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g., we, society, have done nothing to help cause these crimes; social misfits have committed them).
In addition, according to the Mirror: "Weise was described as a loner who usually wore black and was teased by fellow pupils... his father committed suicide four years ago. His mother, who has brain injuries for [sic] a car crash, lives in a Minneapolis nursing home... Weise wrote messages expressing support for Hitler on a right-wing website [emphasis added]."
This additional information further isolates the killer from the mainstream; he was a loner; dressed atypically; came from a problem family; and admired Hitler. These unusual characteristics, the article implies, singled him out to begin with; therefore, he, like the Columbine killers, is an anomaly within society. Since so few people are like this, although the incident was tragic, society itself need not be concerned about its own implicit role in such tragedies.
Foucault, M. (1970a). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. London:
Foucault, M. (1970b). The order of things: An archaeology of the human sciences. London: Tavistock.
Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge. New York: Harper and Row.
On page 261-262 Alberto raises the issue of "rationalism" (in the 17th Century Descartes believed reason is the essential source of knowledge and that man has "certain innate" ideas in his mind prior to any experience). Alberto, as part of the novel's didactic (teaching) theme, then contrasts Descartes' rationalism with 18th Century philosophers including Locke, Hume, and Berkeley who were "empiricists."
The empiricist (including the original empiricist thinker Aristotle) believed that "all knowledge of the world" is derived from what our senses tell us. Englishman John Locke, Alberto explains (263), believed that prior to any experience, the human mind is "bare and empty as a blackboard before the teacher arrives." But when we begin having experiences, the truth comes clear because now we have knowledge of those experiences, and the blackboard begins to have writing on it, and knowledge conveyed through it, Locke believed. "Each society has its regime of…
Foucault, Michel. (1980). Power / Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-
1977. New York: Pantheon Books.
Gaarder, Jostein. (1991). Sophie's World. New York: Berkeley Books.
This is important to note because it demonstrates how Foucault is seemingly predicting now more-common method of discussing ideologies and their tactics in positively biological terms.
Secondly, recognizing that the discourses surrounding sex that developed and in some cases were deployed over the course of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries helps one to understand why "what is said about sex must not be analyzed simply as the surface of projection of these power mechanisms," because it is the actual discursive deployment themselves which embody the power mechanisms under discussion (Foucault 100). These discourses cannot help but to legitimize and reiterate the reigning power structure. The discourses of morality, science, and criticism utilized by the "family organization" in order to constrain and control an individual's sexuality simultaneously serve to define and support the family organization in the first place. This is a crucial contribution to the study of rhetoric and…
Eribon, Didier. "Michel Foucault's Histories of Sexuality." 7.1 (2001): 31-86.
Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction, Volume 1. New York: Vintage
Leps, Marie-Christine. "Critical Productions of Discourse: Angenot, Bakhtin, Foucault." Yale
Paul Patton (1998) maintains, "in this manner, the ways in which certain human capacities become identified and finalized within particular forms of subjectivity the ways in which power creates subjects may also become systems of domination (71).
Foucault contends that discourses on sex positioned at the end of the 18th century were not designed nor used in such a way to regulate or repress the people. Instead, these conversations, dialogues or conventions were designed by the emerging bourgeoisie as a strategy for self-affirmation. Through discourses on sexual relationships and sexuality, these groups slowly established itself as a class distinguished from the "ignorant masses and decadent aristocracy" (1980: 121).
It seems to me that the deployment of sexuality was not established as a principle of limitation of the pleasures to others by what have traditionally been called the 'ruling classes'. Rather it appears to me that they first tried it on…
Flynn, T. (2003) Sartre, Foucault, and Historical Reason, volume 2: A post-structuralist
Mapping of history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Foucault, M. (1978) The History of Sexuality, Penguin Books
Foucault, M. (1980) The History of Sexuality Vol 1: An Introduction. New York:
e., underlying meaning, in terms of power relationships) of a human discourse or discourses [a text may be a poem, song, mission statement, law or other spoken, read, sung, written, or reported language entity conveyed and/or absorbed as written and/or read; sung and/or spoken; quoted and/or paraphrased, etc.] may be interpreted distinctly by separate individuals, nations, religious groups, political parties etc., in ways reflecting various power/knowledge relationships. About science/power (meaning either science as power or science in relationship to power) relationships in particular (abortion law, internationally and comparatively, fits that category, because abortion is, first a procedure only made possible by science; and science, as embodied by exclusively-educated and trained medical clinicians in particular, is the abstract entity that makes possible abortion in general); a doctor, based on the doctor's medical knowledge, possesses power to accept or reject a patient for an abortion for scientific reasons (e.g., length of pregnancy;…
The panopticon centralizes the space of the observer while simultaneously mystifying the act of observation, such that the threat may be ever-present even if an actual prison guard is not. In the same way, Foucault's conception of the societal panopticon imposes its standards on the individual, who must conform to the standards of society due to a fear of the possibility of discovery and punishment. According to Foucault, "the Panopticon is a privileged place for experiments on men, and for analyzing with complete certainty the transformations that may be obtained from them" (Foucault 204). The space the narrator finds himself in at the beginning of The Unnamable functions in this same way, except that in this case the object of the panopticon's gaze has not undergone the process of subjectification prior to finding itself there.
The narrator simply exists upon the reading of the novel, and is subsequently unable to…
Armstrong, Charles. "Echo: Reading The Unnamable Through Kant and Kristeva." Nordic
Journal of English Studies. 1.1 173-197. Print.
Balinisteanu, Tudor. "Meaning and Significance in Beckett's The Unnamable ." Applied
Semiotics 13. (2003): n. pag. Web. 30 May 2011.
