Frankenstein and Enlightenment
The Danger of Unregulated Thought in Frankenstein
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus, considered by many to be one of the first science-fiction novels written, is rife with anti-Enlightenment undertones. Shelley's novel, first published in 1818 and republished in 1831, examines the roles of science and religion, and provides a commentary on the dangers of playing God. Considering that Mary Shelley was the daughter of two prominent Enlightenment intellectual figures, Mary ollstonecraft and illiam Godwin, it can be argued that Shelley has an insight into the some of the beliefs and arguments of the Enlightenment and can provide a well thought out argument against the movement. Shelley's anti-Enlightenment attitude focuses on the dangers that may arise through unsupervised education, including the exploration of science and the denunciation or tampering of religion, and how it may impact an individual's perspectives and reasoning.
In Frankenstein, Shelley exploits the…… [Read More]
An Analysis of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
Mary ollstonecraft Shelley wrote in her 1831 introduction to the reprint of Frankenstein that "supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavour to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world" (x). These words not only indicate the manner of her thought on the night she conceived the idea for her gothic novel, they also reflect, as she notes, the ideas discussed between her husband Percy Shelley and Lord Byron. The two men represented well the doctrines of the Romantic/Enlightenment Age, and the effects of their idealistic creed seem to be personified in Mary Shelley's "Modern Prometheus," a creature whose deformities are despised by its creator. This paper will show how Mary Shelley uses form, theme, character, tone, language and metaphor to convey why Dr. Frankenstein, in his attempt to "recreate" creation, creates instead the basis of Shelley's cautionary…… [Read More]
Her list includes the following:
culture / Nature
reason / Nature
male/female mind/body ( Nature)
master/slave reason/matter (physicality)
rationality/animality ( Nature)
human / Nature (non-human)
civilised/primitive ( Nature)
production/reproduction ( Nature)
At first glance, this list seems to capture the basic groupings and gender associations that are at work in Mary Shelley's novel. The Creature exemplifies animality, primitiveness, and physicality, whereas Victor represents the forces of civilization, rational production, and culture. Victor is part of a happy family and has prospects of marriage, as opposed to the wild and isolated monster. The Creature is "other," since he is forced outside the human community and is depicted in association with rugged and uncultured Nature. But second consideration should make us pause. I have been contrasting Victor with the monster rather than with a woman like his fiancee, Elizabeth. This sets up a dualism in which the monster is the feminine…… [Read More]
Frankenstein's creation of the monster is rendered as a kind of horrific pregnancy; for example, where a pregnant woman expands with the child she is bearing and usually eats more, Frankenstein wastes away during his work, depriving himself "of rest and health" (Shelley 43). Rather than expressing any kind of paternal (or maternal) love for his creation, Frankenstein recoils, as "breathless horror and disgust filled [his] heart" (Shelley 43). One can quite reasonably view Frankenstein's desire to create life as a kind of twisted mourning, and the fact that his attempts to give birth without any kind of mother reveals the novel's position regarding the absence of a mother.
In short, the novel views the mother as necessary not only for continuing procreation through her blessing regarding future marriage, but also through the mediating role she seems to play in the creation of life. ithout a mother present, Frankenstein recoils…… [Read More]
Frankenstein & omanticism
How omanticism is Demonstrated in Frankenstein
In less than six years, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein will be 200 years old. This novel, indicative of the romantic period, is a compelling narrative with numerous themes and vivid imagery to consider. In the context of romanticism, Frankenstein is a worthwhile piece of literature to examine. Literature and art of the romantic period is characterized with an emphasis on intense emotional reactions, specifically emotions such as horror, terror, and awe. These emotions are central to the narrative of Frankenstein. Such emotions act as catalysts in the narrative and they serve to push the story on long after in has begun. This movement is also characterized by a return to the scientific and what is rational. Victor is, among other things, a devoted scientist.
Nicole Smith sees Mary Shelley as an author who retained a deep understanding of romanticism and also sees…… [Read More]
Geneticists are the modern-day versions of Victor Frankenstein, maverick scientists who, in pursuing their personal dreams and ambitions cross over ethical lines. Mary Shelley was deeply concerned about the potential of science to blur humanitarian issues. In her classic novel Frankenstein, Shelley depicts a driven scientist who, for the love of knowledge and power, creates life. The ramifications of what is commonly called "playing God" include an inhumane mistreatment of the creation. In fact, one of the main concerns over cloning today is the real possibility that cloned human beings would certainly be treated as inferior to naturally born humans. Worse, clones human beings who can think, feel, and cry could be used simply for harvesting organs. Therefore, science clearly has the potential to overstep the boundaries of morality, and Mary Shelley saw this far before the human genetic code was solved. In this light, Frankenstein served as a…… [Read More]
However, he also chooses isolation in his desire to explore the North Pole. And yet, to Brannstrom, the character of obert Walton balances Victor Frankenstein who deliberately chooses to isolate himself from society and the creature who longs to belong to society. According to Brannstrom, "Walton is someone who can strive for distinction but at the same time turn back when his actions might harm others."
Tied to the theme of alienation is the theme of belonging. Whereas alienation includes the isolation of the characters and the loneliness that each felt due to the circumstances they found themselves in, belonging includes the need to be part of something and the responsibility of someone to things or persons it brought forth. Central to the theme of belonging is "paternal negligence and the need for responsible creativity" (Hustis par. 1) as illustrated by Victor Frankenstein. Victor can be likened to a father…… [Read More]
Although there are many different and related themes in Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, one of the most important themes is that of revenge. The relationship between the title doctor and his creation is a complex one. Dr. Frankenstein created the creature, and so he is like his father. However, this father later abandons the creature. The abandonment causes the creature to dedicate his life to exacting revenge on his "father." hen the creature learns that all human beings find him ugly, he starts to want to take revenge on all of humanity. Yet the human beings in the novel are also interested in revenge. Dr. Frankenstein especially wants revenge on the creature for killing several people. Therefore, revenge is a complex and significant theme in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Revenge is the common ground between the creature and the human beings.
Instead of being angry at himself for animating a…… [Read More]
As his views on society would force him, to use other body parts of common people and it would be the citizens of the village who would suffer Frankenstein's wrath. This is important, because the underlying class struggle, would be used later on (by historians) to draw parallels about similar incidents that were occurring throughout society at the time. A good example of the different Marxist theories can be seen by looking at the times Shelley would grow up. Where, slavery was common throughout the Western Hemisphere. This would influence Shelley, as she would be exposed to freed slaves and would often hear the stories about the escaped slave running into the village. Where, everyone is afraid about what could happen to them, at the hands of this individual. Evidence of this can be seen with the passage in the novel that says, "Am I to be the only criminal,…… [Read More]
Frankenstein's Influence On Science And Medicine
The scientific concepts presented in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein helped introduce the public to concepts that would revolutionize the fields of science and medicine. First published in 1818, Frankenstein examined the role of science and religion, commenting on the dangers of "playing God." Frankenstein has been considered by many to be the first science-fiction novel written, and many of the concepts introduced have been further explored and developed which have led to the implementation of new and radical medical procedures present today.
Shelley exploits Victorian fears of scientific advancement and technology in Frankenstein. Driven by his desire to learn, Victor Frankenstein utilizes his formal and self-taught education to further develop his questions about science and natural philosophy. Frankenstein's thirst for knowledge leads him to study the works of "natural philosophers" such as Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus, and Albertus Magnus. Frankenstein states that with the guidance of…… [Read More]
The creature grew fond of the family and perceived them to be his protectors. He laboriously studied the family; he learned about their relations to one another, he felt their moods and he practiced their language. He had hoped to be accepted as a member of the family and developed a plan for revealing himself. He decided to first approach the elderly, blind father; the creature hoped to gain the father's friendship and to be introduced to the rest of his family. On finding the father alone one day, the creature approached the cottage and spoke with the father. The father unable to see the creature showed kindness towards him. Unfortunately, the children returned within minutes and upon seeing the creature thought their father was in danger. The few moments of acceptance were quickly turned to rejection. The family immediately vacated the cottage, never to return.
The creature was convinced…… [Read More]
What Victor is saying is that in order to create a living being from the dead, he must haunt the graveyards like a human ghoul and experiment on live animals to "animate" "lifeless clay," being the deceased remains of human beings. From this admission, it is abundantly obvious that Victor, like Prometheus, sees "clay" as the foundation for creation, a substance which is part of the earth itself and which allows skilled hands to mold it into any shape or form desired.
In Chapter Five of Frankenstein, "on a dreary night of November," Victor describes "the accomplishment of my toils" while surrounded by "the instruments of life." This is the pivotal creation scene in the novel which some scholars have mentioned as having "not enough substance related to exactly how Victor created his monster" (Smith, 256). In this setting, Victor, full of anxiety and fearful of the unknown, attempts to…… [Read More]
Victor is the perfect example of how the quest for knowledge can be bad for all. Victor abandons his responsibility as a scientist when he becomes self-absorbed and he abandons his responsibility as a scientist and a father when he leaves the monster to die. However, as it is with life, Victor did not consider the law of unintended circumstances in any of his endeavors. hen the monster does not simply go away and die, Victor must face his responsibility. He loses everything important too him for a tiny morsel of fame that was hardly worth it. Frankenstein is also educational because it teaches us about the importance of the human need to feel accepted in one way or another. The creature would not have resorted to a life of crime had someone paid attention to him. His crime is a direct result of his mistreatment from birth forward. Additionally,…… [Read More]
eading about cloning is very disturbing. Scientists should not try to play God. Messing with the natural cause of life can have unforeseen consequences. They should remember the classic novel by Mary Shelley "Frankenstein." Its premise also explores the theme of creating a living thing. Though Frankenstein is not about cloning, its theme is similar to the events related to cloning.
This movie is not attempting to be a horror movie. Though there were horror movies in that era, this one followed a more human path. However it sets the path for science fiction movies of this genre. Frankenstein's creation is an intriguing character. He is only a freak of nature who has no understanding of his surroundings and what he is doing there. The movie directed by James Whale is one of the best versions of Mary Shelley's Goth tale.
Dr Henry Frankenstein played by Colin Clive is…… [Read More]
If you reanimate dead flesh then how do you kill it?
Victor, on his death bed, intones to his new friend the Captain of the discovery vessel that ambition in science should be kept in check, even if that means death in anonymity. He first intones that he regrets that he is dying while the beast still lives and then warns the captain to keep his ambition in check.
That he should live to be an instrument of mischief disturbs me; in other respects, this hour, when I momentarily expect my release, is the only happy one which I have enjoyed for several years. The forms of the beloved dead flit before me and I hasten to their arms. Farewell, alton! Seek happiness in tranquillity and avoid ambition, even if it be only the apparently innocent one of distinguishing yourself in science and discoveries. Yet why do I say this?…… [Read More]
Thus Shelley's novel provides a third solution of sorts, an acknowledgement of the imperfect and estranged nature of humanity that is not comforting, but seems more realistic to modern readers, perhaps, as the monster seems like a modern anti-hero, from a 21st century point-of-view.
Even to 19th century readers, Shelley's ambiguous views of science and religion were likely to resonate. The analogies of creator and created are deliberately ambiguous in their parallels with Romantic literature. Frankenstein is tempted by science to transgress moral boundaries, yet he also tempts the creature to sin, by casting him adrift in the world. The creature has never done anything wrong, but because of the fallen nature of his creator, becomes fallen and estranged himself. Yet the creature possess a Romantic soul and an understanding of the real purpose of human existence, that to be fully human requires connection with others as well as the…… [Read More]
It is an unwanted pregnancy, a madness that he works hard for. And as soon as he is able to infuse artificial life into this inanimate assembly of various body parts from different corpses, his dream vanishes and his nightmare begins.
Unlike a legitimate and natural "pregnancy" and procreation, Victor hides his ambition to create life on his own. It is an illegitimate "pregnancy" with horrifying features of power of its own (Thompson 2004). He keeps his plans secret even to his favorite mentors Waldman and Krempe, family, friends and fellow students in Ingolstadt. He is unwilling to share his goal with them, knowing that they will mock him for his obsession to father and mother a creature by reanimating dead human tissues he sutures in the dark of his laboratory. He maintains egotistical and self-absorbed and lives in isolation in order to "become God, a creator of life" and…… [Read More]
Finally, it is worth briefly mentioning that even if there were some inherent quality to human beings that existed prior to experience and influenced their personality and behavior, then the monster's experiences would seem to suggest that this human nature is inherently violent, cruel, and petty, rather than representing the kind of pure ideal suggested by Victor.
In Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, the idea of nature vs. nurture is explored through the characters of Victor and the monster, who each take a different position on the matter. Victor suggests that there is such a thing as human nature, and furthermore, that that nature is oriented against violence and gore and towards beauty and peace. The monster, on the other hand, argues that experience is what dictates a person's personality and decisions, and so violent behavior may be seen as the direct result of violence previously inflicted. By analyzing Victor's account…… [Read More]
The alteration of the relationship between Victor and professor Krempe does not change the meaning of the story, it only makes it more intense. I believe that the most important change regards the character of Victor. Reading the book one has the freedom to make his own judgement and evaluation of the character while the movie imposes a certain evaluation. Reading the book I had the impression that Victor was sorry for what he had done. He realized his error and what he was living was actually a drama. In the movie he is depicted as a person who is concerned with bringing the dead to life and that's that. In a certain way he seems to be punished for his ambition. His drama was that while trying to win the battle with death he did nothing but bring even more death in his life. In the book he loses…… [Read More]
The action takes place in a world covered with radioactive dust, after a nuclear war that has killed almost all animals, so that people have power animals. The protagonist is Rick Deckard, a former police officer and expert Blade Runner (although the novel does not have this name, but to "bounty hunter"), which should eliminate a group of Nexus 6 - androids art almost identical human beings, which has come to Earth, fleeing from a space colony due to the terrible living conditions to which they were subjected. (Aldiss p27-35)
The novel, one of the classic Dicks, covers topics such as the vague boundary between the artificial and natural, the decline of life and society, and addresses various issues ethical about androids. Also, given its aesthetics and descriptions of a world destroyed, abandoned, where technology is ubiquitous, it can be framed in the genre of cyberpunk. (Chapple p16-24)
Background…… [Read More]
He has been so focused on the necessary step-by-step process that his entire being has become wrapped up in the tedious and minutely detailed 'discovery' of what has been the 'study and desire of the wisest men since the creation of the world'. The doctor has never quite believed that he would reach this point as he points out that he is like the Arabian who is aided by a 'seemingly ineffectual light'.
Shelley seems to telling the reader of the doctor's lack of belief in his own abilities. Then at the vital moment of discovery, the entire process is 'obliterated' and the doctor is astounded to discovery that he has actually accomplished the task on which he set his mind upon so many months before. This discovery, however, affected him for only a short while, soon giving way to 'delight and rapture', which in turn is likely to lead…… [Read More]
Links can be made to Shelley's own life - her mother died shortly after her birth. Both the lack of a mother and a fear of natural childbirth are attributes of Victor's character in Frankenstein and ideas close to the author's own life. Through her literature Shelley demonstrates the need for both men and women to be present and willing to carry out different tasks for the well being and perpetuation of the family unit itself (Fisch, 1993).
Shelley presents the relationship between Victor and the Monster in a variety of ways that periodically confuse the bond between the two characters There is a sense in which she alludes to Milton's Paradise Lost, a moralistic poem. Shelley transforms the initial relationship of father and son (implied from the infantile action of the Monster reaching out) to one of Creator and Creation, similar to the relationship of God and Adam. The…… [Read More]
Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein was a gothic work of literature written during the height of the Romantic Era—a period in the 19th century when her husband Percy Bysshe Shelley and his friends Leigh Hunt and Lord Byron were writing classic poetry full of passion that spurned the conventional doctrines of the Old World and rejected the over-emphasis on Reason of the Enlightenment. As E. Michael Jones, has noted, however, their orientation was still rooted in a faithless and naturalistic approach to life. They had no interest in the salvation story of the Old World or its religion. Perhaps not coincidentally, they literally left a string of bodies in their wake, as Janet Todd has pointed out: Percy’s first wife drowned herself after he left her to run away with the 17-year-old Mary (daughter of the authoress of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman). Mary’s half-sister killed herself. Two of…… [Read More]
The monster is evil, Victor is good, and so they are in conflict throughout the book.
The point-of-view in the novel is first person in both the letters by Captain Walton and the narration told by Victor himself. This helps make the reader feel like they are part of the action and experiencing events as they take place in the novel.
There are many themes in "Frankenstein," and one of the main plot lines is the fight between good and evil. However, there are other themes in the novel. One is Victor's quest for learning, which leads him to create something that is far beyond what he can control. Victor has a thirst for knowledge, he is creative, and his quest takes him down the wrong path. Another theme is the monstrosity of the monster. Because he is ugly and was created by such strange means, he is shunned and…… [Read More]
It has "… taken on a life of its own independent of Mary Shelley's text, and indeed even independent of certain parts of her narrative." (Goodall 19) This has resulted in film and stage play versions of the novel.
The reason for this continuing popularity lies largely with the relevance of the themes; particularly with regard to the theme of man 'playing God' through his application of scientific knowledge and his need to manipulate and control nature. This then can be linked to many questions and issued of contemporary importance. One could, for example, take modern scientific attempts at cloning animals and the possibility of human cloning. The question arises whether science will create monsters in the future through scientific knowledge. As one critic notes; "The public debate on cloning continues to be littered with references to Frankenstein." (Goodall 19)
Furthermore, "Mary Shelley's story has been taken variously to illustrate…… [Read More]
The Monster's suffering was the root of all his murders, and Victor the cause of all his pain. It was at this point that the monstrosity of Victor's character is understood better, making Victor the greater monster in the story.
The poem "Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey" encompasses everything that the Romantic period had to offer. The physical aspect that the poem can portray, and the feeling that reading invokes makes this one of great substance and significance. The deep connection with Nature, is one that makes this poem a part of the Romantic Era's history, encapsulating a part of history in its lines.
The poem provides very rich description that invokes feeling; that is what the Romantic Period is all about. "Here, under this dark sycamore, and view / These plots of cottage ground, these orchard tufts, / Which at this season, with their unripe…… [Read More]
Frankenstein and the Once and Future King are similar in respects of secrecy that ended in destruction. Victor Frankenstein's secrecy was with his science. He believed that science was full of secrets and when they were revealed they were to be kept secret. Arthur's lineage was filled with secrecy in affairs that he inherited and even had an affair of his own. Arthur also kept the affairs of others secret. The secrecy in both tales brought destruction in the end to the point of death.
'Victor's secrecy caused him to be alienated from any social society; including people he loved (Shelley, 2003). He lived in isolation exploring the science of making the creature and bringing it to life. Once the monster was made and alive, he still kept the secret until the end. The monster had haunted him and murdered his entire family, all the people he loved. Victor only…… [Read More]
The rash, brash young soldier Claudio is betrothed to Hero, who adores him, but because of the male code of the military he has been raised to believe in, he tends to assume the worst of women rather than the best. On their wedding-day, he shames Hero unjustly, even though nothing in her manner indicates she has changed: "You seem to me as Dian in her orb, / as chaste as is the bud ere it be blown" (4.1). In this male-dominated society, where women are aliens and suspect, even the supposedly wise Don Pedro believes the slander at first: "hy, then are you no maiden" (4.1).
But mistrust and a refusal to sympathize with another are not limited to times of turmoil, or emotionally fraught relationships like marriage. Even the relationship of parent to child becomes perverted in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. The scientist and doctor is so determined to…… [Read More]
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and James Cameron's Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines have come to occupy similar positions in American popular culture -- largely, for their iconic appeal -- but they are also comparable in more subtle ways. Specifically, each tale depicts the emergence of human nature within entities that superficially seem nonhuman. Frankenstein's monster and the T-101 both come forward as compelling and sympathetic characters because they learn and express themselves in terms that human beings are able to understand. The T-101's apparent progression from a methodical killer into an unwavering companion within the Terminator movies is mirrored by the monster's progression from an infantile murderer into a sensitive literature aficionado. Additionally, it is significant that both are brought into creation through clandestine scientific practices; thus, similar themes surrounding the T-101 and the monster make themselves apparent. Essentially, both characters represent the volatile nature of too much knowledge: they…… [Read More]
Kuwait language Arabic, consideration moderate English. I an essay 8 pages including a thesis statement MLA outline ( thesis outline a separated page). My Essay a comparison Frankenstein Mary Shelly (1831 edition) The strange case Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde Robert Stevenson.
Comparison between Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" and Robert Louis Stevenson's "Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde"
The Risks of doing science
The connection between the two scientists
Society's tendency to steer away from the idea of evil
The scientist's understanding of his feat
Fast progress as a cause for death
Mary Shelley's book "Frankenstein" (1818) and Robert Louis Stevenson's book "Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" (1886) are two historic novels that are widely known and appreciated as a consequence of the ideas they put across. Both books address the concept of a scientist attempting to manipulate the rules of the universe and eventually…… [Read More]
Shelley's Frankenstein and show why the monster identifies with Milton's Satan (i.e., why there is such conflict at the heart of creation).
While Victor Frankenstein's transformation from ambitious and proud scientist to humble hunter of the monster -- his creation -- reflects his character's arc and how knowledge of himself is only gained after the tragic consequences of his actions are realized, the fact that he never catches nor destroys the monster supports the argument that the mystery of sin remains deeply embedded in the story's overall arc. This mystery is best represented by the monster who is the 19th century incarnation of Milton's Satan -- a creature who longs for understanding and sympathy and lashes out against his creator when he cannot have it.
I thought of this idea after reading the novel and feeling that it bore the same trajectory as many other tragedies: it starts with a…… [Read More]
He writes, "Lucy Westenra, but yet how changed. The sweetness was turned to adamantine, heartless cruelty, and the purity to voluptuous wantonness" (Stoker 225). It is clear that wantonness is not a characteristic to be admired in Victorian times, because he compares her wantonness to cruelty, as well. Clearly, both these novels echo the time they were written and society's views on women. Women play insignificant and "wanton" roles in both books, and they are a source of motherly love and distress. One critic, however, feels the novel may be a beacon of change, too. He writes, "Dracula is not only a threat but also imaginative and physical vitality, a catalyst for change. The novel suggests that a new understanding of sexuality and decay is necessary for any attempt to attain social order and growth" (Boone). What is most interesting about these two novels is that they portray relatively like…… [Read More]
"You, who call Frankenstein your friend, seem to have a knowledge of my crimes and his misfortunes. But in the detail which he gave you of them he could not sum up the hours and months of misery which I endured wasting in impotent passions. For while I destroyed his hopes, I did not satisfy my own desires," (Shelley, Frankenstein, Chapter 24)
Frankenstein's monster remains one of the most misunderstood characters in English literature. Part of the problem can be traced to the commercialization of the book and its adaptation for cinema. As Mary Shelley's work has been appropriated by the horror genre, the monster has taken on a new form as an evil and fearsome creature rather than being the tragic and lonely figure that he actually is in the novel. Film versions of Frankenstein have stripped away from the monster some of the core components of his…… [Read More]
Frankenstein -- illy udd
ILLY UDD & VICTOR FRANKENSTEIN:
TWO TRAGIC FIGURES
After a close reading of Mary W. Shelley's Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus, first published in 1818, and Herman Melville's novella illy udd, published around 1855, it is quite clear that the main characters, being Victor Frankenstein and illy udd, share some common attributes. oth are young, adventurous and full of curiosity and are caught up in a world that through their eyes is indifferent and hostile. ut most importantly, both of these characters are tragic figures, meaning that their lives end in nothing but death and disillusionment as a result of their own misfortune and emotional immaturity.
With illy udd, Melville created a very strange world similar to his earlier Moby Dick, but in illy udd, the main character experiences true tragedy based on the extremes found in human nature; illy udd is thus rather complex, being…… [Read More]
Frankenstein: An Identity Born or Created?
The title character in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein grew up in eighteenth-century Switzerland. In the character's own words, "No human being could have passed a happier childhood than myself" (33). Young Victor Frankenstein had loving parents, and siblings he adored. These early years proved to be a stark contrast to university life, where Victor was an eager student but very lonely. He threw himself into his work, becoming obsessed with natural philosophy and science. In a bold experiment, he gathered an assortment of human parts and stitched them together, curious as to whether he could create life. Victor was astounded to see that he did, indeed, create a living creature. The initial thrill he experienced at the success of his experiment quickly turned to horror as his creature escaped and began terrorizing the countryside. The creature was not born a monster, however. His identity was…… [Read More]
Frankenstein, Mary Shelley claims that the Publishers of Standard Novels specifically requested that she "furnish them with some account of the origin of the story," (16). However, the Publishers of Standard Novels did not simply want to know how the author had considered the main premise, plot, and theme of the Frankenstein story but that the story -- and its female authorship -- seemed contrary to prevailing gender norms. According to Shelley, the publishers wondered, "how I, then a young girl, came to think of, and to dilate upon, so very hideous an idea?" (16). If young girls were supposed to be sugar, spice, and everything nice, then a story about a monstrous creation would seem antithetical to the 19th century feminine ideal. Not only that, Mary Shelley intuited the publishers' surprise with the author's gender, for no sooner does Shelley launch into a carefully crafted response to their query,…… [Read More]
Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (chapter 1-10 only)
Frankenstein: Nature as a refuge
One of the most interesting aspects of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: The modern Prometheus is the extent to which the monster, just like his creator Victor Frankenstein, embodies the ideal of the Romantic antihero. Victor Frankenstein uses science to challenge human limitations. However, he also finds comfort in nature when he feels depressed and desolate, realizing the mistake he has made in creating a monster. "The sight of the awful and majestic in nature had indeed always the effect of solemnizing my mind, and causing me to forget the passing cares of life" (Chapter 10). But the monster also finds comfort in nature because he is ostracized from the rest of humanity because of his ugliness. His soul is beautiful at first but because he is rejected he becomes ugly and hateful in his actions. The rejection by his…… [Read More]
It is through Shelley's doubling between Frankenstein and the Monster, and herself and Frankenstein and the Monster, that Freud's uncanny and psychological concepts of the id, ego, and superego can be analyzed. Shelley demonstrates how an individual's outward appearance is not necessarily representative of their character and at the same time is able to come to terms with the psychological traumas that plagued her -- from losing her own mother at childbirth to losing her own children shortly thereafter. Furthermore, Shelley is able to demonstrate how an imbalance between an individual's id, ego, and superego can influence behavior and is also able to demonstrate how each of these is formed, either through instinctual behaviors, observations, and education. Ultimately, Shelley's understanding of the uncanny, and psychological constructs, paved the way for psychologists like Freud to investigate the constructs of fear and unease.
Freud, Sigmund. The Ego and the Id.…… [Read More]
Monstrosity in Frankenstein
Mary Shelly's Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus, which is considered by many to be one of the first science-fiction novels that was ever written, is full of anti-Enlightenment sentiments, many of which are still present in society today. Shelley's novel, published first in 1818 and then edited and republished in 1831, takes a look at the conflicts between science and religion. Through this examination, Shelley provides insight into the dangers of playing God and taking the forces of nature into one's own hands. Seeing as Mary Shelley was the daughter of two well-known Enlightenment intellectual figures, it can be posited that Shelley understood the arguments and beliefs of the movement and could provide a well thought out argument against the movement. Shelley's anti-Enlightenment stance takes a look at the dangers that may arise through unsupervised educational pursuits, which include the unharnessed exploration of science and denunciation or…… [Read More]
His family worries about him, of course, but they have no idea what is actually the problem. If they did, would they see Victor as a monster? It is difficult to say. Families can overlook a great deal of things when found in a person that family loves. However, some things are simply too great to bear when it comes to what a person has done or what he or she might do in the future. Because of that, Victor avoids telling anyone about the monster until he is on his deathbed. There, he recounts his story to the captain of the ship that has rescued him. In telling the tale, it is possible that the monster is real and also possible that Victor is deluded and he is the monster.
Once Victor dies, the monster appears one last time to grieve for his creator. All he ever wanted was…… [Read More]
Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in relation to man's dual nature
Frankenstein written by Mary Shelley when she was only nineteen years of age is considered to be one of the most fascinating novels in our literature. Such a fact is imaginatively approved in a strikingly fresh adaptation by Jonathan Pope for the Glasgow Citizens that takes off the congealed veneer of the horror film industry and makes out a truly attractive background of adventurism relating to scientific and philosophical levels. (Coveney, Frankenstein) Frankenstein relates to the duality of human nature and the manner in which humans are perceived by the society.
Mary Shelley is of the view that the treatment they attain due to societal perceptions will in the end draw out or contain some features of their nature. In brief, Frankenstein depicts the story of a scientific genius named Victor Frankenstein, whose studies made him to…… [Read More]
Taking the place of the clever but melancholy Dr. Frankenstein, would be an illustrious and famed plastic surgeon named Mars von Meinstein. With a billion-dollar practice located on the most expensive piece of real estate in Beverly Hills, Meinstein grows tired of over-charging spoiled wealthy women for tummy tucks, lip and face injections and liposuction. He becomes tired of improving the appearance of human life. Rather, he longs to create human life.
Meinstein becomes obsessed with the idea of creating the perfect woman. With a Masters degree in computer science and engineering as well, Meinstein becomes convinced he can fashion a computerized brain that can act as a cockpit for the rest of the body, adjusting the physical appearance of this human body to reflect the changing values of beauty which change with the times. For example, if bony, flat-chested figures become the hippest thing in beauty and fashion,…… [Read More]
character and nature of Frankenstein's creation, the monster. It aims to study the potential nature of the monster's evil deeds and to provide readers with understanding of the monster's "being" as told in the story. eing the creator of the monster, this paper also looks into the nature of Victor Frankenstein having to be able to create a monster that haunted his family, friends, and even his own life.
Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, shows how humans tend to be influenced by the major factors in their lives, such as people and the environment that they are living in. The novel shows how constant rejection can cause someone to become a monster. It also stresses an idea of human injustice towards outsiders, as the monster experienced from humans.
Throughout this paper, I will attempt to point out some factors in the story that made the two characters, Frankenstein and his creation,…… [Read More]
People generally focus on appearance when coming across a particular individual. This is perfectly exemplified by the meeting between the old member of the De Lacey family and the monster. The man initially welcomes the creature, as he is no longer able to see and is unacquainted with the monster's facial features and body.
