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Gender Stratification in the orkplace
The Experience of Gender in Gender-Biased Professions
Ruth Simpson interviewed 40 males working in the female-dominated professions of primary school teachers, flight attendants, nursing, and librarians to better understand their experiences. Of those interviewed, only two found their career choice unsatisfactory and had plans to leave (356). The rest were glad they chose or stumbled upon their current career.
Simpson contrasted the experiences of male flight attendants, nurses, librarians, and primary school teachers with the theory that minority workers are generally penalized by increased performance expectations, isolation, and limited opportunities for promotion (352). Researchers have shown that women in a male-dominated workplace suffer from what has been called 'token' status. A token female employee's high visibility often increases the pressure to perform at levels above their male peers, their isolation as male employees exaggerate the differences between men and women, and stereotyping which tends to…
Simpson, Ruth. "Masculinity at Work: The Experiences of Men in Female Dominated Occupations." Work, Employment, and Society 18.2 (2004): 349-368. Print.
While the issue has become a states' issue, the main objection to narrowly construing marriage as a union between a man and a woman (as the Defense of Marriage Act, 1996 does) is based on substantive due process available under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
. Therefore most of the efforts in this regard are aimed at re-establishing these parameters.
3. Talk about sexism in the workplace. ave you ever experienced discrimination based on your gender. (female)
As a woman I have had some nasty run-ins with sexism in my brief employment history. As a part time clerk in Blockbuster I was often ostracized by my male colleagues who would be in a world of their own cracking sexist jokes at my expense. I reported this to my manager but he told me to suck it up and he did so with such relish. Over the summer I…
Homophobia is extremely widespread in American society and most of us do not realize when it happens or when we overstep those boundaries. For example in almost every sitcom on TV there is always a character that is straight but fits some of the gay stereotypes. To elucidate that point consider Ted in "How I met your mother?" Throughout the adventures of Ted Mosby and his friends, someone or the other accuses Ted of being gay and Ted is hard pressed to prove otherwise. One of my close friends tried really hard not to be homophobic, but the very expression on her face when she saw same sex couples gave away years of continuous religious propaganda against homosexuality.
For more on this see Roscoe, Will (2000). Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America. Palgrave Macmillan
55 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1161 (1988) Sexual Orientation and the Constitution: A Note on the Relationship between Due Process and Equal Protection; Sunstein, Cass R.
The average percentages went like this:
Cooking - Men 25%, Women 45%, Both 30%
Laundry - Men 35%, Women 40%, Both 25%
Cleaning - Men 25%, Women 25%, Both 50%
Taking out the Garbage - Men 70%, Women 10%, Both, 20%
Lawn Care - Men 95%, Women 5%, Both 5%
Child related scenarios - Men 25%, Women 30%, Both 45%
These percentages were based upon each subjects own determination of themselves. Considering the ratios, it would appear that there still lies a certain amount of domestic responsibility leaning toward the females. The males appeared to continue doing the heavier responsibilities, such as mowing the lawn or taking out the garbage. These ratios would almost lead one to believe that there are a lot of the stereotypical roles associated with each gender. However, I would stand firm in believing that these ratios are likely to be much more offset as compared…
However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.
Power and identity are both socially…
Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.
Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.
Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.
Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…
Cooper, Pamela. The Fictions of John Fowles: Power, Creativity, Femininity. Canada: University of Ottowa Press, 1991. Print.
Dwelle, Josh. "Ian McEwan." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Fowles, John. The Collector. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963. Print.
Gindin, James. "John Fowles." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Sociology Questions elating to Gender and Culture
The media has made significant efforts to demonstrate non-bias with regards to gender in advertising as part of efforts to promote gender equality. While the media may attempt to communicate non-bias messages relating to gender and advertising, there is a considerable amount of information that communicates the exact opposite. The need for communicating a message of non-bias when it comes to gender and advertising is not only attributed to efforts to promote gender equality but also efforts towards preventing gender discrimination. Notably, there are different sociological approaches in relation to gender and research. Some of these sociological approaches are applied in advertising and the media and continue to take place in the United States despite the various attempts by the media.
There are varying sociological approaches when it comes to gender and research since sociologists explain gender roles using different theoretical perspectives. Some…
"Ray-Ban's 'Never Hide' Campaign Features Gay Male Couple For First Time." (2012, April 26). Huffpost Gay Voices. The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/26/ray-ban-never-hide-campaign-gay_n_1456315.html
"The Sociology of Gender." (n.d.). Chapter 1 -- Theoretical Perspectives and Feminist Frameworks. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0132448300.pdf
The referent methods of collecting data are summative to the two key positions of the same sex in the society. Some of the methods used included sampling, interviews, issuance of questionnaires and used of printed or secondary data.
Samples were collected from different members of the society. The samples collected were directed reactions to the issue of the same sex in the society. Most approaches of collection that were used aimed at establishing a common ground and avoiding bias from the concerned members. The samples were collected from a diverse society. The researchers ensured that the samples came from different members with regard to religion, race, social meanings and avenues, and social classes. Furthermore, the samples were collected from a diverse society in order to ensure that they were a true reflection of the real state of matter in the world as concerns same sex marriage.
Cantor, D.J. (2006). Same-sex marriage: The legal and psychological evolution in America.
Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press.
