1000 results for “Freedom Of Speech”.
"[T]here remains a distinction between autonomy, the ability to think for oneself, and self-expression, the communicating of one's thoughts to others. Both are important components of our interest in free speech" (Lichtenberg, 336).
till some believe that any infringement upon the media would diminish the amount of true information disseminated into society. Truth, though, is filled with ambiguity and is intangible -- the "truth" of the media story is based on a moment in time, a slant from the reporter or producer, and if designed to promote the most controversial aspects of a story, becomes subjective truth simply out of necessity -- we are bound by our senses and certainly what we see, hear, and experience is fleeting, This, to Lichtenberg, is similar to the sliding scale of morality that we hold. he uses the example of a restaurant and an individual's personal dining table. We can legally discriminate on…
Deibert, R. And Rohozinski, R. "Liberation vs. Control in Cyberspace." Journal of Democracy. 21 (4): 2010,
Lichtenberg, J. "Foundations and Limits of Freedom of the Press." Philosophy and Public
Affairs. 16 (4): 1987, 329-55.
Freedom of Speech
History of Case Gitlow v. New York
Gitlow v.New York was a decision that was made by the supreme court of the United States on June 8, 1925 which ruled that the fourteenth amendment to the constitution of the United States extended the reach of limitations of the federal government authority that that had been set in the First amendment. The specific provisions were protection of freedom of speech and that of press to governments of individuals in the state on New York. It was just among a series of supreme court cases that were used to define the scope of the first amendment protecting freedom of speech and establishment of standards to which federal government or state would be held in case it is criminalized writing or speech (Digital History, 2013).
People involved in the case
The case was against a member of the socialist party…
Laws.com, (2013). Gitlow v. New York. Retrieved march 14, 2013 from http://kids.laws.com/gitlow-v-new-york
Casebriefs LLC., (2013). Gitlow v. New York. Retrieved march 14, 2013 from http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/constitutional-law/constitutional-law-keyed-to-chemerinsky/first-amendment-freedom-of-expression/gitlow-v-new-york/
Pearson Education Inc. (2010).civil liberties. Retrieved march 14, 2013 from http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_berman_democracy_4/7/1859/476148.cw/index.html
Digital History. (2013). Gitlow v. New York. Retrieved March 14, 2013 from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=3&psid=4070
Freedom of speech is a human right guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States. Yet, in the worlds of public and private employment, employers have some limited rights with regard to the things their employees can say. These generally differ for public and private employees.
The main basis for this difference is the fact that public employees offer their services to the Government, which in turn is to act in the interest of the public. Hence, public employees who speak out in the interest of the public tend to be offered a relative amount of freedom when it comes to what they are allowed to say in and about the workplace (Hudson, 2002).
Public employers include the police, education institutions, and city government institutions. Employees can work at the federal, state, or local government level. According to Hudson (2002), public employees do not have freedom to criticize governments for…
Dolgow, M. (2012, Aug. 3). Where Free Speech Goes to Die: The Workplace. Bloomberg Businessweek: Companies and Industries. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-03/where-free-speech-goes-to-die-the-workplace
Hudson, D.L. (2002, Dec.) Balancing Act: Public Employees and Free Speech. First Reports 3(2). Retrieved from: http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/madison/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/FirstReport.PublicEmployees.pdf
Supreme Court of the United States. (2009, Oct.). Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/09pdf/08-205.pdf
Freedom of Speech and Art
"Freedom of speech' is a fundamental right of citizens of the United States. The constitution grants complete freedom of speech under the First Amendment which states:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Americans thus enjoy comparatively more freedom of expression and speech than people in the developing countries. It would be wrong to assume that freedom of speech is absolute even in the U.S. But in our country, we have the privilege to challenge any unjust arrest, ban or suspension if it is found to violate our rights of free speech. However this is certainly not the case in developing countries such as China where freedom…
1) MaJian, China is putting '1984' to shame, Saturday, May 21, 2005,-Page 8 accessed online 9th June 2005: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/edit/archives/2005/05/21/2003256040
2) 'China Suppresses Free speech', 20/05/2005, News24.com (accessed online 9th June 2005) http://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_1708175,00.html
3) ALA v. Pataki. Text found online 9th June 2005: http://www.loundy.com/CASES/ALA_v_Pataki.html
Freedom of Speech
In 1776, the United States Constitution was signed to protect the freedoms of every American and to solidify the rights that so many were currently fighting for. It was the government that implemented ways for everyone to have equal rights to express what ever they deemed appropriate without the fear of there being repercussions for their actions. That is no longer the case. The government now, instead of protecting those rules set so long ago by America's founding fathers, now have made even more rules to violate any sort of privacy, freedom of speech, and freedom to do whatever it is that a person feels like doing. What is more unbelievable is that although the government is restricting freedom of speech, they are doing so by following the Constitution itself.
After the attacks on United States soil in September of 2001, nothing has been more impactful on…
Chang, N. (2001). The U.S.A. Patriot Act: What's so patriotic about trampling on the Bill of Rights? Center for Constitutional Rights, New York, New York
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (2010). Patriot Act eight years later: What you should know. 15 July 2011.
Bill of Rights Defense Committee (BORDC). (2009). Freedom of speech, religion, and assembly. 15 July 2011.
hich is the better course of action, Lawrence might ask himself. Should we censor the estboro Baptist Church and forbid them their right to free speech, or should we allow them to express their wacky, and perhaps injurious views, and fight back with words of compassion, caring, and support. Just because we would like to make a knee-jerk, reactionary law and censor them does not make it the right thing or the better thing to do. Also, it doesn't get rid of the racist feelings of the Church members, and it's likely that they would not keep quiet, regardless of the law. An instructive example is Germany, where it is illegal to make Anti-Semitic comments. Just this month, fashion designer John Galliano was caught on tape making Nazi references and anti-Semitic comments. He has now been charged with a crime. The woman he was talking to at the bar was…
Larson, Aaron. "Defamation, Libel and Slander Law." Expertlaw.com. http://www.expertlaw.com/library/personal_injury/defamation.html . Web. Retreived on Marh 14, 2011.
Lawrence, Charles R. III. "The Debates Over Placing Limits on Racist Speech Must Not Ignore the Damage it Does to Its Victims." The Chronicle of Higher Education. October 25, 1989. http://www.brysons.net/teaching/csun/lawrence.pdf. Web. Retreived on March 14, 2011
Morton, Tom. "Shephard Funeral put Westboro Baptist Church on national map." Wyoming's Online News Source. http://trib.com/news/local/state-and-regional/article_f7ee0084-86e4-5cc1-b335-066a505a08ed.html. Web. Retreived on March 15, 2011.
