of students. Thus, application of authentic tools for assessment to measure the learning of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

ELL Students Appropriate Assessments to

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96639273

These assessment techniques may include open-ended or closed survey questions, interviews, structured observations by the teacher in the learning environment, and performance-based assignments like writing portfolios or role-plays ("Document ELL Progress," 2008, ELL ebsite).

hat are the benefits of using alternative assessments for ELL students? For native English speakers?

For ELL students, particularly those whose written proficiency has not yet matched their oral proficiency, alternative assessment techniques give the student additional ways to show the teacher what they know, and also to gain more social confidence in the English language. However, all students have unique learning styles and can benefit from the creativity and enthusiasm these assessment methods generate. Additionally, these techniques can also bring the different intelligences of some neglected talents to light, such as performing. They encourage students to use the concepts that are being taught in class, and help the teacher establish a more on-on-one relationship with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Academic & social English for ELL students: Assessing both with the Stanford English

Language Proficiency Test." (2003, Sept). Harcourt Assessment, Inc. Retrieved 27 Mar 2008 at 

Document ELL Progress." ELL Website. Job Corps. Retrieved 27 Mar 2008 at
View Full Essay

Teacher Performance Assessment

Words: 5549 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89356313

Teacher Performance Assessment

Lesson Title: Science

Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about

State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.

Lesson Objectives and Language Demands

• Content/Skill Objectives:

Students should state the definition of science

Students should discuss the various science methodologies

Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists

Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life

Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.

Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.

• Key Vocabulary:

Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods

esources and Materials

• esources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.

• Materials: worksheets, games, projector, Smartboard, paper, pencils, art supplies, cards, post- its, etc.)

NOTE: Attach and/or embed…… [Read More]


Edelson Daniel (2001). Learning-for-use: A framework for the design of technology-supported inquiry activities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Volume 38, Issue 3. Pages 355 -- 385.

Pappas Christoforos (2014). Instructional Design Models and Theories: Inquiry-based Learning Model.
View Full Essay

Teacher Performance assessment

Words: 5567 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97655163

Lesson Plan

Grade Level: 7th Grade Subject: Science

Number of Students: 4 Date: Instructional Location: Classroom

Lesson Goals

• Lesson Title: Science

Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about

State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.

Lesson Objectives and Language Demands

• Content/Skill Objectives:

Students should state the definition of science

Students should discuss the various science methodologies

Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists

Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life

Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.

Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.

• Key Vocabulary:

Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods

Resources and Materials

• Resources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.

• Materials:…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Authentic Assessment Religion Studies in

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5279592

Students should be graded upon 'deep learning' as well as factual retrieval in this final phase. Unlike formative learning assessment, in a summative assessment, the students must be fully engaged with the material at this phase and can use it in a non-directive fashion. Assessment learning principles stress the need for learning to be demonstrated in a 'real life' context and to apply those principles. Writing an essay about the gospel stories or explaining how the lessons of the various gospels might be useful in their own lives is two examples of how authentic assessment might take place in a religion classroom in a summative fashion.

The advantages of Grajczonek's process of authentic assessment are that it takes into consideration different learning styles. if, during the assessment for learning phase, students have difficulty visualizing the difference between the gospel narratives, a teacher might make a list of all of the…… [Read More]


Grajczonek, J. (2007). An authentic approach to assessment in the religion program. In M. Ryan & J. Grajczonek (Eds.). An inspired tradition: Religious education in Catholic primary schools today. Brisbane: Lumino Press.
View Full Essay

Evaluating Nursing Education Assessment Tools

Words: 2195 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47398683

Nursing Education Assessment Project

Coursework early in a nursing education program covers a broad range of topics and extensive amount of details must be committed to memory. Assessments that are directly tied to coursework are primarily formative assessments, which demonstrate the ongoing learning over the period of the course. Formative assessments generally take the form of quizzes and clinical demonstrations of a particular knowledge set recently covered in during a class or classes. ummative assessments are generally used at the end of a course to assess the overall learning that has taken place during the course; summative assessments include final exams or tests, practicum demonstrations, and capstone projects.

The focus of this assessment project is a formative criterion-referenced test of general, fundamental nursing education knowledge. The items used in the test are included in Appendix A -- Nursing Education -- Fundamental Concepts. Twelve individuals were approached to take the exam…… [Read More]



Armstrong, P. (2015). Bloom's Taxonomy. Nashville, TN: Center for Learning, Vanderbilt University.
View Full Essay

The Differences Between Assessments and Testing in Education

Words: 1076 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39830863

Education -- Multimedia Questions

Reflections on Videos and eb Sites

Open Society Foundations: Early Childhood Intervention: The Power of Family

I was surprised by: the comment that the first 3 years of knowledgeable family involvement are especially important and that plasticity (the ability to change) is mostly in the first 3 years; and that waiting for diagnosis and conscious family involvement in helping the "delayed" child could mean loss of the critical first few months, which could mean actually waiting too long to most effectively help children (Open Society Foundations, 2013). The web site featuring this video is at

Center for Parent Information and Resources website on Parent Participation in the Early Years

In reviewing this web site, I was surprised that seeking an evaluation for possible early intervention is readily available in the community and can sought through contact with several sources, including: the local hospital's pediatrics branch…… [Read More]

Works Cited

CEN Videos. (n.d.). Early Years and Parent Involvement. Retrieved from

Center for Parent Information and Resources. (2014, March). Overview of Early Intervention. Retrieved from 

Colorin colorado. (n.d.). Assessment of English Language Learners. Retrieved from 

Corwin. (2009, September 14). Morgo Gottlieb - Assessing English Language Learners. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

The Four Corners Assessment Strategy

Words: 1040 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67676950


The four corners strategy is a technique that's used to move students away from their desks. It has been noted that some students absorb lesson content better when they are on the move. All a teacher needs to do to apply the four corners strategy is to label a room that's used by the class. Each corner of the room is to have a label. The first and second corners should be labeled agree and strongly agree respectively, while the third and fourth should be labeled disagree and strongly disagree. The teacher should then read a factual statement from the lesson content and ask learners to move to the corners of their choice with regard to the statement that has been made by the teacher. Allow learners to deliberate on the reasons that compel them to take the stand they have on the statement. Once the deliberations are over,…… [Read More]


Four Corners. (2016). Retrieved from The Teacher Toolkit: 

Regier, N. (2012). 60 Formative Assessment Strategies. Regier Educational Resources.