Corvino, J. (1999). Same sex: Debating the ethics, science, and culture of homosexuality journal. Vol. 5, Issue 1, Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.
Corvino, J., & Gallagher, M. (2012). The great debate: Debating same-sex marriage journal. Vol. 5
Race/Ethnicity or Sex/Gender as Socially Constructed Categories
Sociological ethnicity and race theories have been dictated by the social construct metaphor, which indicates that these theories are ideological groups that serve to conceal the actual social structural principles. The above notion is a problematical one as it ignores the context wherein ethnicity and race function as bases of social significance as well as working material exclusion principles (Smaje, 1997). While gender and sex are words that are frequently employed interchangeably, their meanings are, in fact, different. Sex represents a categorization on the basis of biological dissimilarities -- for instance, dissimilarities between females and males grounded in their physiology or anatomy. On the other hand, gender represents a categorization on the basis of the societal creation and preservation of cultural differences between females and males. That is, gender denotes a social concept pertaining to culture-bound conduct, rules, and roles for, and relations…
Ford, C. L., & Harawa, N. T. (2010). A new conceptualization of ethnicity for social epidemiologic and health equity research. Social Science & Medicine, 1-8.
Frable, D. E. (1997). Gender, racial, ethnic, sexual, and class identities. Annual Review of Psychology.
LM, H., & DG, B. (2006). Sex/Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Health. In Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Assessing Interactions Among Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health.
R., A. (1990). Sex, gender and the individual. In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 486-526.
statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.
Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…
Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology
Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.
Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That
Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
With the death of the male member of the family, this family is forced to be together, and it is through their unity that they are only able to make themselves stronger individually. The image of a grieving family demonstrated the strength of the dead soldier (male) as an individual and the helplessness of each member of the family (specifically, women and children) he has left behind.
Picture 4, meanwhile, highlighted a common stereotype associated against males as more dangerous and suspicious in character than females. This picture of Iraqi males being searched by soldiers serves to reinforce the concept of males being inherently physically threatening to society. They are thereby discriminated against and are met with greater caution and scrutiny in the society. Though it demonstrated male physical strength, it also portrayed society's inherent hostility and antagonism towards males.
The last picture evoked a similar effect as was shown…
Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Crash
Crash is a 2004 film that analyzes racial and social tensions that are rampant in society. Crash is divided into a series of vignettes that converge through a series of automobile accidents. The film features an all-star cast that includes Don Cheadle, Matt Dillon, Jennifer Esposito, Michael Pena, Chris Bridges, Sandra Bullock, Brendan Frasier, Terence Howard, Ryan Phillippe, Larenz Tate, and Thandie Newton. Issues of race and ethnicity, in addition to gender, can be seen in the storyline that involves Dillon, Phillipe, Howard, and Newton.
In the film, Matt Dillon plays racist LAPD Officer John Ryan and Ryan Phillipe is his more tolerant partner, Tom Hansen. In the film, Ryan and Hansen pull over TV director Cameron Thayer and his wife, Christine, because the vehicle that they are driving matches the description of a vehicle that was recently stolen. In the first encounter…
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…
"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. ( http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html )
Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com )
Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. ( http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937
"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
Bright Lights, Bobby Benedicto describes the urban gay subculture in Manila within the context of the "global scene." The points Benedicto makes in Under Bright Lights can be applied to variety of issues related to race, class, gender, and social power. Benedicto provides a sociological analysis of gay Manila primarily through a Marxist lens. The author endeavors to show how the "gay scene" has built itself unconsciously upon a pedestal of ironic privilege. With access to wealth and relative power, the urban gay comprise an "elite" that is contrary to the "laborer" lifestyle lived by most of their compatriots. When gay Philippino men travel abroad, they often do so on the trans-national network of "gay globality," the major urban centers with thriving gay subcultures. Benedicto claims that the gay subculture is reinforcing a class-based divide, an observation that may not be immediately apparent but which has a strong impact on…
Lucal, B. (1999). What it means to be gendered me. Gender and Society 13(6): 781-797.
ethnicity and stratification is of importance because modern society is culturally diverse, it is important to know what motivates various ethnic groups to strive for success and how social stratification plays a significant role in this process. The opportunity for training and furthering ones level of education is promising for individuals of all ethnicities. Providing there is some form of stratification system within society, it is likely that individuals will view this inequality as a motivational factor to undergo sacrifices and receive additional training for these jobs. This will facilitate individuals in these groups to achieve higher strata in society and be deemed successful. Social stratification is necessary in order to motivate ethnically diverse groups to train for more important jobs. There are three theories of stratification including, the functional theory of stratification, conflict theory and stratification and social interactionism and stratification. All three theories can relate to relationship between…
structure and content of the outline met the objectives of the assignment. I narrowed down the topic further to differentiate between Angelou and Cisneros because I recognized that Angelou sends her readers an optimistic message of self-empowerment, while Cisneros opts to use the medium of traditional storytelling more as a warning to women about how patriarchy strangles their power and self-reliance. Essentially, both send the same message using different media and different tones.
ace and gender are features that often determine access to power in a society. Moreover, race and gender are critical to personal identity formation, just as they locate an individual in the stratifications of the society.
Sandra Cisneros's short story "Woman Hollering Creek," and "Still I ise," a poem by Maya Angelou both make statements about race, power, and gender in America.