Victor Frankenstein can be considered to contrast the monster through his behavior, his background, and because of the goals that he has. The scientist virtually had everything that the monster longed for, considering his family, his reputation, and the fact that he was generally seen as one of society's leading members. Instead of valuing what he had, however, Frankenstein gave it all away in favor of gaining reputation, as this was apparently the thing that he appreciated the most in life. hile most readers are likely to blame Frankenstein for most unfortunate events in the book,…… [Read More]
Though the Monster tries to refrain from interfering; "hat chiefly struck me was the gentle manners of these people, and I longed to join them, but dared not…[remembering] too well the treatment I had suffered the night before from the barbarous villagers" (142). The Monster learns how society behaves through the observation of the family, and through the reading of books. Much like Frankenstein, the Monster is greatly influenced by what he reads including Plutarch's Lives, Sorrow of erter, and Paradise Lost. The Monster's innocence and ignorance, at this point, does not allow him to fully understand or relate to any of the characters in the books (166). The Monster eventually relates to Adam in Paradise Lost, not considering himself a monster, because even "Satan had his companions, fellow devils, to admire and encourage him" (169). As Adam was created in God's own image, the Monster is a "filthy type…… [Read More]
Victor inwardly becomes a monster himself." (Kain, par. 5)
On the other hand, ichard III was written by William Shakespeare. It is the story of ichard who secretly desired the throne of his brother. Although ichard is unattractive and considers himself as such, he is very charismatic. He has a strong personality and he is brilliant with his words and his arguments. In his desire for the thrown of his brother, King Edward IV, ichard was willing to kill anyone just to obtain it. Being intelligent and skillful, he was able to deceive the people around him in order to manipulate them. In order to get married, he manipulated Lady Anne. And then he used his political power by manipulating and deceiving the people around him to have his other brother, Clarence, executed. He used manipulated his older brother, Edward to feel guilty about Clarence's death. This contributed to the…… [Read More]
The author characterizes each woman as passive, disposable and serving a utilitarian function.
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein tells of the evaluation of the problems associated with gender identity via the development of a dreadful monster in a peaceful community. Considering the major characters of 'Frankenstein' which portray the perfect gender duties in those days, it is then quite intriguing that Frankenstein's monster was created and it calls for a thorough research into the societal status of the British in the 1800s.
Female characters like Safie, Elizabeth, Justine, Margaret and Agatha provide nothing more but a channel of action for the male characters in the novel.
They are on the receiving end of actions and occurrences, mostly because they are trying to get back at a male character or make him feel a particular way. Every female character in Shelley's Frankenstein has a unique role to play (Tan).
Let's start with…… [Read More]
He had built a wall around him that was preventing his normal interaction with people. This was causing real suffering and sickness. "hat then became of me? I know not; I lost sensation, and chains and darkness were the only objects that pressed upon me." (p.168) He loses interest in life even more when his dear ones are killed: "I had formed in my own heart a resolution to pursue my destroyer to death; and this purpose quieted my agony, and provisionally reconciled me to life." (p.169)
Sickness is thus a multifaceted theme in the novel. It serves many purposes. On the one hand, we see it as a force fighting against the evil ambitions of Victor and on the other, it can also be seen as a compassionate force trying to restrain Victor. It is all a matter of perception. Had Frankenstein understood why he was falling ill so…… [Read More]
Bloom claims that Victor was a "moral idiot" (Bloom) when he shirked his responsibilities. Victor's actions reveal that he is a completely selfish individual, incapable of being aware of anyone else's existence. The monster undergoes a radical transformation in the novel, from a being with no sense to a being completely aware of himself. He is more aware of himself than Victor could ever be and this allows the reader to identify with him on a more personal level. It is his sense of self that makes him human and Victor's selfishness that makes him seem inhuman. The irony is what brings Bloom back to the Romantic mythology of self.
Bloom successfully proves his points in this essay. He could have used more quotations from the text itself but the essay is strong enough without them. Bloom's examination of the novel in the broader spectrum of the Romantic Movement is…… [Read More]
Victor and his creature are opposing forces that struggle because of their conflicts throughout Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein. Conflict is the dominant theme of the novel—one that Mary Shelley herself experienced in her own life, being married to the romantic poet Percy Byshe Shelley, who struggled with his own romantic ideas just as Victor Frankenstein struggles with his vain desire to be a Creator in Frankenstein. While Victor Frankenstein does become a Creator, he accomplishes his task ironically because he is a creator of the monster (which becomes of a monster because of Victor’s own incapacity to love him). True, the monster comes into life looking hideous—but that is because he had an uncaring creator; the monster is actually very thoughtful and desires to love and be loved. He attempts to make friends but finds that he is rebuked for his ugliness and driven away into isolation. He then…… [Read More]
He notes that at the time of the novel's publication, there was growing concern and distrust for unregulated scientific experimentation. He claims that these beliefs "so successfully dominated the cultural sphere that the word "Frankenstein" was soon used to refer to the creature created by the scientist rather than the scientist himself. Frankenstein, therefore, became the monstrous and supernatural offspring of the practices of science" (illis 236). Mellor suggests that Frankenstein was the first creature that was created by a single man and Shelley created her myth "single-handedly" (Mellor 38). Victor teaches us some valuable lessons and the most important might be to never forget the law of unintended consequences. Victor never considered that his creation would be hideous and that oversight ruined everything for him and the creature. Victor's desire to know more lead to more destruction than he could have ever imagined.