Take for example, Foucault's 'Omnus at singulatim', in which the thinker shows his reader how the Christian practice of 'pastoral power' paves the way for certain modern practices that in actuality govern almost all the aspects of a living population anywhere in the world. Foucault also stressed on his belief that religion, in a positive way, possessed the capacity to contest against the nascent forms of control instituted during the modern period of man, like for example, Protestant eformation, which tried its best to resist the onslaught of emerging forms, and therefore, became representative of a set of emerging disciplinary discourses and practices. As far as Foucault was concerned, religion presented difficulties for autonomous self fashioning, but at the same time, religion was not a dangerous precursor to modern forms of governments.
To conclude, it must be said that Michael Foucault's theories are as relevant today as they were…
Smart, Barry. Michael Foucault, Critical Assessments. Routledge, 1995.
McCall, Corey "Autonomy, religion and revolt in Foucaul." Journal of Philosophy & Scripture 2, no. 1 (Fall 2004): 7-13.
Gutting, Gary. The Cambridge Companion to Foucault, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Carrette, Jeremy R. Foucault and Religion: Spiritual Corporality and Political Spirituality, Routledge, 2000.
Foucault and Davis
The idea of the panopticon came from English philosopher and thinker Jeremy Bentham, after he helped to design a building in which one supervisor could observe all of the workers within. Eventually, Bentham's panopticon was converted into prison design, as people realized the benefits of a building which contains a point from where all of the prisoners inside could be watched by a single guard. While the architectural theory of the panopticon failed to catch on during Bentham's lifetime, many philosophers have since examined the idea from a variety of angles, discussing ideas like social control and authoritarianism. One of those philosophers was the Frenchman Michel Foucault, who wrote a book called Discipline and Punish in 1975 which contained many references to the panopticon as becoming the model for social structures. According to Foucault's view, the panopticon as imagined by Bentham has become more than just a…
Davis, M. (1992). Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space. Variations on a theme park, 154-180.
Foucault, M. (1984). The foucault reader. Random House LLC.
feminist rhetorical theory. omen have been historically minimized and isolated by the domination of the patriarchal majority. Although women have been able to make a degree of progress, finally achieving positions of social and political power, the number of women in these high offices is still far less than the roles that are filled by man. Modern women, far removed from the "angels in the house" of the Victorian age, are nonetheless still impacted by the sociological oppression of women which was reinforced during that era, according to the rhetorical theory of feminism. Given that this is the case, men and women need to be aware of these underlying gender biases so that they can both combat them and make sure that they themselves do not fall prey to them. People who deny that this subjugation of women may be enlightened by closer examination of the power dynamics which exists…
Cixous, H., Cohen, K, & Cohen, P. (1976). The laugh of the Medusa. Signs. 1(4). The University
of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. 875-93.
Foss, S. & Griffin, C. (2003). Beyond persuasion: a proposal for an invitational rhetoric.
Communications Monographs. 2-18.
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf
Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf
Foucault's Birth of the Clinic
Initially, in order to provide a stable framework on this study, we would try to clearly define, identify and learn both the visible and literary meaning on the work of Michel Foucault's work, The Birth of the Clinic. We will intend to scrutinize each of the underlying detail of this literary masterpiece and retrieve its modern influences in the field of medical and health studies.
In the modern era of rational thinking and ideas, the concept of which Michel Foucault is trying to convey in his literary work, The Birth of the Clinic is the postmodern influence of medical attribute to the social and political structure of our society. The concept of which Foucault considers as a myth of which he notes:
"...the first task of the doctor is ... political: the struggle against disease must begin with a war against bad government." Man will…
Shawver, L. (1998). Notes on reading the Birth of the Clinic. Retrieved 10/03/05 from the World Wide Web: http://www.california.com/~rathbone/foucbc.htm
SHU, United Kingdom (2005), Birth of the Clinic, commentary (2000)
Retrieved 10/02/05 from World Wide Web:
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…
A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory, n.d., Available at:
Bridle, S. And Edelstein, a., 2009, Was ist "das Ich"?, Available at:
True freedom does exist, but Black America has not yet found it.
From Redistribution to Recognition?
In this article by Nancy Fraser, the problem of social inequities is discussed in terms of the definitions that lead to potential solutions. Ms. Fraser spends a considerable amount of time examining the mechanics of race, gender, and sexuality. Rather than see society socialistically in terms of economics, the author singles out these purely cultural constructs as things to be deconstructed in order to achieve fair redistribution and recognition. These categories are identities that are formed primarily through the workings of Eurocentric attitudes, beliefs that themselves must be eliminated by concerted efforts at decentering and also revaluing other groups and sets of beliefs. Two primary approaches present themselves - one affirmative, the other transformative. According to the affirmative, programs are aimed at actively moving wealth to underprivileged groups, while those groups simultaneously preserve their…
Boehm, Christopher. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
From the Tour: Titian and the Late Renaissance in Venice." The Collection, National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2006. URL: http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg23/gg23-1226.0.html .
Deconstructionism and Translation Theory
Deconstructionists and translation.
Deconstructionalist believes that the possibility of knowing an authors meaning in a particular work is slim to none. The author who wrote an original piece did so within a particular social construct. The author has individual meanings and experiences in his or her life that were not included in his work. Therefore the authors 'original intent' cannot be fully understood by the present day translator
Deconstructionists, therefore, do not attempt to make assertions of the author's original intent. They turn their translation effort to helping the reader understand what the particular piece may mean for today. An example of this difference in approach to understanding documents can be seen today in the political system of our country, in particular in the court system. Conservative judges and politicians are swift to bring into discussion the 'original intent' of the framers of the constitution. They…
Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.
Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…
Burch, Robert. "Charles Sanders Peirce." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/peirce/#dia .
Kessler, Gary. Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader, 5th Edition. New York: Wadsworth Publishing, 2003.
Pinter, Harold. "Nobel Lecture: Art, Truth, and Politics." 2005. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2005/pinter-lecture-e.html ,
Thornton, Stephen. "Karl Popper." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).
Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…
Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,
Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel
Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
Freud & Foucault: Comparing Two Theories of Human Behavior
Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), and linguistic anthropologist Michel Foucault (1926-1984), came from two different European cities (Freud from Vienna; Foucault from Paris) lived at different times, and developed entirely different theories of human behavior. Freud believed human drives and impulses originate from the unconscious; and external social repression of unconscious impulses (early messages about "right" and "wrong" from parents, teachers, other authority figures, and from society) give way to internal formation of the id (unconscious desire); the ego (a person's sense of who he or she is); and the superego (an internalized parent constantly reminding the individual, based on early socialization, of what is the "right" thing to do, instead of the "wrong" thing, in terms of society's expectations of the individual). It is in fact the id/ego/superego theory for which Freud is best known.
Freud also believed, in…
hile these are some of the more famous elements of rhetorical theory, they do not require extensive discussion here for two reasons. Firstly, they are fairly well-known. Secondly, and more importantly, they actually do not provide much insight into the uses of rhetoric, because Aristotle implicitly inserts an ethics into his discussion of rhetoric that precludes it from having as robust an application to the real world as would be desired, due to the fact that rhetoric does not equally "target the emotional and rational attitudes and convictions" of the audience (Martina 567). In particular, Aristotle's theory suffers from assumptions regarding human beings receptivity to logic and a belief that rhetoric is ultimately "a means of attaining truth and knowledge" (Hugenberg 1). In fact, rhetoric is more often than not deployed as a means of avoiding or otherwise obscuring the truth, and but Aristotle's moralizing attitude precludes him from effectively…
Archer, Lauren Renel. "The Rightful Place of Science: Understanding the Intersection of Rhetoric, Politics, and Science in President Obama's First 100 Days." Communication,
2010. United States -- Colorado: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT).
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 1. 29-53.
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 2. 118-191.
Two belief systems, then -- true believe, and justified true belief (Hauser, 1992).
Humans, however, according to Pierce, turn justified true beliefs into true beliefs by converting them into axioms. Once we have proven something there is no need to prove it again, and we use the part that was proven before to further extend our study and the inquisition of knowledge. And so it becomes necessary to accept things as the truth without proving them at every single moment. However, does not mean that the belief is an unjustified belief, for it again is the conflictual nature of justified against unjustified that, for scholars like Pierce, outpours a reality he can view as "true" (Ibid).
ene' Descartes' purpose was to make humans analyze the introspective nature of being, and to postulate on the veracity of truth as a nature of thought -- if we think it, it is, and…
Ayer, A.J. (2001). David Hume: A Short Introduction .Oxford University Press.
Billington, M. (2007). Harold Pinter. Faber and Faber.
Cottingham, J., ed. (1992). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge Gould, J. And R. Mulvaney. (2008). Classic Philosophical Questions, 13th ed.. Prentice-
Jacques Derrida has been accused of writing in a deliberately obtuse and obfuscated manner, so the relationship between his work and that of Plato's might not be immediately discernible. Perhaps the clearest connection between the two can be derived from Derrida's of Grammatology, especially as it compares to Plato's aesthetics and view of reality. In this rather dense treatise, Derrida first outlines the phenomenon of what he calls logocentrism -- the attitude that speech (logos in Greek) is the most basic and essential form of language, while writing is secondary in development and its ability to reflect meaning. Derrida claims that logocentrism has long been a silent and foundational part of Western thought, even from the time of Plato.
Plato believed that truth and meaning existed in a pure state somewhere, with the shadows of meanings existing in our own world. Derrida sees this as a flawed worldview, though not…
Vernacular hetoric has an element of discussion which ensures that there is hope of better and newer social circumstances to emerge as the ideologies behind social movements keep changing. The combination of hetoric and vernahas yielded the momentous Theory of Vernacular hetoric which embodies the teachings of persuasive use of inherent and familiar tongues to offer resistance by persons to bring social change.
Amos, . (1969). House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin.
Aristotle. (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. Oxford University Press.
Boyd, T.E. (1991). Deep in the Shed: The Discourse of African-American Cinema. Iowa Journal of Literary Studies, 11(1), 99-104.
Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Univ of California Press.
Conley, T. (1994). hetoric in the European tradition. University of Chicago Press.
Hauser, G.A. (1999). Vernacular voices: Univ of South Carolina Press.
Hauser, G.A., & McClellan, E.D.…
Amos, R. (1969). House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin.
Aristotle. (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. Oxford University Press.
Boyd, T.E. (1991). Deep in the Shed: The Discourse of African-American Cinema. Iowa Journal of Literary Studies, 11(1), 99-104.
Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Univ of California Press.
In addition, Lett (1987) emphasizes that, "Cultural materialists maintain that a society's modes of production and reproduction determine its social structure and ideological superstructure, but cultural materialists reject the metaphysical notion of Hegelian dialectics that is part of dialectical materialism" (80). Indeed, according to Bradshaw (1993), "the British cultural materialist knows that the 'radical,' 'subversive,' 'marginal,' or 'dissident' perspective is always superior (9). This author maintains that British cultural materialist readings of Shakespeare tend to assign particular characters or speeches a privileged, supra-dramatic significance that may override meaningful analysis if care is not taken (Bradshaw 9).
