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Gender African-American Men Understand the
Words: 1906 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93712317
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439).

However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.

Power and identity are both socially…

References

Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.

Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.

Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.

Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.

Gender and Sexuality
Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79425446
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Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).

The Link between Gender and Sexuality

The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…

Gender and Communication
Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43528571
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Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace

Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…

References

Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from:  http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women  %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from:  http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010  [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from:  http://temple.academia.edu/stuartschmidt/Papers/527541/Sex_of_leader_leader_behavior_and_subordinate_satisfaction  [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge

Gender Identity Defined the Purpose
Words: 3232 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 5786708
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Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…

References

Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.

Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.

Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.

Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.

Gender Awareness Gender Governs Almost
Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72546341
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Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.

Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?

Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…

Gender Back in History the Only Roles
Words: 1899 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80052891
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Gender

Back in history, the only roles of a Korean woman were to be a good daughter, a good wife, and a good mother. She was expected to sacrifice for her family, caring not only for her husband but also for her in-laws. Similarly in America, as the picture published in 1950's "Harmony at Home" shows, only men were authoritative. In the picture, the man is the only one sitting comfortably on the sofa while two women standing on the side seem helpless. Both are leaning on the man. The question remains: is this condition still relevant today? In "Change in the Status of Women in South Korea," Anita Li states, "the employment rate for women has risen steadily from 42.8% in 1980 to 50% in 2008. Furthermore, these women are increasingly engaging in leadership roles in the workforce. Though the gender distinction still remains in our society, the trend…

Gender a Society Is a
Words: 2484 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48723572
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Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.

3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity

The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…

References

Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.

Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database:  

Gender and Domestic Violence Discussions of Domestic
Words: 2745 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67078141
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Gender and Domestic Violence

Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…

References

Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,

L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].

Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.

Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',

Gender and Religion Women Are
Words: 2305 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42256509
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Women are just mere followers of what the males would decide.

In Taoism

Taoism is a combination of psychology and philosophy and evolved into a religious faith in 440 CE when it was adopted as a state religion. Taoism, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became one of the three great religions of China. Taoism currently has about 20 million followers. About 30,000 Taoists live in North America, 1,720 in Canada (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005).

Taoist concepts, beliefs and practices include (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005):

Tao is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. "The Tao surrounds everyone and therefore everyone must listen to find enlightenment."

Each believer's goal is to become one with the Tao.

Taoists strongly promote health and vitality.

Taoists believe that the five main organs and orifices of the body correspond to the five parts of the sky: water, fire, wood, metal and earth.

Each person…

Reference List

Buddhism." 2005.  http://www.fwbo.org/buddhism.html 

Buddhism and Gender Equality." 2006. http://www.faithnet.org.uk/KS4/Social%20Harmony/buddhismequality.htm

Inglehart, Ronald. 2002. "Islam, gender, culture, and democracy." International Journal of Comparative Sociology. E.J. Brill

Kohn, Livia. 2006. "Are Women in Daoism Different From Women in Chinese Society." Department of Religious Studies. Queen's University Kingston, ON Taoism."2005. http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/

Gender the Role of Stereotypes in the
Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14103962
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Gender

The role of stereotypes in the selection and acceptance of female leaders.

As Carter & Silva (2010) point out, there are several stereotypes about women's behavior and goals that influences the selection and acceptance of female leaders. Some of the stereotypes about women include the myth that women will leave their positions to start families; the myth that women don't actually aspire to upper management; and the myth that there are regional differences that invalidate the gender bias argument altogether (Carter & Silva, 2010, p. 1). In fact, empirical research debunks each one of these myths and points to a deeper issue related to ongoing misogyny in the corporate world.

One of the prevailing stereotypes held by both men and women is that women are "better at stereotypically feminine 'caretaking skills' such as supporting and rewarding," and that men are better at the "taking charge" skills "such as influencing…

References

Amble, B. (2005). Gender stereotypes block women's advancement. Management Issues. 20 Oct, 2005. Retrieved online:  http://www.management-issues.com/2006/8/24/research/gender-stereotypes-block-womens-advancement.asp 

Carter, N.M. & Silva, C. (2011). Delusions of progress. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:6KLe4O9kjt8J:www.maternity-coaching.co.uk/uploaded/articles/Delusions-of-Progress.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8377PPjIZHJNykWXmAosw1iHBGLouB-HxKWOLGcMmEB6OTs-ttb2jBosZ8iA146ZWRi18H1f8vmndEmZb0cAQJscorvhFFpG0vuSJI6U67tmnMghCykXqIMNqAdu-1SABk02n&sig=AHIEtbRKrIlENimvwKNBOYrekj9eGob39Q

King, S. (2012). Critical success factors for women leaders. Institute for Management Studies. Retrieved online:  http://www.ims-online.com/outline.asp?id=king1 