Berry Laura. The Child,…… [Read More]
This section of the novel opens our eyes to the real monster of the story and, as a result, we feel sympathy for the creature. His desire to learn about life and the world around him is amazing and his encounter with the De Lacey family demonstrates just how much he wants to makes friends and be a part of his "community." He teaches himself to read and attempts to make friends with this family because he is aware of the importance of connecting with others. atching them, he is filled with "sensations of a peculiar and overpowering nature" (Shelley 93) and wants to be a part of their world. He is a good creature at first and Shelley does an excellent job of portraying him in this light. He only becomes evil after he suffers rejection and abuse from those that he is trying to connect with on a…… [Read More]
With this confession, Victor is telling Walton that he is a broken man because of his inner desires to explore the unknown and by pretending that like God he has control over his own destiny and that of the creature he created. Thematically, Victor is relating that the pursuit of knowledge can often be a very dangerous affair.
At the point when the creature begins to show some movement upon the laboratory table, Victor realizes that he has made an abomination to nature. Later on, he relates a portion of what he calls his "wildest dreams": "I thought I saw Elizabeth, in the bloom of health... I embraced her, but as I imprinted the first kiss on her lips, they became livid with the hue of death... her features appeared to change, and I thought I held the corpse of my dead mother in my arms; a shroud enveloped her…… [Read More]
It shows that children, who we expect to be innocent and trusting, can have a very dark side, and that can be horrifying, although I wouldn't really call this a "horror" film, either. I would call this a psychological thriller with a twisted ending. This film doesn't have a lot of the elements of many horror films, although Rhoda could certainly be seen as a monster stalking her prey, anyone who has something she wants. The real focus of the film is her mother, Christine, who can't face what her daughter has done, or do the right thing, such as turning her in to the authorities. Instead, she blames herself, tries to kill her daughter with sleeping pills, and then tries to commit suicide. No wonder the daughter has problems!
Like the other films, this film has a message, too, and it has to do with children and what they're…… [Read More]
Creation ithout Love: The Problem of Frankenstein
In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Dr. Frankenstein assumes the role of God by attempting to create new life. He is not, however, prepared for the consequences, and the outward hideousness of his creation compels him to reject the monster. Inwardly, Frankenstein's monster possesses a soul and longs for love and learning. The fact that he must seek both surreptitiously (and is yet still rejected) compels him to lash out -- both at society and at his creator. Along the way, the monster identifies with Milton's Satan -- another creature who lashed out at his creator after feeling spurned. This paper will show how Frankenstein's monster feels rejected by "god" (both the actual God of creation and also Frankenstein in the role of creator-god for the Creature) and how this leads to tragic consequences -- namely, both Frankenstein's and the monster's eventual isolation and death…… [Read More]
The monster knows right from wrong and he choice is one of desperation. Victor never realizes the difference between right and wrong because it is not within his nature to do so.
Frankenstein will always be closely examined when it comes to matters of humanity because of its subject matter. Victor has every opportunity to do something good with his life and the most he can muster is achieving his own dreams of glory by attempting to recreate life. Despite his education and loving family, Victor swerves off the normal path and skids onto the freakish one. The monster he creates encompasses more goodness than he does but he cannot see this because he is just like the rest of humanity - unable to see beyond the monster's appearance. The monster tried everything within his power to remove himself from the freakish path that Victor placed him on and gain…… [Read More]
monster recalls his "birth," and tells Victor about how he learned to survive out in the world. His recollections are touched with innocence but also with something of that which is fallen in human nature. As he meets people, he finds that they all run away from him because of his ugliness. He finds a shack and spies on its occupants.
The occupants of this shack are not very happy: they are a young man and woman and an elderly man. They are poor like the monster, who is contributing to their problems by taking their food. The monster has a conscience, feels sorry for making their condition worse, and tries to improve it by bringing them firewood. From them he learns how to speak by mimicking the sounds they make. He also admires their grace and form while being shocked at the sight of his own misshapen nature.
When…… [Read More]
Many pests, like the fire ant, are extremely destructive and hard to control, he shows how they develop resistance to many pesticides, making it even harder to get rid of them, and he maintains that will only continue in the future.
Chapter 6: Acclimatizing pests: Animal. The author shows how making the world more accessible helped transport pests around the world, and that studies showed that most plants and animals could survive in other areas than their natural homes. This is acclimatizing, and it continues to domesticating animals and bring non-native species to areas to attempt to control other species. The starlings are a good example. The first were imported to New York in the 1890s, and they have spread across the continent. They are aggressive against other birds and each other, and bird lovers generally do not like them. He talks about other species that have spread just as…… [Read More]
Frankenstein- Chapters 11-15
The feeling of disconnectedness and loneliness that Frankenstein's monster felt is nearly solely attributed to his experience with the cottagers he watches and, sadly, interacts with during chapters 11 through 15 of Mary Shelley's masterpiece, Frankenstein. Granted, the monster had bad experiences with people before. However, his experience with the cottagers and their society -- which was essentially the nucleus of the family -- offered him, on the one hand, the best of experiences in that he saw that they were not lonely and could depend on each other. On the other hand, it proved the worst of experiences because it taught him that no matter how much he did to help and desperately become a part of the family of the cottagers (or of any family, for that matter), his physical appearance was too grotesque and instantly nullified any good he could do.
As to the…… [Read More]
Depression in Adolescence
Depression in Adolescents
The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.
In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.
The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]