According to Bate (1994), it has become increasingly common in recent years for scholars to adopt either the new historicism or cultural materialist perspective alone when considering these literary works, particularly as they apply to Shakespeare. In this regard, MacDonald (1994) suggests that the New Historicist camp enjoys a clear advantage because they "define…
Bate, Jonathan. Shakespeare and Ovid. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Bertens, Hans. Literary Theory: The Basics. London: Routledge, 2001.
Bradshaw, Graham. Misrepresentations: Shakespeare and the Materialists. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993.
Cartelli, Thomas. Marlowe, Shakespeare and the Economy of Theatrical Experience. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
Indeed, if one considers newsworthy events, violent revolution as a mode of change appears much more instinctive to human beings than communicative action.
Foucault's Theory of Power
For Habermas, Foucault's theory of power is over generalizing and universalizing. He thus dismisses the latter philosopher's theory as reductionistic and contradictory. Once again Habermas uses philosophical reason rather than mechanical evolution as a basis from which to change the corruptive power held by authorities and institutions. Foucault on the other hand sees power and reason as intertwined with each other. Thus there is no good or bad within power structures themselves, but rather in how they are implemented. Habermas however finds this problematic, and argues that there is then no ground from which to effect the necessary change in of these power structures in order to make them more beneficial for society.
In Foucault's view, there are dangers inherent in holding a…
philosophical questions about, Jean Jacque Rousseau, John Dewey, Michel Foucault and Marin Luther King, Jr. It has 4 sources.
Rousseau and Nature"
We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. This education comes to us from nature, from men, or from things."[Rousseau 143].
According to Rousseau out of the three factors involved in a child's development, Nature, is totally uncontrollable. "Nature, we are told, is merely habit." Habits are a product of positive or negative conditioning. As a child grows in reason he uses judgment to modify his natural tendencies but often this process becomes warped due to already embedded habits. Harmony within is affected when natural tendencies conflict with what a child learns at the hands of society and other men.…
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. emile, Everyman's Library 1969.
Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline & Punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books
Preston, Edward. Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1986.
Dewey, John, 1859-1952. Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DewDemo.html
Gaze and the Culturally Determined Body
Michel Foucault first developed his theory of the panopticon as a means of describing the ways in which a society may dominate the thought processes and behavior of the individual by "convincing" that individual to implicitly engage in their own surveillance, in the same way that a literal, brick-and-mortar panopticon relies on the self-regulation of prisoner behavior due to the fear of possible surveillance and punishment. In formulating this theory, Foucault uncovered important details regarding the way in the body is created, regulated, and sometimes even decimated by societal standards, something which Susan Bordo expands upon in her essay "Beauty (re)Discovers the Male Body." Bordo analyzes the way in which bodies (and in this case, male bodies) and the meanings gained from them are culturally determined, to the extent that the human body as it is commonly considered has almost nothing to do with…
Bordo, Susan. The Male Body: A New Look at Men in Public and Private. New York, NY: Farrar,
Straus, & Giroux, 1999. Print.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1977. Print.
In the final analysis the film under discussion can be deconstructed and critiqued from a postmodern perspective. This refers to the underlying ideologies and metanarratives that inform the narrative and imagery of the film.
From a postmodern point-of-view truth is never static or fixed and is always relative to a certain context or stance. The film in question makes use of a number of rhetorical devices to put forward its central argument. These include aspects such as the metanarratives of science as well as environmental nostalgia. There are many other ways in which this film could be deconstructed to reveal fissures in the apparent logic and coherence of the documentary. hat is clear is that even a discursive postmodern reading of the film indicates that Gore unconsciously or consciously makes use of various cultural predilections and ideologies in estern culture to support his stance in this film.
An Inconvenient Truth ( 2006). Direction: Davis Guggenheim. Paramount Classics.
FOUCAULT, DERRIDA, WOMEN'S SPEAKING JUSTIFIED AND MODELLING LEGAL
ARGUMENT ( Book Review). 26 January, 2010.
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…
Baehr, Peter. 2002. In the Grip of Freedom: Law and Modernity in Max Weber. Canadian Journal of Sociology 27, no. 4: 587+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/.Internet. Accessed 4 June 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49065068
1990. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94050575
Grusky, David B., ed. 1994. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007673311
The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.
Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.
Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…
feeling overwhelmed. The required reading felt daunting and it seemed like the expectations put upon students were rather high. I remember having the impression that a lot of my learning would entail simply memorizing and regurgitating facts and ideas. I had concerns about the amount of writing expected of us. As I explained in my "Guided Self-Placement" essay, I started this course without having had a great deal of reading and writing experience.
I feel that this course has enabled me to write and think more critically and formally. Previously, I was not aware of the necessary tone that academic essays had to take and that it's appropriate to omit colloquial phrases and words such as "like." In fact, I would still say that I sometimes have a tendency to write in too much of a conversational tone, and have to be particularly watchful of that in my writing.
Bordo, Susan. The male body: a new look at men in public and in private. "Beauty
(Re)Discovers the Male Body." New York: Farrar, Straus and Girror, 1999.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon, 1977.
Tompkins, Jane. "Indians": Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History." Styles of cultural activism: from theory and pedagogy to women, Indians. Ed. Philip Goldstein. Boston: Associated University Presses, 1994
Carnal teachings: raunch aesthetics as queer feminist pedagogies in Yo! Majesty's hip hop practice" by Jilian Hernandez, the essay explores the concept of 'raunch aesthetics' in the video for the song, "Don't Let Go." Hernandez also explore the notions of community cultural capital, color blind/new racism, and postfeminism through the performance of the women in the video. Hernandez's interpretation of queer and feminist teachings via these four concepts and through the music video provides a unique look, into analysis of text and visuals to gather and form ideas and theory.