Marcus, L.P. (2010). Developing women leaders: Five factors that matter. Retrieved online: http://marcusventures.com/notebook/developing-women-leaders-five-factors-that-matter

Gendered Managerial Styles the Role
Words: 3258 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71532462
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Gender and Organizational Social Change Models

The increasing number of women in managerial positions represents a social change. Women are in these positions, and must earn their way to be accepted by both males and females. There are other changes within organizational styles that may be impacted by the entrance of more female managers into the workplace. For instance, the older authoritarian styles of the early part of the century are slowly being replaced by a more "team" approach (McGuire and Hutchings, 2006). These cultural changes within organizations represent a switch to an organizational culture that is more oriented towards the female managerial style. Male managers may need to soften their approach in order to make the transition to a "team oriented" organization.

The differences in the way in which males and females approach problems is an accepted paradigm in psychology. Historically, women have had difficulty adjusting to the male…

References

Aaltio, L. And Huang, J. 2007. Women managers' careers in information technology in China: high flyers with emotional costs? Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 2, pp. 227-244.

Akgun, a., Byrne, J., Lynn, G., and Keskin, H. 2007. Organizational unlearning as changes in beliefs and routines in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 6, pp. 794-812.

American Psychological Association (APA). 2006. When the Boss is a Woman. March 22, 2006. Psychology Matters. Available at  http://www.psychologymatters.org/womanboss.html 

Diefenbach, T. 2007. The managerialistic ideology of organisational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 1., pp. 126-144.

Gender Success in the Classroom
Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84222937
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Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3

This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.

urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.

This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…

Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.

Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.

gender discrimination and wage differential
Words: 1952 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55749132
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.....social injustice and inequality. First, literature related to the fundamentals of discrimination and descriptions of gender discrimination are discussed in the literature. Following a detailed discussion of what the literature says about gender discrimination, the literature review shifts toward the quantifiable effects of gender discrimination in the workplace. Effects are examined both in terms of measurable effects on organizations and individuals.

Fundamentals of Discrimination

Discrimination is unfortunately pervasive in the workplace. Described as an "inaccurate perception of differences," discrimination can be based on independent variables like race, gender, language, and other demographics (Cleveland, Vescio & Barnes-Farrell, p. 149). The differences perceived are "inaccurate," and also have a direct impact on status, access to power, and access to avenues of promotion or pay increases. Most literature frames discrimination as being "subtle and covert," well concealed from the realms of legal scrutiny, and often difficult to define precisely (Marchiondo, Ran & Cortina,…

Gender Differences in Coping with Stress
Words: 1829 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60310728
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1. What are the barriers that keep men from seeking counseling or therapy? What can break those barriers?
One of the barriers that keeps men from seeking counseling is masculinity itself. Sometimes referred to as toxic masculinity, this aspect of being a man involves the ego and the need for the man to feel that he is strong, capable of figuring out his own problems, and able to overcome adversity through resilience. From an early age, boys go through rituals that lead up to their coming of age moment, that defining moment when they believe that they have entered into manhood. To admit in one’s adulthood that he is in need of counseling can almost seem like a shock to one’s sense of masculinity (Kupers, 2005).
Not all men are going to be susceptible to this shock, but those who are will need support and understanding if they are to…

References
Jane, J. S., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C., & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 166.
Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Konarski, R. (1998). Components of Burnout, Resources, and Gender?Related Differences 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(12), 1088-1106.
Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309-328.
Dorak, M. T., & Karpuzoglu, E. (2012). Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: an inadequately addressed issue. Frontiers in genetics, 3, 268.
Maas, A. H., & Appelman, Y. E. (2010). Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Netherlands Heart Journal, 18(12), 598-603.
Small Arms Survey. (2016). A Gendered Analysis of Violent Deaths. Small Arms Survey Research Notes • Number 63. Retrieved from  http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/H-Research_Notes/SAS-Research-Note-63.pdf 
Thompson, A. E., Hart, J., Stefaniak, S., & Harvey, C. (2018). Exploring heterosexual adults’ endorsement of the sexual double standard among initiators of consensually nonmonogamous relationship behaviors. Sex Roles, 79(3-4), 228-238.
American Psychological Association. (2016). Self-Esteem Gender Gap More Pronounced in Western Countries. Retrieved from  https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2016/01/self-esteem-gender

Gender and Science
Words: 840 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22706559
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gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.

Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…

Works Cited

Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.

Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.

Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.

gender roles and norms article
Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 24877131
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Atlantic, the author outlines several issues using multiple case studies from the media. The issues cover the gamut of gender-related issues in the workplace, particularly focusing on equitable pay, structural inequality, and harassment. Because of the brevity of the piece, it is understandable that it might oversimplify several of the issues. However, generally the article offers insight into how the sociology of gender plays out in the real world.

One of the most interesting features in the article was a description of research showing that even office temperatures are determined by men. "the formula used to calculate standard office thermostat temperatures was biased, and based on the resting metabolic rate of a 40-year-old man who weighs 154 pounds," (Zhou, 2015). As a result, the ambient temperature of the office is designed for this "normative" person, and a normative person in a patriarchal society is a man. This interesting but simple…

References

Zhou, L. (2015). Year in Review: The Biggest Stories About Gender Inequality at Work.  http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/gender-equality-workplace-2015/422328/

gender neutrality in the military women combat
Words: 3211 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40810926
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Introduction

According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).

Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…

Gender and Sex in Anthropology
Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2216076
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Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu

Gender and Sex in Anthropology

Anthropology 203

A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu

Defining Sex and Gender

The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…

Works Cited

Cunningham, Clark E. "Indonesia." Countries and their Cultures, Volume 2. Eds. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1034-1056. Print.

Du, Shanshan. "Husband and Wife do it together": Sex/gender allocation of labor among the Qhawqhat lahu of Lancang, Southwest China." American Anthropologist 102.3 (200) [HIDDEN] Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

McIntyre, Matthew H. And Edwards, Carolyn P. "The Early Development of Gender Differences." Annual Review in Anthropology 38 (2009): 83-97. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

Parker, Lynette. "Engendering School Children in Bali." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.3 (1997): 497-516. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

Gender Pronouns and Their Problems
Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33062802
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Pronouns & Feminism

The structure and science behind the English language is enamoring and enthralling to some. However, others have both poignant yet valid concerns about how inherently biased the English language is constructed and used even in modern day parlance. To be sure, this perceived bias goes to the very root of the English language as there are no gender-neutral pronouns and there are ostensibly no grammatical or lingual ways around this. While not everyone's language cues and habits are intentional and malicious, the structure of English as being slanted towards males is obvious and undeniable.

As explained by McWhorter, making just about any statement that relates to a person usually has to have an identifier that is gender-specific. This presents a problem when the gender of the person being spoken of is not known. This is explained in the book when people are trying to explain without assumption…

Gender of the Perpetrator Has
Words: 1033 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76225534
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The first issue is the gender of the suspect. esearch found if the suspect is a female she is les apt to be viewed as a predator, or a threat to children.

This can be noted in several recent cases in the United States in which attractive female teachers have been accused of having sexual relations with their young male students. Jokes abound regarding those cases about whether it was actually sexual abuse or a dream come true for the young men. Had the teacher been male and the victims female, society would not think it was a joking matter.

The study tested three theories:

Hypothesis 1: Female police officers will rate child sexual abuse as more serious than male officers, will take more severe police action than male officers and will view the impact on the child as being greater than will male officers (Tyson, 2004).

Hypothesis 2: Police…

References

James, C. (2002, August 17). Church sex abuse inquiry. The Advertiser, 24.

The impact of perpetrator gender on male and female police officers' perceptions of child sexual abuse.(Australia)

Tyson, G.A. (2001) Psychiatry, Psychology and Law

Faulkner, N. (2002). Plea for children. Retrieved April 4, 2002, from http/ / www.prevent-abusenow.com/plea335.htm

psychology and'sociology gender inequality
Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80647589
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Gender biases and stereotypes persist at almost every level and in every area of society. Often, the differential treatment given to males and females is subtle and deeply ingrained, taken so much for granted that most people are unaware that they are perpetuating gender bias. For example, adults treat male and female children differently, speaking to them using different tones of voice, reacting differently to their actions, and showing subtle signs of approval or disapproval when the child does or does not conform to gender norms. Even parents who claim to be progressive and egalitarian unconsciously pass on gender norms and stereotypes because they are just reacting to children the way they have been programmed and patterned to act. Boys are expected to be more aggressive, more physical, and less sensitive or emotional than girls. Sometimes the differential treatment reverberates, leading to unequal treatment with meaningful life outcomes such as…

Gender Equity in Education
Words: 2281 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48240238
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Gender Equity in Education

Taking the Field: Women, Men and ports (Michael a. Messner)

Chapters One, Two, Three & Five

Women and men are clearly different, in ways far beyond mere physical composition, as Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus discusses in deep detail. But, the author (Messner, 2002) of Taking the Field: Women, Men and ports also wonders: where children are from, how children "do gender," how the American Youth occer Organization (AYO) does gender, and he wonders about the cultural symbolism of the process of sports. These are valid investigative questions.

