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Fossil Fuels & Their Impact on the Environment
Impact of Fossil Fuels on Environment
Fossil fuels are formed by anaerobic decomposition of organisms over a period of millions of years. When burnt, they produce significant amounts of energy per unit weight and cannot be reused to supply energy. They are thus nonrenewable resources. The applications of fossil fuels range from use in motor vehicles, trains and industries to household consumption in stoves and lamps. Their huge popularity means that any hindrance in their use or harmful effects caused by them is bound to affect the masses significantly.
Traditionally, developing nations had a minute share in the world's fossil fuel resources, however with an increase in industrialization and urbanization the need for fossil fuels as an energy source becomes essential. India serves as an ideal example. To cater to the increased demand of oil and gas from industries the government is…
Blackburne, A (2012 May 2). Why our quality of life is sacrificed by the continued use of fossil fuels. retrieved June 05, 2012, from Blue and green tommorow Web Site: http://blueandgreentomorrow.com/features/why-our-quality-of-life-is-sacrificed-by-the-continued-use-of-fossil-fuels/
De Montalember, M.R & Clement, J (1983). fuel wood supplies in the developing countries. Rome: FAO Forestry Paper.
Ford, L (2012 May 31st). Fossil fuel subsidies must end, says Indian microfinance firm. retrieved June 05, 2012, from guardian Web Site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/may/31/fossil-fuel-subsidies-india-microfinanc
Garbini, G. (1966). The ancient world. New York: McGraw-Hill.
By studying this history, one can quickly understand fossil fuels are in such short supply. Although they have been around for millions of years, they have been in use for thousands.
Fossil Fuels' Uses
While it is common knowledge that fossil fuels are used as energy sources and in a variety of material productions, the degree to which fossil fuels are used on a daily basis is monumental. Both oil and natural gas are used widely as agents to heat homes and businesses worldwide. efined oil can be turned into gasoline and diesel, the fuels that power automobiles and are responsible for the functioning of the transportation industry. Furthermore, fuels for larger commercial vehicles -- like jet fuel -- are also produced from refined oil. The cessation of fossil fuel refining, therefore, would be a blow of extreme proportions to the entire world. Economies would be devastated and individual lives…
Brief History of Coal Use. (2008). Retrieved August 18, 2008, from the United States
Department of Energy Web Site: http://fossil.energy.gov/education/energylessons/coal/coal_history.html
About OEE. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2008, from the Government of Canada Web
Ending The Nation's Dependence on Fossil Fuels
There are many options available for reducing the nation's dependence on fossil fuels. From the use of biofuel subsidies to foster research & development (&D) of new fuel forms and technologies to use them (Ngo, 2008) to more effective energy policies that use natural gas, the U.S.' greatest natural resource (Bang, 2010), options abound. What is needed is a concerted, focused energy policy that concentrates on national security while lessening the impact of these fuels on the environment (Migone, 2007). Only by taking this course of action, can the U.S. And other westernized nation so dependent on fossil fuels break their dependence on them. In addition to all these approaches, there needs to be much more aggressive &D and tax credits given to companies to create clean-burning fuel technologies at costs that are affordable. The development of entirely new approaches to managing existing…
Bang, G.. (2010). Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States? Energy Policy, 38(4), 1645.
Johan Jansson, Agneta Marell, & Annika Nordlund. (2010). Green consumer behavior: determinants of curtailment and eco-innovation adoption. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 27(4), 358-370.
Jawadi, F., Arouri, M., & Bellalah, M.. (2010). Nonlinear Linkages between Oil and Stock Markets in Developed and Emerging Countries. International Journal of Business, 15(1), 19-31.
Bryan K. Mignone. (2007). The national security dividend of global carbon mitigation. Energy Policy, 35(11), 5403.
The currently used batteries in electric cars are usually the lead-acid type, which are heavy and bulky. A lead-acid battery pack in a typical electric car weighs about 1000 pounds or more; it also occupies a large space as about 50 batteries each of size 6" x 8" x 6" are required for a single car (Brain, 2006). They are also expensive as a typical lead-acid battery pack for an electric car costs about $2,000. Moreover, batteries get discharged quickly and give only about a 50-mile range to a car, after which the battery-pack has to be re-charged. The re-charging process is also time-consuming and it takes between 4 to 10 hours for full charge, depending on the battery technology and the charger (Ibid). Such batteries also have a relatively short life and have to be replaced in about three to four years.
ecent development in battery technology has now…
Brian, M. (2006). "How Electric Cars Work." How Stuff Works. Retrieved on October 4, 2006 at http://auto.howstuffworks.com/electric-car1.htm
Maugeri, L. (2006). "That Falling Feeling." Newsweek International. October 9, 2006 Issue. Retrieved on October 4, 2006 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15081350/site/newsweek/
The limited oil-refining capacity is the result of lack of investment attributable to decades of depressed oil prices in the 1980s and 1990s when oil prices fell below $10 / barrel.
These continued high fossil fuel prices has made development and production of alternative fuels, like biofuels, a cost-effective alternative.
Another economic factor that has resulted in biofuel being a popular choice of alternative fuels, is the infrastructure it utilizes. Unlike other possible alternative fuels, like hydrogen, biofuel can, for the most part, use the existing distribution and retailing infrastructure already in place for traditional petroleum fuels (Mol, 2007). it's not surprising that biofuel use has grown so quickly, given this economic head start, in addition to the other economic benefits for farmers and rural communities.
Social Benefits and Concerns of Using Alternative Fuel Sources:
In America, the transportation sector, in particular, is heavily dependent on fossil fuel. This reliance raises national security concerns, as nearly 60% of the crude oil used in America is imported (Archer, Self, Guha, and Engelken, 2008). This dependence on oil from other nations has resulted…
Archer, a., Self, J., Guha, G., Engelken, R. (2008 Jan). Cost and carbon savings from innovative conversion of agricultural residues. Energy Sources Part B: Economics, Planning & Policy, 3(1), 103-108.
Collis, B. (1999 Jun). Finding the energy to come clean. Ecos, 99, 24.
Demirbas, a. (2008 Oct). Present and future transportation fuels. Energy Sources Part a: Recovery, Itilization & Environmental Effects, 30(6), 1473-1483.
Hahn, R. (1995 Fall). Choosing among fuels and technologies for cleaning up the air. Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, 14(4), 532-554.
Fossil fuels comprise coal, natural gas, and oil, which are formed over time from the remains of living organisms. Most of the world’s energy needs are supplied from fossil fuels but fossil fuels come at a price. Fossil fuels are the main source of global warming emissions in the world. Shindell and Smith (2019) posits "The combustion of fossil fuels produces emissions of the long-lived greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and short-lived pollutants, including sulfur dioxide, that contribute to the formation of atmospheric aerosols." Not only do fossil fuels contribute towards global warming they also cause health problems, release toxins such as mercury, and destroy our wild places. The overall impact of fossil fuels is far greater when compared to any other source of energy. The world has relied solely on fossil fuels for a pretty long time and this has resulted in people believing there is no alternative. However, with…
Burger, M., & Wentz, J. (2018). Holding fossil fuel companies accountable for their contribution to climate change: Where does the law stand? Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74(6), 397-403.
McKibben, B. (April 2020). Putting the money squeeze on fossil fuels. Fortune. Retrieved from https://fortune.com/longform/wall-street-fossil-fuels-divest-climate-change/
Perera, F. (2018). Pollution from fossil-fuel combustion is the leading environmental threat to global pediatric health and equity: solutions exist. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(1), 16.
Shindell, D., & Smith, C. J. (2019). Climate and air-quality benefits of a realistic phase-out of fossil fuels. Nature, 573(7774), 408-411.
Capturing and Storing Energy: From Fossil Fuels to enewable esources
One of the most interesting challenges in energy production is not how to find energy sources, which are abundant, but how to capture and store the energy that is available. For years, energy capture and storage has focused on the availability of fossil fuels and how those resources could be translated into usable energy sources. However, the demand for energy is so incredible and the known fossil fuel energy reserves sufficiently limited that the United States must explore alternative energy sources. Moreover, the United States is not the only country that is hampered, politically, economically, and socially by its energy dependence; instead many countries, especially those that lack relative wealth or access to their own fossil fuel deposits are in even more vulnerable positions. Fortunately, there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that countries can explore. Hydropower, wind power, solar…
CPS Energy. (2014). How is electricity made from natural gas? Retrieved February 17, 2014
Duke Energy. (2014). How do coal-fired plants work? Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.duke-energy.com/about-energy/generating-electricity/coal-fired-how.asp
Institute for Energy Research. (2014). Fossil fuels. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.instituteforenergyresearch.org/energy-overview/fossil-fuels/
Nuclear power, under current conditions, is characterized by much lower regular emissions compared to energy from fossil fuel burning. But, it poses its own unique hazards, of which the most notable is risk of industrial accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) that have acute, long-term repercussions over huge areas. There are also security risks presented by vast inventories of materials that have the potential of being utilized as nuclear weapons; fossil fuels pose no risk of this sort. Evidently, both fossil fuels and nuclear energy aren't, at present, favorable for sound security and environmental policy. Furthermore, neither renewables nor breeder reactors (the two alternatives for unlimited supply of energy) are cost-efficient at existing fuel rates for immediately becoming the base of worldwide supply of energy. What, then, are the alternatives available for an ecological, safe, and sustainable future energy supply? If one can reduce fossil fuel consumption and burn biomass renewably for…
CCSA. (2015, Novemeber 3). What is CCS? Retrieved from Carbon Capture & Storage Association: http://www.ccsassociation.org/what-is-ccs/
Cochran, T. B., Paine, C. E., Fettus, G., Norris, R. S., & McKinzie, M. G. (2005, october ). Position Paper: Commercial Nuclear Power. Retrieved from Natural Resources Defense Council: https://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/power/power.pdf
EPA. (2015, November 3). Overview of Greenhouse Gases. Retrieved from United States Environmental Protection Agencyq: http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/co2.html
Friends of Earth. (n.d.). Dangers of nuclear reactors. Friends of Earth.
Energy of the Future
There is no doubt that petroleum and coal are the dominant energy sources of today. However, there is also no doubt that those two energy sources really need to fall by the wayside given how they pollute the earth and how they are ostensibly affecting the entire global climate in the form of greenhouse gases and the like. However, actively and completely replacing those two energy sources (and this ignores that petroleum is used for many other things besides energy) is easier said than done and no single energy source has shown itself to be a replacement for coal or petroleum, at least not yet. However, that day will and must come as those energy sources are finite and polluting of our environment. hile it is important to shift away from petroleum and coal, it must be done in a way that is organic and does…
BIR. "Solving The Chicken And The Egg Problem: Increasing Natural Gas Demand And Building Pipeline -- News & Media." Bipc.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 Feb. 2016.
Gordon, Kate. "Why Renewable Energy Still Needs Subsidies." WSJ. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 Feb. 2016.
Grunwald, Michael. "Obama To Propose $10-A-Barrel Oil Tax." The Agenda. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 Feb. 2016.
Stephens, Joe, and Carol Leonnig. "Solyndra Scandal -- Full Coverage Of Failed Solar Startup - The Washington Post." Washingtonpost.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 Feb. 2016.
Economics of Energy and Fossil Fuels
1. A scratch-off card has no actual revenue collection mechanism that I can think of . Using them to tell somebody how much they have to pay also makes little sense. Both company and client would prefer to have certainty over the monthly billing.
2. Poland and Czech Republic have expressed concerns about Germany's decision to power down its nuclear plants. They had initially felt upbeat about the idea of selling more power to Germany as that country becomes a net importer. However, these concerns were matched by concerns that Germans would be willing (and able) to pay more for Czech and Polish power than the locals would be. This, combined with increased demand from Germany, would create a situation where local prices for energy would rise as locals would be forced to compete for their own domestic power supply (Buchan, 2012).
In the drive to discover new fuels and cheaper alternatives to driving the fact of the matter is that roads will still have to be maintained, and if the consumer is purchasing less fuel by driving fuel efficient cars, then other taxes will have to be raised or implemented to pay for the roads.
A recent study concluded that "more efficient cars and trucks still take up space on the highways and wear them out. Growth will require more highway capacity. Since we finance transportation primarily through dedicated taxes, these need to be ample enough to support these needs" (Petersen, 2007, p. 66). The taxes seen in America are not as high as the ones imposed on the European consumer.
One study showed that "European fuel costs are double those in the U.S. " (Winter, 2007, p. 5). The higher fuel costs there provides the European consumer with incentives not…
Hassett, K.A.; Metcalf, G.E.; (2008) the why's and how's of energy taxes, Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 45-50
Petersen, J.E.; Fueling a Tax, Governing, Vol. 20, No. 6, p. 66
Winter, D.; (2007) the big lie, Ward's Auto World, Vol. 43, No. 7, p. 5
Different Fuel Cell Technologies
U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…
Andujar, J.M, Segura F. (2009). Fuel cells: history and updating. A walk along two centuries.
Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 13:2309 -- 22.
Grove, W.R. (1842). On a Gaseous Voltaic Battery. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science .vol. XXI: 417 -- 420.
Kordesch, K.(1999). Alkaline fuel cells applications, innovative energy technology. Austria: Institute of High Voltage Engineering, U Graz.
Fuel Cell Technology
There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today. If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years." ("Cars Emit")
As the demand for energy increase and resources, such as fossil fuel, decrease alternative must be sought. Of these alternatives, hydrogen fuel cell technology, in automotive applications, has significant benefits and is now technologically feasible. Given this knowledge, it is imperative that we begin to set up the infrastructure necessary to utilize this technology.
I have studied this topic over the last three years, and the advancement of the technology has become increasingly exciting. hat was once a dream is now a reality.
I'm going to provide you first with an overview of how fuel cells work and then describe for you the benefits of the use of fuel cells, including why hydrogen is the best choice.…
Cars Emit Carbon Dioxide." 1997. Global Warming Focus on the Future. 27 May 2004. http://globalwarming.enviroweb.org/ishappening/sources/sources_co2_facts3.html.
Efficiency of Fuel Cells." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell4.htm .
Gasoline and Battery Power." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell5.htm .
Proton Exchange Membrane." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell2.htm .
There are certain algae that produce hydrogen as a waste byproduct, and the cultivation of such algae and collection of their hydrogen emissions has so far proven somewhat successful (AE 2009). Continued refinement of this process and a bolstering of its efficiency could lead to commercially and industrially viable production levels. There are also methods for extracting hydrogen from waste materials that makes use at least partially of the natural breakdown of these materials; though energy is used in this decomposition, it is not energy transformed and applied at human expense, eliminating its strain on the system (AE 2009). Complex new storage mechanisms are also making the concept of hydrogen fuel cells in cars more viable (U.S. Dept. Of Energy 2009). There have been several major test projects involving hydrogen-powered vehicles in land, air, and sea, including the use of drone spy planes by the U.S. military, municipality waste removal…
AE. (2009). "Hydrogen Fuel." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/hydrogen-fuel/
EPA (2009). "Fuel Cells and Vehicles." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/fuelcell/
US. Dept. Of Energy. (2009). "Hydrogen." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.fueleconomy.gov /Feg/hydrogen.shtml' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.
Fuel efficient cars
Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.
Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.
Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)
The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…
Future-Method. Fuel Efficient Hybrid Cars -- Initiatives to Reduce Pollution. http://www.futuremethod.org/418/fuel-efficient-hybrid-cars-initiatives-to-reduce-pollution
The benefits of alternative transportation http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/library/CR-007047.pdf
Supnithadnaporn, (2007), Do Vehicles Passing Emission Test Pollute Less-Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.spp.gatech.edu/faculty/WOPRpapers/AnupitWOPRFinal.pdf
This is frequently referred to as entropy. In the route of energy transfer, some energy will disperse as heat. Entropy is a measure of disarray. The course of energy sustains order and life. Entropy is successful when organisms stop taking in energy and die (Laws of Thermodynamics, 2010).
Many experts feel that Hydrogen is the ideal fuel known to man at this time. It is a fuel source that has no chance of being depleted until the Sun stops producing it. There isn't much chance of the Sun stopping production either. The only result of hydrogen combustion is water. Because one of the ways hydrogen can be produced is by separating it from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, the process lends itself to recycling within a closed system. There are a few negatives that surround the use of Hydrogen. First, it is a very dangerous explosive. It is…
Hydrogen: The Never Ending Fuel Source. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Laws of Thermodynamics. (2010). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Whether it is solar power, used vegetable oil, turds, wood, or hydrogen research and experimentation is the way forward. These cheap resources have already been proven effective in various ways and manners. The need of the day is to develop new energy technologies and apply them in the most useful and practical way possible. If we want global economic stability then eco energy sector requires due attention. We have witnessed crises situations in the past. The rising demand for oil, its increasing prices and possible depletion of oil resources demand a way out. Alternative energy sources in this scenario give us a flicker of hope. U.S. government is also pushing the agenda and so should other individuals and organizations also look in this direction for the economic betterment of their counties and the world with the use eco-fuels. The change cannot be brought about by government alone, will and…
Kay, Tonya Making Biodiesel. Hawai'i Indymedia, Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://hawaii.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/5943.php.
Youngquist, W. (1998, December). Alternative Energy Sources - Myths and Realities. Electronic Green Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2006, at http://egj.lib.uidaho.edu/egj09/youngqu1.html
Bond, M. (2000, November). SOLAR ENERGY Seeing the Light.. Geographical, 72(11), 28.
Eco-Lifestyle Ideas for Surfers'. Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:wzhmycSWxXQJ:www.ecosurfproject.org/downloads/download.php%3Ffilename%3Decosurfer.pdf%26backto%3D../resources/articles/index.php+Articles+on+ECO-FUELS&hl=en&gl=pk&ct=clnk&cd=14
alternative fuel describe detail happen a significant energy supply source. Explain happen. Analyse promise challenges supply source. Your essay judged cogency argument, position merits energy alternative choose.
Marine Current Power
Marine current power is one of the most promising alternative energy sources in the contemporary society. The fact that the world is still addicted to using conventional fuels certainly makes it difficult for serious investors to put their resources into projects associated with alternative energy. Even with this, the fact that many conventional energy sources are rapidly being depleted makes it difficult and almost impossible for these bodies to ignore the benefits they would experience as a result of betting on particular alternative energy sources.
Marine current power uses kinetic energy in marine currents with the purpose of generating electric power. hile most people in the present focus on solar and wind power when discussing with regard to alternative energy…
Charlier, R.H. And Finkl, C.W. Ocean Energy: Tide and Tidal Power. Springer, 08.02.2009.
Patel, M.R. Shipboard Propulsion, Power Electronics, and Ocean Energy. CRC Press, 2012
"Marine Current Energy." Available from < http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/05-06/marine_renewables/background/marinecurrents.htm >
The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the 'oil shale' or 'tar sands', and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)
It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and…
Aftalion, Fred. 1991. A History of the International Chemical Industry. Benfey University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
Blackburn, John O. 1987. The Renewable Energy Alternative: How the United States and the World Can Prosper without Nuclear Energy or Coal. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.
Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs - A Workshop Report. The National Academies Press.
Bozell, Joseph J. 2008. Feedstocks for the Future -- Biorefinery Production of Chemicals from Renewable Carbon. Clean-Soil, Air, Water, vol. 36, no. 8, pp: 641 -- 647.
The study advocated a broader energy policy for automobiles, specifically one that allocated more money to the development of gas-electric hybrids. Hydrogen may be the fuel of the future, but it is a distant future, at least fifty years away (Stauffer par. 8-9). In the meantime, the development of proven technology will be of more benefit than hydrogen.
The Myriad Issues with Hydrogen: Availability, Extraction, and Storage Are Just the Beginnings
Another study -- this time by 18 scientists and engineers from universities, the government, and private laboratories -- concluded that no known alternative energy source, hydrogen included, is ready to take the place of fossil fuels ("Fossil Fuels" par. 1-2). Regarding hydrogen, the study had very specific points. One, hydrogen does not exist in a natural pure form. Two, hydrogen must be extracted from either natural gas or water. Three, more carbon dioxide and less energy is produced with…
Crabtree, George W., Mildred S. Dresselhaus, and Michelle V. Buchanan. "The Hydrogen Economy." Physics Today Online. Dec. 2004. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-57/iss-12/p39.html.
Fossil Fuels Still Don't Have a Feasible Replacement." The Times via Associated Press. 1 Nov. 2002. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.rff.org/rff/News/Coverage/2002/November/Fossil-Fuels-Still-Dont-Have-Feasible-Replacement.cfm .
Hydrogen Economy Offers Major Opportunities but Faces Considerable Hurdles." The National Academies: Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine. 4 Feb. 2004. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn/0309091632?OpenDocument .
Is Hydrogen a Viable Fuel Alternative?" Physorg.com. 12 Oct. 2005. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.physorg.com/news7198.html.
Instead, loss of the fuel results in entropy, a concern of the second law of thermodynamics and this helps prove the impracticality of this fuel. Combine this with the size of the fuel tank necessary to power a car for many hundreds of miles, and hydrogen begins to look far worse as a real alternative to fuel conservation and replacing fossil fuels.
Hydrogen seems like a good idea, and there are hydrogen vehicles in production and on the road. However, delivering hydrogen from the production plants to facilities also proves to be expensive, and it is expensive to build new hydrogen fuel centers, as well. Hydrogen can be dangerous, too. Liquid hydrogen can freeze air, and hydrogen can cause explosions, just like gasoline. If enough hydrogen leaks from a faulty valve or tank in a confined space, like a garage, it can explode, as well (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen…
McCarthy, John. "Hydrogen." Stanford University. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/hydrogen.html
Rocheleau, Richard E. "Hydrogen." Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/hydrogen.asp
People are typically inclined to think that a product becomes less expensive once it enters mass production. However, this is not the case with hydrogen powered cars, as it will still be expensive to produce the fuel and to make cars capable to run on it. Gasoline burning-vehicles are likely to be replaced with cars using alternative sources of energy in the near future, only that hydrogen is improbable to become widespread in the coming years (in contrast to other alternative fuels) (Behar).
Hydrogen fuel cells are less effective in terms of space, given that they are much larger than an ordinary gas tank ("Hydrogen Car Gears Up" 23).
Most people are unaware that hydrogen is not found on earth in a normal form and that it has to be extracted from other sources. A great amount of energy is used when hydrogen is extracted from other sources and the…
Steinbugler, Margaret M. And Williams, Robert H. "Beyond Combustion: Fuel Cell Cars for the 21st Century," Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 13.4 (1998)
"How Soon for Hydrogen?," Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2004
"Hydrogen Car Gears Up," Daily Post (Liverpool, England) 18 July 2007: 23
In addition, large quantities of natural gas are required to produce fertilizers which are needed for growing corn. It is estimated that an average of 135 pounds of nitrogen (a potent-greenhouse-gas) per acre is used in growing corn in most U.S. farms. Besides, research by the U.S. Department for Agriculture (USDA) shows that tilled soil releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere in proportion to the volume of soil loosened (Kenny).
Most of all, it is erroneous to assume that ethanol is likely to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil. It has been estimated that the current ethanol production in the United States that has triggered such massive increase in grain and food prices around the world barely satisfies less than 3% of U.S. gasoline needs; and if the entire U.S. grain harvest were converted into ethanol, it would satisfy scarcely 18% of the country's automotive fuel need (Brown.). Furthermore,…
Brown, Lester R. "Why Ethanol Production Will Drive World Food Prices Even Higher in 2008." Earth Policy Institute. January 24, 2008. May 30, 2008. http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2008/Update69.htm
Carter, Colin a. And Henry I. Miller. "Hidden Costs of Corn-Based Ethanol." Christian Science Monitor. May 21, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0521/p09s02-coop.html
Corn...Fuel...Fire!" Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. December 17, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.stri.org/english/about_stri/headline_news/news/article.php?id=736
Flavin, Christopher. "Biofuels 2.0: It's Time for Congress to Act." World Watch.
According to Dr. David Thompson, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Memorial, long-term goal is to make fuel from sunlight, a field known artificial photosynthesis. The larger question revolves around whether a system can be designed to take captured solar energy and create molecules that can be utilized as fuels (Hester, 2007).
The general idea, of course, is that the Petroleum Era will be replaced by the Hydrogen Era. Because hydrogen is so prevalent in the universe, it will require only the technological acumen to harness this most abundant element in order to produce a clean, unlimited, reliable, and endless supply of power. Enough scientists believe in this technology that in January 2003, President G.W. Bush announced a $720 million commitment towards the development of hydrogen fuel (www.hydrogenassociation.com). Modern society has the technology to change behaviors, or at least the vision to develop this alternate paradigm, but perhaps…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Alternative Energy Institute 2006, "Powering Our Future: An Energy Sourcebook for
Sustainable Living." Cited in:
Gibilisco, S. (2006), Alternative Energy Demystified, McGraw
VI. Ethanol: Ethanol may be made from straw, agricultural waste, corn or
sugar by using enzymes (Ljunggren, 2005).
"Free energy" fuels have many benefits, one of them being that they do not
deplete the earth's fossil fuel, another is that they are inexpensive and
easy to make. But the most important is that most of them do not pollute
the earth's atmosphere.
ESTATEMENT OF THESIS
These fuels already are available and free to use, but the user needs to
know how to make, store and use them.
Eco fuels are the fuels of the future. Fossil fuels will have been depleted
within the next 25 years and those using them should prepare for the future
as well as protect the earth's atmosphere by finding out how to produce and
"Advancing Transportation Fuel Technology." (2006). Eco Fuel Systems. Inc.
etrieved November 28, 2006 from http://www.ecofuel.com/…
"Advancing Transportation Fuel Technology." (2006). Eco Fuel Systems. Inc.
Retrieved November 28, 2006 from http://www.ecofuel.com/
"BioFuel." Associated Press. 01 Sep 1003.
"Energy Solutions since 1984." (2006) Eagle Research. Retrieved November
28, 2006 from http://www.eagle-research.com/fenergy/ecof.html .
Kay, Tonya. "Making Biodiesel." Hawaii Indymedia. Retrieved November 28,
2006 from http://hawaii.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/5943.php.
Ljunggren, David. "G8 Leaders' Cars to Use Eco-Fuel made from Straw."
Government Subsidies and Alternative Fuel Technologies
The government should not subsidize alternative fuel options. This is due to the fact that a free market that follows the basic supply and demand curve should be allowed to function as a product of the available technology. This is to say that fossil fuels and other related fuels will continue to stay in demand as long as there is a supply of them and the willingness to pay. Government subsidies disrupt the supply curve as well as the willingness to pay for alternative fuels. Such subsidies create incentives to follow and develop technologies which themselves have no natural market based upon principles of supply and demand.
Technology itself cannot create a new future, s to speak. However, humans, armed with the proper technology and free market dynamics can. This means that as humans develop new technologies, and these technologies become cheaper and more…
Such biodegradable batteries have the ability to last 3 to 4 times longer than the lithium ion batteries in use today. It is not just the average consumer who is interested in these products but the military is also extremely interested in using such sugar-powered batteries. The portability of such devices would be appropriate for the extreme mobility required in the battlefield. It would also be suitable in emergency situations when access to electricity and other vital gasoline supply lines are cut off. Using any kind of sugar source available in the vicinity would be enough to charge up the batteries. (Fuel cell batteries that run on sugar) The energy needs of the U.S. Armed Forces are extremely high and the Department of Defense requires a constant supply of fuel for its military jets. Therefore, as per the instructions of the U.S. Congress, DOD and DAPA have also evinced interest…
Centi, Gabriele; Santen, Rutger A. van. Catalysis for renewables.
Dinham, Barbara; Hines, Colin. Agribusiness in Africa.
Africa World Press. 1984.
4). Likewise, in the same article, Kay Martin of the Ventura County, California public works agency is quoted as saying, "From a macroeconomics or macro-environmental perspective, it just makes sense." The need to build an infrastructure for production of bio-fuels creates economic opportunities.
Of course, not everybody is so enthusiastic. To grow corn, diesel tractors are required to plant, fertilize and harvest it with substantial coal-fired electricity needed for the still. David Pemental, a professor who has done research and a leading opponent of ethanol, says corn ethanol is "unsustainable, subsidized food burning." He charges that most of the one billion dollars spent per year by federal and state governments goes to agribusiness (such as Archer Daniels Midland, a mega corporation) that already owns 35% of the market. He also claims that an acre yielding 7,110 pounds of corn will produce 328 gallons of ethanol. He estimates 140 gallons of…
Advanced Materials & Processes (2005). Industry insider: Automotive, 163 (5), May, 69-70.
Automotive Industries (2003). Fill'er up, 183 (5), May, 51-53.
Brown, D.C. (2004). Moving toward alternative fuel vehicles. Public Works, 135 (12) Nov, 34-7.
Deierlein, B. (2001). Alternative fuels: The race is on! Waste Age, 32 (8), Aug, 62-63, 67.
Rising Cost of Fuel
The price of light, sweet crude oil on NYMEX has been above $40/barrel since late July 2004. y October the price of crude oil had temporarily surpassed $55/barrel. In the United States (U.S.), the Consumer Price Index rose by 0.6% compared to 0.2% for September. This was driven by a 4.2% increase in energy costs. In this paper, we will examine two arguments: the primary cause, or causes of the rise in the price of fuel and the impact on the U.S. economy.
The cause of the rise in fuel prices is the current demand for petroleum in relation to the supply. High demand is coming from increased industry in emerging third world nations including India and especially China which is developing a large car culture and whose manufacturing bases have grown very rapidly in recent years. Consumption in 2004 compared to 2003 according to DOE…
Attarian, John. (2004, 3 October). Gas Prices Soar as Oil Reserves Near Peak. The DetroitNews.com. Retrieved July 17, 2005 from http://www.detnews.com/2004/editorial/0410/04/a17-291458.htm .
Coile, Zachary. (2005, 27 May). Offshore Drilling Bill Makes Way to Senate Floor. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 17, 2005 from http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/05/27/MNGNECVGJE1.DTL .
Dolbeck, Andrew. (2005, 31 January). Valuation of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry. Weekly Corporate Growth Report. Retrieved July 17, 2005 from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3755/is_200501/ai_n9521625 .
Greenspan, Alan. (2005, 5 April). Energy. Before the National Petrochemical and Refiners Association Conference, San Antonio, Texas (via satellite). Retrieved July 17, 2005 from http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2005/20050405/default.htm .
People seeking to make a fundamental change in the way they transport themselves will likely need a great deal of information, some of which may provide greater clarity while others may provide confusion and resort in them seeking out another alternative product. The consumer may then look for information that will support their inquiry into a commitment to a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle as opposed to one of many alternatives.
a. Choosing a lower cost option, or in this case an option that best fits into their personal budget;
b. Choosing an alternative with greater support and/or greater available review data, i.e. something that has already been tried and embraced by consumers;
c. Choosing a product that offers the least resistance in the way of lifestyle change, where to fuel, how to fuel, easier to drive, and/or service.
2. Consulting an expert, such as the lease agent, dealer manufacturer or…
Al-Muslim, a. (2011, March 29). Hempstead adds three hydrogen-powered cars. Newsday, (Melville, NY). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Katzanek, J. (2005). Hybrid car buyers willing to wait in line -- and pay more. Press-Enterprise, the (Riverside, CA), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Lenderman, a. (2007). Hybrids, concept cars generate buzz. Santa Fe New Mexican, the (NM), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Strahan, D. (Nov 29-Dec 5, 2008) Hydrogen's long road to nowhere. New Scientist (200) 2684, 40-44.
Fuel (Coal)/Uranium Needed (tons)
Sulfur Dioxide and Other Emissions (tons)
adioactivity mSv (millisievert)
Solid Waste (tons)
Increased global warming and health effects.
Coal power plants and nuclear power plants are currently the two basic sources of electricity generation across the globe. The purpose of this lab animation and report is to evaluate which of these sources of energy is better for human sustainability. The determination of the more efficient of these two energy sources is based on the data provided above and further research.
The generation of electricity is the leading industrial activity that produces air and gases emissions across the globe. This process is usually carried in several power plants that use different sources of energy. Generally, a huge percentage of the world's electrical power is produced through the use of non-renewable energy sources like coal and uranium (Matthews,…
Kyler, D. (2013, February 4). An Honest Look at Sustainability. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.sustainablecoast.org/site/honestlook.html
Matthews, M. (n.d.). Which One is Better for the Environment: Coal or Nuclear? Retrieved
April 28, 2013, from http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/one-better-environment-coal-nuclear-20469.html
disposable" society that is dependent upon fossil fuels, trash disposal and hazardous waste disposal are not just concerns, but are potential threats to human life, and the lives of everything else within the environment. The National Priorities List, a document prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency, consists of sites that have been found so contaminated they present an immediate threat to persons living or working near the area. Among those noted on this list is The Florida Petroleum eprocessors (FP) site in Broward County, which was a waste oil transfer station from 1978-1992. When the EPA investigated FP, they discovered a plume of groundwater contamination over 600 acres in size, extending into the Biscayne aquifer to a depth over 140-feet.
This is but one example of violations of hazardous waste disposal laws. In Broward County alone, other contaminated sites on the Priorities List are the Davie Landfill, Chemform, Hollingsworth Solderless…
National Priorities List, updated September 9, 2002. 10/3/02 http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/npl/fl.htm#Davie_Landfill
Untitled review of Wingate Dump and Lake Stupid. 10/3/02 http://www.xso.com/news/morgue/0910toxi.htm
As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.
IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints
As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…
(Editor), Shawna McQueen. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2008.
Gold, R. "Natural Gas Costs Hurt U.S. Firms." Wall Street Journal 17 February 2004: 2.
Kinaci, A. "Ab initio investigation of FeTi - H System." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2006): 2466-2474.
Liss, William E. Role of Natural Gas in the Future Hydrogen Market. Research. Des Plaines, IL: Hydrogen Energy Systems Center, 2003.
This presents challenges because neither high-pressure compressed hydrogen gas nor cryogenic liquefied hydrogen can easily be handled at home." (Panasonic, p. 1)
This underscores the reality noted by this proposal and cast to further examination in the research justified by this proposal that any real implementation of an energy source transformation would be a considerable commercial, political, economic and practical endeavor.
All of that noted, it still remains that case that hydrogen has the potential to light the way for a better fuel economy, a more efficient society and a more pristine environment in Singapore. This is because at its root, hydrogen carries not just the potential for clean-burning but also for greater energy-storing capacity. According to the Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) "hydrogen is the lightest gas and also the most energy-dense fuel per mass. One pound of hydrogen holds 52,000 Btu, three times the energy of…
Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA). (2010). Hydrogen Energy Overview. FCHEA.org.
Linde Group (LG). (2010). Hydrogen Energy. Linde Industrial Gases.
Ministry of the Environment and Water Sources (MEWR). (2010). Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. http://app.mewr.gov.sg
National Climate Change Committee (NCCC). (2008). Singapore's National Climate Change Strategy. app.mewr.gov.sg.
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines
Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…
Alternative Fuels Data Center. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site.
Eto, Joseph. 1996. The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Utility Demand-Side Management Programs.
Imperial College. Environmental Planning and Management. Imperial College Press.
Waste & Energy
Waste products and fossil fuel usage are in part byproducts of our civilization and in part they are drivers of our civilization. Disposing of waste and managing fossil fuels present tremendous challenges to our society. We know that climate change is going to have a significant effect on the world, so that the world 100 years from now is quite different from the world today. We know that our waste cannot simply be thrown out, or it will pollute our environment. This presentation will outline specific examples to illustrate the problem.
I want you to take out your phone. It's probably already out. When will you be replacing that phone? Within the next year or two, maybe three if it's a new one. What's in a phone and where does it go? Electronics are a major category of waste, and a massive environmental challenge. Batteries are a…
Clean Air Council. (2014). Waste press delete. Clean Air Council. Retrieved November 7, 2014 from http://www.cleanair.org/waste_delete
EPA. (2014). Where you live -- state medical waste programs and regulations. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved November 7, 2014 from http://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/industrial/medical/programs.htm
The Advantages of Biodiesel Distillation
The search for non-fossil alternative fuels has been conducted now for more than a decade. The impetus for this search has increased in more recent years mainly due to the talk of supposed global warming; the incidence of which is increased by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere by fossil fuels. Because of the Kyoto protocols, one of the primary processes being perfected is that of making biodiesel. This type of diesel can be made from any type of fat or oil, but there are problems associated with its production and use. To mitigate these issues, firms have begun using a distillation process which, in most ways, fixes the problems that have commonly been associated with biodiesel. The following paper discusses what biodiesel is, how the fuel is made, what the distillation process is, and what advantages distilled biodiesel has over non-distilled…
Lurgi. "Biodiesel," 2010. http://www.lurgi.com/website/fileadmin/user_upload/1_PDF/1_Broshures_Flyer/e nglisch/0301e_Biodiesel.pdf
Matallana, L.G., Gutierrez, L.F., & Cardona, C.A. "Biodiesel Production by Reactive Distillation." Enpromer 64 (2005): D2-0-5. Print.
Singh, Arvindar P., Thompson, Joe C., & He, Brian B. "A Continuous-Flow Reactive Distillation reactor for Biodiesel Preparation from Seed Oils." An ASAE/CSAE Meeting Presentation, 2004. Print.
SRS Engineering. "Biodiesel Distillation," 2010. http://c1- preview.prosites.com/37030/wy/docs/Biodiesel%20Distillation.pdf
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
Carbon monoxide gas [CO (g)] is a byproduct of this reaction which defeats the intent of alternative fuel sources to eliminate production of greenhouse gases. Following the first and second laws of thermodynamics, this procedure results in a severe energy loss. The first law of thermodynamics says that the energy output from any process can't exceed the energy input, and the second law focusing in part on decay states that each process decays energy.
The production of the methanol from natural gas results in an initial 32% to 44% net energy loss, then the steam treatment process to procure the hydrogen results in a further 35% energy loss.
Several processes are being explored to derive hydrogen from water, as an inexhaustible source. However, this reaction, 2H2O + e = 2H2(g) + O2(g), requires a substantial energy investment per unit of water (286kJ per mole).
This energy investment is again required…
[i, ii, iv, vi] Joseph J. Romm, the Hype About Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the race to save the Climate (Island Press, NW. Washington DC 2004).
Joseph J. Romm, Andrew a. Frank "Hybrid Vehicles Gain Traction" Scientific American (April 2006).
Business Wire "?
In this author's opinion, a greater than ninety percent probability that humans are involved in global climate change, with the additional concern that irreversible detrimental consequences may result, is sufficient to warrant immediate action in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. ithin the scientific field an absolute certainty that humans have fueled global warming will never be obtained, no matter how much time is provided for study. It is paramount that action, such as the Cap and Trade Policy, is taken immediately to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and slow global warming. Failure to take these steps will only exacerbate the deleterious effects of global warming as time progresses.
Many opponents to implementation of emissions restrictions, such as that of the Cap and Trade Policy, have also suggested that alternative energy sources are not sufficiently advanced or effective to meet the energy demands currently provided by fossil fuels. Presently, alternative energies…
Farrar, Amy. Global Warming. Abdo Pub Co, 2007.
Hufbauer, Gary Clyde, Steve Charnovitz, and Jisun Kim. Global Warming and the World Trading System. Peterson Institute, 2009.
Labatt, Sonia, and Rodney R. White. Carbon finance. John Wiley and Sons, 2007.
Metz, Bert, and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change 2007. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)
The impact of wind farms on the natural landscape is troubling. This is because some communities think that the sight of large fields is destroying the scenery. Evidence of this can be seen in Martha's Vineyard. What happened is many residents began to oppose these kinds of projects out of concerns about how this will impact their views. This led to animosity about where to place wind farms. As a result, proponents argue that establishing these fields in different locations will be challenging. This is when the project will face increased delays and higher costs. ("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)
Advantages of Wind Power
Despite the claims of opponents, the reality is that the use of wind power is a viable resource. A good example of this can be seen with Denmark (who produces 20% of their total energy…
Fossil Fuels and Minnerals. (n.d.).
Renewable and Nuclear Energy. (n.d.).
Deal, W. (2010). Wind power: An emerging energy source. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 70 (1), 9-15.
The concept of energy conservation has been a priority for many governments of late and even organizations and pressure groups have been formed to compel rogue governments and industries to join in the urge to conservation of energy and in effect of the ecosystem. One of the main ways of energy conservation is the use of non-fossil sources of energy which is commonly the practice. The reduction of the need of electrical and heat energy is one of the fundamental ways that could be used to conserve the environment and minimize the human footprints on the environment.
The ensuring reduction in the need for external energy, the first step is to have an insulated house with double walls and insulation material between the two walls also know as vacuum insulation panels and windows that are wide enough for regulation of temperature. The ventilation valves should be located high…
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Portable Nuclear Power
Is a Portable Nuclear Power Device Feasible?
As the global population grows, we find ourselves facing growing energy consumption needs. In industrialized nations, this translates into rising energy costs to power our homes and businesses. Power outages are a major concern in metropolitan areas that depend on power to meet humanity's most basic needs. For those in poorer nations, we do not even have a way to supply them power. It is hard to believe, but there are still many in the world who are not close enough to a power grid to be connected.
What if there was a way to cut energy costs in half? What if we could eliminate the possibility of power outages in the future? What if we did find a way to supply power to those in even the most remote areas, even though there is no grid close by? What…
Asher, M. "Miniature Nuclear Reactors to be on Sale Within 5 years." Daily Tech. November 10, 2008. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Biomass For Electricity Generation. U.S.
Department of Energy. Electricity Analysis Reports. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
Fehrenbacher, K. "Hyperion's Nuclear-In-A-Box by 2013." Gigaom. August 1, 2008. (Web)
Moreover, even with these changes Verve will remain subject to government's heavy hand -- will this limit their profit potential no matter what other changes are made?
Response to Nash. The conclusion about subsidy being necessary is one element of insight that I liked, and that wasn't really outlined in the other posts. Verve has an ongoing lack of sustainability in its budget. I fail to see, however, how "cost analysis" would achieve anything. Granted, the company's hands are somewhat tied with regards to other solutions, but must of the firm's inefficiency is tied more to its burdensome regulatory environment than managerial incompetence. Old, inefficient plants cannot be made efficient without a serious infusion of capital. Cutting costs through other means is also difficult. Layoffs involved short-term spending on severance, for example. The author is right about the goal conflict being a major contributor to Verve's problems. It is the…
A petroleum geologist against drilling in the area writes, "For all practical purposes, the refuge is utterly pristine. It also encompasses an area 26 times larger than Yosemite National Park, almost nine times the size of Yellowstone" (Herndon). While few visitors seek out the Refuge, there are several small native villages in and around the area, and these Native Americans rely on the bounty of the Refuge for their continued survival. These Gwich'in people oppose drilling in the ANWR for a number of important reasons. They feel it will permanently damage the tender tundra, which is easily damaged and non-renewable once it has been damaged, and it could affect the Porcupine Elk herd, which migrates through the area, as well. Drilling could disrupt their traditional birthing and nursery grounds, which could cause them to migrate along a different route. Since the Gwich'in people rely on the caribou for sustenance, this…
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…
"Globalization and Energy Supply: Strategic Risk in the 21st Century."
A Deloitte Research Viewpoint. May 2004.
Harris, Martha Caldwell. "The Globalization of Energy Markets."
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…
Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). "Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem," 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.
This makes the issue a complex one without a clear answer; carbon dioxide is preferable to other potential byproducts of fossil fuel combustion due to the ease with which it can be trapped and its relative innocuousness in these sinks, but undesirable due to its volume and the lack of current capabilities to provide adequate sinks.
7) While it is understandable that the EPA would desire to increase public safety by revising standards for ground level ozone production and concentration, in reality this move is not entirely necessary. As business owners and operators, you know all too well the incessant environmental regulation can create significant operational difficulties and reduce if to eliminate profitability, often with no effect on environmental risks or damage. The EPA itself has found that ground-level ozone quickly dissipates and presents a minimal danger to health if properly vented and dispersed, yet they are revising regulations as…
Clegg, S. & Abbatt, J. (2001). Oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 on ice surfaces at 228 K: a sink for SO2 in ice clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 1:77-92.
EPA. (2011). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks. Washington, DC.
Garrison, T. (2004). Oceanography. New York: Thomson Brooks.
wrong with this picture?
The viewpoint being espoused expresses some wonderful ideas but fails to take into consideration the basic selfishness of man. Expecting the kind of cooperation and dedication that would be necessary to accomplish what is being suggested in this scenario is highly idealistic. It would require the putting aside of both national interests and personal interests on a scale much larger than that necessary for the United Nations to operate. Suggesting that this might be possible is unrealistic. ather, the more reasoned approach is to allow the natural markets to develop.
In the short-term, the world's energy supply system will remain essentially as it is for the next several decades except that the demand in growth will continue due to sustained modernization in China, India and elsewhere. This means that new sources of oil and other energy sources need to be developed alongside strides in energy efficiency.…
Adger, W.N. (2001). Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Development and Change, 681-715.
Armitage, K.C. (2005). State of Denial: The United States and the politics of global warming. Globalizations, 417-427.
Toulmin Model argument in response to one of the following prompts:
• What specific action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
Active in 15 countries, "Target Earth" is a group of individuals, churches, college fellowship and various ministries that are Christian protectors for everything that God created. The group feeds the hungry, saves endangered animals, rebuilds forests, and serves as active voice for environmental concerns. The groups mission is "erving the Earth, erving the Poor," which defines their connection of Christianity to environmentalism as they see it (Target Earth.com).
The news media is full of warnings that deal with environmental issues of one kind or the other be it global warming, endangered species, extinction of the rain forest, pollution, nuclear accidents, and so forth. The Christian community seems to apply less attention to these issues than they do to others. It may be because we…
Beisner, E. Calvin. (1990) Prospects for Growth: a Biblical View of Population, Resources, and the Future. Westchester, Ill.: Crossway Books,.
DeWitt, Calvin B., Ed. (1991) The Environment and the Christian: What Can We Learn from the New Testament? Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House,.
Target Earth http://christianteens.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=christianteens&cdn=religion&tm=294&f=20&tt=3&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.targetearth.org/
Yahoo Voices, Simple Steps to Help the Environment
top page. This reference citation complete successful locating article.
Karlgaard, R.R. (2012). Energy in 2050 Shell's Peter Voser. Forbes Asia, 8(6), 97.
Shell Oil's present CEO Peter Voser came to the helm of the company in 2009, at the height of the world's credit crisis. Voser immediately began 'cleaning house' and completely restructured the company. He began with the management. Twenty percent of the management staff was completely eliminated. Another 14,000 people at Shell were asked to reapply for their jobs and justify their worth to the company. Voser took seven months to completely change the organizational structure of the company to make it leaner and more competitive. Despite the far-reaching nature of his actions, Voser stated that he was primarily changing the nature of the management, not the fundamental company philosophy and orientation of Shell. Shell will remain an oil company, founded on the belief that oil…
Global Warming and Its Effects
For many years, people have been talking about how the weather has changed over the past ten years. In fact, you may have witnessed these changes first hand. The earth's climate has been continuously changing for millions of years. Currently, studies indicate that the Earth is undergoing global warming. The first time I ever heard about global warming was a television commercial. I remember that the commercial featured two children and an adult. In the commercial, the adult started to explain global warming, however his explanation was beyond the scope of the children's understanding. The little girl in the commercial was too confused by the explanation that then prompted the adult to flash-forward into the future to show the children the effects of the climatological concept he was talking about. While the trio are seen in a luscious park at the beginning of the commercial,…
Gore, Al. An Inconvenient Truth. United States: Paramount Classics, 2007. DVD.
Carbon dioxide 07 Dec.2007
Discover the scientific facts on global warming effects 07 Dec.2007
Greenhouse Gas Emissions 07 Dec.2007
e see that convential agriculture often fails in the long-run. Rather than substitue ecosystem functions with chemicals, does it not make more sense to use the ecological functions of the area in question to "develop farming styles tailored to [the] specific agroexosystems and socioeconomic capabilities"? (Holt, p. 39). And what better way to ensure that we provide the world with the most production possible in a way that benefits the consumer, but also the farmer and the farmer's family? (Cuba: The Campesino-to-Campesino Agroecoloty Movement). This is clearly the message from these readings. The economic system is immaterial -- what is important is the manner in which the consumer takes partial responsibility to help the sustainability of the product, insists that corporations do their part, and, in fact, partner with the micro-farmer to develop a winning propostion for all.
Armendariz, B. And J. Morduch. The Economics of Microfinance. Boston,…
Armendariz, B. And J. Morduch. The Economics of Microfinance. Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2007. Print.
Central Intelligence Agency. "CIA World Factbook." January 2012. CIA.GOV. Web. May 2012. .
"Coffee Industry Stakeholders." June 2010. Coffeecorp.org. Web. May 2012. .
"Cuba: The Campesino-to-Campesino Agroecoloty Movement." January 2012. Links - Journal of Socialist Renewal. Web. May 2012. .
Global Warming: Why it is not the greatest fear of the industrializing world, why it is such a great fear for the industrialized world
There is a threat that currently looms upon the horizon, in danger of choking the fragile health of the developing economies of the so-called Third World. This threat is not the so-called global warming phenomena. The long ranging environmental results of the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere still remains unknown, and the data is far from conclusive. What is known by international economists is that the threat of global warming, as deployed as a kind of buzz word and media scare tactic of the environmentalist movement could impede the growth of industrialized nations and reduce the chance of Third World countries improving their living standards.
Despite the words 'Trade not Aid,' as bandied about by corporations such as the Body Shop, there is…
hen gasoline prices are low, as they were in July 2003, families spend an average of 4.6% of their median incomes on gasoline; but when prices spike, as they did in July 2008, households spend more like 11.5% on gasoline (Ma, 18).
So what can consumers do vis-a-vis shopping for groceries when gasoline prices take away significant portions of their disposable incomes? Firstly, on page 21 Ma explains that smart shoppers go to warehouse club centers and "supercenters" where prices are lower due to the mass volumes of products sold there. Yes, Ma admits, supercenters and warehouse clubs may be further away than local grocery stories, causing more gasoline to be used; but on the other hand, customers buy in bulk at those outlets, reducing "the number of shopping trips" necessary (21). Secondly, smart grocery shoppers turn to "private labels" on food products that are as a rule 20% to…
Courtemanche, Charles. "A Silver Lining? The Connection Between Gasoline Prices and Obesity." Economic Inquiry, 49.3 (2011): 935-957.
Kilian, Lutz. "Explaining Fluctuations in Gasoline Prices: A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil
Market and the U.S. Retail Gasoline Market." The Energy Journal, 31.2 (2010): 87-111.
Ma, Yu, Ailawadi, Kusum L., Fauri, Dinesh K., and Grewal, Dhruv. "An Empirical Investigation
Moreover, because the organization heavily promotes its commitment to global and local ecological and environmental responsibility, the proposed change only lends further support to these values and demonstrates broader commitment to achieving the desired outcome through every means possible. That is equally important from the perspective of maximizing internal "buy-in" and from the perspective of presenting a comprehensive and consistent public policy externally (obbins & Judge, 2009; Stevens, 2008).
Evaluation and Conclusion
The recommended change for the organization is inherently testable by comparing the objective data of employee performance before and after implementing the suggested policy change on a case-by-case basis. Successful and productive implementation of trusted (i.e. senior) employees would provide the basis for extending the same opportunity to others. Likewise, the success of this communications initiative is also imminently testable because its success would correspond to a specific change in organizational policy according to the recommendations outlined in…
George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organisational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati,
OH: West Legal Studies.
hy eat locally? hy participate in the locavore movement? The locavore movement is a movement in which one's carbon footprint is reduced by eating food grown near one's home. The point of this paper is quite simple and straight forward: eating locally means reducing your carbon footprint because what you ate last night for dinner did not travel 1,500 miles -- or even 200 miles -- and hence, fossil fuels were not used in the transport of that food. This paper points to the advantages of eating locally from a person perspective, with a brief mention of why reducing one's carbon footprint is desirable in an over-heated world.
Global arming -- Carbon Footprints
There are still people who are in denial about climate change -- including some elected officials, including United States Senator Tom Colburn, a Republican representing Oklahoma. According to Climate Progress, 161 members of the U.S.…
Germain, T, Koronowski, R., and Spross, J. (2013). The Anti-Science Climate Denier: 113th
Congress Edition. Climate Progress. Retrieved October 11, 2013, from http://thinkprogress.org .
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2013). Climate Change Report: 2013 vs. 2007
Findings. Retrieved October 11, 2013, from http://www.livescience.com .
Carbon emissions during recent decades have generated much controversy and some communities have taken harsh measures in order to combat effects associated with the process. The Australian Federal Government introduced a carbon tax of $23AUD per ton of emitted carbon dioxide on a series of fossil fuels in order to effectively deal with pollution. Finances gained from the process have been used to reduce income tax and provide Australian citizens with several benefits. hile the legislation has been welcomed by many local and international bodies, some have frowned upon it and have called for its repeal on account of how it produced much damage both on a small level by increasing cost of living and on a larger level by preventing businesses from being able to experience progress.
Tony Abbott's article "THE COALITION'S PLAN TO ABOLISH THE CARBON TAX" is among the most recognized criticisms regarding the carbon tax in…
Bell, L. "Australian Voters Energetically Reject Concocted Climate Crisis And Carbon Tax Disasters." Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/larrybell/2013/09/29/australian-voters-energetically-reject-concocted-climate-crisis-and-carbon-tax-disasters/
Gardner, T. "U.S., China agree to cut emissions from vehicles, coal." Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/07/10/us-climate-usa-china-idUSBRE9690VM20130710
Ryan, R. "Kevin Rudd says Labor 'got it wrong' on introducing carbon tax without mandate." Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-08-25/rudd-says-labor-got-it-wrong-on-carbon-tax/4910690
Taylor, L. "Tony Abbott insists carbon tax will end on 1 July -- even if Senate blocks repeal." http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/oct/15/tony-abbott-insists-carbon-tax-will-end-on-1-july-even-if-senate-blocks-repeal