The first concept to analyze is 'raunch aesthetics'. A term see in feminist theory, 'raunch aesthetics' describes the women in hip hop and the various ways they express sexuality via staging, choreography, and performance of lyrics. Women in hip hop that participate in 'raunch aesthetics' are thought to attempt to own their sexual identities as well as their bodies by…
There are numerous reasons why so many movies fail the Bechdel test. Most of these reasons directly correspond to the exact nature of this assessment, and what it reveals about society. Still others of these reasons pertain to the function of films within society. For the most part, they are used to reinforce societal values and mores. To a lesser extent, this medium is also widely deployed as a means of introducing new societal norms which will one day become part of the social establishment. Finally, still other reasons directly correlate to the notion of gender and gender constructs in Westernization today. A thorough examination of these different reasons reveals so many movies fail the Bechdel test because they reflect the values of a male-dominated society.
In examining the specific way in which this this thesis applies to some of the theorists analyzed within this class, it is first necessary…
Consumption, Society and Culture
There are two social processes which are linked with each other and provide the basis of popular culture in modern capitalist societies. These two processes are related with production and consumption of cultural goods. In the first step, the commodities are produced in the light of customers' desirable features and packaged in culturally acceptable methods. In the second step, the products are used by their respective target markets as status symbols to satisfy self-esteem needs. The identification of the target market as a considerable portion of society is largely based on its presentation in fine arts particularly TV programs, music shows and films (Benjamin, 1968).
Social system is a comprehensive study, whose knowledge is mandatory to understand the popular culture. Artifacts represent the cultural symbols, yet these artifacts are strongly influenced by the taste and choice of professionals and cultural elites. There are many…
Adorno, Theodor W., "Art, Autonomy and Mass Culture," in Art in Modern Culture: An Anthology of Critical Texts, ed. By Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris (New York: Icon Editions, 1992), 74-79.
Adorno, Theodor W., Critical Models; Interventions and Catchwords, trans. By Henry W. Pickford (New York: Colombia University Press, 1998).
Adorno, Theodor W., "The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture, " (London: Routledge, 2001).
Adorno, Theodor W. et al., The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row Publications, 1950).
Seeing, Looking, egarding
When Mulvey (1975) wrote about the psychological importance of the male gaze, most women would have recognized in her description of the dynamics of phallocentrism and the male observation of women their own experiences. Mulvey argued that men use their ability an authority to look at women as a means of maintaining their power in a patriarchal society, and this use of the gaze is something that women often encounter in their lives. Applying a psychoanalytic approach to film criticism, she compared the force and intent of men's physical penetration of women's bodies with the psychological penetration and control that men can assert over women by capturing them with their eyes, their gaze. The ways that men look at women in movies and television shows reflects this use of the gaze as essentially a weapon that can be used to intimidate women. The power of the…
Hellstern, M. (2010, May 26.) "20 Questions with Candace Bushnell." Original content. Retrieved 14 December 2010 from http://www.oprah.com/oprahsbookclub/20-Questions-with-Author-Candace-Bushnell/2.
Holland, E. (1999). Deleuze and Guattari: Anti-Oedipus. New York: Routledge.
Horney, K. (1967). Feminine psychology. W.W. Norton Company, New York.
Marshall, S. (1996). "Edith Wharton on Film and Television: A History and Filmography." Edith Wharton Review: 15 -- 25.
When we look at Starkey's works we appear to be looking at moments captured from everyday life, in particular the everyday life of women. In fact Starkey's photographs are constructed, the people we are looking at are actors.
Her images of modern banality also suggest ennui, despair, depression and listlessness, which are conveyed as central facets of the reality of life for women in society. As one critic describes her images; "apathetic teenagers, usually girls, languish, slack-limbed and expressionless, in dimly lit cafes, nondescript interiors, and anonymous shopping malls."
Furthermore, the images also emphasize the sense of loneliness and isolation that she considers to be the existential situation of working women in the city.
In these images and others like them, individuals stand apart from the world, separated from it by a screen of indifference. It is not that they actively refuse to invest in their surroundings; they simply do…
Berger, P and Luckmann T. The social construction of reality: A
treatise in the sociology of knowledge, Garden City, NY; Doubleday. 1966.
Delamater, J.D., & Hyde, J.S. "Essentialism vs. Social Constructionism in the Study of Human Sexuality," The Journal of Sex Research, 35, no. 3(1998): 10.
Fuku Noriko. "A woman of parts." Art in America, June, 1997. November 30, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n6_v85/ai_1948
Malone dies just as he finally does away with the alternate identities of his storytelling, such that he can be seen as 'becoming Malone' at the same moment of Malone's death, so that his death forces the reader to recall the beginning of the story and the Malone already in existence there, restarting the narrative loop.
In effect, Malone's storytelling creates an infinitely looping continuity that diminishes the finality of his death, because 'although the physical body will eventually die, we cannot be sure that consciousness discontinues,' and in fact, the novel seems to suggest that Malone's consciousness never ultimately discontinues, but rather briefly goes dark before being reactivated once again at the beginning of the novel (hite, 2009, 45). The tragedy, of course, is that Malone is entirely unequipped to deal with this kind of torturous immortality, so his mind is frayed and confused, with different characters and moments…
Ashwood, Barbara (2003), "Sexuality and its significance in Malone Dies," Undergraduate Review, 15:1.3, p. 10.
Barrett, William (1956), "Real Love Abides," The New York Times, Sec.7.
Barry, Elizabeth (2006), Beckett and Authority, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Beckett, Samuel [1947-1958] (1991), Three Novels: Molly Malone Dies the Unnamable. New York, NY: Grove Press.