Other questions posed by Messner: is gender a "thing" that one "is" or "has" - or is it situation-constructed through one's performance on the soccer field, for example? Those questions came to mind after the author witnesses the "Barbie Girls vs. ea Monsters" soccer contest - with "boys...unwittingly constituted as an audience for the girls"…

Self-esteem is covered in Chapter Four, with plenty of statistics. In elementary school, 67% of boys said "I'm happy the way I am." But by high school, the percentage of boys agreeing to that statement dropped 21 points, to 46%. And for girls, the drop was more dramatic: 60% said they were happy about themselves in elementary, but only 37% answered "affirmatively in middle school" (p. 78), and only 29% in high school. The authors develop this theme throughout the chapter (titled, "The Self-Esteem Slide"), concluding with this: "The girl who once laid claim to the top of the slide does not go into the playground anymore...no longer is she at the peak of her world...instead she walks cautiously, wary of the traps around her."

In Chapter Eight, the boys who rose to the top of the class in elementary now pay a price, and often "land at the bottom" in high school. And since boys have learned, from their "earliest days...a destructive form of division - how to separate themselves from girls," even though they now may fall short, they are still ahead of the game because "they are not girls."

These books are certainly legitimate and interesting, and clearly authentic works of scholarship. But if one is looking for a more thorough, more balanced view of boys and girls in the classrooms of 2003, and the dynamics created by social forces outside the classroom, further research might be advantageous.

Gender and Communication
Words: 2201 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21225189
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Gender Communications

The research question examined in this study poses the following question: "How does one person's behavior affect another person's behavior?" Specifically, this study is intended to assess the various mechanisms through which people communicate, both verbally and non-verbally. The study is intended to examine the different methods in which males vs. females communicate, and explore whether a difference in gender correlates with a different approach to communicate. Also examined is whether or not males or females are likely to be influenced by each others communication cues, and whether one gender is more influenced by certain settings/cues than the other.

Non-participant observation was the methodology selected for this study. Specifically, in order to best assess and observe gender relationships, our group decided to split the observations between two social settings: bars where people might "hang out" casually and the student center. Four members of our group went to Pete's…

References

Source 1: The Arts of Impression Management

Source 2: Studies of the Routine Grounds of Everyday Activities

Digby, Devin. Communication Minutes.

Mehta, Radhi. College Avenue Student Center, Food Court

Bias Bill Raises Concern About
Words: 376 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54440885
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he piece provides little in the way of background to the issue. Some of the key terms of poorly defined. Moreover there is little explanation of why this issue is considered to be important by either side. However, Schoeff does provide a strong overview of the current situation regarding this bill. He outlines that there are two sides and presents some of the arguments for each. It is easy to understand the implications of the bill from a managerial perspective, as to how it will affect managers should it pass.

For managers, the ramifications of the bill are clear. If the bill passes, they will need to make whatever accommodations are included. he bill's contents may place some managers in a difficult position if upper management stands in opposition to the bill's content and issues directives counter the bill. However, for most managers the bill is a non-issue. It merely…

The piece provides little in the way of background to the issue. Some of the key terms of poorly defined. Moreover there is little explanation of why this issue is considered to be important by either side. However, Schoeff does provide a strong overview of the current situation regarding this bill. He outlines that there are two sides and presents some of the arguments for each. It is easy to understand the implications of the bill from a managerial perspective, as to how it will affect managers should it pass.

For managers, the ramifications of the bill are clear. If the bill passes, they will need to make whatever accommodations are included. The bill's contents may place some managers in a difficult position if upper management stands in opposition to the bill's content and issues directives counter the bill. However, for most managers the bill is a non-issue. It merely ensconces in law a concept they already work with, and have applied to other groups in the past.

Schoeff, Mark Jr. (2007). Bias Bill Raises Concerns About Gender Identity. Workforce Management.

Gender & Altruism Assessing the
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While it was not found that there are significant differences in one's gender and his/her altruistic behavior, it is important to note that the respondents' responses demonstrated that it is not empathy that is the main criterion that one uses in determining one's propensity to become altruistic towards others, but rather, more about feeling "at one with the other" (that is, the other person) (Cialdini et. al., 1997:483).

The feeling of being "at one with the other" is an important concept that must be taken into consideration in understanding altruism. What the findings showed is that altruism is best assessed not by the degree of help that one gives to the other, nor the feeling of empathy that is generated from the situation or scenario presented. The concept of oneness is found to be significant with the assessment of altruistic behavior (Maner et. al., 2002:1605). In the scenarios mentioned earlier,…

Bibliography

Cialdini, R., S. Brown, B. Lewis, C. Luce, and S. Neuberg. (1997). "Reinterpreting the empathy-altruism relationship: when one into one equals oneness." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 73, No. 3.

Maner, J., C. Luce, S, Neuberg, R. Cialdini, S. Brown, and B. Sagarin. (2002). "The effects of perspective taking on motivations for helping: still no evidence for altruism." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 11.

Gender in Sports in the
Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9741790
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Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…

Works Cited

Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial

and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard

Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.

"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4

Biases in Decision-Making Biases Refer to Prejudices
Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79274715
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Biases in Decision-Making

Biases refer to prejudices or favors of or against an object, group, or individual in comparison to another (Moule, 2009). This aspect is normally unfair in relation to making critical as well as effective judgment or decisions. On the other hand, unconscious biases refer to our natural people preferences. Unconscious biases also relate to the concept of hidden biases in the process of making unfair decision. Unconscious biases have massive influence on the underpinnings with reference to the decision-making process. It is critical for individuals to overcome unconscious biases in order to make valuable and fair decisions in accordance with relevant activities.

Discuss how biases can affect our decision-making during the hiring process

Biases have massive influence on our decision-making in the process of hiring new employees in the context of an organization. Biases influence our decision-making when hiring new employees in several ways. One of the…

References

Messner, C., Wanke, M., & Weibel, C. (2011). Unconscious Personnel Selection. Social Cognition, 29(6), 699-710.

Moule, J. (2009). Understanding Unconscious Bias and Unintentional Racism. (Cover story).

Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 320-326.

Parloff, R., & Kaufman, S.M. (2007). The War Over Unconscious Bias. Fortune, 156(8), 90-

Gender Judging Mothers Although Women
Words: 1388 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47608326
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After a literature review of existing studies on the subject, "we have clear indications that breast-feeding helps prevent an extra incident of gastrointestinal illness in some kids -- an unpleasant few days of diarrhea or vomiting, but rarely life-threatening in developed countries" noted Hana osin in a controversial article in The Atlantic (osin 2009). Despite graphic public advertisements that link breast-feeding with putting a child at great medical risk, the evidence is less certain than one might assume. Although breast-feeding has been credited with everything from improving babies' IQs to preventing obesity, the ability to prevent these conditions with breast-feeding remains uncertain, particularly when women's economic status is taken into consideration when evaluating the studies (osin 2009).

Cultural biases against trusting a woman to actively make choices about how they will be mothers may have more to do with the censure of women who choose to discount so-called common wisdom…

References

Baram, Marcus. (2006). Moms-to-be get mixed message about drinking. ABC News.

Retrieved June 30, 2011 at  http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=2654849&page=1 

Hanley, J.J. (2002). Refrigerator mothers. PBS: POV. Retrieved June 30, 2011 at  http://www.pbs.org/pov/refrigeratormothers/interview.php 

Italy launches cocktail glass poster. (2011). The Telegraph. Retrieved June 30, 2011 at  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/7764241/Italy-launches-foetus-in-cocktail-glass-poster-to-stop-women-drinking.html

Gender Selection
Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79485112
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gender selection ETHICS

History attests to the fact that couples from oyal families down to rural peasants have shown preference for a male child leading to numerous problems for the girl child and creating a sex ratio imbalance in some traditional societies. When preference for a male child is more pronounced and obvious, any method that can allow a couple to choose the gender of their unborn child is likely to create tremendous potential for gender discrimination and sex-ratio imbalance. Sex-selection or gender-selection as it is commonly known as is one such method that threatens to put female children at risk of being outnumbered by their male counterparts. The pre-conception gender selection techniques along with some other means of choosing the gender of the unborn child has come under severe criticism because of the ethical issues they raise. We must understand that while preference for a specific sex is limited…

References

Clark Liana R. 1985. "Sex Preselection: The Advent of the Made-to-Order Child." The Pharos, Fall, pp. 2-7

Elizabeth Mathiot-Moen-author; Annette Burfoot - editor Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies Publisher: Westview Press. Boulder, CO. 1999.

Fletcher John C. 1980."Ethics and Amniocentesis for Fetal Sex Identification." Hastings Center Report 10: 15-18.

Gargan Edward A. 1991. "Ultrasonic Tests Skew Ratio of Births in India." New York Times, June 13.

Gender and Sexaulity There Is
Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63395672
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hereas the trial began in the early 2000s, matters escalated across time and thousands of employees have gotten actively engaged in solving their problems with almart. The company is likely to lose billions of dollars out of this enterprise (Goudreau).

It is difficult to determine when a person is being discriminated because of his or her gender. Many tend to mistake casual actions for discrimination, this happening because people have gotten used to have their behavior governed by stereotypes. It is actually hard for someone today not to associate particular matters with things that he or she has seen in other people. Society needs to understand that women are not bad drivers and that it is not normal for men to financially support women.

The feminist movement mainly relies on the concept of a woman and everything that it stands for. Feminists are not necessarily fueled by their desire to…

Works cited:

Goudreau, Jenna, "Walmart Faces The Largest Sex Discrimination Lawsuit In U.S. History," Retrieved July 28, 2011, from the Forbes Website:  http://blogs.forbes.com/work-in-progress/2010/04/27/wal-mart-faces-the-largest-sex-discrimination-lawsuit-in-u-s-history/ 

Mcclain, Linda C. "Some ABCs of Feminist Sex Education," Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15.1 (2006)

"Gender Discrimination - Further Readings," Retrieved July 28, 2011, from the Law Library Website:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/12485/Gender-Discrimination.html

Gender and Family Gender and
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The pressures created by single parenting and more specifically the need, by women to contribute economically to the household has also correlated to increase in crime among girls and boys. It is also clear that as the gender roles and expectations of girls as opposed to boys changes and in many ways overlaps there will and have been logical increases in the number of girls in the system and generally experiencing acts of juvenile delinquency.

Many link the decrease in the gap between violent offences among girls and boys to social change, often associated with the lack of paternal involvement. Yet, it is also true that the same can be said of boys, as boys without paternal involvement are much more likely than those with it to offend, in a myriad of ways. Yet, more common "split" and single parent situations are demonstrative of increased female offences. (Schaffner, 2006, p.…

References

Bridges, G.S. & Myers, M.A. (Eds.). (1994). Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, a., Rutter, M., & Silva, P.A. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Peters, S.R. (2001, December). Relationships' Role in Female Juvenile Delinquency. Corrections Today, 63, 76.

Schaffner, L. (2006). Girls in Trouble with the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Gender Race and Constitutional Change
Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83041050
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The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)

Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…

Bibliography

Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at  http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7635.html 

Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),

Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)

Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)

Gender Wage Gap There Are Many Different
Words: 803 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72216221
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Gender Wage Gap

There are many different types of bias within the working environment. At times, one had to be a white-male to be a manger in many organizations. The wage-gender gap, or the discrepancies between equally qualified men and women, has diminished in many career paths, but still exists. The "glass ceiling" clearly remains a powerful force within the workplace. Qualified women are blocked from upper-level managerial positions, but their absence at the very top skews the curve when they are clustered in the middle. It seems that it takes about 30% penetration of women managers to begin to more rapidly move the distribution effect, suggesting that now; women remain concentrated in workplace settings with lower wages -- in almost every industry (Cohen and Huffman, 2007, 699).

Ernst and Young, a major accounting firm, realizes that it is in their best interest to find new and innovative ways to…

Sources:

Accounting for Good People: Talent Management. (July 21, 2007). Galegroup. Retrieved from:  http://www.galegroup.com .

Collinson, David and Jeff Hearn. (1994). Men, Women, and Organizations. Gender,

Work and Organization. 1(1): 2-22.

Hymowitz, C. (June 14, 2007). Coaching Men on Mentoring Women is Ernst and Young

Bias and Colorblindness Effects of Implicit Bias
Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46269924
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Bias and Colorblindness

Effects of implicit bias in contemporary society

Implicit bias involves the stereotypical associations which are very subtle that those who hold them are not able to recognize them. Implicit bias has some effects on gender and race within the contemporary society. Implicit bias has an influence on people's behavior. Implicit bias is responsible for most of the racial disparities that continue to occur in the society today.it is also termed as a source of a lot of racial disparities when it comes to criminal justice system. It has been found out that most of the people including those who fully embrace norms of nondiscrimination hold implicit biases which make them treat black Americans in ways that are discriminatory. At the same time, implicit bias can also lead to gender-based discrimination. This is because there are some stereotypical associations made with reference to one gender being better than…

Gender Differences in Depression Among
Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 62481007
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Low socioeconomic status brings with it many concerns and stressors, including uncertainty about the future and less access to community and health care resources. Money and power issues contribute to feelings of passivity, negativism and lack of self-esteem, all of which contribute to depression.

In addition, women are more likely to be sexually abused as children (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2006). And victims of sexual abuse are more likely to experience depression at some point in their lives than are those who weren't abused. This means that female undergraduates who were sexually abused have a higher incidence of depression than their male counterparts.

This paper aims to analyze some of the fundamental cultural links to women's depression in college, and compare depression rates of females to males.

Hypothesis

While most experts agree that understanding gender differences in depression is important, many believe that it is also important…

Bibliography

William E. Kelly,  http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Kathryn+E.+Kelly " Kathryn E. Kelly,  http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Franklin+C.+Brown " Franklin C. Brown,  http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Hillary+B.+Kelly " Hillary B. Kelly. (March, 1999). Gender Differences in Depression Among College Students: A Multi-Cultural Perspective.

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (September 20, 2006). Depression in women: Understanding the gender gap. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/MH/00035.html.

Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Girgus, Joan S. (May, 1994). The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence. Psychological Bulletin. Vol 115(3), 424-443.

Shields, S.A. (2000). Thinking about gender, thinking about theory: Gender and emotional experience. In a. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 3-23). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gender Age Educational Level &
Words: 7940 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 12858550
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A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.

In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.

Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…

Taking from Maharishi Vedic Science, the Unified Field chart described above asserts that because pure consciousness, the home of all the Laws of Nature, is the most fundamental level of all material creation, including human psychology development, the integration of pure consciousness into all aspects of the individual should maintain the moral development. This phenomenon is confirmed in previous research studies on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This section describes another chart, called a Richo Akshare chart, which provides further illumination of this phenomenon.

In Maharishi Vedic Science, Richo Akshare charts show how the essence of all the disciplines of modern science are located within the structure of the Richo Akshare verse of Rk Veda. Maharishi (1995) explains that the fundamental Laws of Nature comming from the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are accountable for the whole material creation.

According to Maharishi (1997), the Richo Akshare verse explains that all knowledge exists in Transcendental Consciousness, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature, responsible for everything in the universe. Individuals who lack access to Transcendental Consciousness do not get support from the Laws of Nature. Those who can practice Transcendental Consciousness gain enlightenment and full supported by Nature Law.

Gender Media Culture What Is
Words: 1783 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36110239
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These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.

Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.

When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…

Gender and International Relations International
Words: 10127 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58775378
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57).

Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).

If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.

On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…

Bibliography

Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gender Differences in Business
Words: 3913 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26083833
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Gender Attitudes in Business Students

An Analysis of Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes Relative to Gender and Professions

Significance and Conclusion

There is a body of evidence that suggests many disparities in the representation of gender in certain segments of the academic and business professions. For example, previous research has indicated that women, on average, are less likely to attend business school than males and are also less likely to hold high-ranking positions in organizations. Although there are many factors that are involved in such trends, and many societies have made significant progress towards minimizing the gender gaps, there is still much to be understood about the challenges that women face into entering into certain professions. This research will consider whether there is differences inherent in the genders that could help explain the outcomes that have been observed in various professions. The proposal outlines a research plan that will investigate differences…

Works Cited

Brandt, T., & Laiho, M. (2013). Gender and personality in transformational leadership context: An examination of leader and subordinate perspectives. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 44-66.

Copen, C. (2008). TRANSMISSION AND TRANSITIONS: YOUNG ADULTS' BELIEFS, VALUES AND LIFE COURSE TRANSITIONS IN FAMILIAL CONTEXT. University of Southern California, 1-47.

Kennedy, J., & Kray, L. (2014). Who Is Willing to Sacrifice Ethical Values for Money and Social Status?: Gender Differences in Reactions to Ethical Comprimises. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 52-59.

Mumford, M., Helton, W., Decker, B., Connelly, M., & Van Doorn, J. (2003). Values and Beliefs Related to Ethical Decisions. Teaching Business Ethics, 139-170.

workplace and gender discrimination
Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49906431
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.....social injustice and inequality. First, literature related to the fundamentals of discrimination and descriptions of gender discrimination are discussed in the literature. Following a detailed discussion of what the literature says about gender discrimination, the literature review shifts toward the quantifiable effects of gender discrimination in the workplace. Effects are examined both in terms of measurable effects on organizations and individuals.

Fundamentals of Discrimination

Discrimination is unfortunately pervasive in the workplace. Described as an "inaccurate perception of differences," discrimination can be based on independent variables like race, gender, language, and other demographics (Cleveland, Vescio & Barnes-Farrell, p. 149). The differences perceived are "inaccurate," and also have a direct impact on status, access to power, and access to avenues of promotion or pay increases. Most literature frames discrimination as being "subtle and covert," well concealed from the realms of legal scrutiny, and often difficult to define precisely (Marchiondo, Ran & Cortina,…

Sex Gender
Words: 1679 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55696312
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Sex and Gender

Six Feet Under is unique among American television shows in its depiction of sex and gender. Because it is an HBO cable series, the writers are offered considerable leeway in the use of partial nudity and coarse language. Ironically, however, Alan Ball, the writer/executive producer/creator of Six Feet Under, keeps the show relatively free of gender bias or stereotypes. Moreover, depictions of sexuality in the series are realistic and tasteful, not nearly as sensationalized as they are often shown on network television. Episode 13, entitled "Knock, Knock" aired November 16, 2003. This episode is particularly revealing in demonstrating that Alan Ball's critically acclaimed show Six Feet Under quite accurately reflects the mores, folkways, and values in American culture, including those that have to do with sexuality and gender. hile most shows on network television do drive American culture by imparting a sense of consumer-based identity on male…

Works Cited

Knock, Knock." Episode 13 of Six Feet Under. Written, Directed, and Produced by Alan Ball.