Schoenerr, A. B. (2016). Four Corners Teaching Strategy. Retrieved from ehow:
View Full Essay

Personalized learning assessment

Words: 876 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95668939

Since this personalized learning plan under construction is meant to be as practical as possible, it is guided mainly by two theories as previously mentioned; the Multiple Intelligence theory and constructivism. Constructivism theory in this instructional unit considers learning as an active and constructive process. On the other hand the Multiple Intelligence Theory in this unit will focus on logical-mathematical intelligence since students will use knowledge from the learning material to engage in reasoning and critical thinking for problem solving (Philips H., 2010).

The assessment will assume three main approaches; a pre-test, a formative check, and a summative assessment.

Pre-test assessment

This will aim at finding out what the students know and what they do not know in the mathematical application. It is a determination of pre-existing subject knowledge. This assessment will be done through administered test to the targeted students and observation of how they attempt to apply the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment

Words: 841 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48546988

Teachers Program

Area of Study

Teachers in their first few years in the classroom face a number of challenges - so many that often they are overwhelmed and find that they enthusiasm that originally drew them to the arena of teaching quickly begins to wane. Some even leave the profession altogether. In recognition of this fact that new teachers often come into the classroom without the necessary support and skills that will help them to succeed, a number of school districts (along with other organizations such as teachers' unions) have developed programs that help teachers begin in their first years in the classroom to gain a sense of mastery in their chosen profession. This research focuses on one particular such program, Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) program. Designed for teachers with fewer than three years of teaching experience, the BTSA has helped some teachers gain a surer footing in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Reflection on Assessment Competencies for School Leadership

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30167639

Assessment Competencies
Assessment in education is referred to a range of tools or methods used by educators to measure, document and evaluate the academics readiness, skill acquisition, progress and learning needs of students. The tracking progress report plays an important role to the student since it gauges where they are heading in terms of academics. Assessment is often likened to the traditional standardized tests but educators nowadays, use different types of assessment tools or methods. In the past, normal tests were the way to go when assessing students. That has changes over the years. According to (Xu, 2016) teacher assessment literacy has defined the field of research. Educators have come up with innovative ways to ensure that none of the traditional ways sees the light of day. Assessment involves a holistic evaluation of students or a leader. The result should bring a positive impact on the lives of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Importance of Technology in Assessments

Words: 1119 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45522050

Leadership in 21st Century Support Systems

Conducting learning activities without assessing the success of those activities is like driving a vehicle without a clean windshield and a rear-view mirror. The instructor can still steer, put on the gas and brakes, but if the instructor cannot clearly see the road ahead and what is behind, this could be an exercise in futility, leaving learning by the roadside. Indeed, assessments have become a pivotal component to learning in the 21st century. Moreover, innovative technologies specifically designed to address student outcomes enhance the instructor's ability to present effective lessons. The following two units illustrate how technology can be integrated into the classroom to support 21st century learning and skills, and how innovative teaching strategies can stir interest in subjects for diverse student populations.

edesigned Lesson -- Effective Assessment

The 11th grade lesson in eligion class was originally related to learning about Hinduism, how…… [Read More]


Brengard, A. (2014). Creating a Culture for Deep Change: It's the Team that Counts.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 9(20).

Burnaford, G., and Brown, T. (2014). Teaching and learning in 21st century learning environments: A Reader. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Kirchner, N, Reilly, M., and Rohrbaugh, M. (2014). Games: The Heart of a Transformed
View Full Essay

External Quality Assurance of Assessment Explain the

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34031660

External Quality Assurance of Assessment

Explain the Functions of External Quality Assurance of Assessments in Learning and Development

The primary goal for conducting a visit for the purpose of providing a quality assurance assessment of learning and development, it is essential to determine that the learner needs have been identified. The assessor should exit the initial assessment visit with a clear idea of what the learner is expected to know and what gaps exist between those objectives and the present functioning of the leaner. Prior to visiting the actual site where the assessment will be conducted, the assessor can elect to review information about the vocation itself, the demands of the workplace, and the learner's development profile. The planning stage also provides opportunity for the assessor to articulate how both formative and summative assessment can occur. This is the point at which the assessor determines if simulation of work skills…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Student Assessment What Is the Most Appropriate

Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26020345

Student Assessment

hat is the most appropriate way to assess student achievement? The commission of the National Middle School Assessment of student achievement suggests "authentic assessment refers to evaluation that makes use of real life tasks instead of contrived test items." (NMSA, 2000) In other words, rather than focus on testing students more, a greater interest and study of effective teaching practices are better employed in further research regarding education. The National Middle School Assessment Authentic assessment also suggests that while standardized testing may occasionally function as a rough means of evaluating all children, such as identifying children with possible special needs, assessment in a truly learner-centered classroom will vary. "Examples of types of assessment are performance tasks, portfolios, student self-assessment surveys and probes, peer assessments, journals, logs, products, and projects. Successful assessment improves learning, instruction and program effectiveness." (NMS 2000, citing Donald, 1997) In my own school district, located…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ellis, Edwin & Lou Anne Worthington, Martha J. Larkin. (2005) "Executive Summary of the Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators." Area of Teacher Education, Programs in Special Education University of Alabama Report. Retrieved 23 Oct 2005

'Executive Summary." (2001) Child Left Behind Act' of 2001. Summary of research retrieved 23 Oct 2005
View Full Essay

Transition Assessments an A-B-C Analysis

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71277124

Depending on the child's abilities and self-awareness, these could include avoidance of triggers, self-soothing strategies, and learning to process the feelings and choose more healthy alternative responses. Results of the -B-C assessment can be shared with other educators and parents and can assist in the planning of the next set of goals in the student's education plan.

second assessment strategy is monitoring achievement in the classroom. s shown in the short video available through the IRIS Center (, test scores alone do not give teachers enough information about why their students are struggling and what kind of interventions would be effective in helping them. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) on student progress can be used to inform instruction, estimate and then document student progress, and share information about student progress with parents and other educators.

The CBM process requires that the teacher first select appropriate tests (probes) for the students' grade and…… [Read More]

A second assessment strategy is monitoring achievement in the classroom. As shown in the short video available through the IRIS Center ( ), test scores alone do not give teachers enough information about why their students are struggling and what kind of interventions would be effective in helping them. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) on student progress can be used to inform instruction, estimate and then document student progress, and share information about student progress with parents and other educators.

The CBM process requires that the teacher first select appropriate tests (probes) for the students' grade and skill levels. As the school year progresses, students are given similar items on probes and should get more of these items correct as learning takes place. Probes must be administered on a regular basis, whether that is weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly, and must be scored the same way each time. In the third step of the process, the teacher graphs the results, providing a visual that is easy and quick to use, both for students and teachers. The graphs can also help with goal-setting, which is the final step in the process.

CBM serves as both formative and summative assessments. The formative aspect allows the teacher to change instruction in response to a student's needs. It allows students, educators and parents to focus on current achievements and deficits. The summative aspect allows student, teacher and parent to see what the student has accomplished over the entire year. It is an important component in goal-setting for the next academic year.
View Full Essay

Nature of Assessment and Measurable

Words: 1509 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8081621

These are not fluff but can greatly impact on how one may function in society, so it is crucial that one grasps how to put together an objective and one strives to do it well. Ultimately, the choice is up to the teacher, student and school in order to determine the ways in which to handle an objective and to do it in an effective manner for everyone to succeed. People are precious when it comes to teaching, and the teacher does everything possible to please everyone through the day-to-day activities.


North Carolina Medical Socieety. (2011). Writing objectives: a guide. etrieved April 5, 2011,

from NCMS Department of Education Services:

/ncms_accreditation/Objectives.doc+why+are+measurable+objectives+important&hl=en &gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjw2DWGoajjzt9D4toSduI9qq9wE1pJo96gJ6OESPEJ


Project Smart. (2011). Setting measurable project objectives. etrieved April 5, 2011, from Project Smart:

Wichita Collegiate School. (2011). Wichita Collegiate School. etrieved April 6, 2011, from WCKS:

Wixson, Karen and Sheila Valencia. "Assessment…… [Read More]


North Carolina Medical Socieety. (2011). Writing objectives: a guide. Retrieved April 5, 2011,

from NCMS Department of Education Services: 

/ncms_accreditation/Objectives.doc+why+are+measurable+objectives+important&hl=en &gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjw2DWGoajjzt9D4toSduI9qq9wE1pJo96gJ6OESPERJ
View Full Essay

Education Project-Based Assessment Project-Based Learning Pbl by

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60358079


Project-Based Assessment

Project-Based Learning (PBL), by design, lends itself to differentiated instruction. It uses a student-centric approach-- an extended learning process that incorporates inquiry and challenge to stimulate the growth and mastery of skills (Prescott, 2012). PBL allows teachers great flexibility in meeting the needs of students, handling assessments and managing daily instruction. As brought out by the course videos, teamwork and collaboration occurs regularly in PBL projects. Students of different academic performance levels often have a chance to learn from and teach one another. Differentiation critical in these multi-intelligence team settings and the PBL model not only allows students to learn in the format best suited to them, ultimately they are afforded a chance to reflect on their work and set goals for further learning. Instruction becomes personalized and targeted, which is much more engaging than standardized teaching approaches and strict lesson plans.

Benefits of PBL to students…… [Read More]


Heitin, L. (2012). Project-Based Learning Helps At-Risk Students. Education Week, 31(29), 8-9.

Markham, T. (2011). Project-Based Learning. Teacher Librarian, 39(2), 38-42.

Prescott, J. (2012). Inspired Teacher, Inspired Ideas. Instructor, 121(5), 34-40.
View Full Essay

Distinguish Terms 'Criterion -- Referenced Assessment' 'Norm-Referenced

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71777384

Distinguish terms 'criterion -- referenced assessment' 'norm-referenced assessment'.

obert Glaser's 1963 paper "Instructional Technology and the Measurement of Learning Outcomes" marked a watershed in psychometrics, the measurement of educational effectiveness. Glaser's innovation came through classifying two particular means of comparing test outcomes, and his definitions continue to drive controversial change in the provision of education across the United States to this day. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 represents the maturation of a very concrete and nationwide movement toward what Glaser termed "criterion-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 7), the measurement of individual student test results against absolute scores intended to demonstrate mastery of coursework, as opposed to "norm-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 8), which rank students' mastery of coursework relative to each other. Both types of measurement are used for different purposes at the same time, often with the same instrument (Popham and Husek 1969, p. 19), even…… [Read More]

Referenced Assessment

Critical appraisals of both norm- and criterion-referenced assessment are as diverse as they are strident (Camara 2007, p. 2). These criticisms arise on both macro- or meta-systemic levels in reference to federal efforts to harmonize proficiency across states in this country by 2013-2014 (California Department of Education 2010, p. 1) even while different states and districts within states measure for different outcomes beyond federal proficiency growth. Neil et al. outline a list of student-centric or what I will call
View Full Essay

Instructional Leadership and Professional Development Plan Assessment

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57355042

Instructional leadership and professional development are some of the most important components towards enhancing the effectiveness of teachers with regards to learning outcomes and achievement of the required educational standards. This is primarily because instructional leadership and professional development are focused on student learning and achievement. School districts are increasingly recognizing the need to promote instructional leadership and professional development of educators in order to enhance student learning and achievement. Paterson Public School considers instructional leadership and professional development as the basic vehicles for generating the desired change in teaching practice, which in turn helps in enhancing learning outcomes and student achievement. As a result, the school utilizes several measures for conducting needs assessment in relation to instructional leadership and professional development. This paper examines the evaluation instruments utilized by Paterson Public School for needs assessment on instructional leadership and professional development.
Evaluation Instruments at Paterson Public School

Paterson Public…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

The Socratic Method of Teaching English

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95083842

Formative Assessment

he methods that I have used in my practice include informal techniques, such as written reflections, surveys, and checks for understanding, and formal techniques, such as in-class activities, quizzes, and team-based learning methodology, which is a class deliverable that assesses accountability among individuals and groups. Summative assessments have also been used by me, such as with exams, written papers and portfolio exercises.

hus my reaction to the statement that "formative assessment cannot be done to the students but must be done with them" rings particularly true as it is always my goal and aim in teaching to enable my students to become independent learners. My view of education is like teaching a person to fish: catching the fish for them only feeds them for a day, but teaching them to fish feeds them for a lifetime. his is how education is in my perspective.

herefore, the outline of…… [Read More]

Therefore, the outline of methodologies that I would employ when teaching in order to assess learning and enable students to become independent learners, is found in the usage of formative assessments in which I am engaged with my students throughout the process. A large part of my assessment technique is rooted in the Socratic method, which encourages dialogue between teacher and student and obliges the student to work through problems and challenges on his/her own while being guided by the teacher, just as Socrates did with his students. He would suggest an argument or idea and bounce it off his students, who would then be encouraged by him to express their thoughts on the idea, whether or not they agreed with it, for example, and then he would dissect their responses in a reasonable and logical way, and ask them whether or not they agreed with his assessment of their responses. This form of back-and-forth would go on until the topic would reach a stage in which universal principles could be applied and a greater truth or idea could be enunciated, which would serve as a guide for future thinking. Arriving at this point was part of the process of involvement for Socrates and it is the essence of what I try to do with my students and what Marshall and William (2006) identify in their argument that formative assessment must be done with the students as opposed to done to them.

Thus, for written reflections, I would prompt the students to write about a theme or a concept discussed in class and these would be switched with their peers in class and critiqued. But I too would also critique the papers so that not only they were critiquing but also the teacher was guiding the process. The end objective was to move the students to a position where they could write efficiently on their own and flesh out their arguments consistently and effectively.

Written reflection would be followed by performance assessment and personal communication. It helps the student, in my view, to think more clearly and effectively if he/she can personally communicate ideas. This builds confidence and encourages the student to actively think "on his toes" so to speak especially in a classroom setting. It helps the student to also overcome shyness and block out distractions. Selected response would be interwoven throughout this assessment model, coming at the beginning, middle and end as a way to evaluate that the students have achieved mastery of the core skills, and thus this methodology reinforces the overall development of learning that the other methodologies -- written reflection, performance assessment and personal communication -- help to cultivate.
View Full Essay

Total Assessment Tool Package to Measure

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64758492

g., students, instruction, program, or system), and the complexity of the units being evaluated (Billings & Halstead, 2012).


Develop a timeline and action plan.

A timeline and action plan for the re-accreditation visit is presented in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Timeline and action plan for re-accreditation visit


TIME (MONTHS) (2012-2014)

3rd Qtr 2012

4th Qtr 2012

1st Qtr 2013

2nd Qtr 2013

3rd Qtr 2013

4th Qtr 2013

1st Qtr 2014

2nd Qtr 2014

3rd Qtr 2014


Evaluation of past accreditation results





Identification of problem areas based on past accreditation visits




Creation of QA committees to evaluate current status




emedial steps for any deficient practice areas





Mock re-accreditation inspection



Evaluation of mock inspection results for further opportunities for improvement




What are the evaluation obstacles facing your nursing…… [Read More]


Billings, D.M. & J.A. Halstead. (2012). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (4th ed.). St.

Louis: Saunders.

Iwasiw, C., Goldenberg, D., & Andrusyszyn, M. (2009). Curriculum development in nursing

education (2nd ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett.
View Full Essay

Ratio and Use Ratio Language

Words: 810 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68731953

Have students explain their model to their group, particularly how each method means the same but might be more appropriate in certain situations. This can be done in small, medium and large groups, and also allows students to improve communication skills.

6. On a given worksheet, allow students to peer assess their performance, then meet and discuss the results and ways to improve. By reviewing other student's performance, sometimes the individual weaknesses one student may have are mitigated. This changes the way students often approach a problem, as well as engendering empathy skills.

7. Think-Pair- Share -- at the think stage, instructor asks a question and asks students to think about it for a few minutes, writing notes, etc. If needed. Then students pair up to discuss their approach to the problem; finally, students share with the class in a communications interaction activity. The sharing and pairing often provide differing…… [Read More]


Fisher, D. (2007). Checking for Understanding. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Press.

Hall, K. And Burke, W. (2004). Making Formative Assessment Work. New York: Open University Press.

Keeley, P. And Tobey, C. (2011). Mathematics Formative Assessments; 75 Practical

Strategies for Linking Assessment, Instruction and Learning. New York:
View Full Essay

Omnivore's Dilemma Popham on Level

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92627856

Allowing the students to "choose" the lesson, both empowers them and allows them a more engaging learning experience.

Part 3 -- Questioning - Ineffective questioning typically asks for a rote memorization paradigm, as opposed to a more robust use of higher-level questions designed to go beyond the text and make the issue relevant, personal, and interesting. Instead, look at the learning target and formulate questions that will continually guide the students towards discovering answers -- not the answer. Use nonverbal clues such as nodding, eye contact, moving around the classroom. Continually ask students "why," or follow up on another student's answer with, "Mary thought this, in your situation, what would you say?" In effect, if the teacher can take Bloom's taxonomy of learning, and simply superimpose that on every lesson (certainly not using every issue every time), but more of a method of moving to evaluation, analysis, and synthesis; the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Early Childhood Special Education Lesson

Words: 2192 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91801311

[I also had my students write how they would say it out loud when naming it. Example: "Line AB or line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD."] Below is information on how students should label rays, lines, etc.

1. ay - the endpoint letter first, then a second point with a line ending in an arrow over the two letters, pointing to the right.

2. Point - a dot and then the point's letter.

3. Line - Two points on the line with a line with arrows in both directions above the letters.

4. Segment - the two endpoint letters of the segment with a line, no arrows, above the two letters

5. Intersecting - (AB x BC) the AB and BC would have a line or a line with arrows above them to show what figures they were. The x stands for intersects.

6. Parallel - (AB…… [Read More]


Baiker, K. And J. Robinson. (2004). Origami Math: Easy-to-Make Reproducible Activities that

Build Concepts, Skills, and Vocabulary in Geometry, Fractions, measurement, and More.

Minneapolis: Scholastic Books.

Bedford, M. (2007). Memorization: The Neglected Key to Learning. Efficacy Institute. Retrieved from:  / tabid/233/ctl/ArticleView / mid/678/articleId/84/Memorization-the-Neglected-Key-to-Learning.aspx
View Full Essay

Vignette 1 Maria and Her

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99489621

Not all teachers are aware of the fact that formative assessments should be used to modify their own teaching approach, and not merely to see if students are doing their homework. Teachers should also be more willing to pool their collective knowledge and resources, so they can exchange ideas about using different forms of formative assessments besides quizzes.

3. Formative assessments are as much of a "check in" for me as your child. I am trying to "check" to see what he or she does not understand.

4. The overemphasis on standardized testing can cause teachers to focus too much on the stated goals of the lesson, and not enough on the process of learning. It is not possible to remove this impediment, however. Instead teachers should find ways to make formative assessment useful in meeting the goals set for the class. Students should be encouraged to use periodic formative…… [Read More]


Garrison, Catherine & Michael Ehringhaus (2011).Formative and summative assessment.

National and Middle School Association. Retrieved March 29, 2011 at
View Full Essay

Teacher Work Sample

Words: 3214 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89565389

Teaching Unit for an 8th-Grade Language Arts and Literature Class

Contextual Factors

Community, District, and School Factors

Classroom Factors

Student Characteristics

Learning Goals and Objectives

Pre-Assessments Aligned with Learning Goals and Objectives

Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Assessments

Criteria Used to Measure Student Performance for Learning Goals

Plan for Formative Assessment to Gauge Student Progress

Design for Instruction

Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 1.

How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and b.

How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context

Materials and Technology Required to Implement

the Activity


Plan for Assessment of Student Learning During

and/or Following the Activity

Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 2.


How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and Objective(s)


How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context


Materials and Technology Required to Implement

the Activity


Plan for Assessment of Student Learning During

and/or Following the Activity

Instructional Decision-Making…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dorn, Charles M., Stanley S. Madeja and F. Robert Sabol. Assessing Expressive Learning: A

Practical Guide for Teacher-Directed, Authentic Assessment in K-12 Visual Arts

Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Oklahoma Teacher Work Sample Assignment. (2003, March 11). Oklahoma Higher Education.
View Full Essay

Special Needs Intervention

Words: 2579 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73391674

Special Needs Intervention

Client Profile

Brenda is a seven-year-old second grader that has been identified as dyslexic. She has significant delays in pre-literacy and numeracy skills have been identified through both formal assessment and performance in classroom activities. Work samples demonstrate that Brenda has difficulty sequencing and recognizing word phenomes and putting them together for reading and writing activities. Brenda does not demonstrate the ability to recognize phenomes in words. Brenda frequently reverses letters and/or the whole words when performing literacy tasks.

An interview with Brenda's teacher reveals that other than her problems associated with dyslexia, Brenda's development and functioning is on target with a majority of her peers. She tends to display shyness and introversion when called upon in class to perform activities associated with literacy and numeracy. She is polite and participates actively in class activities. She is a pleasant child and normally social with her classmates. She…… [Read More]


Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I. & Beeler, T. (2011). "Phonemic Awareness in Young

Children." Reading Rockets. Retrieved from (n.d.). Dyslexia Testing Services. Retrieved from (2011). Dyslexia Symptoms, Tests and Treatment. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Planning Produce a Lesson Plan States Session

Words: 1430 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17926067

PLANNING Produce a lesson plan states: session aims learning outcomes; learners; teacher activities; resources learning checks ============ Microteach Delivery the Microteach 15 minutes long: 5 minutes introduction set 10 minutes feedback tutor peers.

Microteach: Evaluation

My fifteen minute 'microteaching' session involved the presentation of Arabic language material to a classroom of student learners. It was entitled: "The Arabic language: Greetings, alphabet and introduction to the language" and was designed to give a basic overview to what can seem to non-native speakers a very complex and impenetrable language (Greene 2005). My lesson plan involved the use of multiple types of presentation formats to ensure that the content was disseminated correctly yet students were also able to interact with the material in fun and engaging ways. Multiple methods of information transmission were also useful to ensure that the needs of different 'types' of learners were addressed by the session (Lane n.d.). The…… [Read More]


Chang, E. (2005). Tongue twisters. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: 

Greene, R. (2005). Why learning Arabic is so hard. Slate. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Nursing Mentor Scenario Introduction- Just as the

Words: 1501 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24655154

Nursing Mentor Scenario

Introduction- Just as the theoretical and practical backgrounds of nursing have changed over the past several decades, so has the nursing education environment itself. . Students now entering the field are diverse in culture, educational background, and most especially age and experience. Traditional undergraduates coming directly from High School or Junior College often interact with more mature and experienced students. In addition, nursing instructors remain challenged to recognize different learning needs and styles, and respect that adaptive scenarios might be necessary to further the learning opportunities for many students. e thus see that the most effective way of teaching in the modern nursing classroom is to adjust one's pedagogical paradigm outward and to actively find new and innovative ways of reaching each student, rather than expecting each student to completely bend to the tried and true curriculum of previous generations (Young, L., Petson, B., eds., 2006). Too,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradshaw, M., & Lowenstein, A. (Eds.). (2011). Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Bulman, C. And Schutz, S. (1998). Reflective Practices in nursing. Sudbury, MA: Jones

And Barlett Publishers.Epp, A., & Price, L. (2011). Designing Solutions Around Customer Network Identity Goals. Journal of Marketing, 75(1), 36-54.

Cramer, C., Davidhizar, R. (2008). Helping At-Risk Nursing Students Succeed on the National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse. The Health Care Manager.27 (3): 269-76.
View Full Essay

Students Classified as ESL English

Words: 3060 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73472556

The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.

Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cause/effect and problem/solution are common types of sequential organizers.

Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.

In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble (2007) further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" (p. 71). Because these tools…… [Read More]


Craig, D.V. (2007). Alternative, dynamic assessment for second language learners. ERIC Database, (ED453691), 1-17.

Barlow, L., & Coombe, C. (2000). Alternative assessment Acquisition in the United Arab Emirates. ERIC Database, (ED448599), 1-8.

Bybee, R.W., & Van Scotter, P. (2007). Reinventing the science curriculum. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 43-47.

Fitch, G.K. (2007). A rubric for assessing a student's ability to use the light microscope. American Biology Teacher, 69(4), 211-214.
View Full Essay

How This School Reads

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29864269

Literacy Assessment




Needs Improvement

Reading and writing skills are taught explicitly, directly, and systematically using research-based strategies.

here are opportunities during each school day for vocabulary development to occur both directly and indirectly.

eachers use multiple strategies and combinations of strategies to teach vocabulary and reading comprehension.

eachers model their thinking processes, encourage student inquiry, and keep students motivated and engaged.

Learning-to-read and reading-to-learn skills are taught in the school's literacy program.

Multicultural resources and materials are used across the curriculum


he school provides diverse texts that present a wide range of topics at a variety of reading levels.


Reading and intensive writing instruction are integrated and taught across the curriculum


Students have multiple opportunities each day to practice their writing skills.


eachers use differentiated instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners.


eachers use strategic tutoring that includes teaching learning strategies…… [Read More]

The New Jersey State Report Card revealed some important information regarding the performance of this school and how it measured against other schools. The report itself, is complex and uses many interesting statistical measurements to reach conclusions, but it appears that a commendable endorsement is displayed. All sate wide literacy targets were met within the school at all grade levels 5-8. The school was in the top 40% of statewide rank according to Language Arts and literacy assessments. Each and every grade level has performed above the state level requirements suggesting that something is being done correct at this school.

Things are not perfect however, and improvements can be made at all levels of this literacy program in order to keep advancing the educational profession and not settling for just getting by as the temptation is strong to do. Teachers must allow students to gain a confidence in their own literacy skills and realize that others have different ways of interrelating the written word an making good use of it. It is also very important to keep the entire community involved in the process as well. If adults in the community are not reading and improving their own literacy skills, it is unfair to ask our offspring to do anything different. Leadership is necessary to set the example and show others how the community should be operating at a certain level of professional and courteous standards. Using the imagination in coordination with reading can be a very useful and practical skill that can be adapted into all facets of society. The domination of television and other distractions prevents reading from being embraced to its fullest extent, and until it is, the larger group must tolerate ignorance.

State of New Jersey, School Report. Thomas Jefferson Middle School, 2013. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Tale of Excellence the World

Words: 1692 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91885098

Also, the students can graph his or her findings. The formative assessments is when different colonies are observed and shared with each other in class. The student's can ask questions based on their observation

Summative Assessment: Students will correctly answer teacher-created questions about their colonies. Students can graph the choices of their peers. The teacher will specify the accuracy rate desired for this task.

Formative Assessment: The teacher will observe students' discussion of their colonies. The teacher will gauge understanding by noting the types of questions students ask each other. The teacher will be looking for questions with factual answers and those that show higher-order thinking.


Assessment: (Summative) the students will all choose a different country and write a description about those countries forms of money. They will do a show and tell in the classroom on their finding. (Formative) the student's observations of the different types of forms…… [Read More]


Aschenbacher, P., & Alonzo, a. (2006). Examining the utility of elementary science notebooks for formative assessment purposes. Educational Assessment 11(3 & 4), 179 -- 203.

Bejar, I.I. (2007). Considering the implications of assessment design decisions: Some lessons learned in the American context. Measurement, 5(1), p. 57-62.

Dodge, J. (n.d.). What are formative assessments and why should we use them? Scholastic Professional,

Summary Table: Changes to the Lesson Plans for the World Around Us
View Full Essay

Construction of Created Rubrics of Checklists of

Words: 756 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79776036

construction of created rubrics of checklists of goals have become increasingly popular as a way of rending the educational process more effective and efficient. Student-directed assessment involves students actively in the process of assessment and achieves the dual goal of student empowerment as well as ensures that real learning has taken place. "Constructing or drawing up rubrics jointly with students prior to them undertaking the related lesson or task provides an even richer, more authentic, learner-centered and empowering authentic assessment experience than merely providing them with a teacher-designed rubric" the latter of which may not be meaningful to them (Litz 2007). This is often called "negotiable contracting" and reflects the belief that "students who are given a role in the assessment process and provided with the appropriate direction by their teachers are able to accurately evaluate their strengths and weaknesses and better pinpoint areas where they need to focus their…… [Read More]


Writing learning outcomes. (2013). AALNET. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

What Approach Should Be Used

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44536831

CKD - Design

Designing a study that evaluates an intervention must take several items into consideration in order to be determined as both reliable and valid; even if the study is in reality a health promotion goal, it is still necessary to treat it the same way a study would be treated. Determining what is reliable and what is valid therefore is an important step in both including those two objectives in a study, and achieving them as well. Study reliability is determined when the researcher can expect the same results time and time again by replicating research procedures. If a study is set up to determine results, and those results can be replicated, then the researcher can determine that the results are reliable. hen the researcher is attempting to show reliability, the researcher wants an independent observer to be capable of replicating results of the study using the same…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jenkins, J.O.; (2010) A multi-faceted formative assessment approach: Better recognizing the learning needs of students, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 35, Issue 5, pp. 565 -- 576

Joughin, G.; (2010) The hidden curriculum revisited: A critical review of research into the influence of summative assessment on learning, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 35, Issue 3, pp. 335 -- 345

Schmitz, C.C.; Chipman, J.G.; Yoshida, K.; Vogel, R.I.; Sainfort, F.; Beilman, G.; Clinton, J.; Cooper, J.; Rejhsen, T.; Sweet, R.M.; (2014) Reliability and validity of a test designed to assess combat medic's readiness to perform life-saving procedures, Military Medicine, Vol. 179, Issue 1, pp. 42 -- 48
View Full Essay

Curriculum Evaluation Ornstein & Hunkins

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87158756

and, some teachers focus mainly on staff development issues related to changes in curriculum, measures and/or desired outcomes.

Of these various roles, I am most interested in how to change instruction so that it can meet desired standards and measurements. Ultimately, I believe that this is what makes the real difference in being able to achieve outcomes, particularly with the growing need for differentiated teaching strategies to achieve the same results for students with unique learning needs.

As I have mentioned, I am an advocate of summative and formative assessments because I believe they serve two very different, but complimentary purposes. That being said, I also believe there needs to be the right mix of the two. Currently, our school relies too much on summative assessments due to increased standardized test requirements by our district and state. This has affected every role that teachers play in our assessment process. This…… [Read More]


Ornstein, a.C., & Hunkins, F.P. (2003). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Shavelson, R.J., Dylan, P.J. And Coffey, J. On linking formative and summative functions in the design of large-scale assessment systems.

Swearingen, R, (2002). A orimer: Diagnostic, formative, & summative assessment 

Thiel, T. & Feeny, M. Literature synopsis.
View Full Essay

Shavelson R Young D Ayala

Words: 325 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32533068

Though at first they dealt with formative assessment rather generally, the real-world use of such assessment must be adaptable of the diversity of situations any teacher will undoubtedly encounter in the classroom. A large part of this study's strength is derived form its practical application during the research; rather than limiting itself to theory, this study follows its own advice and adjusted methodologies as observations provided necessary feedback to the researchers.

Ultimately, the researchers assessed the various curricula examined in the study through student performance, and found a definite positive impact was had by the use of formative assessment during curriculum development. The application of this study was solely on science classes, however, where knowledge can be discretely measured and both student responses and the teachers curriculum can be more easily quantified. more research would be needed to determine if the same system of assessment would be useful in less…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Sociocultural Video Analysis Theory Summary

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37419615

One student comments at the end of the video that the most difficult part of the experiment was setting it up, and that the project mostly proceeded by trial and error. Although trial and error is an important mode of learning, it should not necessarily be the primary one. Perhaps if student learning had better incorporated the "artifacts" of scientific equipment, students would have been better able to focus their work and determine which tools and strategies would have been effective in advance (John-Steiner and Mahn, 1996, p. 199). To combat this, part of the lesson could have been redesigned to include information on the various equipment students could employ, and, for future work, could include a review of this information at the end of the experiment.

Another strategy that could be used to help solidify learning in this community of practice would be to ask the student pairs to…… [Read More]


Annenberg Media -- Investigating Crickets. (1999). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from 

Ash, D. And Levitt, K. "Working Within the Zone of Proximal Development: Formative Assessment as Professional Development." Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14(1): 1-313, 2003.

John-Steiner, V., and Mahn, H. "Sociocultural Approaches to Learning and Development: A Vygotskian Framework." Educational Psychologist. 31(3/4): 191-206. 1996.

Ormrod, J.E. (2011). Educational psychology: Developing learners (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
View Full Essay

Education - Teaching Methods Lesson Plans

Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88530266

Progression from Key Stage 3

For the 2005-year the building on strategy training initiative and material were for the purpose of increasing the rates of progress among students as well as studying how the "core subject departments can enable more pupils to progress two levels across the key stage. In order for formative assessment to occur it is critical that students have a good notion of the intentions of learning for each lesson. The Learning Intention is that which students should know or understand upon completion of the learning of the child.


Stated in the work of, ccallum & Charles (2000) is that, "Overall, teachers feel that their teaching has been positively affected by the strategies and their children are more focused, more confident and more self-evaluative, with, in many cases, noticeable improvement in their progress attributed directly to this project. Our interviews with children indicated that they have…… [Read More]

Macaulay, Kathryn (2005) Lesson Plans Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 English, Geography and design Technology Online available at

Good assessment in secondary schools (Ofsted, March 2003) Online available at 

Education Teaching Methods
View Full Essay

Instructional Effectiveness Many Scholars Claim

Words: 1604 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43779153

Time to develop and use assessments effectively must be built into the teachers' work week. They are time-consuming, but worthwhile, and should not be administered as an afterthought. The results tell us a great deal about students and ourselves. It will be a challenge to make sure assessments are meaningful and are accorded the time they deserve.

When we think of assessments, we often think about formal assessments, whether they are teacher-created quizzes, chapter tests from a textbook, or standardized tests that compare students across the country. Assessment can, and should, include the informal observations teachers make in their classrooms on a daily basis. Because teachers spend so much time with their students, they are in a good position to see both struggles and progress. It may be one of the easiest ways to see what students need because it is immediate and requires no preparation. We can learn from…… [Read More]


Hur, J.W., & Suh, S. (2010). The development, implementation, and evaluation of a summer school for English language learners. The Professional Educator 34(2).

Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijmans, D.M.A., & Jochems, W.M.G. (2010). Assessor's approaches to portfolio assessment in assessment of prior learning procedures.

Evaluation in Higher Education 35(1), pp. 55-70.

Rhodes, T. (2010). Since we seem to agree, why are the outcomes so difficult to achieve? New
View Full Essay

Young People Become Better Readers

Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63810105

In the final analysis, perhaps the most important feature to emerge from the research was the need for individualized attention for every young learner to the maximum extent possible.


Allor, J.H. (2002, Winter). The relationships of phonemic awareness and rapid naming to reading development. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(1), 47-51.

Dickinson, D.K. & Neuman, S.B. (2006). Handbook of early literacy research. New York:

Guilford Press.

Gest, S.D. & Gest, J.M. (2005, February). eading tutoring for students at academic and behavioral risk: Effects on time-on-task in the classroom. Education & Treatment of Children, 28(1), 25-31.

Gipe, J.P. (2005). Multiple paths to literacy: Assessment and differentiated instruction for diverse learners, K-12. ISBN-13: 9780136100812.

Haswell, .H. (2001). Beyond outcomes: Assessment and instruction within a university writing program. Westport, CT: Ablex.

Kendall, J. & Khuon, O. (2005). Making sense: Small-group comprehension lessons for English language learners. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

Norman, K.A. & Spencer,…… [Read More]


Allor, J.H. (2002, Winter). The relationships of phonemic awareness and rapid naming to reading development. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(1), 47-51.

Dickinson, D.K. & Neuman, S.B. (2006). Handbook of early literacy research. New York:

Guilford Press.

Gest, S.D. & Gest, J.M. (2005, February). Reading tutoring for students at academic and behavioral risk: Effects on time-on-task in the classroom. Education & Treatment of Children, 28(1), 25-31.
View Full Essay

Students in a Clinical Setting Evaluating Student

Words: 1643 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47576264

Students in a Clinical Setting

Evaluating student performance of any kind is always a controversial issue. However, assessing nursing skills is a particularly serious and controversial subject, given that if assessment is inadequate, the consequences for patients can be dire. It is essential that the evaluation of new nurses be accurate, particularly given the hope that many new nurses will be entering the profession, the result of new initiatives designed to cope with the pending nursing shortage due to the retirement of the current generation of older nurses. A review of existing literature indicates that the evaluation of nurses' competency is deemed to be problematic world-wide. Various strategies to remedy this have been suggested, including more rigorous training of and support for mentors who grade student nurses as well as the use of more objective assessment instruments.

According to Gopee (2008) in her article "Assessing student nurses' clinical skills: the…… [Read More]


Gopee, N. (2008). Assessing student nurses' clinical skills: the ethical competence of mentors. International Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation, 15(9), 401-407.

Karayurt, O., Mert, H., & Beser, A. (2009). A study on development of a scale to assess nursing students' performance in clinical settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(8), 1123-1130. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02417.x

Oermann, M. (2009 et al.). Clinical evaluation and grading practices. Schools of Nursing:

National Survey Findings Part II. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(6), 352-357.
View Full Essay

Classroom Observation

Words: 3178 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33686507


It is easy to assume that a comprehensive decision making theory gives a reliable basis for an observation scheme for a classroom. However, it is apparent that even though the practical and theoretical ventures overlap in many respects the core of the theoretical tenets are fundamentally variant. They are broader in some respects and narrow in others. The deterrents of real time implementation are significant and thus the scheme of analysis is fundamentally different from the theory frames that led to (Schoenfeld, 2013.

At the onset, I believed that teaching was about spending 8 hours teaching and having a great time with children. Indeed, teaching seemed the easiest career choice for me. However, having interacted with many a student from across the age spectrum and educational levels, there is a side of the world that can only be viewed from the inside of a class. I changed my mind…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Teaching What Essential Characteristics Effective Teaching Your

Words: 1758 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92800656


What essential characteristics effective teaching. Your essay include: Introduction - establishes interpretation topic, covering aspects effective teaching addressed essay; I things lesson preparation, communication, knowledge student's level knowledge, & classroom management, & assessment

What are the essential characteristics of effective teaching?

Using scaffolding in a mixed-level 5th grade math classroom

One of the most critical aspects of effective teaching is having a clear understanding of student's different levels of ability. A teacher is a performer in many respects, and a good performer knows his or her audience well. Aspects the teacher must consider are the level of previous preparation of different students; levels of ability; the enthusiasm of the class for the subject, and the different learning styles present within the class. This will determine aspects of the presentation such as the assumptions the teacher brings to the lesson, the need for review, and the use of visual aids…… [Read More]


Larkin, Martha. (2002). Using scaffolded instruction to optimize learning. Teacher Development and care. Retrieved at: 

Lewis, Beth. (2012). Scaffolding instructions. Retrieved at: 

Roberts, Florence. (2012). Melcombe Primary School in Hammersmith. Retrieved at:
View Full Essay

Hot Seat an Ethical Decision-Making

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72488009

Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…… [Read More]


Frame, M.W., Flanagan, C.D, Frederick, J., Gold, R., Harris, S.(1997). You're in the hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students. Simulation and Gaming, March Vol. 28, No. No. 1, 107-115
View Full Essay

Annotated Lesson Plan

Words: 2468 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73267976

general education SDAIE or Sheltered English lesson plan based on the approach described in the course Writing Effective Lesson Plan textbook in a content area of history based on both the California English Language Art Standards and English Language Development standards. This paper states appropriate goals and objectives, objectives, outcomes, rationale, describe content presentation methods, instructional strategies, learning activities, technology, assessment techniques and teaching materials.