Light Energy illustrates the techniques employed by various scientists in determining the accurate value of the speed of light. This paper outlines all the methods employed by them and the grave difficulties they faced in acquiring a more accurate value. This paper also emphasizes on the importance of the value of the speed of light.
One of the fundamental concepts that is put forward for the students, who are studying about light is that it is a form of energy. Even though light shows properties like reflection and refraction, Huygens suggestion that light consists of waves in1680 was rejected by many scientists. This was because scientists then were not able to demonstrate the wave properties of light such as interference and diffraction. Even Newton considered light to constitute of small particles which he referred to as corpuscles. It was only later, in 1801, when Thomas Young observed the…
Botha A. (2002), The Speed Of Light, [Online], Available from:
[12 Feb. 2004].
Fowler M. (1996), The Speed Of Light, [Online] Available from:
[12 Feb. 2004].
Literature is allowed to expand across class lines because it is constantly seeking out new forms of expressing the human experience. Even the most elite of the bourgeoisie are allowed to enjoy the latest experimental or ethnic literature, which serve as pure representations of the proletariat human experience, "it is common to see 'literature' defined as 'full, central, immediate human experience,' usually an associated reference to 'minute particulars,'" (illiams 45). These "minute particulars" are what make literature so interesting and entertaining, thus successful. It is with this understanding of literature as an ideology that the concept of ideology can take on duel roles, "A common culture is thus entirely compatible with a hierarchical one," (Eagleton The Idea of Culture 115). Much unlike the theories which state that a true ideology cannot live up to a duel existence, literature as an ideology proves to do just that.
It is in this…
Bawden, Garth. "Symbols of Power." The Moche. Wiley. 1996.
Eagleton, Terry. The Idea of Culture. Blackwell Publishing. 2000.
Eagleton, Terry. "The Rise of the English." Norton Anthology of Literature. PUT EXACT PUBLICATION INFO HERE
Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction Volume 1. Vintage Books.
However, I do not agree with either philosopher on their narrow view of the pleasure principle itself.
Pleasure is much more than the basic physical sensation brought about by the senses. Other pleasures can include the mental and/or spiritual satisfaction of performing well at a certain task. Love is a sensation that could bring the pleasure of performing a service that pleases someone else, although not necessarily the self. elf-sacrifice in this sense is about more than simply repressing physical pleasure. Indeed, self-sacrifice as the basis of love rather than fear can bring a sense of pleasure. eeing the world only in terms of fear, pleasure and its excess is somewhat, as said above, narrow. Furthermore I do not believe that the complexity of the human psyche can be reduced to a few simple regulatory paradigms. Pleasure is therefore much more complex and difficult to define than the above philosophers…
Kazlev, Alan M. "Psychoanalytical Psychology: Sigmund Freud." Aug. 13, 2004. http://www.kheper.net/topics/psychology/Freud.html
Klages, Mary. "Psychoanalysis and Sigmund Freud." Sept. 27, 2001. http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/freud.html
Felluga, Dino. "Modules on Foucault: On Gender and Sex." Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. Date of last update, which you can find on the home page. Purdue U. Date you accessed the site. http://www.purdue.edu/guidetotheory/genderandsex/modules/foucaultgendersex.html .
ystems of income and financial position would superimpose standards of normalization upon everyone within the firm. Accounting, thereby, had achieved Foucault's definition of knowledge as power over people per excellence. By the 1950s, however, person as decision-maker replaced this vision of person as machine, and accounting still has power in our society, but a different sort of power. Likewise, accounting still possesses its constructivism (i.e. manner of perceiving a certain stranglehold on reality by emphasizing certain construct and demoting others), although its constructivist paradigm may have differed from that of, say, a century ago. Individuals are viewed, measured, and criticized within programmatic frameworks, and Miller and O'Leary (1987) suggest that accounting today can still be viewed as part of the heritage and structure (albeit slightly changed) of the traditional mode of power that it was in the early decades of this century. In other words, the slanted domination of accounting…
Armstrong, P. 2002, "Management, Image and Management Accounting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 13, pp. 281-295
Bryer, R. 2006, "Accounting and control of the labour process" Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 17, pp 551-598.
Chwastiak, M. & Young, J.J. 2005, "Silences in Annual Reports, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 14, 533- 552
Ezzamel, M., Lilley, S. & Willmott, H. 2004, "Accounting representation and the road to commercial salvation." Accounting, Organizations and Society, 29, pp. 783- 813.
Vision for Society: A Just Society
The Vision: A Just Society
It is a moral duty for those in immigration department to ensure that immigrants get free English classes to help them promote their own life. In AACA, there are rules that do not allow employees to help immigrants. For instance, reading letters for immigrants who cannot read and understand English is not a responsibility of AACA staff. In this regard, clients end up going back with unsolved problems because AACA staffs are not obliged to assist them. Although such acts do not form part of the organization's duty, helping these immigrants read bills and solve their problems is a moral duty that calls for commonsense. Commonsensical thoughts from Kant's point-of-view begin with the idea that what is good; is a good will. The thought of good will is a noteworthy reasonable decisive factor that Kant employs all through his…
Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline & Punishment. London: Knopf Doubleday Publishing
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed: 30th anniversary edition. London:
Continuum International Publishing Group.
uchanan Monderman's Approaches
Compare and Contrast uchanan and Monderman's approaches to the production of social order in public spaces
In this paper we are examining the role of social spaces in society. This is accomplished by comparing the views of uchanan with Monderman. Once this takes place, is when we can see how different structures are utilized to create a change within society.