Author Backgrounds: Cisneros is a Chicano author and Maya Angelou is an African-American author and…
Angelou, M. (n.d.). Still I rise. Poem. Retrieved online: https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/still-i-rise
Cisneros, S. (n.d.). Woman hollering creek. Retrieved online: http://www.iaisp.uj.edu.pl/documents/1479490/29437798/Cisneros-Woman-HC-_02_V._Popescu.pdf
Garcia, A. (2014). Politics and indigenous theory in Leslie Marmon Silko's 'Yellow Woman' and Sandra Cisneros' 'Woman Hollering Creek.' In Folklore, Literature and Cultural Theory. Routledge.
Higashida, C. (2011). Reading Maya Angelou, reading black international feminism today. In Black International Feminism. University of Illinois Press.
Family and the Land" addresses gender roles and social structures in traditional rural Irish society. "Systems of kinship" are discussed liberally, as is the social construction of identity. Each individual maintains a network of social ties, and plays different roles in the society depending on the relationship and its ascription of status and hierarchy. Thus, a son is inferior to the father but superior to his own son or daughter.
Marriage in traditional Irish society forms the backbone of family and community life. Marriages are matches made for social expediency and political reasons, as well as for economic purposes. The marriage ritual confers adult status upon the young person and reaffirms a patriarchal social order. Moreover, marriage enables the legal transactions of inherited estates. Generally, large families hope for at least one son to marry well enough to create a situation in which the family farm possesses a clear heir.…
"The Family and the Land."
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
a&P by John Updike
The Themes of omen Empowerment and Modern vs. Traditional American Society in John Updike's A&P
The short story A&P by John Updike chronicles the contemporary American society and how it treats issues of social stratification among members of the society. ritten in the 1960s, A&P provides an insightful look at the dynamics of gender and socio-economic differences of people in American society. hat is remarkable about this literary work is that it discusses issues on social stratification in the eyes and viewpoint of Sammy, a young man who works at the convenience store A&P. Sammy's character is an interesting and essential factor that gives the issue of social stratification because he serves as Updike's 'commentator' on sensitive issues such as gender discrimination on women and the snobbish and oppressive nature of the elite class in the society. Through Sammy's eyes, Updike's audience is given a holistic…
Updike, J. A&P. Available at http://www.tiger-town.com/whatnot/updike/ .
Partner benefit is a subject matter that is highly taken into consideration by employees when seeking jobs and signing contracts. The subject matter of partner benefits is particularly of great significance to employees when being hired as also at the time of signing contracts. In contemporary times, benefits to partner has become an important aspect not only for success to a company but also for equality. This paper will seek to analyze two companies in the Fortune 500 list which are Wal-Mart and Procter & Gamble with regards to the manner in which they provide partner benefits.
How do the requirements for coverage for domestic partners, such as length of the relationship compare with requirements for benefits of married couples?
These two fortune 500 companies provide benefits to partner and make sure that there is equality and impartiality in the distribution of benefits to their employees and partners. For Wal-Mart…
Bell, M. (2012). Diversity in Organizations. Ohio: South-Western Cengage.
May, L. (2013). Local companies: Offering domestic partner benefits is good business. Frost Brown Todd Attorneys. Retrieved from: http://www.frostbrowntodd.com/newsroom-229.html
Sammer, J., Miller, S. (2013). The Future of Domestic Partner Benefits. Society for Human Resource Management.
Smith, P., Caputi, P., & Crittenden, N. (2012). A maze of metaphors around glass ceilings. Gender in Management: an international journal, 27(7), 436-448.
Children Learn Better in All Boys' or All Girls' Schools? Examining Potential Benefits of Single-Sex Education
Students are inundated with a wide number of distractions while in school. This often takes away from the success of their learning experience, and can result in lost opportunities, both academically and professionally. This has been the source of a great debate based on the concept of single-sex education in modern practice. This current research uses the Lock Model to explore the issue further. After reviewing the discourse, several conclusions can be made in regards to potential benefits of single-sex education combined with other factors like small class sizes and high teacher engagement.
The underlying research explores various factors in modern student experiences. It examines empirical studies, legal reviews, and previous contributions to the discourse. The underlying research question is: Do children learn better in a single-sex educational environment?
Hubbard, Lea & Datnow, Amanda. (2005). Do single-sex schools improve the education of low-income and minority students? An investigation of California's pubic single-gender academies. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(2), 115-131.
Robinson, Pamela & Smithers, Alan. (1997). Should the Sexes be Separated for Secondary Education? University of Buckingham. Web. http://wordpress.buckingham.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/ssreport.pdf
Sherwin, Galen. (2005). Single-sex schools and the antisegregation principle. NYU Review of Law & Social Change, 30(35), 35-88.
Simson, Gary J. (2005). Separate but equal and single-sex schools. Cornell Law Faculty Publications. Paper 17. http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/lsrp_papers/17
Today, kabuki retains a number of leading plays and theatrical groups. The conventional kabuki repertoire has about 300 plays, although others are being added. Play types range from the shosa-goto (dance-drama), to the jidai-mono (historical drama), and the sewa-mono (domestic drama) (University of Texas at Austin)
There are three main groups of kabuki plays. Many kabuki plays were adapted from the puppet theater (such as Chushingura and Tsubosaka-Dera), or the no and kyogen dramas (such as Zazen, Kanjincho, and Musume Dojoji. Kagotsurube is among plays written especially for kabuki theater (University of Texas at Austin).
Kabuki performers Nakamura Kichiemon II, Sawamura Sojuro, Ichikawa Sadanji, Nakamura Matsue and Nakamura Kasho perform with the 70-member Shochiku Company of Tokyo. Of these performers, Nakamura Kichiemon II is considered to be one of Kabuki's strongest actors. Director Nakamura Utaemon is considered to be a "living national treasure" (Lo).
Today, Kabuki presentations in America…
Ichimura Manjiro Presents Kabuki for Everyone. Kabuki: A Brief History. 21 October 2004. http://www.fix.co.jp/kabuki/about/history/overview.html
Japan-Guide.com. Theater - Kabuki. 21 October 2004. http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2090.html
Lo, Tamara. Graceful stars of Japan's Kabuki Theater take over Jones Hall. The Daily Cougar, 1996. 21 October 2004. http://www.stp.uh.edu/vol62/16/Lifestyl/life1/life1.html
Nakamura, Matazo. Kabuki, backstage, onstage: An actor's life. Kodansha International, 1990.
It should be pointed out, however, that many of these issues exist for women in developed countries such as the United States.
Voices from Iran, however, also looks at aspects of Iranian women's power and influence, an issue that often receives little notice with Western scholars and activists. Iranian wives, the interviewees point out, possess a great influence over their husbands, giving them great power within their families. Among younger generations, women have made strides towards amassing greater social capital, through institutions such as education.
More than fifty percent of new college admissions, for example, are female students. After the Islamic Revolution (1978-1979), and the following war with Iraq, female college graduates began to enter emerging businesses and industries. Many women, for example, enter the publishing industry, open private medical clinics or enter artistic fields such as film. Younger women have turned to writing and graphic design. This influx has…
Gender and Ads
In "Gender Advertisements," Erving Goffman argues that gender is a pervasive theme in modern advertising. The theme of gender is critical to advertisements because of the universal nature of gender, and because personal identity is inextricably linked with gender. Consumer behavior will be motivated best by advertisers skillful in exploiting the gender construct. Goffman shows that advertisements both create and reflect gender norms. By constructing an exaggerated patriarchy through imagery and symbolism, advertisers proscribe consumer behavior. Consumer behavior in turn influences general social norms. The author ultimately points out the subtle and overt patterns that pervade advertisements, encouraging strong media literacy.
As Goffman points out, "women, more than men, are pictured using their fingers and hands to trace to outlines of an object or to cradle it or to caress its surface," (29). Goffman calls this type of touch "ritualistic," because it differs from the…
Between 1995-2002, 99% of all births in ussia were attended by skilled health personnel, while the number of physicians per 100,000 people was 420 between 1990-2003, and the number of people with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs in 1999 was between 50-79% (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
Nutrition, Water and Smoking
The United Nations reports that in 2000, 99% of ussia's population had "sustainable access to an improved water source. Between 1999-2001, 4% of the population was undernourished, while between 1995-2002 of all children under the age of 5, 3% were underweight and 13% were under height for their age group. From 1998-2002, 6% of all infants in ussia were born with low birth weight (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
One of the leading, preventable health risks is smoking.
In 2000, 10% of all adult ussian women smoked, compared to 63% of all adult men (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)." This illustrates why men may be more likely to suffer from…
Lokshin, Michael M. And Ruslan Yemtsov. (26 February, 2001). "Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia." The World Bank
Group. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://econ.worldbank.org/working_papers/1417/).
UN Development Programme. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_RUS.html ).
WHO. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://www.who.int/countries/rus/en/ ).
Before discussing a sampling plan, there has to be clear and unambiguous definitions of what a sample and sampling are. Despite diversity in the definition of a sample, the best meaning is that a sample could be considered as a subset of a population, with which a researcher would like to use as participants in a given research study (Landreneau & Creek, 2012). According to Deming (1990), sapling is a science, which specifically guides quantitative studies, materials, behavior and the different causes of difference. In other aspects of research such as the qualitative research, sampling could be considered as the art of selecting a part of a population, in a given research area that is a representation of the entire population.
Both the qualitative and quantitative researchers approach their sampling differently. For the quantitative researchers, samples which are selected are those that will give the researcher easy time…
Adler, E.S. & Clark, R. (2008). How It Is Done: An Invitation to Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning Publishers.
Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning.
