Galileo Essays (Examples)

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Brecht Was a Great Man

Words: 1201 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6669240



As indicated on the Universalteacher.org Web site: "Epic theatre is historical: the audience is continually reminded that epic theatre gives a report of events." Encouraging the audience to remain detached and separate from the narrative, strange things must be put in place to establish and preserve distancing. V-effekt as defined previously was Brecht's way of doing this. He provides an example of V-effekt through the situation of a child whose mother remarries, thus seeing her as a wife not just a mother. An example from "Life of Galileo is the long and profound speech by the unheroic protagonist which is then followed by the bathetic observation: "Now I must eat." (Brecht 2008, 64)

Galileo as shown through Brecht, is an anti-hero through his cowardice behavior. He fears the instruments of torture that come with bravery. He fails the role of hero through his refusal and lack of courage to prove…… [Read More]

References

Brecht, Bertolt. 2008. Life of Galileo. New York, NY: Penguin Classics.

Millman, Noah. Brecht's Galileo: Hero or Anti-Hero? The American Conservative.http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/anti-hero-of-science / (accessed May 6, 2013).

Moore, Andrew. Studying Bertolt Brecht. Universalteacher.org. http://www.universalteacher.org.uk/drama/brecht.htm  (accessed May 6, 2013).
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Western Civilization and Deep Reality

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99055672

They must occupy themselves with inventing new ways to legally persecute people as they cannot be involved in any real pursuit of knowledge.

Things changed drastically with the Renaissance, though not with the speed that many men would have appreciated. Galileo Galilei butted heads with the Catholic Church many times in his life, eventually recanting much of what he had provocatively (and rightly) claimed to be true and ending his life under house arrest. He at times tried to couch his more controversial discoveries in language more pleasing to the Church, but apparently he was not proficient enough at disguising it. His "Letter to Castelli" is a prime example of the shift that Western thought was taking during the Renaissance: "the Holy Scriptures in many places not only admit but actually require a different explanation for what seems to be the literal one, it seems to me that they ought…… [Read More]

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Small Pieces of Glass The

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15144768

The Ptolemaic model was accepted by most philosophers of note until it was radically challenged by the Polish astronomer Copernicus in 1530. The Catholic church condemned the Copernican System in 1616 and forbade holding, defending, or even teaching alternatives to the Ptolemaic conception of the universe endorsed by the Church (Fowler 2008:10). But both theories were mere conjecture until the development of the Galilean telescope. Galileo's telescope was a modification of the currently existing lenses used for reading by the long -- and short-sighted. Galileo did not invent corrective lenses or even the telescope, but he did substantially improve them. By making use of both convex and concave lenses, Galileo was able to expand the magnification power and distance vision of ordinary gazers, enabling to look wide into the heavens (Fowler 2008:10).

"Galileo's belief that his discoveries with the telescope strongly favored the Copernican world view meant he was headed…… [Read More]

References

Fowler, Michael. (2008, August 23). Galileo & Einstein. University of Virginia Physics.

Retrieved February 11, 2011 at http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/lecturelist.html

Galileo: The telescope and laws of dynamics. (2010). Astronomy 161.

Retrieved February 11, 2011 at  http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/galileo.html
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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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Science v Society the Politics

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28472548

The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.

hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story behind the Global Warming Scam." http://www.kusi.com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742.html

"Gore's Grave New World." http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world.html

Henderson, Mark. "Why Global Warming is Not Natural." http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article516179.ece

Oreskes, Naomis. "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
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Technology and Society

Words: 1396 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15414289

Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Consequently, for much of human history they have been viewed as being analogous avenues to gaining knowledge of the world, merely attacked from different directions; science must eventually prove with reason what is already accepted upon faith. However, a number of scientific observations and interpretations have come into direct conflict with established doctrines of the western, Christian Church. These scientific theories have caused many to question the validity of their faith, and many others to question the validity of science. Usually, the conflicts originate from formalized interpretations of Christianity rather than upon the fundamental basis of faith. In other words, science can neither prove nor disprove the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1995.

2. Cahn, Steven M. Classics of Western Philosophy: Fifth Edition. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999.

3. McClellan, James E., III and Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History: an Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
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Science and Religion in the 17th Century

Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69708860

Science and Religion in the 17th Century

he Interaction between Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century:

ransforming our World

he world we know today has been shaped by many important events. Some people may see the industrial and the technological revolutions of the past two centuries as central pillars that have helped humanity not only survive, but also advance greatly. Others may see political revolutions as central to our society's progress, be they wars for independence in the colonies of the 20th century, or be they the mother of drastic political change, the French Revolution. Others yet may believe that cultural revolutions, such as the Enlightenment of the 18th century, a phenomenon that spurred great change and bore great thinkers, truly altered society. However, above all, one must note that without the interaction between science and religion and the issues this brought to light in the 16th and 17th…… [Read More]

To prove his voice, even under arrest, Galileo continued making discoveries, most notably discovering sunspots on the surface of the Sun. Thus, he was not silenced, and his works have survived even to today and have greatly aided other scientific advancements. Another notable example of fantastic scientific advancement and survival is found in Nicolaus Copernicus' Gold Jagiellonian Globe, a globe surrounded by a celestial metal sphere with a clock inside that can tell date, time, month and the position of the sun in the sky. Such machines, though not available to the greater population, at least gave other intellectuals the ability to see beyond religion and start questioning their world, thus paving the way, much later, for the masses. [3: Commemorating Copernicus. Science News, Vol. 103, No. 15 (Apr. 14, 1973), p. 236 Published by: Society for Science & the PublicArticle Stable URL:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3958075 ]

These "disagreements" between science and religion, exemplified by such people as Galileo and Copernicus would eventually give way to the Enlightenment in the 18th century, which, as aforementioned, truly transformed the world. Though at the time it was difficult to be on a different side than the church, the obstinate stance of these early intellectuals was eventually rewarded. Without their efforts, for example, the period of Enlightenment may never have taken place. Because these scientists existed and worked hard at making and publishing their discoveries, during the 1700's, society continued to make unparalleled progress in the cultural, astrological, astronomical, political, mathematical and artistic fields.

In other words, the interaction between science and religion for two centuries eventually led to a temporary dissipation of ritualistic, religious dogma in the higher strata of society, and shaped events that were to alter forever the landscape of the Earth in the following centuries. It is due to the Enlightenment, and specifically the works of such philosophers as John Locke, whose essays are unparalleled in wisdom, for example, that America is a democratic country. The inability of religious dogma to slow down the ever-quickening pace of discovery was all too real and the measurable positives of science during the 16th and 17th centuries were too great of an advance to be resisted. Eventually, religion had to step back and give science its well-deserved foot forward. [4: Uzgalis, William. "John Locke," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .]
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History of Science-Patronage Guiding Thinkers

Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13308766

Therefore, it can be said that the patronage of Federico Cesi was important for Galileo because it placed him in contact with well-known scientists, it offered him the possibility to conduct research by consulting materials from a variety of fields, thus broadening the spectrum of his analysis, and, at the same time, it enabled him to conduct research that would probably bring him prestige and fortune due to the respectability of the group he is part of.

The oyal Academy of Science of Paris is yet another remarkable example of patronage. However, this example points out a new level of motivation for patronage. During the reign of Louis 16th, the oyal Academy of Science came under royal patronage to point out the fact that "the king was the source of everything that happened in his kingdom" (Dear, 115). However, the king at the time had little interest in the actual…… [Read More]

References

Dear, Peter. Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500-1700. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001

Lindberg, David C. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. To a.D. 1450. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
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Morning Here Information Seventh Unit Term Once

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82628769

morning Here information seventh unit term. Once complete, left final paper. Unit 7: Scientific Revolution e've reached end journey. The Scientific Revolution represents development thinking world.

Attitudes during the Scientific Revolution

The scientific revolution and the age of classical science have had a severe impact on society and made it possible for it to experience great progress as a consequence of the fact that technology had advanced significantly. Humanity was especially ignorant up to this point and technology actually made it possible for the masses to look at the world from a different perspective. People learnt that a lot of things they previously believed to be impossible were actually possible and joined the rest of the world in a struggle to achieve progress. The Scientific Revolution basically represents the moment when the social order started to experience massive reform as a result of technological advancements.

One of the first steps…… [Read More]

Works cited:

McClellan, James E. III and Dorn, Harold, "Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction," (JHU Press, Apr 14, 2006)

"The Age of Classical Science," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860978.html

"The Scientific Revolution," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860977.html
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Structure of the Universe From

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81048350



Edmond Halley solved the case of comets which kept appearing on the sky at an approximately 76-year interval. After having analyzed the situation, Halley came up with the idea that there was only one comet which kept orbiting the earth. Consequently, the comet did appear at the approximate time that he predicted that it would show again and it is now called the Halley Comet.

Due to the fact that people did not always posses the proper equipment to learn more about earth and the universe, there had been several mistakes when regarding the appropriate measurement of distances. One of the most notable cases in which man wrongfully calculated distances is the case of Columbus, with the Genovese explorer failing from reaching Asia, which he assumed had been much closer than it actually was.

ith the coming of the 20th century, astronomy had been more popular than ever and people…… [Read More]

Works Cited

People in Astronomy." Windows to the Universe. 2000. 25 November, 2008. http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/uts/people.html

The Age and Composition of the Universe." Infoplease All the knowledge you need. 2007. 25 November, 2008. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0908644.html

The Structure of the Universe." INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova. 25 November. 2008. http://www.pd.astro.it/E-MOSTRA/NEW/A9002STR.HTM
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Philosophy Historical Roundtable Takes Place

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76175552

In addition, I've heard a great deal of expressed frustration by the citizens of this country in regards to their rights, and the impact on their rights by the Patriot Act and regulations put in place by the Department of Homeland Security. Do these people not understand that their rights are nonexistent because of the authority of the state? Like a child and her parents, the state will do what it thinks is necessary for its people, and the people must obey."

Pretend for a moment," Augustine posed, "that the question at hand is not the sovereignty of the state, but the moral justice of the war. Do you agree that the decision to go to war was moral?" do not concern myself so much with morality," Hobbes countered, "as I do with the reason why these wars must continue to occur. Obviously, none is in favor of the death…… [Read More]

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Mind Freedom and Konwledge

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53706534

Mind, Freedom and Knowledge

Descartes argued that that all humans had both a body and mind, and that the mind was eternal while the body was subject to physical and material laws. The universe was divided between the mind and matter, and the physical world could be explained by mathematical and scientific laws. Hobbes, Locke and other political and philosophical theorists of the 17th Century were also influenced by the new scientific thought of Descartes, Galileo and William Harvey to one degree or another, and had to incorporate them into philosophy (Ryle, p. 251). Ryle denied that any "ghost in the machine" existed, of that the immortal soul somehow operated the physical body. He admitted that explaining the link between bodies and minds was very difficult, although behaviorists had come to understand that expressions indicate moods and emotions, while vision, hearing and motion are all based on sensory inputs being…… [Read More]

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Schoreder's the Hidden Face of God

Words: 1274 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31614801

ethinking the Universe

Conflicts between religion and science are neither new nor novel. In the 1600s, Galileo was hauled before a court and convicted of heresy for saying (and publishing) that the earth revolved around the sun instead of the opposite. There have been trials on the teaching of evolution, controversies about physics and even states that battle schools and parents for including certain scientific concepts in the public school curriculum. Yet, the more science discovers the details of biology and physics, the more it seems that within each tiny creation there are similarities -- almost a microcosm of the entire universe within one molecule. To some, like Gerald Schroeder, this indicates that existence is about universality - and universality is about a way to describe the existence of everything. This in turn, is more of a cosmic journey, both macro and microcosmic as the merging between science and religion…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Kalat, J. (2013). Biological Psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cenage/Wadsworth.

Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
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Scientific Discoveries That Changed the

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1258167

This new calculation proved bodies of mass could orbit the sun in an elliptic pattern. Newton also put a name and a definition to gravity. Like Galileo, Newton's discoveries forced man to think beyond what he already knew. His theories opened doors to understanding motion, matter, and space. Many of these theories are still taught today because they "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724). People had to once again let go of familiar thought and embrace new ideas.

Newton transformed astronomy because he set "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). These laws are the groundwork for what eventually led to the law of gravity. Newton was open-minded enough to understand that gravity was not something confined to this earth. It was universal and it applied to all objects in space. The same…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.

Craig, Virginia. "Biography: Isaac Newton." The American Mathematical Monthly. 8.8. 1901.

JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retreived January 6, 2010.

Goldsmith, Mike. Galileo Galilei. New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers. 2001.
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Testing Theories

Words: 1517 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27945489

Philosophy natural science. Given natural science theories: 1. hat makes objects fall 2. The missed 2012 apocalypse First, describe theories world / forces operate . These theories, pass Karl Popper's theory demarcation

Natural Science Theories

The idea of the force that makes objects fall has haunted mankind for thousands of years before people actually came to understand how the force of gravity functions. Italian scientist Galileo Galilei is responsible for opening people's eyes regarding this theory, as he studied it intensively and discovered that an object falling to the ground has a rate of 9.8 meters per second, squared. This made it possible for society to gain a more complex understanding of how the force of gravitation works and diverse variables that can influence this process.

Considering that many individuals in the contemporary society have trouble determining whether some objects are likely to fall faster than others, it would seem…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Giancoli, D. "Physics - Principles with Applications." (Aubrey Durkin)

Restall, M. & Solari, A. "2012 and the End of the World: The Western Roots of the Maya Apocalypse." (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 16 Jan 2011

"Why the World Didn't End Yesterday," Retrieved February 22, 2015, from  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2012/14dec_yesterday/
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Politicization of Science Causes and

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64159500

Because of the politicization of science, however, Revelle's questions were not made public before he died. The article that he authored reached only a small audience, and that after a fight with politics (Sheppard). Revelle's remarks at a conference about global warming that contradicted the politically correct view were similarly stricken from public record, and many scientists who did not agree with the politically correct consensus have been harassed during trials (Coleman, Sheppard). Thus, even today, the politicization of science has made asking scientific questions difficult for the members of the scientific community, as they fear being either ignored or even called out on their dissent. This issue hinders progress, as the ability to ask real questions about the issue may lead to new and different answers.

hen scientists cannot ask the right questions for fear of political retaliation, an entire body of work, discovery, and change can be lost.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story Behind Global Warming." KUSI News San Diego.

11 February 2009. 23 April 2009.

Duffy, Michael. "In age of reason, the brouhaha over global warming can leave you cold." The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 March 2007. 23 April 2009.

"Galileo: The Challenge of Reason." You Tube. 17 October 2007. 23 April 2009.
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Optical Revolutions How the Telescope

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32027252

The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:

For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)

However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1991. Print.

Fermi, Laura, and Gilberto Bernarndini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961. Print.

Hooke, Robert. Micrographia. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, 2008. Print.

Konnert, Mark. Early Modern Europe: The Age of Religious Warfare, 1559-1715. North York, on: Higher Education University of Toronto Press, 2006. Print.
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Francis Bacon's Advancement of Learning an Analysis

Words: 2228 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52160734

Francis Bacon's Advancement Of Learning

An Analysis of Bacon's Rationale for riting the Advancement of Learning

hen one analyzes Francis Bacon's Advancement of Learning, he does so by first entering into an era that was primarily dedicated to overthrowing the Learning of the past -- that is to say, it was breaking with the old world and advancing the new. That old world was one of scholasticism, with men like Thomas Aquinas incorporating Aristotelian philosophy into the medieval world and using the pagan to prove the Christian. It was a world where religious truths were accepted on the authority of the Church, and a world where that authority was still in place and still in power. In the 14th century that authority would begin to corrupt (with the papacy's abduction and removal to Avignon) and the natural catastrophe that was the Black Plague. These events (though soon over) left their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Trans. Fathers of the English Dominican

Province. Thomas Aquinas. Christian Classics Ethereal Library,1998. Web. 22

Feb 2011.

Bacon, Francis. The Advancement of Learning. (Stephen Jay Gould, ed.). NY: Modern
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Technology and Society

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 788900

Greeks commonly thought to be the inventors of scientific theory?

Long before atomic bombs were developed within the context of the Second orld ar, the Greek philosopher Aristotle conceived of atoms, or minute particles that made up in their essence every human body and all of creation. ithout the benefit of a microscope to see beyond the experiential surface of the natural world around him, Aristotle used the power of his mind to rigorously deduce the elements of atomic theory, a theory later proven to be correct with the aid of modern technology. The Greek Aristotle also postulated the now accepted theory of physics that all matter is merely converted into a different substance and is never destroyed. (Stoll, 2005)

Thus early on, Greeks such as Aristotle, "without theocratic traditions to hold them back ... rejected monarchies at an early stage, opting for republican" systems of government, and allowed within…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed. Boston: Back Bay Books, 1995.

Smith, A. Mark. "Ptolemy." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. 18 Jan. 2005. .

Soll, Ivan. "Aristotle." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. 18 Jan. 2005. .
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Gravity Is the Force Responsible

Words: 1497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38066673

Newton explained that apples fell from trees by virtue of the same universal attractive natural force that caused the planets to orbit the skies.

In his 1687 book, Philosopiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Newton presented complex mathematical formulae that described the observed orbits of the known planets fairly accurately. Newton also provided an explanation for why the attractive force of gravity did not cause the planets to fall in on themselves the way the apple falls to the ground. Since all the planets and stars in the universe exerted mutually attractive force and because there were an infinite number of planets distributed uniformly throughout the universe, there was no "center" of the universe and the planets and stars are all pulled in many directions, all of which, in effect, cancel out their tendency to fall together (Hawking, 1991).

Galileo Galilei:

Almost eighty years earlier, in 1609, Galileo Galilei invented the world's…… [Read More]

References:

Feynman, R. (1995). Six Easy Pieces. New York: Helix.

Goldsmith, D. (1997). The Ultimate Einstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Hawking, S. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. New York: Bantam.

Hawking, S. (2002). The Theory of Everything: The Origin and Fate of the Universe. Beverly Hills, CA: New Millennium Press.
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Cultural and Construction History of

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2908770

Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.

The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…… [Read More]

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Aristotelian View of the Universe

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87616298

This allowed the Catholic Church to present the idea that Earth was special because it was God's greatest creation. Thus, the sun, stars, and planets worked for the Earth and not the other way around. The Earth stayed completely still at the center of the universe and was surrounded by less important celestial bodies that did not receive as much of God's grace. Since Aristotelian philosophy fit so nicely within Christian doctrine, it was adopted and held as truth for hundreds of years, until late into the Middle Ages.

However, there was a drastic and radical change in the concept of the formation of the Universe at the dawn of the enaissance. As more and more of the Church's truths were challenged during the Scientific evolution of the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe, it was only a matter of time before Aristotelian philosophy was placed under question. The first…… [Read More]

References

Dear, Paul. Revolutionizing the Sciences. Princeton University Press. 2001.

Oster, Malcom. Science in Europe 1500-1800. Palgrave Macmillan. 2002.
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Copernican Revolution

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28350038

Copernican revolution has a pivotal role in the establishment of the modern sciences. We are very much familiar with the fact that the human mind had always been fascinated greatly by the changes taking place around him almost constantly. Human observation and sense of argument and ability to be logical has made him the most intelligent and consequently most powerful species on the planet.

It is very comfortable to believe that Earth is located at the centre of the universe and other planets rotate around it because Earth itself does not seem or feel to be moving and there are only sun, moon and other planets appearing and disappearing at their exact timings. It is quite logical and unless and until something really revolutionary come forward to refute this believe, it looks quite reasonable to carry on believing the same idea (Kuhn, pp 187).

Nicholas Copernicus

The most significant change…… [Read More]

References

Brooke, John Hedley. Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, 1991 pp 8-12.

Cesarani, David. Arthur Koestler: the homeless mind. Free Press, 1999 pp 142.

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Copernican revolution: planetary astronomy in the development of Western thought. USA: Harvard University Press, 1957 pp 187.

L'Abate, Luciano. Paradigms in Theory Construction. Springer, 2011 pp 5-8.
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Newton Netwon's Laws of Motion

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53850521

It is noted that the corporeal world is the context to which this discussion specifically applies, with particles at the subatomic level not abiding the same principles. That said, a diagram included in the Nave explanation of Newton's laws helps to clarify that which is meant by the above equation. A man is shown swinging a golf club into a golf ball in one image and in the next image, he is shown swinging the club into moving truck. e take as a primary understanding from these images that the mass of the object struck will have a direct bearing on the force required to accelerate it. At an identical force, the man's swing might drive the golf ball several hundred yards while perhaps only denting the moving truck.

It was supplemented even further by the Third Law of Motion that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. This…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Casco, M. (1999). Newton's Laws of Motion. The M. Casco Learning Center. Online at .

Motte, A. (trans.). (1729). Axioms or Laws of Motion. Isaac Newton's Principia 1687.

Online at  http://gravitee.tripod.com/axioms.htm 

Nave, R. (2000). Newton's Laws. Hyperphysics. Online at http://hyperphysics.phy-
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Culture and Society in the

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39116383

This would become the basis of a profound shift in European knowledge: classical mechanics (Hooker).

Francis acon (1561-1626), added a key element to the genesis of the mechanical universe in his attacks on traditional knowledge. He proposed the Aristotelean model of induction and empiricism as the best model of human knowledge. This model of systematic empirical induction was the piece that completed the puzzle in the European world view and made the scientific revolution possible (Hooker).

The mechanical universe would emerge from Sir Isaac Newton's work (1642-1727). He based his entire view of the universe on the concept of inertia: every object remains at rest until moved by another object; every object in motion stays in motion until redirected or stopped by another object. He argued that all the planets and other objects in the universe moved according to a physical attraction between them, which is called gravity; this mutual…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hatch, Robert. "Scientific Revolution." August 2002. University of Florida. 3 April 2009 .

Hooker, Richard. "The European Enlightenment: The Scientific Revolution." 1996. Washington State University. 3 April 2009 .

"The Scientific Revolution." n.d. History Online. 3 April 2009 .
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Renaissance & Reformation Discovering the

Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42677325

In terms of Renaissance philosophy, Galileo Galilei is an example of a humanist who strongly defended the gradual flourishing and subsistence to the scientific revolution happening in his society during the Renaissance period. Galileo was a strong advocate for the usage of science in discovering truth and new knowledge, using the principles of mathematics and philosophy in strengthening the study of astronomy and physics in the society. Through Galileo, the nature of free scientific inquiry prevailed, challenging, though not condemning, philosophical and theological issues that cannot empirically answer truth and reality in life. Dante Alighieri's "Inferno," meanwhile, is a literary piece that represented his inquiry into the spiritual and humanistic foundations of human existence during his time. In a period wherein theological foundations and philosophies are being questioned, Dante's "Inferno" confronted the moral and spiritual issues being questioned by Dante and his society during this challenging period of Renaissance.

Following…… [Read More]

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Hobbes' State of Nature a War of All Against

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47113636

Hobbes believes that the cruel nature of human beings causes the state of nature to be a war of all against all. To do this, we will explain the difference between collective and individual rationality and how it applies to human beings in the Hobbesian state of nature. Also, we will identify the assumptions that cause Hobbes to believe the state of nature is a war of all against all and explain why he needs them. By delving into this assumptions, we can abandon our philosophical heritage from Locke and understand the opposite position of Hobbes.

Of the social contract theorists, Thomas Hobbes is the most extreme in terms of his view of human nature. Hobbes wrote a number of philosophical works, but the English Civil War with its horrible violence left an indelible impression upon him. In his magnum opus Leviathan that he published in 1651 he presents his…… [Read More]

References

Wolff, J. (1996). An introduction to political philosophy . New York, NY: Oxord Univ.

Press.
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Religion and or Science

Words: 1625 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4479455

eligion or Science?

Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…… [Read More]

Russell, C 2002, 'The Conflict of Science and Religion,' in G. Ferngren, ed., Science

And Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins

Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
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Xeriscaping an Analysis of the

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8551741



The second argument used by my uncle was a kind of blend of fuzzy logic and inductive reasoning. The argument essentially looks like this: there is a water problem; keeping a green lawn is not part of the problem; let's find out where the problem lies.

The assumption made here is that the water used to keep lawns green is not part of the water problem. Countering this assumption would require some form of statistical analysis or syllogism. Since my uncle is arguing from a generalization that he apparently discerned at some point, it becomes necessary to correct that generalization. If my uncle is swayed by facts, facts then are what are necessary. One could look to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power -- an authority on the subject -- to find out the statistical analyses.

By doing so, one could also see the benefit of cutting water…… [Read More]

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Gothic Period Cultural and Construction

Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20154020



William of Occam formulated the principle of Occam's Razor, which held that the simplest theory that matched all the known facts was the correct one. At the University of Paris, Jean Buridan questioned the physics of Aristotle and presaged the modern scientific ideas of Isaac Newton and Galileo concerning gravity, inertia and momentum when he wrote:

...after leaving the arm of the thrower, the projectile would be moved by an impetus given to it by the thrower and would continue to be moved as long as the impetus remained stronger than the resistance, and would be of infinite duration were it not diminished and corrupted by a contrary force resisting it or by something inclining it to a contrary motion (Glick, Livesay and Wallis 107)

Thomas Bradwardine and his colleagues at Oxford University also anticipated Newton and Galileo when they found that a body moving with constant velocity travels distance…… [Read More]

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Descartes' Discourse on Methods Contributions

Words: 3092 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75801694

Sensory experiences are nor reliable for making any statements, since people often mistake one thing for another. (Descartes talks about mirages). Knowledge based on reasoning is not always trustworthy, because people often make mistakes. (adding numbers is a classical example). Finally, knowledge is deemed by Descartes to be illusory, since it may come from dreams or insanity or from demons able to deceive men by making them believe that they are experiencing the real world, when are they are in fact not doing so. (the metaphysical approach in Descartes work is can be easily recognized here).

Following this analysis of existent forms of knowledge, Descartes concludes that certainty can be found in his intuition that, even if deceived, if he thinks he must exist: "Cogito ergo sum." The thought ("cogito") is a self-evident truth that gives certain knowledge of a particular thing's existence, i.e. one's self, but only the existence…… [Read More]

9. Dicker G, Descartes: An Analytical and Historical Introduction," Oxford, 1993

10. Flage D.E., Bonnen C.A., Descartes and Method: The Search for a Method in the Meditations," Routledge, 1999

Brians P., Gallwey M., Hughes D., Hussain, a., Law R., Myers M., Neville M., Schlesinger R., Spitzer a, Swan S. "Reading About the World," Volume 2, published by Harcourt Brace Custom Books. - excerpts from Descartes' works
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History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution

Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52464720

history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…… [Read More]

References

Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com.
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Affect of the Enlightenment on the French Revolution

Words: 3655 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73628922

Enlightenment on the French evolution

evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.

Introduction to the French evolution

When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…… [Read More]

References

Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000). http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html.

Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke

University Press, 1991.

Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at http://www.utm.edu/ressearch/iep/r/rousseau.htm.
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Norton I Intro on the Restoration Norton

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20195642

Norton I Intro on the Restoration

Norton I Introduction on the Restoration and 18th Century

The Period of the 18th Century in England was a time of great expansion and change.

People began moving from the country to the city/town during this time.

New likes were established that varied from the traditional arts scene.

The people living in town began to more openly express their likes/dislikes and the monarch became less an influence in deciding what was appropriate and what was not.

The country of England became divided politically as new parties emerged to represent its citizens.

The Tories supported the Crown, while the Whigs formed with a more progressive outlook and included nobles and clergymen.

The Toleration act provided freedom of worship.

Such acts and provisions would eventually become more commonplace as people began to realize differing viewpoints of the world.

Theories of old such as those of Aristotle…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Norton Anthology of English Literature. "Norton I Introduction on the Restoration and The 18th Century" Norton and Company, pp1715-1725

NAEL, Sept. 29, 2003, http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/18century/welcome.htm
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Mechanics and Dynamics

Words: 3543 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26188495

Mechanics and Dynamics

Life without motion is better explained as death. A living being is said to be having life only when the walls of the heart engage in pumping the blood, when the blood circulates through the entire body, when nerves impulse electrically from brain to toe, lungs move to bring oxygen, food transports through the stomach and intestines, when the iris expands and contract, when the eyeball rotates, etc. Not only in the living beings, the riddles of the non-living items like recoiling of a fired gun, acceleration of an automobile, action of a spinning top, the motion of a space rocket can also be broken down in terms of the analysis of motion.

Dynamics" is a branch of study of motions and "Mechanics" contrary to the general idea of referring to people in uniforms with name over his pocket and having a tool box in his hand,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Introduction to Physics" Retrieved at http://www.mcasco.com/p1intro.html. Accessed on 03/27/2003

Statics and Mechanics" Retrieved at http://www.engineering.auckland.ac.nz/mechanical/EngGen121 / Pages / P1M_CONCEPTS.html Accessed on 03/27/2003

Engineering Mechanics" Retrieved at  http://www.esm.psu.edu . Accessed on 03/27/2003

Engineering Mechanics" Retrieved at http://www.tutorgig.Com/encyclopedia / getdefn.Jsp Accessed on 03/28/2003
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Mercantilism This Term Refers to

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82041233

In its most basic sense, this treaty abolished the age-old practice of electing a king of the Romans, a reference to the Holy Roman Empire; it gave France the geographical areas of Verdun, Alsace, Metz and a portion of Strasburg; Sweden was given West Pomerania, Stettin, Wismar and Bremen, known as bishoprics but now part of northern Germany; Bavaria retained the Upper Palatinate and all electoral titles, and Saxony retained Lusatia. Also, Spain was forced to fully recognize the United Provinces as a sovereign nation-state. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia turned Europe into a conglomerate of separate political and economic nation-states that were only partially dependent on each other; the treaty also made it possible for mercantilism to spread throughout Europe, thus creating the foundation for many more years of conflict and war. In addition, this treaty also brought an end to the Eighty Years War between Spain and the…… [Read More]

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Theistic Religion as a Fundamental

Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96643304



Conclusion

In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious teachings and substituting the rules of organized religion with very basic ideas such as "do no harm." In that regard, the commandment "do unto others" is a perfectly useful and easily understandable ethical principle that could be taught with much better results without the cloak of its religious context.

Instead of teaching that human beings are incapable of ascertaining what is right and what is wrong without divine help and that we are morally tarnished by our involuntary thoughts, we would learn that one ought not to treat other unfairly or cause them harm and that the worse our involuntary desires and thoughts, the more moral credit we deserve for resisting the impulse to act on them. Ultimately, one of…… [Read More]

References

Egner, R.E. And Denonn, L.E. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London,

UK: Routledge.

Einstein, A. (1999). Ideas and Opinions. (Edited by Seelig, C.) New York: Crown.

Hawking, S. (2001). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes.
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Science and Technology the Renaissance

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89225464

Europeans invented a more complex sewer system and sewers spread across Europe's most important cities in a short time.

Mechanical clocks had been invented before the half of the second millennium, but, in the 16th century, they have been perfected by Galileo with the help of the pendulum. Clocks have become more advanced in time as people discovered ways of making the mechanism more precise and also of smaller proportions.

Europeans also became acquainted with the gunpowder in the Renaissance period and warfare had been taken to a whole new level. It is not clear whether Europeans have invented gunpowder alone or if they've been inspired for the concept from the Asians. As a result of this invention, knights had become out-dated as the new armed foot-soldiers became more numerous, replacing them.

The invention of eye-glasses earlier in the millennium led to the invention of the telescope somewhere between the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. a. Wolf, F. Dannemann, "A History of Science, Technology and Philosophy in the 16th & 17th Centuries," George Allen & Unwin, 1935.

2. Agnes Heller, R.E. Allen, "Renaissance man," Routledge, 1984.

3. Kendall Haven, "100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time," Libraries Unlimited, 2006.

A. Wolf, F. Dannemann, "A History of Science, Technology and Philosophy in the 16th & 17th Centuries," George Allen & Unwin, 1935.
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Issac Newton Isaac Newton Sir

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39308822

Moreover, his theories regarding the gravitation were supposed not to have been made possible without the attempts of his predecessors, as Galileo, to understand the world. Thus, Newton's luck may be put on the fact that he has lived in a period of discoveries, and, as he himself stated, he had seen further than other men, it is because he stood on the shoulders of giants.

All in all, Newton has been considered for almost 300 years to be the founding father of modern physical science, his discoveries being unprecedented, just as those in mathematical research. eing a polyvalent personality, he also studied chemistry, history and theology; his main method in all domains being the investigation of all forms and dimensions.

ibliography

Cohen, I. ernard, The Newtonian Revolution, Cambridge, 1980, 546 pages;

Koyre, Alexandre, Newtonian Studies, Harvard U. Press, 1965, 673 pages;

Westfall, Richard S., Never at Rest: A iography…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cohen, I. Bernard, The Newtonian Revolution, Cambridge, 1980, 546 pages;

Koyre, Alexandre, Newtonian Studies, Harvard U. Press, 1965, 673 pages;

Westfall, Richard S., Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, Cambridge 1980;

Isaac NEWTON, "The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy," University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1999;
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Hamlet & the Renaissance if

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89348376

In Hamlet's case, the dark Ages conquer the light and the last scene displays before Fortinbras'(the Prince of Norway, whose father was killed by Hamlet's father) eyes. Fortinbras seems to be the symbol for the rebirth of Denmark, in the light of a young king that lacks the putrid inheritance of an alienated royal family, like Hamlet's. The Renaissance man, Prince Hamlet, seems aware of the inutility of trying to restore the reign of his royal family in Denmark, since its members are proved to be corrupt and not suitable any more to lead a country in the spirit a new born world. His acts could also be in the spirit of sacrifice, suitable for a Renaissance man, in the name of restoring the dignity of his subjects and the glory of his country. People like Galileo and Savonarola were ready to give up their most precious possession, life, for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Shakespeare, Hamlet, the Literature Network, retrieved Jan., 22nd, 2007, Jalic Inc. 2000-2007

 http://www.online-literature.com/shakespeare/hamlet/ 

2. Hamlet, Study Guide, SparkNotes, retrieved Jan, 22nd, 2007, 2006 SparkNotes LLC,  http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/hamlet/section15.rhtml
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Cultural and Construction History of

Words: 8066 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21023993

Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Cultural Environment

Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.

Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.

Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.
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Conspicuous Consumption Design and Purpose

Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74917050



The notable exception to this layout of the various departments of the casino at The Venetian is again its Sports-ook, which is entirely rounded into a half-circle and therefore gives an air of having consumed far more resources than a rectangular shaped Sports-ook would. It is easy to craft a desk that is straight, to cut the wood in a way that makes it have strong borders and edges; for that reason most desks that you see are straight. To cut the wood so as to make it rounded is far more difficult, and someone looking at such a curved piece of wood would have to assume high expense involved in procuring and designing wood in such a fashion.

In the center of the floor of the Venetian (and not all casinos are like this) are the slot machines, conspicuous examples of mass expenditure, ringing and glittering and flashing lights.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class, taken from Michael Lewis (ed.), The Real Price of Everything (Sterling, 2007), 1048-1227.

2. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, taken from Great Books of the Western World, Volume 40 (Britannica, 1952)

3. Jason Goetz, The Bubble Boys: How Mistaken Educational Ideals and Practices are Causing a Warped Social Fabric (CreateSpace, 2011)

4. Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or to Succeed (The Penguin Press, 2005)
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Christian Response to Philosophical Naturalism

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72729965

ince neither of those explanations is likely (let alone knowable), philosophical naturalists would have to doubt that the universe exists at all; yet, very clearly, it does. The most likely explanation for the existence of the universe is simply that some force or consciousness (i.e. God) caused whatever the so-called "first cause" of existence was.

The second major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism presupposes that all philosophical postulates must, necessarily, fit the scientific model. However, that supposition clearly closes off many possible explanations simply because they may lie outside of human understanding. Again, that position is an a priori assumption that also violates the first major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism. In essence, it suggests that scientific concepts provide the only possible set of tools for understanding phenomena, including phenomena that obviously defy scientific explanation such as miracles and faith. Most importantly, it automatically (and in a manner that is…… [Read More]

Sources Consulted

Friedman, M. (1997). "Philosophical Naturalism." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Accessed online, October 15, 2011, from:

 http://galileo.fcien.edu.uy/philosophical_naturalism.htm 

Hawking, S. (1990). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Publishing: New York.
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Is the Modern View of Nature Closer to the Ancient Than the Renaissance View

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25231565

Nature Closer to the Ancient than the Renaissance View?

In his book, The Idea of Nature, Collingwood analyzes the principle characteristics of three periods of cosmological thinking in the history of European thought: Greek, Renaissance, and the Modern. By taking such an approach, Collingwood makes it possible for his readers to distinguish the similarities as well as fundamental differences between the modern view of Nature and that of Greek and Renaissance cosmology. But, perhaps Collingwood's work is more valuable because it demonstrates how both Greek and Renaissance schools of thought have made the modern view of nature possible. In other words, the modern view of nature has evolved from both Greek and Renaissance cosmology, with each period laying the foundation for the next to build on. To that extent, an assertion that the modern view of Nature more closely resemblances one period rather than another cannot, strictly speaking, be made…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collingwood, R.G. "The Idea of Nature." Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945.
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Music Education or Cross Platform

Words: 17690 Length: 61 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61502605



Aristoxenos, two centuries after Pythagoras released his model, sought to discredit the standing theories held by Pythagorean devotees. In his works, he established that numbers are not relevant to music, and that music is based on perception of what one hears, not any mathematical equation. Descartes as well as Vincenzo Galilei (Galileo's father) both also discredited the music-to-math theories that formed the revolutionary basis for Pythagoras' music work, but not on the basis that music and numbers are unrelated. Rather, Galilei in particular figured that the tension of a string compared to the pitch made by that string should be the variables to create the sound ratio, not the length of that string. "Using weights to vary the tension of a string, he found that the above mentioned intervals arise for ratios of 1:1, 1:4, 4:9, and 9:16 respectively. These ratios as different from those found for length; they are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Annabelleke, et al. (2005, June 20) Signal-to-noise ratio. Wikipedia. Accessed online June 1, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snr

Axtman, K. (2001, August 22) Houston to make computing a right, not a privilege. The Christian Science Monitor. Accessed online June 1, 2005 at  http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0822/p2s2-ussc.html 

Buckler, G. (2001, November 16) Digital divide creates haves and have nots. Computing Canada. Accessed online June 1, 2005 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CGC/is_24_27/ai_80205491

Chappell, K. (2001, September) UNITED NEGRO COLLEGE FUND: Crossing the Digital Divide. Ebony. Accessed online June 1, 2005 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1077/is_11_56/ai_77556560
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Newton's Three Laws of Motion

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13864367



he second law, which states that rate of change of object's momentum is proportional to the force exerted upon it is the most practical law. his law is the logical continuation of the inertia law and explanation of Galileo's principle and transformations. Second law gives a prediction to what will happen with the object when a force acts on it: object's velocity will change and object will accelerate (with negative or positive acceleration). In order to understand the meaning of this law, mass is introduced. he mass of the object is a quantitative measure of inertia, which defines amount of matter contained in object. hat's why in modern interpretation the second law says that objects acceleration is directly proportional to the magnitude of the total force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. hat's why mass of the object also defines object's resistance to acceleration.

In terms of…… [Read More]

Third law states that forces, which occur in pairs, are equal in magnitude, but are oppositely directed. Third law is mathematical conclusion of the law of conservation of momentum (as it can be stated that acceleration is a derivative of velocity and force is a derivative of momentum). Third law states that though forces of interaction are equal, accelerations may be different as masses of objects may be not the same.

Laws of Newton were proved more than 200 years ago on the base of everyday experiments and they serve as excellent approximation to kinematics and dynamics of objects in everyday life. These laws form the basis of classical mechanics, or mechanics of idealized macro world. They can be applied without errors to objects, which have speeds much smaller than relativistic speeds (speeds which are close to the speed of light). But even in relativistic world the form and essence of Newton's laws is preserved if relativistic space transformations are followed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_laws_of_motion

Newton's three laws of motion
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Integrative Approach to Psychology and

Words: 1411 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3333240

In her eyes, supporting religion was tantamount to supporting oppression.

Cut to another scene with the same girl, in my high school cafeteria. Now we are sitting side-by-side, talking like friends. She talks about how pressured she feels by her family to enter the field of law, but she would prefer to study something more meaningful than political science when she goes to college. She criticizes members of our generation for not caring about what is going on in the world, and our lack of social responsibility.

Ironically, it is the members of my faith community that seem to have used their belief as a touchstone of social activism to reach out and to help others. A concerned interest in the point-of-view of other people, and a desire to help them is the essence of the selflessness of faith, and it is also the essence of the dispassionate yet personally…… [Read More]