Over the last several decades, the attitudes and perceptions about social order have been continually changing. Part of the reason for this, is because there has been a change in the beliefs of society. As these shifts have meant that the ideas about how people should be interacting with each other in public places is different. To deal with the challenges various urban designers have implemented a number of theories. The problem is that each approach has its own unique attributes that will have an impact on…
Buchanan, A, 2003, States Nations and Borders, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
McNichol, M, 2011, Roads Gone Wild, Wired. Available from: [8 Dec. 2011].
Staples, M, 2009, Learning Companion 2, Open University, Malta.
Taylor, S, 2009, Making Social Lives, Open University, Malta.
If he adjusted the rate of rotation correctly he could be sure that the light upon returning to his lab hit the same mirror.
Michelson was able to calculate the speed of light from the speed of rotation of the wheel of a device at the center of a metal shack that he built, the distance that the light had traveled, and the angle of the light beam as it bounces back and forth through the mirrors (the Optics Institute of Southern California).
Michelson also attempted to measure the speed of light based on the movement of the earth. This was the Michelson-Morley experiment that proposes that the ether, a medium in space that is supposed to carry light waves (Astron erkely Online), can affect the speed of light. The two scientists used Michelson's interferometer which splits a beam of light into two and sends them in a perpendicular direction…
Fowler, M. The Speed of Light.
Retrieved on May 10, 2005, from the Internet.
Web site: http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/spedlite.html
Speed of Light.
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…
MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm
Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .
Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .
Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…
1. Alic, Margaret. Alfred Charles Kinsey. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, second edition. Gale Group, 2001
2. Boeree, George. Personality Theory: Sigmund Freud. 1997
3. Cameron, Paul. The Psychology of Homosexuality. Family Research Report.
Family Research Institute, 1999
From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).
Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…
Brewer, B.W, & Karoly, P. (1989). Effects of attentional focusing on pain and perception. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 193-203.
Gentle, M.J. (2001). Attentional shifts alter pain perception in the chicken. Consciousness, cognition and animal welfare, 10, S187-S194.
Hackett, G., & Horan, J.J. (1980). Stress inoculation for pain: What's really going on? Journal of Counseling Psychology
Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 615.
Chomsky has for many years been a controversial figure due to his views on power structures and hegemony in the world.
As Foucault... power is the key for social change. Once the subordinate group has gained power, it can reconstruct society as it wishes, as there are no inherent constraints to what we might become. This paints a picture that is very similar to the one for which Chomsky attacks behaviourism. It suggests that there is nothing inherent to the human condition that could lead us to rule out on ethical grounds wide-scale and oppressive social engineering. What objection could there be to such a project if people are indeed the open texts on which progress and their eventual emancipation could be written? (ibid)
As the above quotation points out, Chomsky has a belief and understanding of the innate potential within human language and within human nature in general. It…
Barsky R. Noam Chompsky: A life of Disseent. Accessed November 10, 2004. http://cognet.mit.edu/library/books/chomsky/chomsky/index.html
12 great thinkers of our time
New Statesman (1996); 7/14/2003;
ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.
The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…
Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004
Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at: http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf
Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004
Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Paradigms in the 21st Century
This is not your grandfathers' economy or his educational paradigm however; today's curriculum still appears as such and therein lays a very significant and challenging problem that presents to today's educators and leaders. According to Sir Ken Robinson, "We have a system of education that is modeled on the interest of industrialism and in the image of it. Schools are still pretty much organized on factory lines -- ringing bells, separate facilities, specialized into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches." (rain Pickings, 2012) Make no mistake in the opinion of Robinson who believes that divergent thinking most emphatically is not "…the same thing as creativity" because according to Robinson in his work proposing a new educational paradigm. Indeed this is also spoken of in the work of Zeng-tian and Yu-Le in their work "Some Thoughts on Emergent Curriculum"…
Anderson, C. (nd) Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research: Strengths and Limitations of Qualitative Research. University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Medscape. Retrieved from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/731165_3
ASCD 1999, The Human Brain: An ASCD Professional Enquiry Kit. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Va..
Bailey, J. 2001, 'Technology and change in education', [http://bbh.usd451.k12.ks.us/staff/faculty/chgtech/change.html] (accessed May 2003).
Barrett, R. 1999, 'Middle schooling: A challenge for policy and curriculum', Education Horizons, 5 (3), 6-9.
The most obvious of these limitations is the fact that not everyone learns in the same way. Many people are visual learners, where they need to see something being done before they understand it. Others feel like they have to read about something and study it that way. There are still other people who learn much better by listening, and they really do not retain everything that they need to know if they only read something or see someone else do it. The point, Sork says, is that every person learns in a different way and at a different speed. Classes cannot always accommodate everyone's individual learning style because they have to move along at a particular pace and be taught in a way that actually has some structure. Despite this, however, there are some changes that can be made and differences that can be addressed, and Sork suggests that…
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…
Adrian, J. (1999). Mere or More?: Classical Rhetoric and Today's Classroom.
University of North Carolina SITES, 131: 11-21.
Aquinas, T. (1942). Summa Theologica. [Fathers of the English Dominican Province
Trans.]. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/FP/FP068.html
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…
This fear is intensified in the close quarters of prisons. Also, as noted in "Police Control of Juveniles" of Donald J. Black and Albert J. Reiss, Jr. both groups use techniques of fear and intimidation to deal with such a hostile environment. The police use their authority to intimidate prisoners or potential convicts on the street, while convicts use their potential menace and the real or threatened use of violence to assert authority against one another.