Bartlett, J.E., Kotrlik, J.W. & Higgins, C.C. (2012). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Retrieved 28th October, 2012 from http://www.osra.org/itlpj/bartlettkotrlikhiggins.pdf
Beri, (2007). Marketing Research. India: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing.
bias based on gender, race, or ethnicity considered unacceptable, in some instances, like employment or pay status, it can be illegal. Our nation does not condone discrimination on factors like these, and for many years we have, as a whole, enforced laws and policies that make racist or biased behavior difficult to institute. This attention to equality, however, does not mean that racism, gender bias, or other biases do not occur. In studying the existence of these biases, I examined my own community of Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Grand Rapids is a town of about 200,000. As of the 2000 census, the racial demographics of Grand Rapids were 67.30% white, 20.41% African-American, 0.74% Native American, 1.62% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 6.63% from other races, and 3.19% from two or more races. 13.05% of the population are of Hispanic or Latino heritage from any racial background (Grand Rapids, 2005). All in all,…
Elected and Appointed Officials, at city of Grand Rapids website, http://www.ci.grand-rapids.mi.us/index.pl-page_id=42
'Grand Rapids, Michigan," Wikipedia, online reference for Grand Rapids. Accessed online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Rapids,_Michigan#Entertainment_and_media
Healey, Joseph, 2003. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class, 3rd. Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
"Survey Examines Excesses and Improvements in Local TV Newscasts Across the U.S.," Rocky Mountain Media Watch, 1998. Accessed online at http://www.bigmedia.org/texts5.html .
ace, Class and Gender and Correctional Settings
Today, the United States incarcerates more than 25% of low-income young black males, so it is reasonable to suggest that there is an inextricable relationship between race, socioeconomic class and gender and the institutional correctional community. It is also reasonable to suggest that this relationship has a corresponding impact on clients, staff and the administration of correctional institutions. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify the role of race, class and gender within the institutional correctional community and the impact of these variables on clients, staff, and administration. Finally, an analysis concerning the impact of race, class, and gender on current correctional institutions is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the relationship between race, class and gender within the institutional correctional community in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Assigning inmates to prison. (2014). North Carolina Department of Public Safety. Retrieved from http://www.doc.state.nc.us/dop/custody.htm .
Camp, S.D. & Steiger, T.L. Gender and racial differences in perceptions of career opportunities and the work environment in a traditionally white, male occupation:
Correctional workers in the Federal Bureau of Prisons. In N.A. Jackson (ed.).
Contemporary issues in criminal justice: Shaping tomorrow's system, pp. 258-277,
occupation of computer programmer reflects a number of traditional components of society in the United States. Demographically, the profession is largely made up of while males in their late thirties. As such, the profession reflects stratification by race, class, and gender. However, recent changes in the profession, such as outsourcing of programming jobs to India, threaten this perception. At the same time, the degree of publicity such outsourcing has received (when compared to attention paid to job losses incurred by Black Americans) continues to reflect the race stratification in American society.
A computer programmer, by definition, is an individual who creates programs that allow computers to perform specific functions. This includes creating computer programs, and designing and testing logical structures for solving computer problems. In the simplest terms, programmers tell computers how, where, and when to access information. Commonly used computer languages include Java, C++, and COBOL (Bureau of Labor…
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2004-
05 Edition, Computer Programmers, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos110.htm (visited October 14, 2004).
Department for Professional Employees. The Professional Computer WorkForce, 2001. 14
October 2004. http://www.dpeaflcio.org/pros/workplace/computer.htm.
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…
Sources of information . nd. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e03.htm#the%problems%20of%20secondary%20sources
acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts
A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.
In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).
esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.
Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.
Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.
Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Educational
Effects of Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Education
High school dropout cases have occurred as a silent epidemic that has affected the nation. In the U.S., dropout cases have disproportionately affected young people, especially those from low-income families, ethnic minority groups, urban children, and single-parent children that join public schools. Statistics indicates that about 30% of public high school students in the U.S. fail to graduate (Heckman & LaFontaine 15). In this paper, we endeavor to demystify this high school dropout issue, an aspect that affects educational institutions. Identification of the prevalence and risk factors associated with high school dropouts facilitates the understanding of the reasons behind this issue and how best to solve them.
Research puts high school graduation rate at 68-71%. The rate at which minority students, including the Native Americans, Blacks, and…
Brait, Ellen. (2015, Dec 10). "Flotus on the Track: Michelle Obama's Rap Video Hypes Going to College." The Guardian. 10 Dec. 2015. Web. 16 Dec 2015.
Heckman, James. & LaFontaine, Paul. (May 2010). "The American High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels." NCBI (2010). doi: 10.1162/rest.2010.12366. Web. 16 Dec 2015
U.S. Department of Education. "Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2009." IES 2012-006 (2011). Web. 16 Dec 2015
Introducing Alexa Madison
Basic facts from her childhood
Basic facts from her adolescence
Basic facts from her young adult life
Issues related to race
Detailed analysis of race-related issues in Alexa's life
acial identity in a multicultural society: the factors that help create an individual's racial identity and membership in a specific social group based on race or ethnicity.
Implications for social status; in particular, the self-perception of African-Americans vs. The expectations placed on African-Americans
Link to external sources to present Alexa's life in the broader context of African-American culture, life, and history.
The 2008 film Crips and Bloods: Made in America is about gang warfare and violence in Los Angeles, but the underlying message is that problems impacting black communities in the 21st century have their roots in institutionalized racism.
(a) Alexa might not have had any interaction with gang members, but her experiences reflect…
Anderson, E. (1994). The code of the streets. The Atlantic. May 1994. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1994/05/the-code-of-the-streets/306601/
Crips & Bloods: Made in America (2008) (excerpt, 41 min.)
Epstein, C.F. (2007). "The Global Subordination of Women." Pp. 283-302 in The Spirit of Sociology: A Reader, 3rd ed., edited by Ron Matson. Boston: Pearson.
Lareau, A. 2010 . "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families." Pp. 611-626 in Mapping the Social Landscape: Readings in Sociology, 6th ed., edited by Susan J. Ferguson. New York: McGraw Hill.
Holly Sklar writes, "the gulf between the rich and the rest of America will continue to widen, weakening our economy and our democracy. The American Dream will be history instead of poverty."
With the advent of more billions into the ranks of the Fortune 400, so it is; instead of witnessing the booming middle class that marked the Scientific and Industrial evolutions, America is undergoing a transformation that more clearly limns the demarcation between classes than ever before.
With economic segregation an ever more encroaching reality, the distinctions between race, age, and gender come increased under review as Americans are forced to examine the origins of social class, its solidification in early childhood, and its place in the national life.
In academic circles, social class describes the relationships between individual agents and groups as they struggle through social hierarchies. Weber famously defined the social stratification as a three-component theory frequently…
Adair, Vivian C. "Branded with Infamy: Inscriptions of Poverty and Class in the United States." Signs. Vol. 27, No. 2. (Winter, 2002.)
Collins, C. & Yeskel, F. "Economic Apartheid in America: A Primer on Economic Inequality & Insecurity." New York: The New Press, Oct. 31, 2005.
Conley, Dalton. Being Black and Living in the red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America." Berkley: University of California Press, 1999.
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here. New York: Anchor Press, 1992.
These problems can hinder the development of a high quality of life for all Americans by creating structural barriers to success. Some important steps would be to increase political participation at the roots level of all underrepresented members of society and to lend a voice to those who currently have little say in the governance of the nation.
Wk-4 DQ-1. The political-economic system is generally set up along the lines of specific economic ideology that helps to define the role of government in the development of American society. The nature of work is in part defined by economic principles as well, for example the prevailing view that low-priced labor is key to competitiveness. This ideology intends to promote maximum economic development but it differs from the reality of work, in which economic distribution fails most Americans while benefiting few.
Wk-4 DQ-2. Some of the major causes of illiteracy are inadequate…
seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.
Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.
Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.
Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?
Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…
To wit, power is a huge influence in any social interaction, and in a study reported by the University of California Press (est, 2008, p. 87), men often interrupt women during conversations because men are generally viewed as the power in any male-female interaction. "Physicians interrupt patients disproportionately" in doctor-patient interactions, est writes, "except when the doctor is a 'lady'; then, "patients interrupt as much or more than physicians, and their interruptions seem to subvert physicians' authority" (est, p. 87). In other words, the stratification of male doctors having the power to interrupt is reversed when a woman is the doctor.
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
Donovan, Jenny L., and Blake,…
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
However, one can still see remnants of Morgan's ideals as globalization takes hold in developing nations. Although differences are tolerated, the "westernization" of the rest of the world is still a growing reality. One need look no further than modern business attire to see that western ideals are quickly replacing traditional modes of dress and modes of doing business. Morgan's work makes the modern anthropologist aware that "globalization" may be a soft sell for "westernization."
Fried, Morton H. 1960. On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill.
Fried explored the development of social stratification, as opposed to a non-ranked society. His primary purpose was to explore the reasons for changes in society that lead to changes in social structure. He compared simple forms of social organization to more complex ones. Fried explored…
During the proposed study's process, the researcher plans to fulfill the following objectives.
Objective 1: Address each of the proposed study's research questions during literature review:
Examine the effect athletic participation has on student GPAs;
Identify the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Determine the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores;
Explore the effect music participation has on student GPAs;
Investigate the effect music participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Discover the effect music participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores.
Complete study with 150 tenth grade student participants in the first semester of school year 2008-2009.
Analyze test results and compare with findings from literature reviewed.
One of the Best Investments
Despite current reported budget cuts and constraints in education, high school activity programs continue to constitute one of the best…
Baker, Christina. (2008, August). Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: the effects of various student organizations on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education, Volume 11 (3). Retrieved January 27, 2009 at http://www.springerlink.com/content/b6432j1361233004/
The case for extracurricular activities. (2008). National Federation of State High School Association. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://richwoodstrack.com/extracurricular_case.htm
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press, New York. Retrieved January 27, 2009 from www.bartleby.com/66/.
Draper, Michelle. (2008, September 7). Vic: Principals link mental health to academic achievement. (www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=publication:%22AAP+General+News+(Australia)%22&sort=DT&sortdir=DAAP General News (Australia). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-156068940.html
However, most of them have gradually resigned themselves to their situation and are enduring the circumstances in the best way possible.
