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Clinical Psychology and Gender Dysphoria
Advancement of Clinical Psychology with Gender Dysphoria
Clinical psychology is recognized as a psychology branch that deals with the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior, mental illness, and psychiatric problems (Brennan, 2003). Clinical psychology integrates the science of psychology with treatment of complicated human problems, which makes it a challenging and rewarding field. American psychologist Lightner Witmer introduced the term in 1907. Witmer defined clinical psychology as a field that studies individuals by experimentation or observation, with the intent of promoting change. A clinical psychologist will try to reduce any psychological distress suffered by a patient and enhance their psychological well-being. Previously clinical psychology focused on the psychological assessment of the patients, and there was little or no attention been paid to treatment. This scenario changed after World War II in the 1940s because there was increased demand for trained clinicians. A clinical psychologist will…… [Read More]
Review of a Peer-Reviewed Article
The article by Kaltiala-Heino, Bergman, Tyolajarvi and Frisen (2018) examines the literature available on gender dysphoria (GD) and the need to better understand the phenomenon of adolescents seeking hormonal treatment as teens while having psychiatric comorbidity. Because of a lack of understanding of the role that GD plays in the current trend of requesting hormonal therapy, the authors of this article saw a need to consolidate available information on GD, hormonal therapy, and adolescents with psychiatric comorbidity receiving hormonal therapy. The aim of the article is to provide more insight into what is actually known about this phenomenon and how doctors, psychologists, and patients should proceed. The article is well-written and focused on explaining the major issues at play and why they are important. As such, it should be viewed as an important source of information that is both non-biased and informative. As there is…… [Read More]
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170
Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…… [Read More]
As a result Cuypere et al. conducted a study which evaluated the physical and sexual health of individuals that received reassignment surgery. The participants were 107 Dutch speaking participants that had the surgery between 1986 and 2001 (Cuypere et al. 2005).
The results demonstrate that those participants going form Female-to-males had more problems establishing a secure relationship following the transition (Cuypere et al. 2005). In fact the study found that a third of the female-to-males did not have a sexual partner following the surgery even though their sexual drives were intact (Cuypere et al. 2005). The results also found that in spite of the fact that participants had masculine presentations and sex organs, many of them steered clear of a relationship with a potential partner. This avoidance was present because he participants were not yet confident in their maleness (Cuypere et al. 2005). The study also found that when transsexual…… [Read More]
They also offer the word of warning, however, that in being culturally loaded, this position may also be subject to future change. That is, where cultural perceptions of sexual and gender-orientation differences may actually regress, the risk of remedicalization of these conditions remains present. The article does point out that there remain a number of ideologically entrenched groups dedicated to the therapeutic treatment of homosexuality and gender-orientation differences as medical conditions. However, this cautionary note does not overshadow the more generally positive findings of this discussion, which indicate that changes in the therapeutic and medical communities reflect a broader cultural thrust toward equal perception and treatment of those with gender and sexuality orientation differences.
Beredjick, C. (2012). DSM-V to Rename Gender Identity Disorder 'Gender Dysphoria.' Advocate.com.
Bryant, K. (2006). Making Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood: Historical Lessons for Contemporary Debates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(3).
Conrad, P.…… [Read More]
.....individual's level of sexual identity development relates to their level of job satisfaction depends on numerous variables -- such as the confidence with which one identifies their sexuality, the degree to which that identity is accepted among peers, and the extent to which that identity places one as a minority. As the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (n.d.) indicates, "Minorities also tend to be at a disadvantage in terms of job rewards, which no doubt has an impact on their job satisfaction as well as career advancement in the long run" (p. 62). The issue therefore is one of whether the individual's sexual identity is a cause of tension or stress both for the individual and for colleagues. To the extent that it is an issue, the individual's job satisfaction is likely to be comparably impacted.
The functions of heterosexual privilege are 1) to enable heterosexuals to maintain a high…… [Read More]
The ACP (2016) is absolutely correct that gender ideology harms children: binary sexuality is a fact of nature and a lifetime of chemical alteration of the body in order to adjust it to meet the symptoms of the child's gender dyshphoria should be viewed as child abuse. Children who do not understand the relation between gender and sexuality are confused and need to be educated not made worse by suppressing puberty and the body's natural release of hormones.