The process of "prisonization" and "policization" thus both involve the entry of the individual into a unique subculture, different from those ordinary persons inhabit. Like all human beings, there is a desire for survival, group approval, and esteem, all of which are met, according to the dictates of prison life, by obeying the rules of the social hierarchy. Prisoners are continually watched and monitored for deviant behavior, and these prisoners watch the police to…
In “The Oppositional Gaze” we are presented with the politics of the “gaze.” The gaze is an interesting topic, because it has been discussed by minorities—both women and African Americans. Laura Mulvey famously defined the “male gaze” in the 1970s when discussing the cinematic arts and the exploitation of women’s images on screen for the amusement of men. In “The Oppositional Gaze,” we receive a different take on the gaze, one that discusses it from the perspective of the spectator and from the standpoint of race and the standpoint of gender. What is interesting about it is the fact that athletes by their very nature are meant to be gazed upon, as the viewers are by definition spectators. Yet, the politics of the gaze do not condone certain types of staring, as the author describes in the opening of the essay.
The gaze has power—it has authority. When one looks,…
Suddenly I receive a Titian to hang on my wall -- a Greek bas-relief to stick over my chimney-piece." (James in: Phelan-Cox, 2004)
Through the analogies of alph, the reader is able to view the manner in which "male pleasure in spectatorship with interconnected with Western aesthetics generally." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) it is the argument of Laura Mulvey that the film of Hollywood is structured around "the voyeurism and scopopophilia of the male gaze by denying the existence of other viewing positions." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) James veritably denied other ways to view through his description of the scene "by consciously omitting Isabel's own perception of herself in that setting or any objective description of the scene that might include observations about alph." (Phelan-Cox, 2004)
VII. Portrait and the Implications
The title of this story is even misleading as noted by Phelan-Cox the word 'portrait' "implies that the novel is to be a…
Ascari, M. (nd) Three Aesthetes in Profile: Gilbert Osmond, Mark Ambient, and Gabriel Nash. RSA Journal 7.
Braden, HE (2011) Lily Bart and Isabel Archer: Women Free to Choose Lifestyle of Victims of Fate? University of New Orleans. 4 Aug 2011. Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.uno.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1247&context=td
Brown, B. (2001) Thing Theory. Critical Inquiry. Vo. 28, No. 1 Autumn 2001.
Gilmore, MT (1986) the Commodity World of the Portrait of a Lady. The New England Quarterly, Vo. 59, No. 1. Mar, 1986.
If the medium is one requiring intellectual thought and inquiry, then the media is likely to be interpreted as such; likewise, in the case of television, the corollary holds true.
Donna Haraway takes the "medium as the message" statement a few steps further. There is no denying that she sees a powerful connection between the medium and the message. Perhaps, she takes this message a bit too far or a bit too fast (It may just be that I'm not willing to accept her cyborg theory since I'm just beginning to understand the meaning of a cyborg). Specifically, when Haraway wears the hat of media theorist, she sets forth the forward-thinking, modern, and somewhat controversial statement that human beings are so closely linked to the mediums of today that we are actually morphing into half cyborg-half human creatures given our interconnectedness with the medium of computers themselves and their intrustion…
Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies. London: J. Cape.
Haraway, Donna. "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century." Socialist Review . (1985): 150-166. Print.
Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, . New York, NY:
Routledge Press, 1991. Print.
That the post modernists rejected the psychotherapy of the modernist era is by no means suggestive that the artists of the era have escaped psychological analysis. Because of the extreme nature of the pop culture, it has presented a psychological windfall for study in excessiveness. It is represented by an excess of economic affluence, drugs, sex, and expressions of behavior. The excessiveness is found not just in the music industry, but also in literature, film, and paintings and photography. It is all encompassing of all art expressions.
One important definition of the post-modern, as a radically sceptical and questioning attitude of mind, is that provided by the philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard (1984), who wrote of it in terms of 'the death of grand narratives', with Marxism and Freudianism particularly in mind. Lyotard would see as futile attempts to consider the modern and post-modern in terms of historical periodisation. For him,…
Buchanan, Iain, Michael Dunn, Elizabeth Eastmond, and Frances Hodgkins. Frances Hodgkins: Paintings and Drawings. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press, 1994. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76905182.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21033116
Cantor, Norman F. Modernism to Deconstruction. New York: Peter Lang, 1988. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21033116.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008.
Del Loewenthal, and Robert Snell. Post-Modernism for Psychotherapists: A Critical Reader. Hove, England: Brunner-Routledge, 2003. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107976699.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99670131
sexual relationships figure in the construction of a transgendered person?
Sexual relationships or sexual preferences tend to be the elements that are usually accepted as defining factors in the sexual and social identity of an individual. This means that sexual relationships are often seen to be the determining factors that constitute the very psychological and social identity of the person. This view of sexuality presents a number of problems -- particularly with regard to the transgendered person. Firstly, as the following definitions of transgender will make clear, there are many variations and ambiguities to the term transgendered, which can be confusing. Secondly and more importantly, there is an ongoing debate which revolves around opposing views of what constitutes sexual identity. One point-of-view sees sexual relationships and identity as innate or "naturally" constituted. This view is opposed by the social construction theory which sees sexual identity as a "construction" engineered by…
Bockting, W.O. 1999. Accessed August 9, 2005. (SIECUS Report, 1999. 28(1), 3-7.) http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3781/is_199910/ai_n8875386#continue
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Foucault: Sex, Power and the Politics of Identity." Interview by Bob Gallagher and Alexander Wilson. In Foucault Live: Collected Interviews 1961-1984, ed. Sylvere Lotringer. New York: Semiotext (e), pp. 382-390. Originally published in The Advocate, No. 400, August 7, 1984. Interview conducted in June, 1982.
Groenewald, D. The Man Question: Foucault and the Politics of Male Sexuality. August 9, 2005. http://www.newcastle.edu.au/discipline/sociol-anthrop/staff/kibbymarj/foucault.html
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative