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Gender and Sexuality
The term sex means those characteristics, biological as well as physiological, that define men and women. Sex is better defined by categorizing sexes such as make and females. Major characteristic of sex is that its aspects do not considerably change within different societies. To further explain, specific sex related examples are that women menstruate and have breasts developed capable of lactation. Such characteristics are absent in male sex. Male sex on the other hand has testicles and carries stronger bones. Such is not the case with female sex (HO).
Gender is different from sex and is generally referred as socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and expectation societies that are associated with male and female sex. The gender roles are usually the construction that a society gives to male and female roles. For instance women in the U.S. earn significantly less money than male…
Adriaens, Andreas, and de Block Adriaens. "The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality." Perspectives in biology and medicine. 49.4 (2006): 570-585. Web. 1 Mar. 2013.
Allan, Elizabeth J. "Hazing and gender: Analyzing the obvious." The hazing reader (2004): 275-294.
Fennell, Julie Lynn. "Men Bring Condoms, Women Take Pills: Men's and Women's Roles in Contraceptive Decision Making" Gender & Society 25(4):496-521. 2011.
Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for everybody: Passionate politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2000. Vii-ix. Print.
Gender and Sexuality
In these two readings both authors look at the way various media view and determine the societal perception and response to women and women's issues. Both authors are concerned with questioning and interrogating the way women and gender are seen and perceived. There are however marked differences in their approaches and subject matter. Clover in her work Men, Women and Chainsaws views the way gender is reflected and understood though an analysis of female and gender roles in cotemporary film -- particularly the horror genre. Her analyses is more inclined to understanding the perceptions of culture, and of the female hero-victim, gleaned through the understanding of popular film. Her work is better understood as cultural critique and analysis rather than hard feminism per se.
Duden on the other hand also critiques and interrogates the way women are seen, viewed and manipulated in culture. Her analysis questions the…
I have often wondered why we seem to live in such an angry society, and reading these essays makes it seem much more plausible. Most of society is angry about the way they are treated, the things they have to fight for, and the difficulties they face each day. There is much more to the study of gender, sexuality, and race in America than a simple difference between the sexes. Gender, race, and religion are some of the most powerful forces in America, and most of the people are often on the outside looking in. I know as a woman and an Asian-American, that is a common feeling for me. Our society may be a "melting pot," but that does not mean that everyone receives the same treatment or the same opportunities. There are still too many differences that people let get in the way of the things we have…
Moreover, in addition to narrowing the purview of human sexuality to groups within the larger society, the sociocultural aspect examines social norm influences including the effects of external factors such as mass media or politics. These movements can assist in bring about significant and widespread changes in the social norm, such as the sexual revolution and the advent of feminism.
Overview of Theory and Practice
Theories regarding gender and sexuality date back to ancient ome and Greece. Of those that are particularly interesting is the greater acceptance of same sex relations in ancient history and culture; between men, between women, and between men and boys.
One of the earliest 'feminist' from the same era is Sappho, who has been particularly influential because of her expression and lesbianism. She is one of the few if not only female voices from the literature that dates back to Ancient ome and Greece.
Allen, Emily and Dino Felluga. "General Introduction to Theories of Gender & Sex,"
Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. Available from http://www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/genderandsex/modules/introduction.html . Accessed 22 November 2011.
Applebaum, Stanley and Candace Ward (eds). A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
(U.S.: Dover Publications, 1996).
A third reason is that members of the staff or leadership teams are barely taught to think of and use gender in delicate ways. A last reason given is that without the gender justice lens, the work of social justice organizations and the feminist movement overall will be negatively impacted.
11.) Describe the author's arguments in regards to the 3 aspects you listed in #2.
First, democracy was viewed as only existing if those that are governing were there because those who were being governed agreed with their being there. The author thought that the idea that government is in existence only for the betterment of the people, with everyone included, was not being supported by not allowing women the equal right to vote.
Second, democracy was seen as a system where everyone was able to express their ideas as well as their concerns in order to dictate their own…
Gender and Sexuality in the Left Hand of Darkness by Ursula Le Guin
Science fiction, more so than any other literary genre, explores the question of 'what if' in a future-directed scenario. The Left Hand of Darkness by Ursula Le Guin features a fictional country called Karhide on a planet called Gethen that lacks a concept of what we would call gender. Beings on the planet are not divided into male or female. In creating such a world, the author highlights the extent to which false gender stereotypes permeate our own consciousness. The people of Gethen only engage in sexual intercourse for reproductive purposes and the same person can fulfill either the male or female function. The unisexual beings unite during a period called 'kemmer' and alternate gender during each period of 'heat.'
Having non-reproductive sexual desire or being only one gender (like the visitor and emissary from Earth Genly…
Le Guin, Ursula. The Left Hand of Darkness. Ace, 1987.
In addition, the eseache note that the elatively small sample size in thei study did not allow sepaate genetic analyses fo males and females (Coolidge et al.).