Perhaps the most appropriate way to analyze the Soviet society in the post-Soviet period is to look at the effect of the change on different age groups of the population as has been done in a 2001 "Human Development eport" published by UNDP. The report reveals that among the different age-groups of ussians -- the "soviet" generation, born in the 1920s and 30s have been "pushed to the sidelines of public life" and suffer from an intense feeling of depression close to a feeling of being a social outcast. The "middle generation" groups too suffer from a deep "socio-emotional" crisis, considering itself as a generation "lost" in the waves of transformation and in their "struggle for survival." The younger ussian generation, on the other hand, has coped…
Country Study: Russia." (2004) Country Studies: The Library of Congress. October 1, 2004. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/rutoc.html
Human Development Report on Russia, 2001." (2002) Edited by Prof. Serguei Bobylev. UNDP. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://www.undp.ru/index.phtml?iso=RU&lid=1&cmd=publications
Russia." (2005). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html
2004 Estimate; Source: CIA World Fact book legacy of the Soviet era when the ruling ideology encouraged the adoption of a uniform Russian culture and enforced Russian as the official language throughout the Union
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
Communication and Sociology
Sociology and Poverty
Poverty, in absolute terms, is defined as a lack of the things considered basic for human survival. There are many causes of poverty; sociologists, however, explain the existence of poverty using two major approaches -- the structural-functionalism approach and the conflict approach (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The structural-functionalism theory postulates that poverty is inevitable and is in fact one of the human processes that are necessary for the stability and continuity of society (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). Just as is the case with inequality and stratification, poverty is beneficial to society because it creates a balance that ensures that the best people occupy the most important positions, and the less worthy remain at the bottom (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The conflict approach agrees with the argument that poverty is inevitable, but disputes the idea that it is beneficial, arguing that poverty exists only because…
Andersen, M. & Taylor, H. (2007). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society, Updated (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Kornblum, W. (2007). Sociology in a Changing World (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
University of Washington. (2014). Presentation Tips. University of Washington. Retrieved 26 July 2014 from http://www.washington.edu/doit/TeamN/present_tips.html
This is just one example of how a group of Americans, based on patterns in their culture, relate to perceptions of race, class and gender in America.
The connection among race, class, and gender in America is not a new subject of research. This subject has been studied for several decades, often coinciding with significant changes or events in American culture. Even with all the research, there is a lack of clarity and consensus as to the precise connection these factors play in perceptions in America and of America.
In their analyses, researchers often present an uncomplicated picture of how individuals perceive social opportunity and mobility. They have not adequately accounted for the fact that individuals simultaneously assume multiple positions in the stratification system and how these positions, sometimes referred to as social identities, may influence their perceptions. Consequently, sociologists have limited understanding of the extent to which individuals' multiple…
Gallagher, Charles a. "Color-Blind Privilege: The Social and Political Functions of Erasing the Color Line in Post Race America." Race, Class, & Gender, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1 -- 17, 2003.
Muntaner, Carles, & Lynch, John. "Income Inequality, Social Cohesion, and Class Relations: A Critique of Wilkinson's Neo-Durkheimian Research Program." International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 29, No. 1, 59 -- 81, 1999.
O'Connor, Carla. "Race, Class, and Gender in America: Narratives of Opportunity Among Low-Income African-American Youths." Sociology of Education, Vol. 72, No. 3, 137 -- 158, 1999.
Weitzer, Ronald & Tuch, Steven, a. "Perceptions of Racial Profiling: Race, Class, and Personal Experience." Criminology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 435 -- 457, 2002.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000633200' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)
The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.
And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.
However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…
Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.
Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.
Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.
"Yentl" is a tale set in 19th century Poland, portraying a vivacious, independent little girl called Yentl from the Polish Jewish community, who was doggedly determined to follow her dreams despite knockbacks. Yentl obstinately wishes to pursue education in a community where academics, particularly Jewish religious learning, is strictly reserved for males only and is forbidden for girls. Posing as a youth, Yentl, however, flouts all societal rules and prohibitions with the strength of character that goes well with the personality of Barbra Streisand, who is the director, producer and co-writer of this remarkable movie. Although the film is essentially a musical movie, the theme of love is strong as well. Its execution and staging is indeed highly remarkable. Yentl also offers intricate details of the culture/society it is set in, of its characters' nature and of events which transpire in the course of the movie (Hobbs, n.d.).…
trade also has contributed to the economic exploitation of women, as the
textile industry for example, which is predominantly women has seen jobs
lost and wages cut. Women are often forced to be teachers or work in day-
care centres, but not on equal footing with men. Women are victims as are
ethnic minorities, and they are forced into hourly jobs with low salaries,
high unemployment, and little unionization or official organization.
Furthermore, women are dependent on household duties, and through
mechanical technological improvements in household work, women have been
able to work more. This means that women are in fact tied to the family,
and that the family dictates that women's economic needs are of secondary
concern. As the household labourer, traditional duties are a priority, and
this notion of women contributing to the workforce as secondary to
household duties has contributed to women being treated as secondary…
But in instances where the TV does not provide good moral and role models for the teenagers then it is just to say that the TV programs are the major contributing factor towards homophobic tendencies among the society members. The lack of positive role modeling is also being viewed on the side of lesbians, gays and bisexual youth Kielwasser AP and olf MA ( 378)
. Most gays and lesbians in the society are brought up in a straight community with few gays and lesbians role models; thus they are specifically vulnerable to the portrayals of gay people in the mass media (Ryan & Futterman, 124).
The mainstream media has treated the sexual minorities as if they are not part of the human race, as if they do not exist. In addition, it was observed that the gay people of whichever age are rarely portrayed, and mostly the little portrayal…
Bandura a. "Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication." Media Psychology 3 (2001): 265 -- 99. Print.
Battles K, and Morrow-Hilton W. "Gay Characters in Conventional Spaces: Will and Grace and the Situation Comedy Genre." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 19.1 (2002): 87 -- 105. Print.
D'Augelli, a.R. "Lesbian and Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences of Harassment and Fear on Campus." Journal of International Violence 7.383-395 (1992). Print.