Sherman, Mark. "Westboro Baptist Church Wins Supreme Court Appeal Over Funeral Protests." The Huffington Post. March 2, 2011. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/03/02/westboro-baptist-church-w_n_830209.html Web. Retreived on March 14, 2011.
caselaw.findlaw.com);in Guiles v. Marineau (2006) (No. 05-0327 2nd Cir. Court) the Court of Appeals ruled that the school "violated a student's free speech" by disciplining him for wearing a T-shirt that criticized George . Bush and used images of drugs and alcohol (www.NSBA.org);Roberts alluded to Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier (No. 86-836) (484 U.S. 260) (1988), in which a student newspaper was censored because of an article on pregnancy, as justification for his theory that the rights of students "must be applied in light of the special characteristics of the school environment" (Opinion of the Court); and the fourth case, Bethel School Dist. N. 403 v. Fraser (No. 84-1667) (478 U.S. 675) (1986), a student was suspended for giving a lewd speech at a high school assembly (www.law.umkc.edu).
The ruling by the Supreme Court in Morse v. Frederick does not fit with previous court rulings in this area of civil liberties, because…
Burger, C.J. (1986). Bethel School District v. Fraser, a Minor, Et Al. Supreme Court of the United States (478 U.S. 675). Retrieved Oct. 25 at http://www.law.umke.edu.
Cornell Law Legal Information Institute. (1987). Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier,
No. 86-836) (484 U.S. 260), Supreme Court of the United States, Retrieved March 19, 2008 at http://www.nsba.org .
Epstein, Lee; & Walker, Thomas G. (2006). Constitutional Law for a Changing America:
Christie provides a few examples of how lawyers use the superimposition of several vague terms to arrive at a workable precision. From the 1938 estatement of Torts:
An activity is ultrahazardous if it (a) necessarily involves a risk of serious harm to the person, land or chattels of others which cannot be eliminated by the exercise of the utmost care, and (b) is not a matter of common usage. (p. 896)
Differences can and do exist and even though they are difficult to articulate in words, it does not mean they should be ignored. The courts and juries are left to make distinctions among such words as "slight" negligence, negligence, "gross" negligence and recklessness. In other words, "distinctions are recognized in the law even though the distinctions cannot, in any very helpful sense, be adequately articulated" (p. 902).
Once distinctions are made in several prior cases, later cases that align…
Christie, George C. (1964). Vagueness and legal language" 48 Minnesota Law Review 885: 885-911.
The issue of emotional harm, which at first seems complicated to a prohibitive degree, can also be applied in a similar fashion. Law and custom have united -- for the most part -- to define other instances of unacceptable speech in public society and even in the privacy of a business. Sexual harassment and racial discrimination are the tow most well-known and easily illustrated instances of speech that does not actually present a danger being banned. More stringent interpretations of sexual and racist speech might be appropriate in a school setting, but restricting speech much more than it is in adult society does the students a disservice, denying them the ability to take responsibility for their own speech.
Protecting the students' ability to become responsible and educated self-directed adults is, I believe, the primary responsibility of all youth educators. That being said, there was an instance in a class I…
ACLU (2009). "Free speech: student speech." Accessed 20 February 2009. http://www.aclu.org/freespeech/youth/index.html
Linder, D. (2009). "Exploring constitutional conflicts: Free speech rights of students." Accessed 20 February 2009. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/studentspeech.htm
A short article in the Boston Globe (2009) emphasizes the need to promote the right of students to religious freedom in schools. The article also notes that this right tends to be violated in schools on a regular basis. The reasons for such violation are many, not least of which is the fact that religion is a very emotional issue. Those who feel strongly about their religious roots tend to judge issues such as religious freedom on an emotional rather than a rational basis. Such lack of rationality is discouraged by the Constitution, and also by bills such as the newly signed Student eligious Freedom Bill. It emphasizes and clarifies rights that are guaranteed by the Constitution and rights that should not be violated.
In these turbulent political and economic times, it is wonderful to have an anchor in religious conviction. It is not as desirable however to use such…
Boston Globe (2009, Nov 15). We need to protect students' rights to express their religion. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/letters/articles/2009/11/15/we_need_to_protect_students_rights_to_express_their_religion/
PR Newswire. (2009, Nov. 20). CAIR Seeks Prayer Rights for Maine Muslim Student. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/cair-seeks-prayer-rights-for-maine-muslim-student-70629372.html
Religious Tolerance (2009). Religion and Prayer in U.S. Public Schools. http://www.religioustolerance.org/ps_pra9.htm
Student Rights in Public High Schools (2009). U.S. Supreme Court Cases Involving Student Rights. http://skyhawk13.tripod.com/cases.html
The government regulation of all artistic expression-from cinema to women performing to the press-keeps citizens unaware of developments in their world, deprives them of beautiful things that could be interpreted as "offensive to Islam," and in general, decreases the potential for beauty and pleasure in society.
In the U.S., for example, any government limitation of artistic expression is not only illegal, but shunned by the citizens. The vast majority of Americans want to know what is out there, even if some of it might offend their personal taste. Films that openly criticize the government, like Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 9/11, as well as films that simply might not appeal to all genres of individuals, are not only allowed to be disseminated but are widely discussed and even encouraged in our society.
Art has traditionally been not only a reflection of society but can serve as an impetus for change and modernization.…
Human Rights Watch World Report 2002, Academic Freedom, accessed 8/25/05 online at http://www.hrw.org/wr2k2/academicfreedom.html
Human Rights Watch Iran 2002, accessed 08/25/05 online at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/iran/Iran0501-03.htm#P157_23451
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. Harper Collins, New York, 2003
Oxford History of Western Art, ed. Martin Kemp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000
Addressing Teacher SpeechIn essence, following employment, teachers in public schools still retain some aspects of their First Amendment rights to free expression despite being public employees. As a matter of fact, the courts have in the past affirmed this position. For instance, in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969), the court was categorical that it can hardly be argued that either students or teachers shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate (Ross, 2015). It would, however, be prudent to note that the freedom of speech is in this case not absolute.In the presented scenario, the statement made by the teacher about the principal is not only potentially damaging to her reputation, but also false. It therefore follows that the said teacher could be deviating from the limits of freedom of speech. To a large extent, her comments now border on…
Ross, C.J. (2015). Lessons in Censorship. Harvard University Press.
Myth of the First Amendment
The concept of "ig rother" surveying all our actions and censoring what we hear and what we know is something that goes against the very conception of American society. The centuries old fear of control motivates the people such that they believe in the ideology of freedom of speech over anything else. The First Amendment to us, is right up there with all the we hold Holy, un acceptable this may seem but the respect we accord to this issue can have no better comparison. Yet, are we as free as we believe or is the freedom we have just an illusion that the media and the government present so that they can manipulate our beliefs and perspective of the life we are living in the manner in which they deem correct? Horrendous as this thought may seem the fact is that if we look…
Author Not Available, First amendment: an overview Cornell University Accessed April 27, 2002 http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/first_amendment.html
Detweiler, George Flag Burning Is Not the Issue Vol. 12, No. 07 April 1, 1996 American Opinion Publishing Incorporated http://www.thenewamerican.com/departments/feature/1999/062799.htm
Americans United for Speration of Church and State Accessed April 27, 2002 www.au.org/myths.htm
Freedom Forum.org: First Amendment Accessed April 27, 2002 www.freedomforum.org/first
Colin Kaepernicks political activism and his symbolic taking the knee have sparked a fierce debate over the power, potential, and possible limitations on freedom of speech. According to an article in The Washington Post, survey after survey has shown that too many students at all levels including in college dont understand free speech and dont know that it is guaranteed by the First Amendment, (Strauss, 2017, p. 1). The reason why I am writing about freedom of speech in relation to the reaction to Kaepernick is that the First Amendment encompasses the fundamental rights and freedoms fundamental to democracy. The goal of the paper is to explain the facts of the case through the lens of both ethics and constitutional law. Ultimately, I want to demonstrate to the audience why a democracy cannot function without freedom of speech. I also want to show why protesting something symbolic like…
S. citizens. In this program designed to help young ones value the freedoms they currently experience:
according to Tyler Barnwell, stands for grievance, as in "to petition the government for a redress of grievances." which denotes religious freedom, Leslie Anne Hill, a Presbyterian, states:
"means you don't have to follow a certain religion." stands for freedom of assembly, Sherri Jones states is "the right to get together with other people peaceably, but not to disturb anyone." which is for freedom of speech, Stephanie Kenfield relates: "means you can say anything you want to say, and nobody can stop you or anything, but not bad words and stuff." stands for freedom of the press, Justin Jolly explains: "You could write and say anything you want on a piece of paper or in a newspaper or anything like that." "Getting a grasp..., 1994)
The ruling for The Alpha Epsilon Pi v. The…
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Freedom speech guarantees freedom extend disturbing funeral (Armed Forces funerals) support claim, acknowledge claim opponent, find common ground .
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of freedom of speech and the fact that people are often denied the right to speak when they want to express themselves. Even with this, there are a series of situations when one's right to express his or her position needs to be denied on the basis of common sense. It would surely be absurd to claim that freedom of speech should not be present in every setting regardless of circumstances. However, people should carefully analyze a situation and decide whether or not it would be right for them to speak in a particular environment. Freedom of speech is in some cases rendered ineffective because of a series of reasons that make it possible for individuals to understand that it is more important…
Brouwer, D.l C. And Hess, A. "Making Sense of 'God Hates Fags' and 'Thank God for 9/11': A Thematic Analysis of Milbloggers' Responses to Reverend Fred Phelps and the Westboro Baptist Church," Western Journal of Communication 71.1 (2007)
Conery, B. "Supreme Court upholds protests at military funerals as free speech," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the Washington Times Website: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/mar/2/supreme-court-oks-church-protest-military-funerals/?page=all
Kingsbury, A. "Supreme Court Weighs Free Speech Limits in Military Funeral Case," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the U.S. News Website: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/10/06/supreme-court-weighs-free-speech-limits-in-military-funeral-case
Liptak, A. "Justices Rule for Protesters at Military Funerals," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/03/us/03scotus.html?pagewanted=all
Western world it appears is slightly alienated from the spiritual world that most people in the east like Hindus take for granted. For an average person in the West, physical and material world is the only world and spirit is only an illusion. For those in the east, like Hindus, physical world is the illusion and spirit is the only truth there is.
Western social, political and economic systems play an important role in the shaping of western concept of freedom. Freedom to choose, freedom of speech, freedom from bondage, freedom to vote, are some of the main ideals upheld by western society and thus freedom has become merely a hollow term used to describe a state of liberation in the physical world. Capitalism has also influenced the development of this concept as freedom to choose what one likes, build what one desires and move as and when one…
Frederic Spiegelberg. Living Religions of the World: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1956
Hedebro, Goran. Communication and Social Change in Developing Nations. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982.
Peter Heehs. Indian Religions: The Spiritual Traditions of South Asia: An Anthology/edited. Delhi, Permanent Black, 2002
educationists and teachers in the classroom today is identifying and dealing with children who have a speech, language or communication impairment, which negatively impacts on learning.. Many children find it difficult to understand how conversation works or don't make use of language at all. There are different terms used to describe specific speech and language difficulties, including "phonological difficulties, articulation difficulties, verbal dyspraxia, dysarthria, semantic pragmatic disorder, Asperger Syndrome and selective mutism." (Speech Impairments)
These specific speech and language difficulties can impact severely on the development and natural psychological and social growth of the child. Furthermore, it can also lead to further and more complicated problems - as will be discussed in this paper. "Children with a variety of speech and language impediments are increasing at risk as their language abilities fall behind those of their peers." (Children and Mental Health)
Emphasis must also be placed on recognizing the speech…
Bradford, J. Using multisensory teaching methods. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Dyslexia magazine Com. Web site: http://www.dyslexia-parent.com/mag30.html
Bredenkamp, S. (1990) Protecting Children from Inappropriate Practices. ERIC Digest. Retrieved December 21, 2000 from ERIC Digest. Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/children.htm
Children and Mental Health. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General Web Site: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter3/sec1.html
DeBord, K. (1997) Developmentally appropriate 4-h experiences for the 5- to 8-year-old. Retrieved December 20, 2004, from NC State University. Web site: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/human/pubs/develop_appropriate.html
policy makers underestimate internet independence?
YouTube independence of positing video content
The internet moderated terrorism
egulating the internet for anti-terrorism
Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet
The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.
The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.
Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.
Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.
Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.
Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.