The genetic makeup of a human is a pure definition of sexuality and gender is really just the awareness of one's sex -- it is, therefore, a sociological and psychological concept rather than a biological one. Sex is biological -- gender is conceptual. With that said, as the ACP points out, just because a child identifies as a third gender does not mean that a third sex has developed. The…… [Read More]
' These stressors are distinct and separate from the stressors related to understanding one's own identity and gender orientation which, if treated properly, should be reconciled without ever attacking the core 'rightness' or 'wrongness' of one's gender orientation.
This denotes, and Bryant supports this interpretation, that therapy has not only failed gender variant individuals through its application of past DSM classification but that it has been destructive to the mental health and identity reconciliation of many gender-variant individuals. Bryant "shows how critiques have been central in shaping both the diagnosis and the evaluation and treatment practices associated with it, but that these critiques have often been incorporated in ways that jettison their most important critical components. Further by focusing on adult sexual outcomes (homosexuality), a frame initially developed by the gender researchers themselves, critics have largely missed an opportunity to rethinkl menta health support for gender-variant children in terms of…… [Read More]
A transvestite is a person who sometimes feels the need to dress and behave as a member of the opposite sex. The majority of transvestites are men who like to dress as women; however, some women dress up as men, as well. In addition, the vast majority of male transvestites like being men. They do not feel as if they are women trapped in male bodies, nor do they desire to become female by taking hormones or having surgery to remove their male genitals. Men who do feel uncomfortable with being male are said to have gender dysphoria. If they become unhappy and feel the need to change their gender, they are called transsexuals. Some women have gender dysphoria and seek to change their sex, but they are a small minority of transsexuals. This paper will discuss why people cross-dress, types of people who cross-dress, how to cross-dress, and…… [Read More]
Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities
One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…… [Read More]
How this related to other ideas on the subject?
When you look at other ideas on the subject, it is clear that those people who are suffering from gender dysphoria, have other conditions that are affecting them as well. Where, psychologist Richard Carroll has identified a number of issues that need to be examined when someone suffers from these conditions. To include: helping patients understand themselves, letting them know what options they have available, looking for other conditions they could suffer from and establishing life goals. This is significant, because this information can be used to show how the school handled the situation wrong. Where, if Rivers was sent to counseling once he expressed these intentions, the odds would have declined dramatically that he would violate the wishes of the school board. As the counseling, would address the underlying psychological decisions that were pushing him to make this…… [Read More]
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Gregory, E., Long, S., & Volk, D. (Eds.). (2004). Many Pathways to Literacy: Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers, and Communities. New York: outledgeFalmer.
Manson, S.M., Bechtold, D.W., Novins, D.K., & Beals, J. (1997). Assessing Psychopathology in American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Adolescents. Personality and Social Psychology eview, 1(3), 135-144.
King, Patricia M. And Kitchener, Karen S. (1994). Developing eflective Judgment: Understanding and Promoting Intellectual Growth and Critical Thinking in Adolescents and Adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
eese, H.W. & Franzen, M.D. (Eds.). (1997). Biological and Neuropsychological Mechanisms: Life-Span…… [Read More]
HD is extremely debilitating, and if the patient lives long enough, the symptoms can become extremely severe. It is not uncommon for patients who suffer from the disease to suffer extreme depression and sometimes suicide, so developing medications that could delay or slow the disease are extremely important, and laboratory testing should definitely continue in this area.
Laboratory work in the past decades has helped develop a much deeper understanding of the disease. A group of writers note, "Within the last 4 decades, great strides have been made that have furthered our understanding of the neural bases of HD" (Montoya, Price, Menear and Lepage 2006). This is also extremely important in the understanding and eventual eradication of the disease.
All of these results are extremely positive for families who know they suffer from the disease, and for hopefully preventing the disease in the future. Without laboratory testing and research, many…… [Read More]