Class Description

The lesson is for an 8th grade class of world history at the ABC School. There are a total of thirty students in the class and their ages range from 13-14 years. According to the information that has been provided by the cooperating teacher there are four are English learners in the class, three are re-designated English learners while two of the students have IEP's, from among these two one has auditory memory issues and the other has ADHD.

Class Background

All the…… [Read More]


Crawford, A.N. (2005). Communicative approaches to second language acquisition: From oral language development into the core curriculum and L2 literacy. In C.F. Leyba (ed.) Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework 3rd Edition (pp. 65117). Los Angeles, CA. Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles.

Cummins, J. (2005). Teaching the language of academic success: A framework for school-based language policies. In C.F. Leyba (ed.) Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework 3rd edition (pp. 3-31). Los Angeles, CA. Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles.

Echevarria, A., Graves, A. (2007). Sheltered content instruction: Teaching English language learners with diverse abilities. Boston, MA. Allyn and Bacon.

Genzuk, M. (2011). Specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE) for language minority students. Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research Digital Papers Series. Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research, University of Southern California. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Aligning Human Resources for Organizational Success

Words: 3510 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90347669

Strategy for Maximizing Human esources

In the current business environment, companies have increasingly used performance appraisal methods to align their human resources activities and policies in ensuring promoting the realization of organizational goals and objectives. Practice and research have shifted from their narrow focus on psychometric evaluation of issues to the developmental performance appraisal. Performance appraisal promotes the performance of a business by enriching the employees with experiences, attitudes, and skills. This contributes to the performance of a business by improving the effectiveness and efficiency within a business/organization. Performance appraisal aligns the efforts of employees with that of the organization. This forms the basis of designing organizational activities that focus on employee growth and development alongside enabling the business/organization to realize its objectives (Atwood, 2007).

Structure of this essay paper

This essay is divided into three sections. The first section discusses the benefits of performance appraisal to an organization. It…… [Read More]


Atwood, C.G. (2007). Succession planning basics. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.

Berke, D., & Center for Creative Leadership. (2005). Succession planning and management: A guide to organizational systems and practices. Greensboro, N.C: Center for Creative Leadership.

Edwards, M.R., & Ewen, A.J. (1996). 360 Feedback: The powerful new model for employee assessment & performance improvement. New York: Amacom.

Eeckhout, L. (2010). Computer architecture performance evaluation methods. San Rafael, Calif.: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
View Full Essay

Diane Blake Art Exhibition King Island Bass

Words: 1507 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18267756

Diane Blake Art Exhibition

King Island, Bass Straits -- Diane Blake. Diane is a native of the Eastern Shore, but has travelled all over the world to capture her images. She has been an artist and photographer for over 30 years, and loves to use her artistic lens to examine the natural environment. In particular, we focus on Diane's view of the seascapes and natural beauty of King Island, Tasmania (Art with Al, 2013).

Description and ationale - Dianne Blake celebrates the natural beauty of Mother Nature with her interpretations of the land and sea of a number of environments, in this case, King Island, Tasmania. Her work focuses on texture, color, and combinations of both that create natural wonder in paintings. In this case, Diane focuses on kelp, sponges, anemones, works, barnacles and the myriad of life in tide pools and rock ponds near the ocean shores. Each of…… [Read More]


Art with Al. (2013). King Island, Bass Strait by Dianne Blake. Retrieved from:

Board of Studies, NSW. (2006) Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Ideal Type of Special Education

Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50479691

utopian school district: An overview

Individualization is the key to effective special education. That is why every child in a special education setting has an individualized education plan (IEP). The needs of, for example, a child with autism who is nonverbal are very different from the needs of a highly verbal child on the autism spectrum with social deficits. Allowing more individualized assessment and delivering more individualized treatment would be a critical component of any 'utopian' school district.

However, as well as creating individualized instruction plans for all students in their supportive environments, the larger environment of the school should also be supportive of learning differences. "Consider children with disabilities as general education children first: Special education and general education are treated as separate systems, but in fact share responsibility for the child with disabilities" and there should be more similarities between the two than differences (Peterson & Tamor 2003:…… [Read More]


Peterson, M & Tamor, L. (2003). Creating schools that work: Promoting excellence and equity for a democratic society thorough whole schooling. Whole Schooling Press. Retrieved from: 

Jewell, C., Sama-Miller, E., & Wissel, S. (2009). Using student achievement data to support instructional decision -- making. What Works Clearinghouse. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Kinesthetic Exercise Improves Learning

Words: 1818 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20952034

Autism Detection and Education

Exercise and movement can affect ones' learning environment and kinesthetic learners in a variety of positive ways. Firstly, these two things induce an element of dynamism in one's learning environment, which is beneficial to kinesthetic learners. Kinesthetic learners learn best via the sort of motion and feeling associated with touch, so movement is merely an extension of this sort of tendency for learning. Additionally, these learners can thrive in an environment in which they can actually move and experience learning through the process of such motion -- which can very well involve directly apprehending things, instead of merely reading or listening to them. In this respect, exercise is a part of the kinesthetic learning style.

Persevering and never giving upon on a student embodies the Christian walk of faith and how Christ loves and forgives us in a number of different ways. Firstly, it is indicative…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Teaching Portfolio I Am a Percussion Teacher

Words: 1496 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89766330

Teaching Portfolio

I am a percussion teacher, and I instruct classes of various sizes in a range of drumming techniques. My students a very diverse in terms of ages and backgrounds, and my classes can include up to twelve students. Some classes focus on group forms of percussion, such as drumming circles, which require skills for both individual and group drumming.

My teaching gradually evolved from my own practice in percussion and music. While I was not formally trained in teaching, as I work with more students, I am quickly developing a deeper understanding of the importance of teaching theories, curriculum planning, and proper assessment.

In this teaching portfolio I aim to first, summarize the feedback I have regarding my lesson planning presentation of material. Over the course of preparing this portfolio I have researched additional teaching and assessment methods, and I will outlined my preferred approaches. Finally, I will…… [Read More]


Asmus, Edward A. (1999). Special Focus: Assessment in Music Education

Music Educators Journal. Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 19-24.

Booth, E. (2009). "The Music teaching Artist's Bible: Becoming a virtuoso educator." Oxford University Press. New York.

Fisher, D., Frey, N. (2007). "Checking for understanding: formative assessment techniques for your classroom." Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, Virginia.