Freedom of Speech
The Brandenburg Case
The central holding in the Brandenburg case is the debate about whether suppressing hate speech or speeches that have the potential to incite violence is, in fact, violates the guarantee to freedom of speech as given by the First Amendment of the U.S. constitution. In the case of Brandenburg, while the state of Ohio declared him to have incited potential violence through his speech that he made on TV and sentenced him to 1-10-year prison and a fine, the Supreme Court of the U.S. overturned the verdict and found Brandenburg not guilty and opined that the Ohio state had violated Brandenburg's right to free speech. The supreme court noted: "Freedoms of speech and press do not permit a State to forbid advocacy of the use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action…
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…
Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,
Book CensorshipIntroductionThe censorship of information is one of the most pressing issues in libraries today (Steele, p.1). Censorship basically refers to efforts undertaken by governing authorities or their representatives to change/limit access to material depending on the content of work. Some of the changes or limitations made on work include removal, restriction, or exclusion. Censorship is a practice that has existed in society since ancient times and has been characterized by debates on the extent to which it affects the freedom of speech and intellectual freedom. As a form of censorship, book censorship occurs when government officials, private individuals, or organizations limit or remove books from school reading lists, libraries, or bookstore shelves. Over the past few decades, book censorship has grown to become one of the most common forms of censorship. Proponents of book censorship contend that it is critical to control the kind of literature given to children.…
Works CitedAmerican Civil Liberties Union. “A History of Fighting Censorship.” ACLU - American Civil Liberties Union, American Civil Liberties Union, 2005, https://www.aclu.org/other/history-fighting-censorship-pdf . Blanchard, Margaret A. “The American Urge to Censor: Freedom of Expression Versus the Desire to Sanitize Society - From Comstock to 2 Live Crew.” WILLIAM AND MARY LAW REVIEW, vol. 33, no. 3, 1992, pp. 741–851. Bogen, David S. “The Origins of Freedom of Speech and Press.” Maryland Law Review, vol. 42, no. 3, 1983, pp. 429–465. Cahn, Naomi. “Lessons in Censorship: How Schools and Courts Subvert Students’ First Amendment Rights.” Family Law Quarterly, 49 , no. 3, pp. 535–544. Fanetti, Susan. “A Case for Cultivating Controversy: Teaching Challenged Books in K–12 Classrooms .” The Alan Review, vol. 40, no. 1, 2012, pp. 6–17. Fitzsimmons, Richard. “Censorship, Intellectual Freedom, Libranianship and the Democratic State.” International Federation of Library Associations And Institutions, Https://Www.ifla.org/Wp-Content/Uploads/2019/05/Assets/Faife/Lectures-Papers/fitz96.Pdf, May 2019, https://www.ifla.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/assets/faife/lectures-papers/fitz96.pdf . Hassan, Twana A. “A Historical Analysis of the Development of Free Speech Justifications.” The Journal Jurisprudence, vol. 28, 2015, pp. 487–506. Lukenbill, W. Bernard, and James F. Lukenbill. “Censorship: What Do School Library Specialists Really Know? A Consideration of Students\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Rights, the Law and Implications for a New Education Paradigm .” American Association of School Libraries, American Association of School Libraries, 2009, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ851695.pdf . United States, Congress, U.S. Government Publishing Office, and U.S. Government Publishing Office. First Amendment - Religion and Speech, U.S. Government Publishing Office, 2 Oct. 1992. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/GPO-CONAN-1992/pdf/GPO-CONAN-1992-10-2.pdf . Accessed 12 Mar. 2022.
History has shown that freedom is not inherently a part of society, rather it is something fought hard for and won. When countries fight for freedom, when people rise for liberty, they do so because they feel they must. Whether it is a strict government, a deranged dictator, or a highly religious society, people have seen their freedoms limited to varying degrees. The United States has been built upon the idea that freedom should be a basic right. While the country has seen its fair share of battles, with itself and with outsiders, it has maintained this very ideal throughout its history.
What is freedom and liberty? Why is it so important that people would risk their lives to maintain certain freedoms? To begin analysis of these two words, I will present my own definition of freedom and liberty followed by how others define these two words. First and foremost,…
After the initial clash, police arrested Elton Cox and charged him with "disturbing the peace," (the Ovex Project, "Cox v. Louisiana"). In 1965, the Court decided that none of the student's activities were criminal. They were rightfully engaging in their right to free speech.
However, cases like the 1966 decision of the Adderley v. Florida case (the Oyex Project, "Adderley v. Florida"), represented the unsupportive view of the Court towards students and their cases. During the chaos of the 1960's, Harriet Louis Adderley and around 200 of her associates were arrested; charged with "trespass with a malicious and mischievous intent" after gathering a protest the jailing of other students on a "non-public" jail facility, (the Oyex Project, "Adderley v. Florida"). The students appealed the case on the grounds that it was a violation of their First Amendment ights. This appeal was denied after a 5-4 decision, showing the closeness of…
The Oyez Project, Adderley v. Florida, 385 U.S. 39 (1966), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1966/1966_19/ (last visited Saturday, February 16, 2008).
The Oyez Project, Cox v. Louisiana, 379 U.S. 536 (1965), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1964/1964_24/ (last visited Saturday, February 16, 2008).
Socrates' speech in Plato's Apology. It is this author's opinion that Socrates' position that the unexamined life is not worth living has validity. We will see that this is the case as we examine Socrates' spontaneous oration regarding virtue and how it can not be learned. Obviously, if the lives of these youths had been virtuous, then it might have been possible for them to learn this character trait and to prove Socrates wrong. This is the case because only when someone examines their life do they shake off their bigotry and raise their awareness to a higher level.
As alluded to in the introduction, Socrates is correct that the unexamined life is not worth living. This is because only those people who struggle to resolve the contradictions in their life have an existence that is real. Those who do not are at best ignorant and at worst bigots who…
Bloom, Allan, narr. "Allan Bloom on Plato's Apology of Socrates 1 ." Mr. Allan Bloom. You Tube, 23
Feb. 2009. web. 22 Feb 2012. .
Bloom, Allan, narr.. "Allan Bloom on Plato's Apology of Socrates 2 ." Mr. Allan Bloom. You Tube, 23
Feb. 2009. web. 22 Feb 2012. .
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
Promoting Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
Like the many other freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, freedom of expression is deemed to be a fundamental and inalienable human right. Towards this end, it is understood, within the said framework, to constitute the “freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers” (United Nations, 2010, p. 107). For this reason, freedom of expression ought to be granted and guaranteed protection by any jurisdiction that prides itself as a beacon of modern democracy. The United Kingdom is one such country, alongside other countries such as the United States and Canada. It is important to note that over time, social media has become a marketplace of sorts for the exchange, advancement, as well as promotion of ideas concerning a wide array…
campus speech codes violate student rights?
The freedom of expression is not for students alone. It is for all citizens and for students the rights and liberties that are available for all citizens apply in the same manner. In that context if the citizen has a right of speech and expression, it also implies that the citizen student also enjoys this right. Where the general laws abrogate the freedom of speech, making some kinds of speech and expression culpable, it is also applicable to the student. The question is if the academic institution passes rules that prohibit speeches and other form of expressions defined as 'hate speech', it has to be assumed that the 'hate speech' as defined inside the campus differs from the general legislation, or there is no general legislation that covers the 'hate speech 'and therefore being introduced in the campus make it unique to the student…
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle
Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open field. His tired eyes wandered over the bloody ground, over the earth covered with corpses, over the scene of one of the greatest battles in American History, and his words rang out true and clear -."..Our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
Abraham Lincoln's famous address gave meaning and purpose to all those young lives so tragically cut short. It etched forever in the minds of posterity the real aim behind that great war. e were a nation of free people. Subjection and slavery were banished for all time from our shores. Or were they? The Civil ar freed the slaves. A piece of…
http://www.questia.com /PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=22777836"Anderson, Terry H. The Movement and the Sixties. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. De Leon, David, ed. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Eskew, Glenn T. But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle / . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Jasper, James M. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. King, Richard H. Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Peake, Thomas R. Keeping the Dream Alive: A History of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference from King to the Nineteen-Eighties. New York: Peter Lang, 1987. Pinkney, Alphonso. Black Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenitice-Hall, 1975.
A literary critical analysis is not merely a summary of a literary work. Instead, it is an argument that expresses an interpretation, judgment, or critical evaluation of the work. This is accomplished by examining specific literary devices (symbols, themes, metaphors, tone, point of view, diction, structure, etc.), within the work. The purpose of a critical analysis is to demonstrate how these elements convey meaning. In your analysis, you will most likely discuss how certain literary techniques are used to convey specific ideas. You will discuss what a literary piece means and how it achieves its effect. To write critically, you must provide analysis of specific evidence from the text (words and phrases; avoid long quotes). The goal of this assignment is to give the audience an interpretation of the literature.
1. Introduction (explore the subject? of your analysis and end with a thesis statement).
2. Body Paragraphs…
ight to Expression: The Fine Line of the First Amendment
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the enactment of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the PATIOT ACT), there has been a growing debate concerning the proper role of the government in protecting Americans while balancing their right to free expression. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the line between an individual's right to expression and the role of the government to protect its citizens from harm, including some salient examples of this conflict in the nation's past. An analysis concerning whether Americans have come any closer to reconciling these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
On the one hand, the First Amendment to…
Berg, C. (2013, September). Free speech lost in translation. Review - Institute of Public Affairs, 67(3), 18-23.
Munger, M. 92015, Spring). No place to hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. surveillance state. Independent Review, 19(4), 605-609.
Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47, 51-52, 1919.
Youm, K.H. (2004, Summer). The four freedoms of the First Amendment. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 446-450.
speech of a public institution's faculty member to be protected under the Pickering/Connickline of cases, what criteria must be satisfied? Do these criteria suitably balance the interests of faculty members and the institution in the higher education context?
There are really two key principles that must be satisfied. The first is that the court determines whether the speech in question hinges on a matter of public concern. If it does, the court takes further criteria into consideration such as:
Whether the statement impairs discipline in school or harmony amongst superiors or amongst cookers.
Whether the statement has a negative impact on close working relationships
Whether the speech interferes with the way the operator usually conducts his business,
Yes, these criteria take the interests of faculty members and school into consideration.
Specifically, what was the fatal flaw in the instructor's speech? Was it the profanity itself? Or was it the belittling…
Intellectual Freedom in Libraries
In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.
Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…
American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.
American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/basics/intellectual.htm
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95
However, Jefferson's "Declaration of Independence" also amounted to a declaration of war. He was well aware that the British government would not simply let the colonists pull away from England and declare themselves their own country or countries. England made huge profits from the American colonies and were not about to just roll over and let them cut themselves free simply because they didn't like a few laws the Parliament had passed.
In contrast to this is King's speech. While he lists the inequalities involved with being Black in a White-dominated America, he called for people to come together. He said, "I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood." He knew it was a dream and not a reality, as did…
evening, fellow Americans. Tomorrow the American people will choose their next president. Tonight I will outline some of the key reasons that I should be that president.
In the past months, we have fought hard to bring freedom to Iraq. In the next four years, we must work even harder to bring freedom to the Iraqi people. We must not let terrorists who practice a fringe form of Islamic extremism take away the freedom of the Iraqi people that we have worked so hard to bring to Iraq.
In recent years, a number of local officials and activist judges have tried to redefine marriage in our nation. In this action, these individuals act to change one of the most fundamental institutions of our civilization. To protect this institution, we must enact a constitutional amendment to protect marriage in the United States.
I ask for your continued participation in the American…
Speech by President Bush
Prospective Deliberative Speech to the Republican National Convention in July, Directed on Television to the American Nation as a hole
Nods, smiles, acknowledges audience)
My fellow Americans, this November every one of you will be faced with a seemingly simple choice, but a choice that will affect this entire nation's future -- should you vote to change the current administration and vote democratic? Or should you vote Republican and stay the course this nation has followed over the past four years?
e have been through many difficult times together, you and I, my fellow Americans, over the course of my administration. Together, we have weathered a terrible attack on our nation's security, a devastating economic recession, and a just but sorry war against a brutal dictator. The war for our nation's security on all these fronts has yet to be won, but it will be won.…
BBC. (2004) Iraqi Q&A. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3543595.stm
This site explains the new interim government of Iraqi and the history of the United States' recent engagement with the nation
Chaddock, Gail Russell. (November 21, 2002). "Security Act to Pervade Daily Lives." The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/1121/p01s03-usju.html
This news article provides an analysis of the new provisions of the Home Security Act and how they affect all Americans.
Patrick Henry's Speech
Slavery had existed for a very long time. It is still existent; however, the form may have changed. Anti-slave laws and abolitionist movement had been there in the past to stop slave trade in Africa. Provisions had been there but there has been no significant impact. This report focuses on Henry's speech in which he has argued how the masters (British) used to control their slaves (American colony). Henry holds the view that British should be thrown away from their executive power and Americans should fight for their freedom. Hence, the Thesis Statement is:
Patrick Henry was imageries, metaphors and analogies to persuade his audience to join the freedom struggle against the British.
Analysis of Henry's speech
Henry stresses in the first paragraph on the need to fight for freedom by saying, "I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery." In Henry's…
Sue, G. (2005) Rhetorical Analysis of Persuasion: Patrick Henry's Speech to the Virginia Convention. Language Arts and Social Studies
Victory speech" offer close readings of presidential speeches given during times of crisis. Safire's essay analyzes Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," which was delivered during a commemoration ceremony soon after one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil ar. ood's essay analyzes Barak Obama's victory speech after Obama won the presidency in 2008. Obama, the first African-American elected to the office of the presidency, took power during a time when America was at war and facing its deepest financial crisis since the Great Depression.
Safire analyzes the Gettysburg Address to encourage the reader reconsider the speech in a new way, given that the Address has become a kind of cliche, rather than a living, breathing document that inspires people. Safire notes the number of times the word 'dedicate' is articulated in the speech, and the determination and self-sacrifice called upon by Lincoln. He analyzes how the speech is broken down, paragraph…
Safire, William. "A spirit reborn." The New York Times. September 9, 2002. [March 24, 2011]
Wood, Victor. "A spirit reborn." The New Yorker. November 17, 2008. [March 24,
The famous speech by Martin King Luther Jr. “I Have a Dream” is deemed as one of the most captivating and moving speeches that were ever given by MKL Jr. in his lifetime. This speech was given to mark the epitome of the civil rights march at Lincoln memorial in Washington DC in 1963. The audient to whom MKL Jr. was giving the speech was a multitude of civil rights movement members from all over the USA, ordinary people, dignitaries and people from different racial backgrounds. The outstanding purpose of the speech was to further the position of the civil rights movement on the issue of racial discrimination and alienation of the black as well as the blatant breach of the human rights of the blacks that was taking place in the USA at that moment in history. It was also a speech meant to send a strong signal that…
Lincoln's Speech Compared
The Evolution of Lincoln's Thought in His Speeches
Abraham Lincoln is one of the most celebrated and popular Presidents in the history of the United States. Lincoln presided over the Presidency at a difficult time for the country, when the unity of the nation was at stake and the question of slavery deeply polarized the society into two. Lincoln was able to preserve the Union, but at a great cost which made him as controversial as he was popular. But it is uncontroversial among his contemporaries and the readers of his speeches today that the sixteenth President of the United States was a great orator, able to address a broad range of audience: rich and poor, literate and illiterate, freemen and slaves; and he possessed a rare skill of persuasion. Lincoln was able to address a divided nation with great care and measurement. He was reserved when…
All the references come from The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, edited by Roy P. Basler, and is available online at (Accessed: February 19, 2011).
In my opinion the emotive words and euphemisms have not distorted the events or issues in any of the speeches because they were meant to clearly and forcefully show their audiences that war was the only solution for the injustice they incurred at the hands of the enemy. To me the most persuasive speech was given by Roosevelt because it illustrated the gravity of the decision America faced after suddenly being attacked by an enemy state. The next most persuasive speech was given by Churchill because it showed the British that they needed to quickly respond to the oncoming onslaught by an enemy state. The third most persuasive speech was given by Bush because it clearly explained who attacked America on 9/11 and why, and it explained that this enemy's intentions involved global dominance therefore it had to be stopped. The fourth most persuasive speech was given by Bin Laden…
He futhe solidifies this point of humility and self-depecation of pesonal stoies showing how he has always admied the univesity and how he sees the students as exceptional.
Having cafted this platfom of tust and ensuing thee is a stong esonance with the audience, M. Colbet gets even moe daing and pokes self-depecating humo at Thomas Jeffeson's own unique behavio. Only afte building such a stong foundation of tust does the joking come acoss well.
He next goes fo the heat of the speech, bining out the most pofound, insightful sayings of Thomas Jeffeson. His comedic timing and insight make the unexpected aspects and intepetation of Thomas Jeffeson's most famous sayings both poignant and entetaining. He concludes the speech with a call fo the gaduates to make thei own way, as Thomas Jeffeson called on the nascent colonies to also do. These ae the most poweful moments of the speech…
references to modern culture and humor, freeing the audience for a pedantic, lecture-driven speech for one with meaning and energy.
Actually, it turned out that Burke was right all along, and by rejecting his ideas for peace - and the others who were in his camp - England cut it's own throat. The colonies were not to be denied in this matter, and no amount of taxation or bullying on the part of the Mother Country would succeed.
At this point Burke points out that after all, the Colonies are populated with people with British names. This is Burke bringing it all down to linkage with the family unit. Basically he is saying, the Colonies are a new nation made up of family, relatives, friends of the Mother Country. "My hold of the Colonies is in the close affection which grows from common names, from kindred blood..." And Burke is saying that these people that the leadership wants to go to war with are cousins, aunts, grandparents, nephews and nieces.…
Burke, Edmund. "Edmund Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America." May, 2004.
EBook #5655, Project Gutenberg.
motivational Speech importance Military Birthday Celebrations. I inspire motivate a crowd history importance Military Birthdays. I talk actual dates speak extremely important person important birth service.
Why celebrating military birthdays is important
The Marine Corps
The Air Force
The National Guard
Evoking self-assertive citizens
For one to take fate into his/her hands is an act of self-assertiveness. For one to do so and claim responsibility for the faiths of entire troops and units is the burden of proof for bravery. When such men and such women choose to take the helm and lead the nation's destiny as entrusted to them by the very latter, this is devotion and glory. The people in the military forces are the above. These are the people who must never be forgotten, those who are no longer with us and the living. The purpose of this essay…
Blythe, B. (2008). John Paul Jones (1747 -- 1792). National Park Service. Retrieved from http://www.nps.gov/revwar/about_the_revolution/jp_jones.html
Kroesen, F.J. (2013). Remembering a sin wave: A history of feast and famine for the U.S. Army (Special Report). Institute of Land Warfare. Retrieved from http://www.ausa.org/publications/ilw/DigitalPublications/Documents/sine-wave/index.html
Palmer, M.A. (n.y.). The Navy: The Continental period, 1775-1890. National History and Heritage. Retrieved from http://www.history.navy.mil/history/history2.htm
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…
American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.
Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1
(2011): p. 29-30.
Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
The Positive and Negative Effects of Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
In essence, social media in the UK provides an amazing platform for people to freely express their views, share information, and interact. Indeed, as McGoldrick (2013, p. 49) observes, “Facebook and other internet-based social networking sites (SNSs) have revolutionized modern communications.” Some of the most popular social media platforms in the country include, but that are not limited to, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc. It is important to note that unlike in the physical world where relations between people are governed by various social rules and etiquette standards, relations on social media tend to present a limitless and unrestricting facade. In recent times, some countries have attempted to limit the way people relate on social media – even closely monitoring content in an attempt to ensure that freedom of expression in social media is…
Good day, ladies and gentleman. I extend my deepest thanks to all of you for coming out to this occasion. Your presence here is an honor to all of us, and we're all happy to be able to share in our experiences with you. If there's one thing that this entire experience has shown me, it's the importance of hard work and dedication. If I've discovered anything, it's that hard work and dedication can truly help one transform oneself and one's life.
I've worked tremendously hard to earn my degree and I continue to work hard in order to better my life and the lives of the people closest to me -- my family friends and community. Ever since I was a child, I was no stranger to hard work, which is fortunate, as my life has been full of it. However, more than anything, I've learned…
" (Zeleza, 2003, p. 1) in the U.S. "there are...at least four waves of African diasporas: first the historical communities of African-Americans, themselves formed out of complex internal and external migrations over several hundred years; second, migrant communities from other diasporic locations, such as the Caribbean that have maintained or invoke, when necessary or convenient, national identities such as Jamaicans, Puerto icans, Cubans....; third, the recent immigrants from the indigenous communities of Africa; and finally, African migrants who are themselves diasporas from Asia or Europe." (Zeleza, 2003, p. 2) Each of these diasporas "...has its own connections and commitments to Africa, its own memories and imaginations of Africa and its own conceptions of the diasporic condition and identity." (Zeleza, 2003, p. 2) the following figure illustrates these linkages among African-American women in American Institutions and throughout the world.
Linkages between African-American Women in American Institutions and Throughout the World
Recent immigrants from the indigenous communities of Africa. (Zeleza, 2003)
African migrants who are themselves Diasporas from Asia or Europe. (Zeleza, 2003)
African-American women in American Institutions and their linkages in the African Diasporas. (Zeleza, 2003)
The American public is misleaded concerning the war in Iraq.
Americans believe that the war is for freedom, 9-11, and the good of the Iraqi people.
Americans are misled.
What is the war really about?
The war is not about terrorism, freedom, WMD's or the "people."
The war is misguided and damaging.
Experts agree that the war is a bad idea.
Clarke and Leverett give opinions on why the war is a bad idea.
The Iraq war is compared to an insufficient dose of penicillin.
What's so wrong with attacking Iraq?
There are no WMD's, the main justification is gone.
One cannot clean one's kitchen by cleaning the living room.
So what's the big deal?
American citizens are not safer than before, and may be less safe.
Iraq, like American Muslims are perceived as fair targets, whether they deserve it or not.
Conclusion: Iraq is not the same as…
Fletcher, Douglas. (2004). Where are the WMD's? Reason Hit and Run. 27 March.
Discusses the role of WMD's in the war on Iraq.
Gillespie, Nick. (2002). You mean they're not the same thing? The Washington Post. Retrieved from Web site on March 31, 2004 http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:JW0jnA8faFQJ:www.brookings.edu/comm/policybriefs/pb93.pdf+%22war+on+terrorism%22+and+%22Iraq%22+an d+%22wrong%22&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Touches on the possible negative repercussions on the war on terrorism resulting from the Iraq war -- especially in the use of resources.
The author hopes to restore what he calls "the former unsuspecting confidence of the Colonies in the Mother Country, to give permanent satisfaction to your people." Teh term "unsuspecting confidence" reveals the colonial mentality. Burke even suggests that a conciliatory tone will trick the colonies into greater respect for the Crown. "The more they multiply, the more friends you will have, the more ardently they love liberty, the more perfect will be their obedience."
In the speech delivered to Parliament, Burke bases his rhetorical appeal on the prevailing philosophical themes in late 18th century Britain. Crown supporters like Burke had not yet fully embraced the tenets of popular rule and remained tied to a the monarchic model. Burke appeals to national pride in his parliamentary address, too, repeatedly referring to the "greatness" of the empire. The American colonies are portrayed by Burke as Crown subjects, so he does not antagonize…
Burke, E. (1775). Speech on conciliation with America. Retrieved April 14, 2007 at http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/D/1751-1775/libertydebate/burk.htm
homicides would be prevented if offenders knew the death penalty would strongly be enforced in most cases.
In cases such as in Laden and Timothy McVay, the Oklahoma bomber, no one would even consider religious and moral activists pleas against capital punishment.
Taxpayers must financially support the killers who are serving a lifetime sentence, whom decided they had a right to take someone's life for no justified reason, so that these homicide offenders can exist.
I am in favor of capital punishment
Most people who oppose the death penalty do so because of religious or moral reasons.
Statement of Reason
Favoring the Death Penalty
Taxpayers must financially support the killers who are serving a lifetime sentence, whom decided they had a right to take someone's life for no justified reason, so that these homicide offenders can live. * "Capital punishment offenders are beyond the hope of rehabilitation. They…
Bernia, T., (no date)
Capital Punishment; The Ethical Debate
Overberg, K., (2002)
President Obama's "Second Inaugural Address:" Rhetorical analysis
Knowing one's audience is a critical component of giving a good speech. hen President Obama gave his second inaugural address, although he had been reelected by a significant majority, he knew he was still facing a divided country. To show his respect for patriotic values, he began his speech invoking both God and country yet in a manner that stressed the need for concrete government actions to deal with the nation and the world's problems. "For history tells us that while these truths may be self-evident, they've never been self-executing. That while freedom is a gift from God, it must be secured by his people here on earth."
Obama addressed his speech to the American public at large, but he also had a clear eye upon his Republican critics, in his use of specific phrases and themes. His first term began with a…
Obama, Barack. 'Second Inaugural Address." Full text available 9 Feb 2013:
US Supreme Court case Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition
In the case of Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court presented even more arguments and reasons as to why online child pornography is prohibited. What this case failed to do is define how far the government's censorship can stretch. The controversial question lies in the phrasing from the COPA provisions where terms referring to virtual child pornography were struck out for being too broad (Mota 2002).
This case has proven among the more interesting regarding first amendment rights on the internet. Unlike most rulings by the Supreme Court where the majority of states agree on the ruling, this case came down with most districts agreeing instead with the dissent. Many arguments have now been presented as to why even virtual child pornography is an issue. Namely, the idea that producing child pornography can lead to pedophile behaviors (Mirkin,…
Balkin, Jack (2004). Virtual Liberty: Freedom to Design and Freedom to Play in Virtual Worlds. Virginia Law Review, 90(8), 2043.
Wu, Tim (2003). Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination. Telecom and High Tech. Law Review, 2, 141.
Parke, Adrian; Griffths, mark (2004). Why Internet Gambling Prohibition will Ultimately Fail. Gaming Law Review, 8(5), 295-299.
Making the punishment for such offenses an inability to access the Internet, however, begins to deprive citizens of their rights. The Internet may hold access to illegal movies and music, but it also holds a wealth of information, including blogs, news, educational information, and personal information. Depriving a person of the use of the Internet is essentially depriving him or her of access to libraries, to free speech, and to freedom of information. People who steal money from houses are not barred from living in them, nor are those who steal books forbidden from libraries. The punishment for copyright crimes via the Internet should be the same as these crimes have ever been, a fine. If one person steals another's property, the thief should have to pay; he or she should not be deprived of the right of speech and information.
"Trois strikes and you're out." (2009, April 16).…
"Trois strikes and you're out." (2009, April 16). Retrieved 21 April 2009, from The
hetorical Devices in Margaret Sanger's Speech "The Morality of Birth Control"
Margaret Sanger was a passionate crusader for women's right to use contraceptives, and her speech "The Morality of Birth Control" conveys this strong sense of passion. She used a number of rhetorical devices to help her emphasize her topic. These rhetorical devices included: bias, fallacies, tapinosis, and counterarguments. Together, these rhetorical devices allowed her to create a compelling speech promoting the idea that women should have access to birth control.
Sanger speaks out against the bias that has kept women from having access to reliable birth control, but invokes her own bias and fallacies. She is biased against women who would not elect to use birth control, and she believes that she knows their motivations. She suggests that women who do not use birth control only fail to do so because they are ignorant. However, not all women who…
Nichol, M. (2011). 50 rhetorical devices for rational writing. Retrieved February 3, 2013 from Daily Writing Tips website: http://www.dailywritingtips.com/50-rhetorical-devices-for-rational-writing/
Sanger, M. (1921, November 18). The morality of birth control. Retrieved February 3, 2013
from New York University website: http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/webedition/app/documents/show.php?sangerDoc=238254.xml
Civil Liberties and Temporary Security: Billy Budd and Guardians
"People willing to trade their freedom for temporary security deserve neither." Benjamin Franklin's statement is often invoked in times of warfare, when civil liberties tend to be most at risk of curtailment, yet it crucially fails to describe the one sector of the American population that is most involved in warfare: the military. Historically military service has not exactly been the voluntary affair it currently is. During the U.S. Civil War cities like New York and Philadelphia would have riots over Lincoln's imposition of a military draft; the First and Second World wars would see the invention of "conscientious objector" status, and Vietnam made "dodging the draft" a generational meme among baby boomers. But leaving aside the question of whether or not military conscription is a gross violation of civil liberties -- to some extent, this depends upon the culture, as…
Chodorow and Reproduction of Mothering
In, "A Room Of Her Own," the feminist novelist and author, Virginia Woolf demonstrated that one of the reasons why women writers were in overwhelmingly low numbers than their male counterparts was because of the lack of economic opportunity. (Woolf, 1991) Victorian perceptions also saddled women with the responsibilities of motherhood and domesticity. This took away the opportunity for women (except for a few) to truly come into their own. Nancy Chodorow, a preeminent social scientist addresses the issue. (Chodorow, 1999) She does not get caught up in the traditional feminist or socialization mindset. Even psychologists, Chodorow avers, have not pursued the matter at a higher granularity. All can agree that, explicitly or implicitly, women have been subjugated. Chodorow addresses the problem using psychoanalysis. She believes that the second-class status of women is associated with the issues of mothering, childbearing and childrearing -- aspects which…
Asimov, I. "Armies of God." Roving Mind. New York: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Beauvoir, S. d., and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. A limited ed. Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1979.
Chodorow, N. "Gender Personality and the Reproduction of Mothering." The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender: With a New Preface. Ed. N. Chodorow. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. 120-24.
Pinker, S. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Viking, 2002.
Sanders is apparently concerned about having his readers understand the importance of thinking as life similar to how the Miller family thought about their farm. In spite of the fact that one is likely to come across difficult situations across his or her life, it is essential to continue rebuilding the damage that these respective situations generate.
In spite of the fact that Richard Ford supports Sanders' perspective in regard to the concept of a home, his essay "I Must Be Going" promotes the belief that it is typical for Americans in particular to move from one place to another at short intervals of time. Ford actually emphasizes the importance of abandoning anxieties in moving, given that everyone has to accept that it is very improbable for them to live in the same home for all of their lives.
David Guterson's short story "No Place Like Home" discusses the importance…
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…
CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2
Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html
Communication - Journalism
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Business - Law
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Business - Law
hich is the better course of action, Lawrence might ask himself. Should we censor the estboro Baptist Church and forbid them their right to free speech, or should we…Read Full Paper ❯
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Mythology - Religion
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Ethics / Morality
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Family and Marriage
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Mythology - Religion
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Government - Federal
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Drama - World
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Family and Marriage
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The author hopes to restore what he calls "the former unsuspecting confidence of the Colonies in the Mother Country, to give permanent satisfaction to your people." Teh term "unsuspecting…Read Full Paper ❯
homicides would be prevented if offenders knew the death penalty would strongly be enforced in most cases. In cases such as in Laden and Timothy McVay, the Oklahoma bomber,…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
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Business - Law
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Making the punishment for such offenses an inability to access the Internet, however, begins to deprive citizens of their rights. The Internet may hold access to illegal movies and…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
hetorical Devices in Margaret Sanger's Speech "The Morality of Birth Control" Margaret Sanger was a passionate crusader for women's right to use contraceptives, and her speech "The Morality of…Read Full Paper ❯
Civil Liberties and Temporary Security: Billy Budd and Guardians "People willing to trade their freedom for temporary security deserve neither." Benjamin Franklin's statement is often invoked in times of…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Chodorow and Reproduction of Mothering In, "A Room Of Her Own," the feminist novelist and author, Virginia Woolf demonstrated that one of the reasons why women writers were in…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Sanders is apparently concerned about having his readers understand the importance of thinking as life similar to how the Miller family thought about their farm. In spite of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being,…Read Full Paper ❯