The Role Media Plays in Relation to Gender Stereotypes
Words: 4863 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20538188
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Introduction

By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…

Does a Person's Gender Affect Their Views on Cloning
Words: 3814 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54211973
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Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.

It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…

Works Cited

America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.

Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."

Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,

IL.

U S Military Bias Challenges Present
Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24746136
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Homosexuals of either gender don't really have that option. The "don't ask, don't tell" policy has been rendered impotent if not downright illegal by various Supreme Court rulings, and yet the military's stance on the subject remains ambiguous. Before the institution of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy, under which individuals were not to be asked about their homosexual desires or activities nor to discuss them with anyone, the number of people who had been discharged from the military for engaging in homosexual acts -- which is still grounds for a discharge -- had been steadily decreasing. After the policy was officially implemented, discharges for homosexuality became more regular, and were on the increase until just recently (Burelli & Feder 2009). Though the Supreme Court has rendered discrimination based on sexual orientation a violation of basic civil rights, such discrimination continues.

The various branches of the United States military claim…

References

Enrst, R. & Gilbeau, R. (1993). "Gender bias in the Navy." Naval postgraduate school. Accessed 24 September 2009. http://www.stormingmedia.us/42/4258/A425862.html

Burelli, D. & Feder, J. (2009). "Homosexuals and the U.S. The military: Current issues." Congressional research service. Accessed 24 September 2009. http://ftp.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL30113.pdf

Culture Bias in Intelligence Assessments
Words: 4715 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78028729
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Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment

Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.

The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.

We…

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Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132.

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Women's and Gender Studies
Words: 3367 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70447437
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omen and Gender Studies

Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…

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Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins

Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.

Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female

Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):

Sociology Gender Is a Vital
Words: 4274 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2966477
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Probable causes accounting for this are a holdup in the identification of cardiovascular ailment in women might not be enough to reveal medical implication. Variation in the accepted chronology of coronary arterial ailments is found in the genders, especially connected with the effect of menopause. Age of appearance, appearing of signs, influence of different causes of danger, and results of treatment vary between the sexes. (Tecce; Dasgupta; Doherty, 22)

In general, coronary artery ailment occurs 10 years past in life in women compared to men, and the median age for MI in case of women is approximately 20 years older, branding coronary heart ailment which affects elderly women. The causes for these disparities is not wholly intelligible, even if the prevalence of the sickness of coronary artery in women in the fertility years becomes low, signifying that endogenous hormones seems to exercise a defensive part beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women rapidly…

References

Barnett, Rosalind C. Gender, Job Stress and Illness. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors. Volume 2; No: 1; 2000; pp: 1-34; 77

Carmel S; Bernstein JH. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel. International Journal of Age and Human Development. Volume: 56; No; 2; 2003; pp: 113-131

Deborah, Gesensway. Reasons for Sex-Specific and Gender-Specific Study of Health Topics. The Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001; Volume: 135; No: 1; pp: 935-938.

Evangelista LS; Kagawa-Singer, M; Dracup K. Gender Differences in Health Perceptions and Meaning in Persons Living with Heart Failure. Heart Lung. Volume: 30; No: 3; May-June 2001; pp: 167-176

Class and Gender
Words: 4228 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11311644
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Oppression of Class And Gender

Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)

According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.

All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."

(MAX WEER: asic Terms)

Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…

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"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. ( http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html )

Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. (  http://www.questia.com )

Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. ( http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937 

"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.

Women and Gender International Human Rights
Words: 5450 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39241588
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International Human ights, Women and Gender

International Human ights: Women and Gender

Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).

Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).

The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…

References

Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.

Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.

CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.

CEDAW. (2010). General recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations Publications.

Male Bias in the Development Process an Overview
Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 90346709
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Male Bias

Until the 1970s and 1980s, women were largely ignored by policy makers on the national and internal levels, while neoclassical economic models assumed that the aggregate income of households would be shared equally between men and women. More recent research has proven these assumptions to be false, and that the conflict model of household economics is more the norm in reality. Economists and government statisticians also failed to recognize the value of women's unpaid labor in domestic and reproductive work, or that Structural Adjustment Programs imposed by the International Monetary Fund had a disproportionately negative effect on women. In addition, even in the formal sectors of the economy, women's labor was generally low-paid, unskilled and insecure compared to men. Feminist theorists have demonstrated that gender relations are "socially determined" (Elson 1) and that development issues cannot be considered apart from these. For this reasons, economists and social planners…