Envionmentalism (social influence). A ecent study by Wallien and Cohen-Kettenis (2008) analyzed psychosexual outcomes of gende-dysphoic childen at 16 yeas and olde to detemine childhood chaacteistics elated to psychosexual outcomes based on vaious social influences that may be expeienced duing the timefames studied. In this egad, this study began with a cohot of 77 childen (mean age=8.4 yeas, ange=5-12 yeas); at follow-up about 3-1/2 yeas late, 54 of these childen (mean age=18.9 yeas, ange=16-28 yeas) wee still available and amenable to continue paticipation in the study. Of the oiginal 77 subjects, 54 subjects, o 27% (12 boys and 9 gils), wee found to be gende dysphoic (the eseaches defined this cohot as the "pesistence goup"), and 43% (desistance goup: 28 boys and 5…
references for cross-sex roles in make believe play or persistent fantasies of being the other sex
4) intense desire to participate in the stereotypical games and pas times of the other sex
5) strong preference for playmates of the other sex
B. Persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriate ness in the gender role of that sex. In children, the disturbance is manifested by any of the following: in boys, assertion that his penis or testes are disgusting or will disappear or assertion that it would be better not to have a penis, or aversion toward rough-and-tumble play and rejection of male stereotypical toys, games, and activities; in girls, rejection of urinating in a sitting position, assertion that she has or will grow a penis, or assertion that she does not want to grow breasts or menstruate, or marked aversion toward normative feminine clothing.
C. The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition.
A complete act of sexual intercourse cannot occur with an unaroused male, but can occur with an unaroused female. That is simply biology. Sex may be far superior when a woman is aroused, but even desperately unwilling and unaroused women can physically engage in sex. That scenario, at least for heterosexual situations, is not the same for men. A certain level of arousal is needed for men to be able to engage in a certain level of sexuality. Moreover, a reflection that this arousal is necessary, whether in an ad for Viagra or in an ad for a product like the KY Yours and Mine, does show at least a tacit acknowledgment that male arousal is important to male satisfaction. If most women require some type of digital or oral stimulation to climax, it is clear that male arousal is not a critical element for female satisfaction. However, it is…
In fact, they allowed her to play, and then seemed to structure the entire game around keeping the ball away from her, except for allowing her to actually score; in an action that the observer was forced to conclude was intentional. Two of the men playing that game asked the author for her phone number after the game. No groups of men allowed the author to join the game and continued playing the same type of rough-and-tumble tackle football that they were playing prior to her request.
The third experiment involved the author changing a flat tire, with her male companion standing by and not helping. No female drivers stopped to offer assistance, nor did they seem to react to the author changing the tire. Four male drivers stopped to offer assistance. Two of them continued on their way when the author assured them that she had it under control.…
Aguinis, H., & Henle, C. (2001). Effects of nonverbal behavior on perceptions of a female employee's power bases. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(4), 537-539.
O'Sullivan, L.F., Hoffman, S., Harrison, a., & Dolezal, C. (2006). Men, multiple sexual partners, and young adults' sexual relationships: understanding the role of gender in the study of risk. The Journal of Urban Health. 83(4): 695-708.
Gender Norms and Sexuality
As she explains to the reader: "I felt no fear of him, and but little shyness. Had he been a handsome heroic-looking young gentleman, I should not have dared to stand thus questioning him against his will, and offering my services unasked. I had hardly ever seen a handsome youth; never in my life spoken to one" (idem, 173).
The young woman who was actually full of energy and eager to live with more intensity than what life offered her in the quite almost deserted Thornfield Hall, during winter, has fallen for the first stranger she met because he offered her the first occasion to feel more alive than her only companions at Thornfield ever offered her. Of course, she is unaware of her feelings yet, but a certain distress from her usual routine is already in place.
Mr. Rochester will soon befriend the strange creature he found on his…
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre: An Autobiography. Published 1850.Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Nov 23, 2005
Bronte, Charlotte. Villette. Published by Oxford University Press, 1902
Ciolcowski, Laura E. Charlotte Bronte's 'Villette': Forgeries of Sex and Self. Studie in the Novel. Vol. 26. 1994
Teachman, Debra. Understanding Jane Eyre: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Greenwood Press. 2001
Extrasensory perception -- also known simply as ESP -- is something that scientists have been studying for decades. Brownstein (2011) notes that until recently discussion and testing of ESP has centered on the human experience. He claims that there hasn't been any type of examination on the physical conditions that are independent of human beings, however, without which, "ESP would not be possible as a human faculty" (p. 73). Brownstein (2011) claims that sensing another's feelings is independent of reading people's minds and seeing other people's activities. In order to show how this sensing of other's feelings can work, Brownstein (2011) attempts to show that there is a foundation that has nothing to do with human experience for all of the types of ESP aforementioned. There are our senses, of course, (sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch) and the fact that we all have physical capabilities (even though they do tend…
Brownstein, D. (2011). On the physical basis of ESP and telepathy. The journal of spirituality and paranormal studies,34(2), 73-83.
Myers, D.G. (2009). Psychology in everyday life. Worth Publishers.
Sex Gender Sexuality
Sex, gender and sexuality are issues that have been thoroughly explored in various field including criminology, psychology and sociology. The research has revealed important facts related to how sex, gender and sexuality are viewed in society. The purpose of this discussion is to explore Sex, gender and sexuality from a sociological perspective and evaluate the implications for criminology.
Sex, gender and sexuality
According to an article entitled "Sex, Gender and Sexuality," "medical and scientific definitions of male and female are still incomplete. Interestingly, sex is still defined by the gonads. Stedman's Medical Dictionary (2001) defines female as "denoting the sex that bears the young or the ovum" and male as "denoting the sex to which those belong that produce spermatozoa." omen who have had oophorectomies are still considered female. Similarly, men with azoospermia are considered male because, according to the definition, they belong to the sex that…
Clark H. (2007) Judging rape: Public attitudes and sentencing. Australian Institute of Family Studies. 17-25. Retrieved from; http://aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs / newsletter / n14pdf/n14_5.pdf
Honkatukia, P. (2001) Rough sex? Understandings of Rape in Finnish Police Reports. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology & Crime Prevention, 2001, Vol. 2 Issue 1, p15-30
McCabe J., Tanner, A.E. & Heiman, J.R.. (2010) The Impact of Gender Expectations on Meanings of Sex and Sexuality: Results from a Cognitive Interview Study. Sex Roles 62( ae), p252-263,
"Sex, Gender and Sexuality." Retrieved from; http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/sexandsexuality/gss-intersex-issues-02.jsp?r=
Race, Gender, Sex - Rollin' the Rs
I wrote this to try to mirror some of the youthful feel of the book because that's what comes across. It is a REACTIONARY piece, not just an intellectual representation of the contents. That is what the assignment asks for. I tweaked it to read a bit better here and there but I think this is what was requested. The full assignment request said: "Read Rolling the Rs by Zamora Linmark and write a reaction paper on it. And talk about how does it deal with the issues of race gender and sexuality?" This does that in an appropriate way.