David P. Pierson. "Hey, They're Just Like Us!" Representations of the Animal World in the Discovery Channel's Nature Programming." J. Pop Cult (2005): 698-712. Print.
political, social, and civil rights as they are, the notion of possible futures haunts nearly everyone. Potential political realities in the present and not-so-distant future are examined in Margaret Atwood's Handmaid's Tale and Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time. These novels have become modern classics precisely because of their poignant relevance to real-world social and political affairs. Although both Atwood's and Piercy's novels are at least in part set in future times, both tales are devoid of any significant characteristics that distinguish them from the present day reality. Thus, both The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time eerily depict life in modern-day America even as they bridge gaps in time. In particular, issues related to gender and to political power are salient in both books. Through the core elements of their narratives, The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time reveal that male-dominated…
Saints and the Roughnecks - William J. Chambliss
In his seminal essay "The Saints and the Roughnecks," William J. Chambliss studied how a community's differential perceptions led to preferential treatment of a group of juvenile delinquents from upper-middle class families over another gang of delinquents from lower-class families. The main determinant for a community's reaction to a juvenile's deviant behavior was socioeconomic class.
Since this essay's publication in 1973, the idea that people get treated differently according to their class has become widely accepted. Based on Chambliss's thesis, poor people who engage in deviant behavior - ranging from shoplifting to murder - are still more likely to be prosecuted and to receive harsher punishment. They are also more likely to be perceived as guilty by the public.
The more recent research on other determinants of social stratification allows us to expand on Chambliss's original thesis. Thus, in addition to class,…
Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States
Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study
The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…
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Clothing and Culture
Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).
Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…
Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.
Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.
Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…
1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.
3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.
4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.
" (Rosser, et al., 1999) Furthermore, Rosser et al. (1999) relates that these changes are overwhelming for some students and "…can overtax their capacity to cope, thereby compromising academic and emotional functioning." Unfortunately, there remains a paucity of recent research, especially longitudinal studies, concerning the experiences of adolescents during their transition to high school. According to Isakson and Jarvis, "The amount of time spent in school serves not only to educate students, but also to shape their social world, contributing to overall development. Yet, changing schools represents a specific life transition that is acknowledged as a challenging and potentially stressful life event" (p. 1). In fact, that transition to high school represents a profound challenge for many young learners no matter what their primary school organization. For instance, Isakson and Jarvis note that, "Whether the eighth-grade year was spent in a kindergarten through eighth-grade school (Grades K-8), a middle school…
As such, Yunus' business model for Grameen Bank directly contradicts Social Darwinism, since the former is giving collateral free loans to individuals who are not fiscally fit -- and who are oftentimes exceedingly destitute -- and enabling them to get the financial means to survive.
Additionally, it is critical to examine the role that women play in both Social Darwinism and in Yunus' enterprise with Grameeen. Women are the bearers of children, and regardless of what Social Darwin advances about the fittest of a species, no species can survive without the means of replicating itself. For humans, of course, such a conception prioritizes women over men. Therefore, it is highly significant that the bulk of the individuals receiving loans form Grameen are women. From a Social Darwinism perspective this fact is extremely noteworthy, since women can produce a more direct effect on the livelihoods of their children.
Still, it is…
"PBS New Heroes Ep1 01 Kailash Satyarthi Child Slavery India." (2011). Youtube.
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmHyARnDxI0
"PBS New Heroes Ep2 03 Fabio Rosa Low Voltage Electricity Brazil." (2011). Youtube.
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfmFEBRmgLU
Again, all groups were by the end of the study essentially the same in that they had each served as controls, placebo recipients, and recipients of either one or two interventional medicines. The same periods of medication and testing were utilized for all participants in all groups of the study throughout the period during which the research took place.
According to the researchers, the completion of a crossover study such as this by forty-five participants is equivalent to 80% power at 5% statistical significance that the results could be extrapolated to the wider population. Though a higher level of certainty could be desired, this study's findings are still worthwhile.
The results are presented as average rates of the effects of the varying interventions (or lacks thereof) among the participants during the different phases of the trial. The differences between these averages were compared as different levels of…
Wald, D.; Law, M.; Mills, S.; Bestwick, J.; Morris, J. And Wald, N. (2008). "A 16-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial to Quantify the Combined Effect of an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and a f3-Blocker on Blood Pressure Reduction." Clinical therapeutics 30(11), pp. 2030-9.
esearch has shown that men and women look for different characteristics when looking for long-term partners. Some research shows that men favor physical variables (attractiveness) more than women (lecture notes). This could be due to an underlying biological impetus to breed with women who have good genes. The fact that many men worldwide reveal a preference for younger partners might also be traceable to biology; younger women are more likely to bear children.
Women might value things like "vocational status, earning potential, expressiveness, kindness, consideration, dependability, and fondness for children," (athus, et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes). The fondness for children preference is linked to biology and psychological necessity as well, as women want mates who will be able to share in the childrearing duties. On the other hand, some men might value traits like "cooking ability, frugality, and youth (athus et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes).…
"Chapter 6: Sexual Violence."
Nunnink, S.E., Goldwaser, G., Afari, N., Nievergelt, M. & Baker, D.G. (2010). The role of emotional numbing in sexual functioning among veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. Military Medicine 175(6).
PBS (2012). Teen Brain. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/view/#rest