Rolling the R's is little bites in big mouthfuls. It's an indication that size matters even if largeness itself means little about who will prevail. The little people (the young ones) in the story take on very big challenges and, ultimately, they fail…
Carol Christ talks about women creating and publicizing the concept of a 'Goddess' and the popularity f the Goddess concept for women, particularly given that the male 'God' has been created by a male populace who has created God in his image and often used Him to penalize women. Carol likewise discusses how all aspects of women that were condemned because they were seen to be earth bound -- such as birth, menstruation, caring for the living and dying -- are elevated by some feminists today into ceremonies that promote their life-giving and unique contribution. Carol too notes that, even thoguh taboos against female characteristics (such as menstruation) persist in some religions today, the woman of today is less likely to allow herself to be knocked down and more likely to see God as a Goddess too, either within or from without herself or to be both internal and external…
Woman is no longer dependent on man. She has become a creator. And, therefore, just as man did and does, she too has created God in her own image.
Christ, Carol P. "Why Women Need the Goddess: Phenomenological, Psychological, and Political Reflections (1978)." In Theorizing Feminisms, edited by Elizabeth Hackett and Sally Haslanger, 211-19. New York: Oxford, 2006.
These people put across extremist beliefs and are unforgiving to anyone that they consider to be corrupt.
Sexuality is a taboo topic in Afghanistan, with people within the country's borders considering that something as inoffensive as hair should not be shown in public. The fact that Setara's scarf slipped and revealed her hair in front of a large audience infuriated most people in the country and influenced them in starting a campaign meant to harshly penalize anyone who expressed the slightest intention to act against Afghan tradition. For most people in Afghanistan, Setara broke the boundaries of modesty at the time when she started to dance. The fact that the country accepted to have the "Afghan Star" show might have influenced some people in believing that conditions have changed and that the masses were no longer willing to discriminate. However, reality was particularly harsh for Setara, who was subjected to…
Heroes occur -- within the conventions of estern drama and estern literature more generally -- within the context of tragedy, for it is the stresses of tragic situations that (typically) allow for heroism to arise. But we can -- especially if we use the lenses of gender and queer theory -- see that Shakespeare has written a comedic play that nevertheless allows for heroism to come through. At least temporarily. Shakespeare underscores the heroism of his characters through the simple device of giving us "Hero." This might seem to be either heavy-handed or so obvious as to be meaningless, but to take this view is to privilege the point of the twenty-first century audience or reader.
As citizens of the postmodern world, we are used to (and ever expect) for different literary and artistic tropes to be mixed together: e are not surprised when tragic elements end up in comedies…
Marlowe, Christopher. "Hero and Leander." Classic Literature Library. 1 December 2009.
http://www.classic-literature.co.uk/british-authors/16th-century/christopher-marlowe/hero-and - leander/
"Hero" www.etymonline.com. 2005. 1 December 2009. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php ? l=h&p=6
Hamilton, Sharon. Shakespeare's Daughters. New York: McFarland & Company, 2007.
Rabbit-Proof Fence examines the self-empowerment of aboriginal females in Australia. The film is set in the 1930s, when aboriginal Australians were rounded up and placed in re-education camps. This was especially true for bi-racial Australians, known then as "half-castes." Just as re-education camps were an integral part of the oppression of indigenous peoples in North America, they served a similar political purpose in Australia. With their similar histories of colonization by European powers and the systematic subjugation of the indigenous, North America and Australia bare a common historical burden. This burden is explored brilliantly in Rabbit-Proof Fence, which stars Kenneth Branagh.
Rabbit-Proof Fence presents the modern nation-state as being potentially problematic, especially for those who are not accepted into the dominant culture. The dominant culture is European, reflecting the centuries of colonialism and imperialism that caused the political, economic, and social transformation of places like Australia. Still steeped…
I have been aware of this Marc Jacobs perfume ad for "Lola" for perhaps six months or so, but I was made aware of it again in mid-November when I read that it had been banned in the U.K. I am not surprised that it was and I wish that it were banned in the United States too. One of my major problems with this ad is that it features Dakota Fanning, a teenager, in a very sexually provocative position. Fanning is wearing a short dress that appears quite childlike in style with its polka-dots and light pink color. Between her legs is an oversized bottle of perfume, precariously positioned in a rather sexual manner.
While Fanning is actually 17-years-old, the way in which the ad makes her look is much younger than that age, in my opinion. Fanning appears to be more like 12 or 13-years of…
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…
Typical examples include the occupations held by males and females and their recreational interests. Social role theory is particularly important in connection with sexual mores that prescribe very different sexual and courtship roles based on gender.
Connection between concept and article:
The article Gender Is a Relative Term in Politics, Study Finds incorporates the concept of social role theory in the way it describes the extreme rarity of female political candidates facing male candidates in high-level face-to-face debates in connection with political races. In the Unites States, it has been almost a quarter of a century since a male and female candidate for high-level national political office faced each other in a debate.
This is a direct function of the extent to which social expectation influences males and females differently to aspire to political office or achieve other positions of relative social power.
While the article focuses on the issue…
Men are expected to put across domination and to affirm their masculinity during a hip hop dance. Hip hop and tango are both designed to put across the feeling that there is a strong connection between the message and the dance, the dance and the dancer, and the dancer and the message.
Tango and hip hop are relatively similar when considering that professional dancers are primarily interested in dancing from the perspective of someone who actually understands why he or she is dancing. These people are not only interested in looking beautiful as they dance, as they are also concerned about having audiences understand their emotions.
All things considered, choreography is one of the most important concepts in the contemporary society and it is very important for the general public to understand that dances are more than movements designed to please the eye. Individuals also dance with the purpose of…
Benshoff, Harry M. And Griffin, Sean "What is Gender?," "What is Sexuality" in America on Film: Representing Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies, Blackwell Pub., 2004, pp. 203-206, 293-296.
LaBoskey, Sara "Getting off: Portrayals of Masculinity in Hip Hop Dance in Film," Dance Research Journal, 2001, 33(2), pp. 112-120.
Leigh Foster, Susan, "Choreographies of Gender," Signs, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Autumn, 1998), pp. 1-33.
Manning, Susan, "The Female Dancer and the Male Gaze: Feminist Critiques of Early Modern Dance," Meaning in Motion: New Cultural Studies of Dance, ed. Jane C. Desmond, Duke University Press, 1997, pp: 153-166.
More specifically, whereas certain components of human behavior are hard wired, many other components are learned from exposure to others in society. According to this view, the individual learns by watching others, starting in early childhood. By adulthood, those expectations transmitted through social learning are completely internalized by the individual and not perceived as matters that one learns from others.
By imitating adult role models and emulating behaviors expected of males and females in society, the developing individual learns what it means to be a male or female in that particular society. For example, if male role models and authority figures model aggressive or belligerent mannerisms in self-expression, male children absorb their exposure to these displays of masculinity and eventually come to identify with and exhibit those characteristics themselves. Similarly, if female role models and authority figures model passive or accommodating behaviors, female children come to identify with and exhibit…
In the Calvin Klein jeans ad, it is he who is chased and who resists and fends off the female. The imagery is opposite to that of typical gender roles, in which female sexuality is restrained. The man's body is toned, muscular, and hairless. Even if he were more interested in the female behind him, he controls his passion admirably.
The Calvin Klein advertisement allows the female to unleash a deep sexual hunger. Her open mouth, biting action, wet hair, and grabbing motion all show she possesses an animalistic hunger and passion. The wet hair increases the elemental, wild feel of the advertisement. The background is a nebulous dark area, allowing the viewers to imagine any kind of scenario and put themselves into the ad. Target audiences will relate to the imagery on multiple levels: perceiving Calvin Klein "Double Black" Jeans as intensifying a man's innate sexuality and creating desire…
However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.
Power and identity are both socially…
Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.
Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.
Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.
Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
As I walked down the pedestrianized shopping mall, I immediately took note of the configurations of people on the sidewalk. There were many groups of females together -- either in twos, or groups of four or more. There were also some lone females, too, of course. There were many couples, and also a few groups of male friends. When looking at these different configurations of people and individuals, the way they "do" gender became almost immediately apparent. The most obvious and glaring sign of "gendered" identity is clothing. Women on this shopping street tended to dress quite nicely. Many were wearing high heels, and those who were in flats were in stylish ones as opposed to sneakers. Some of the men were dressed nicely too, but many were wearing sloppy clothing such as old T-shirts, shorts, and flip-flops. In addition to the differences in what men and women were…
Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.
Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?
Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…
There is no male equivalent of Sugar Cane in Some Like it Hot. Unlike the unequivocally feminine Sugar Cane, neither Joe nor Jerry plays the role of the cad or the cowboy. In fact, Joe shows genuine emotion and caring for Sugar as his feelings for her deepen. Joe and Jerry, like Sugar Cane, are musicians. All three are therefore portrayed as social equals regardless of gender.
Gender and sexuality are treated differently in Some Like it Hot. The key scenes in Some Like it Hot with allusions to homosexuality are the ones in which Osgood pursues Daphne. Osgood challenges conventional gender roles and stereotypes. He has been married "six or seven times" and only his mama has kept track. His inability to remain in a stable heterosexual relationship may be viewed as a typically male, cavalier attitude toward marriage. However, given the last line of Some Like it Hot,…
Wilder, Billy (Dir.). Some Like it Hot. Feature film. 1959.
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…
Back in history, the only roles of a Korean woman were to be a good daughter, a good wife, and a good mother. She was expected to sacrifice for her family, caring not only for her husband but also for her in-laws. Similarly in America, as the picture published in 1950's "Harmony at Home" shows, only men were authoritative. In the picture, the man is the only one sitting comfortably on the sofa while two women standing on the side seem helpless. Both are leaning on the man. The question remains: is this condition still relevant today? In "Change in the Status of Women in South Korea," Anita Li states, "the employment rate for women has risen steadily from 42.8% in 1980 to 50% in 2008. Furthermore, these women are increasingly engaging in leadership roles in the workforce. Though the gender distinction still remains in our society, the trend…
Female-fronted Irish pop band The Cranberries address issues related to gender and sexuality tacitly in the song "Animal Instinct." The song lyrics do not overtly discuss feminist discourse, although the music video for the song does. Issues related to compulsory heterosexuality, the dual character and double standard for women, and gender roles are all topics addressed in "Animal Instinct" and its music video. The content or theme of the song can be best understood by an analysis of its title. "Animal Instinct" refers to the most basic human impulses. Thus, The Cranberries draw from Freudian theory. The structure of a song conveys a poetic sensibility, which can be construed as a stereotypically or archetypically feminine given its non-linear format and use of unconventional grammar. In other words, a song as poetry can be purposefully subversive of patriarchal language, grammar, and mechanics. However, the video for "Animal Instinct" is ironic…
Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals
Sexuality of Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals
It is extremely difficult to define human sexuality. The first hurdle is determining a person's gender. In addition to male and female, there are people who do not fit neatly into either category, whether because of chromosomal or biological differences. The second hurdle is to define someone's sexual orientation, which refers primarily to sexual attraction, but is mistakenly used to define behavior. The problem with such a limited point-of-view is that sexual behavior does not necessarily follow from sexual attraction.
One of the most limiting views of human sexuality is the idea that sexuality is rigid and that people cannot be attracted to one sex and also be attracted to members of the other sex. To those that hold this view, there are two forms of human sexuality: homosexuality and heterosexuality. Others hold a different view of human sexuality and view…
Athenadorus. "Homosexuality: Its Genetic Basis and Evolutionary Benefit." Danaan Press.
2002. Danaan Press. 10 Nov. 2005 .
Wikipedia. "Intersexuality." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 10 Nov. 2005
Meiners, E.B., & Miller, V.D. (2004). The Effect of Formality and elational Tone on Supervisor/subordinate Negotiation Episodes. Western Journal of Communication, 68(3), 302+. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007598557
amundo, B.A. (1994). The Bargaining Manager: Enhancing Organizational esults through Effective Negotiation. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27436525
emlinger, K. (1997). Keeping it Straight: The Negotiation of Meanings in the Constitution of Gender and Sexuality. Women and Language, 20(1), 47+. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000459002
oughgarden, J. (2004). Evolution's ainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105365847
Solnick, S. (2004). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Southern Economic Journal, 71(2), 462+. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007664068
Babcock, L. And Laschever, S. (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the…
Babcock, L. And Laschever, S. (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide, Princeton University Press http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007664068
Solnick, S. (2004). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Southern Economic Journal, 71(2), 462+. Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database:
Latin American woman who is interested in a cultural studies program. This has not changed, and in fact, this course has helped me to deepen my understanding of diversity and helped me to understand more about gender roles and norms from a cross-cultural perspective. I have learned that there are no universal constants, and that even within cultures there can be a great diversity of experience as we saw with Monday's Girls and the difference between Florence and Azikiye. Likewise, the differences between the rich and poor gay men in Manila shows how even within the same culture, there can be a great variety of experiences and points-of-view. The most difficult concept for me as I continue my studies will be cultural relativism or ethical relativism. It is difficult to withhold judgments, especially when we believe that a way of life or worldview is harmful. On the one hand, there…
Cairoli, M.L. "Factory as Home and Family."
"Gender and the Global Economy." Chapter 11.
Response One: Liam
It is true that capitalism has generally benefitted the "owners of the means of production," as Marx had put it. Since the age of imperialism, Western Europe has been exploitative. More specifically, the men in positions of power have exploited laborers. This is as true for men as for women. Capitalism has allowed for tremendous innovations and greater overall productivity, but it has resulted in anomie and a detachment between the labor and the finished product. Few workers have shareholding capacities in the companies they work for, creating a system in which the laborer who creates the product does not share in the fruits of the very work that he or she performs.
.....individual's level of sexual identity development relates to their level of job satisfaction depends on numerous variables -- such as the confidence with which one identifies their sexuality, the degree to which that identity is accepted among peers, and the extent to which that identity places one as a minority. As the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (n.d.) indicates, "Minorities also tend to be at a disadvantage in terms of job rewards, which no doubt has an impact on their job satisfaction as well as career advancement in the long run" (p. 62). The issue therefore is one of whether the individual's sexual identity is a cause of tension or stress both for the individual and for colleagues. To the extent that it is an issue, the individual's job satisfaction is likely to be comparably impacted.
The functions of heterosexual privilege are 1) to enable heterosexuals to maintain a high…
There has been a lot of progress when it comes to gender diversity. However, a lot of work remains to be done. Indeed, there is a cacophony of issues that keep cropping up including talk about the glass escalator vs. the glass ceiling, the myth that women are on equal status with men to this very day, the historical role of gender and diversity over the course of the history of the United States, the very different definitions of sex and gender and so forth. The recent Supreme Court of the United States decision that ensconced gay marriage as being an equal right that people in the LGBT community should enjoy as a civil right was a milestone moment. While this is an encouraging event and people in the workplace should not allow sexual behavior or gender/sexual identity to become an issue, there is still a lot of ignorance and…
Advertising's most fundamental function is to sell products, but in order to do so, advertising must also shape the values and norms of the culture. One of the most obvious ways advertising shapes social norms and cultural values is through the representations of gender and sexuality. Few products other than adult toys, condoms, and others of an overtly sexual nature offer as much potential to shape, play with, and manipulate gender and sexuality than undergarments. In an advertisement for its line of men's underwear, the company Under Armour promotes an ordinary product by claiming that it has an erotic appeal. The fine print of the advertisement states mainly that the underwear is comfortable and can keep the wearer "cool and dry," but the image speaks more about the way the underwear will confer grand sexual prowess and status on the males who wear it. Although the Under Armour advertisement is…
Kilbourne, Jean. Killing Us Softly. Film.
Kilbourne, Jean. "Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt."
Solomon, Jack. "Masters of Desire: The Culture of American Advertising." From The Signs of Our Times. Putnam, 1988.
Gender and Identity
Perhaps the most important question facing any human, be they male or female, is that of the discovery of their own identity. The majority of child development theories, from Freud onward, have dealt with the way in which children must learn to disengage their own identity from that of their parents (mothers in particular) and discover who they are as adults. Yet this process is far from over when one reaches physical maturity, and one may even see many other psychological theories, from Maslow to the existentialists, as exploring the stages through which one continues to define one's true identity as distinct not only from one's parents but also from one's biological and social circumstances. It is somewhat ironic that the word identity which was originally used to note categories of same-ness and unity (Connell 2002) is now so vitally bound up with defining distinctness. At the…
Bessant, J. And Watts, R. (1999) 'Sex and Gender in Australia' (Chapter 7) in J. Bessant and R. Watts (eds) Sociology Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, pp. 164-193
Connell, R.W. (2002) Gender, Oxford: Blackwell. (Chapters 1, 2 and 5).
Connell, R.W. (1995) 'The Social Organization of Masculinity' (Chapter 3) in R.W. Connell (ed) Masculinities, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. pp. 67-86.
Kidd, W. (2002) 'Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality' (Chapter 11) in W. Kidd (ed) Culture and Identity, New York: Palgrave. pp. 171-189.
Gender is often considered an immutable trait, linked inextricably to the biological sex one was born with. However, research over the past several decades in a multitude of fields including anthropology, psychology, and sociology shows that gender is socially constructed and not innate. Gender is projected onto children before they are fully cognizant of their surroundings, dressed in gendered clothes and channeled into gendered activities. A child is rarely free to construct his or her own gender. While it is rare for a person to be born hermaphroditic, it is not rare at all for someone to dis-identify with their socially prescribed gender and therefore deviate from the norm. Some forms of gender-bending are considered normative, but only in certain contexts. For example, a young girl can be a tomboy without serious social consequences but if she continues to subvert traditional gender norms, she risks social stigma. The level of…
Charon, J.M. & Vigilant, L.G. Social Problems: Readings with Four Questions 4th Edition
Gender and Culture
Gender is an important and essential construct in human beings. Throughout generations gender has remained central to the family unit. Normative conditions have always dictated perceptions and expectation with respect to the masculinity of men and femininity of women. Authors like Butler have argued that gender is not an automatic or mechanical construct and that gender authoring should be acceptable and normal. Factually speaking gender is a huge aspect of life that determines how people are recognized and accepted. In the film Zerophilia, Luke struggles with identity due to his condition that allows him to switch between genders after an orgasm. Borrowing from the Film, any unique gender construct will inevitably cause a lot of confusion and possibly affect the life of the victim negatively. This discourse analyzes the different perspectives concerning gender from Butler, Woolf and Horney. It will be deduced that gender fundamentally influences the…
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…
The factors that mediate and account for gender identity and sex differentiation include those attributed to nature, such as hormones and genes, and those attributed to nurture, such as environment. esearch has demonstrated that hormones and genetics play an integral role in gender identity and associated behaviors (Wilson, 1999; Hines, 2006; Hines (2008). What are these hormones and how exactly have they been determined to influence gender identity? The following outlines scientific findings surrounding nature and its involvement in the development of gender identity.
Gender identity and human sexual behavior are involved in perceptions of oneself as male or female, gender role behaviors, and how sexuality is communicated to others (Wilson, 1999). How gender identity manifests and expresses itself is inherently different in men and women (Wilson, 1999). esearch has demonstrated that testosterone exposure during early periods of development that are considered critical result in permanent behavior change…
Hines, M. (2006). Prenatal testosterone and gender-related behavior. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, S115-S121.
Hines, M. (2008). Early androgen influences on human neural and behavioural development. Early Human Development, 84(12), 805-7.
Wilson, J.D. (1999). The role of androgens in male gender role behavior. Endocrine Reviews, 20(5), 726-37.
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
Gender and Sex: Blurred Lines or Clear Boundaries?
One of the hottest songs of summer 2013 was a song by Robin Thicke called "Blurred Lines." The song gained popularity because of its catchy tune, and many people who found themselves dancing along to the song found themselves surprised by the lyrics when they actually listened to the song. In fact, the lyrics to the song were sufficiently suggestive that discussions about whether they were a symbol of rape culture became almost as popular as the song itself. The lyrics were not helped by the video for the song, which featured Thicke, two guest artists, and three scantily clad models in situations that could only be described as bizarre, leading to allegations that the video marginalized its female performers. Adding fuel to this fire was a performance by Thicke featuring Miley Cyrus, in which they seemingly referenced the video and Miley…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Lynskey, Dorian. "Blurred Lines: The most controversial song of the decade." The Guardian.
The Guardian, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
3. Where did you find it? (Book, article, URL, etc.)
The information was found at http://www.religiousbook.net/Books/Online_books/Sx/S_5.htm, and it was actually presented in a very sensitive and informative way.
4. Further thoughts:
The understanding of human sexuality has perhaps served to bring a dimension of maturity to my own thinking about human sexuality. Often times these things are taken for granted, but when we begin exploring them at an academic level, we find that we probably were not so well informed as we might have at first believed ourselves to be. It is incredibly interesting to me that the brain and the skin are two of the most significantly involved organs in the sexual act, and yet they have so much to do with the pleasure derived from intimacy that it almost makes one feel kind of silly to have overlooked it, or to have let it go without great thought.…
A Massachusetts woman was raped by her boyfriend's brother, but because she thought she was having sex with her boyfriend, the brother could not be charged with rape because the Hampton County woman had consensual sex, and was not forced to have sex with the man. The details of the case are this: the woman and boyfriend lived in the boyfriend's family home, in the basement. While her boyfriend was at work, the brother entered the basement bedroom that the couple shared, naked, and when the woman called to him by name, the man did not respond, but got into bed with her, undressed her and engaged in sex. When the act was completed, the man got out of bed to leave the room and when he opened the door, the woman was able to see that it was not her boyfriend.
Massachusetts law (see http://www.mass.gov/legis/laws/mgl/265-22.htm ) says that an act of rape is one that is accomplished by force; it does not have a clause for rape by "fraud." Even though the man is alleged to have allowed the woman to believe he was someone he was not, he did not use force to accomplish the sexual act. Therefore, at that time, there was no statute under Massachusetts State law by which to prosecute the defendant, and he was released.
In 2006 when this event occurred, the jury that heard the case ended with a hung jury, no verdict. The defendant maintains that he did not pose as his brother, and that the sexual act was consensual. Massachusetts lawmakers said they planned to update the law, but as of this date, it remains unchanged via internet search.
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…
Even Freud believed that girls have penis envy, which is only fully resolved by marrying a male and having a male child. This desperate longing to have a man as a way of finding one's identity and place in society is parodied and mocked in Pink's video "Stupid Girls."
Individuals look to culture, including the media, as a way of defining themselves. A thirteen-year-old girl who is told that it is normal to make one's body sexually desirable to men and not to seek self-empowerment through personal growth will be extremely anxious about how she presents herself to the world in a physical manner. Even a 3rd grade boy receives messages that affect his perceptions of gender. For example, if the little boy is told that he cannot wear a pink t-shirt because 'pink is for girls,' even though his young sister wears 'boyish' blue, or if he is told…
Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).
Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.
Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…
Humphrey, J. (2003 - Mar). "Guthrie's six degrees of separation and provocative."
Oracle Online, 115(7): 1. Retrieved:
Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gender is an institution that people either widely accept as one way or another. Within any given society there are cultural norms that people identify with and that help shape their behaviors, values and beliefs. Gender differences thus can be easily created as an institution and can be representative of inequality when that inequality is supported or constructed by society at large (Kimmel, 2000). Kimmel suggests that inequalities are created as norms and arise within relationships, within families and even in the workplace or any other environment in which people work intimately (Kimmel, 2000).
Because gender is an institution according to Kimmel certain behaviors or actions are easily identified and labeled as appropriate or wrong (such as homosexuality) (Kimmel, 2000). If people adopt and follow social norms they will enjoy all the benefits associated with accepting the institution of gender correctly. When they do something incorrectly however people can expect…
Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kleinfeld, J.S. (2002). "Could it be a big world after all? The Six Degrees of Separation
Myth." 2, Nov. 2005: http://www.judithkleinfeld.com/ar_bigworld.html
Napierkowski. "Six Degrees of Separation." Enotes. October 2003. 2 November 2005. http://www.enotes.com/six-degrees/18787 .
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…
Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37
Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.
Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209
Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…
Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.
Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.
Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.
Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.
Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)
Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.
However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465.
Feldman, Lorelei "Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping" Retrieved, November 20, 2007 at http://www.unc.edu/~lorelei/sexroles.html
Garfinkle, Harold. Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Polity. 1991.
Spykerman, Sara "Gender Roles and Work: Recent Research" 1997, Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep/genroles.html
Gender and Smell ecognition
There has been a significant amount of speculation about innate gender differences in thought, cognitive ability, and the relative strength of certain senses. One of area that has received some attention is the ability to smell. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women have a stronger ability to smell than men, as does significant prior research. This research study will examine the relative strength of the sense of smell of a group of men compared to a group of women. Each test group will consist of 20 subjects. The expectation is that the women, as a group, will have a statistically significant better sense of smell than the men. However, at the outset of this study, it must be noted that many factors other than gender are known to influence the sense of smell including overall health and age. This study did not control for those additional factors,…
Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. (2002). Gender-specific induction of enhanced sensitivity to odors. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 199-200.
Lehrner, J. (1993). Gender differences in long-term odor recognition memory: verbal vs. sensory influences and the consistency of label use. Chem. Senses, 18(1), 17-26.
Lenochova, P., & Havlicek, J. (2008). Human body odour individuality. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates, 11(3), 189-198. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73945-8_18
McGivern, R., Mutter, K., Anderson, J., Wideman, G., Bodnar, M., & Huston, P. (1998).
Gender as a Role
The first stage of analysis as to whether gender plays a role in society and to what degree it does so begins with the classification and distinguishing of the terms "sex," "sexual category," and finally "gender." ne may be in a sex category even if the sexual characteristics are lacking. Gender activities are thus a furthering of and derived from "sexual categories." Therefore, the emphasis is not so much on the chromosomes of the individual but the set of actions that humans involve themselves in during social interactions.
Since society is categorized by physiological differentiation, gender can dictate relationships in the sense that gender speaks to who you are and so in essence results in being an identifier to those who wish to bear responsibility for their actions. Here the authors argue that gender is not an accurate identifier for the reason that gender is much…
Only reconditioning of our basic assumptions will remedy the failure of "doing genders."
Works Summarily Cited
West and Zimmerman, Do. 1987. "Doing Gender." Gender and Society 1:125-51
271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.
Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…
Resources have provided me with friendships and acquaintances across the human spectrum. As result, my best friend, colleagues, and supervisors are homosexuals.
I believe my professional background has contributed a great amount to the fact that I can see human beings for their inner qualities such as integrity and ethics. These are issues that manifest themselves across the human spectrum, regardless of sexual orientation, race, class, or gender. If any person manifests a solid set of values and integrity, I respect them on this basis. Surely this is better than jumping to generalized conclusions as a result of differences in orientation or appearance. I have learned to believe that everyone is truly equal, and entitled to the rights guaranteed by our constitution.
The messages internalized during my growing years steered me somewhat towards a prejudicial view, especially regarding gay people. I received no message regarding homosexuality from my parents, since they never discussed the issue with me.
They did however teach us to respect women. The older children and peers I grew up with furthermore provided only one-sided, stereotypical views of gay people. Gay bashing was a common practice, including name-calling. All my friends, including me, had anti-gay sentiments, and made no secret of this. I grew up in a neighborhood where my friends were mostly male, and I was in strong competition with both my friends and my brothers to show off my masculinity. I played baseball, football and basketball, and enjoyed hunting and fishing. Having grown up in this environment, I maintained my prejudicial perceptions until I attended college.
College life provided me with a new set of peers, friends, and a new perspective regarding gay people. I met people from across the human spectrum, and realized that there was no single "right" way to do or view things. I am therefore proud to say that I am able to change my views when I see that these are no longer necessary.
hom it May Concern
Gender Analysis of olverine Image
Media presentations of gender nearly always cater to stereotypical depictions of either male or female. They seldom showcase individuals who do no prescribe to the gender binary, but rather exploit preconceived notions of what it means to be either wholly male or wholly female. Advertisements which are targeted to female audiences will usually portray symbols with traditionally female appeal, such as flowers or pastel colors in pink or light yellow. They endorse the highly feminine aspect of womanhood and encourage the consumer to buy into that definition of woman. Femininity is equaled to being a woman and unfeminine women are therefore considered other. According to this same set of rules, males must prescribe to the stereotypes of masculinity, such as lack of emotion, oneness with nature and manual labor, and authoritativeness above all things (Beckwith 130). It…
Beckwith, Karen. "A Common Language of Gender." Politics and Gender. 1(1), 2005. 128-37.
"Gender Analysis." English 100 Writing Communities and Identities. 8th ed. 43-71.
Lorber, Judith. "Believing is Seeing: Biology as Ideology." The Gendered Society Reader. Ed.
Kimmel, Michael S., Aronson, Amy, and Kaler, Amy. Toronto, ON: Oxford UP, 2011. 11-18.
If not inherently in the acts of sexuality themselves, often in the exhibited sense of entitlement and dominance, male sexuality is prone toward the undermining of femininity in favor of the satisfaction of male desire. In a great many of its incarnations, Jensen argues, pornography facilitates this orientation. Jensen asserts that as a consequence of the "patriarchal system in which we live, a key site of men's oppression of women -- a key method of control and domination -- is sexuality." (Jensen, p. 48) in other words, because our society is so notably tilted to favor the empowerment of men and the sublimation of female desires, sexual intercourse will frequently function as an extension of this imbalance of power. And as Jensen ultimately argues, the act of using pornography to arouse one's self is tantamount to reducing femininity and women to mere objects for the satisfaction of male sexual desires.…
Jensen, R. (2007). Getting Off: Pornography and the End of Masculinity. South End Press.
Renzetti, C.M.; Curran, D.J. & Maier, S.L. (2012). Women, Men & Society. Allyn & Bacon.
They cannot fight their biological destiny, no matter how hard they try, and that is another reason that I believe sex and gender are biological, and not simply psychological or mental.
However, I firmly believe that how society looks at gender is social, and has nothing to do with biology or nature. Society has placed certain "rules" about sex and sexuality on men and women. Men are supposed to be manly, strong, the providers, and most of all, supremely "male" and all that means. It means men are supposed to be unemotional, not show their feelings, enjoy sports and violence, and never show weakness. Women are supposed to be feminine, weak and dependent, good-looking, and emotional, and a man who shows these tendencies is labeled "gay" or "weird" by other men. These are all social constructs that most of society firmly believes in and abides by. Thus, anyone who is…
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A model of marriage must be created for women that do not polarize the two genders into conventional roles, regardless of who works outside the home. Masculine and feminine ideals of power must become blended, and the very notion of what constitutes masculinity and femininity must be questioned, otherwise the idea if a 'real woman' or a 'real man' makes a better leader will forever render the debate schematic and unnecessarily polarized in American culture.
What do you think are the main sources of homophobia in American culture? What is the situation today regarding homophobia, and what do you predict for the future -- and when?
Is it the idealization of the 'John Wayne' cowboy stereotype of masculinity that makes homophobic such an intransigent part of American culture? On one hand, gay people have made considerable encroachments into the American mass media and culture. Ellen hosts the Oscars; Rosie…
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Gender in omeo and Juliet
Judith Lorber, author of "Night to his Day: The Social Construction of Gender" asserts that gender is not biologically determined, but is a construct of society. This would indicate that the process of socialization is a prime determinant in the development of gender. In other words, how a child is raised will determine his or her gender-based behavior. With this theory in mind, it is interesting to examine traditional gender roles in literature; to examine how literature of the past treated the traditional roles of male and female. William Shakespeare's omeo and Juliet is one of the most famous works of literature in Western culture. It was written around the end of the 1500's, at a time when actors were exclusively male, and therefore all the women's roles would have been played by men. This alone would be enough to base a discussion on the…
Lorber, Judith. "Night to his Day." Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven: Yale UP. 1994.
Shakespeare, William. "Romeo and Juliet Script." Scribd. Web. 13 July 2011. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13433084/Romeo-Juliet-Script