Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
It is very clear, that today's focus on genetic technology and its claim has been having some vital insinuations for healthcare at the present time and also in the future. Nurses need to recognize the position of assimilating new knowledge of genetics into their performances and be capable of helping patients to be able to manage with their genetic foundation of various diseases. Nurses likewise will need to know how to do things such as examine their own values, attitudes, and beliefs regarding hereditarily acquired diseases so as to deliver satisfactory and ethical nursing care to people from all over.
The suitable members for an interdisciplinary team to get information for the first visit are a people such as the registered nurse because they would be the one that would have some kind of genetic knowledge, a genetic counselor, a high risk obstetrician likewise recognized as…
Genetic Disease Diagnosis, Screening, Treatment, And Advocacy
This case study involves a couple who are expecting a child. Testing has been conducted identifying the unborn child having the condition of Tay-Sachs disease. The nurse in this scenario will identify interdisciplinary team members and create a teaching plan to educate the couple about this disease. This work in writing will discuss three ethical implications regarding the availability of personal genetic information and will reflect on thoughts and feelings about the couple's choice and discuss how one would advocate for the couple's decision. Finally, this study will discuss how ethical and legal considerations affect the couple's decision about continuing the pregnancy.
Interdisciplinary Team Members
Interdisciplinary team members for effective treatment of the child in this case study will include naturally, the obstetrician, a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, a geneticist, and pediatric subspecialists including cardiologists and physical therapists. The maternal-fetal medicine specialist can provide…
Lea, DH (200) Genetic And Genomic Healthcare: Ethical Issues of Importance to Nurses. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol.13 No. 1 Jan 2008. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/vol132008/No1Jan08/GeneticandGenomicHealthcare.html
NTSAD Peer Support Group (2013) National Tay-Sachs & Allied Disease Association. Retrieved from: http://www.ntsad-ny.org/services-peer-group.html
Treating Tay-Sachs Disease (2013) NHS. Retrieved from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Tay-Sachs-disease/Pages/Treatment.aspx
What is Tay-Sachs Disease (2013) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved from: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/taysachs/taysachs.htm
Genetic Disease Diagnosis
Initial visit: three to five appropriate members for an interdisciplinary team
When the Trosacks come for their initial consultation, they must first seek to gain insight into the nature of Tay-Sachs disease, particularly because they are unfamiliar with the illness and do not know any family members who have coped with the disease. This revelation is new and entirely unexpected. A certified genetic counselor with a specific understanding of Tay-Sachs should be present to explain the disease's origin and transmission in layperson's terms.
Coping with the difficulties of a traumatic genetic diagnosis also requires a grief counselor with training in how to help parents cope psychologically with their new diagnosis. And finally, a doctor must be able to explain the full range of options for the Trosacks, spanning from termination to deciding to allow the pregnancy to progress.
Identify from whom you can obtain information…
Genetic discrimination fact sheet. (2011). Genome.gov. Retrieved:
NINDS Tay-Sachs Disease Information Page. (2011) NINDS. Retrieved:
Down's syndrome is basically a genetic disease that is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome. The chromosome that is defaulted in this syndrome is chromosome number twenty-one. It has been seen that Down's syndrome is one of the most common chromosome disease that is seen in humans. The major striking features of this disorder are physical and mental growth delay. It should be noted that the children appear small for their age and their actions and abilities are also slower than the children their age. It has been noted that Down's syndrome goes on to affect about one in every 800 hundred babies that are born in the United States.
Even though the signs and symptoms are quite variable in all of the children, there are some particular signs that are characteristic of Down's syndrome. Children with Down's syndrome usually have an abnormally small chin, a flat nasal…
Down Syndrome [Internet]. 2009 April 8th.[2013 July 18th, cited 2013 November 13th] . Available from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145554.php
Egan, J, Smith, K, Timms, D, Bolnick, J, Campbell W, Benn P. 2011. Demographic differences in Down syndrome livebirths in the U.S. from 1989 to 2006. Prenatal diagnosis; 31 (4): 389 -- 394.
Jiang J, Jing Y, Cost G, Chiang J, Kolpa H, Cotton A, Carone D, Carone B, Shivak D, Guschin D, 2013. Translating dosage compensation to trisomy 21. Nature.
US Department of Health and Human Services . 2013 March 4. Down Syndrome: Overview [Internet]. [2013 March 4, cited 2013 November 13] . Available from: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/down/Pages/default.aspx
Cancer is a complex genetic disease in which a series of processes give rise to the final processing of the normal cell to cell tumor. In case of a tumor cell, the fundamental characteristic of the cell is lost which performs the usual function of normal cells of a particular organ. Tumor cells also deteriorate rapidly and without limit, having lost one of the features that normal cells have, which is the programmed cell death. This progressive increase in the whole tumor cell proliferation is called cancer. As the tumor progresses, the daughter cells are in differentiable making more genetic changes (Bach, 2011). This increase their malignant potential, and others are beginning to emerge processes such as local or loco-regional extension and infiltration of lymphatic micro vessels and blood vessels, which ultimately produces the transport through the lymphatic stream, resulting in lymph node invasion, and the bloodstream and…
Bach, PB.(2011). Inconsistencies in findings from the early lung cancer action project studies of lung cancer screening. J Natl Cancer Inst; 103(13):1002 -- 1006.
Cleeland, CS (2007). Symptom burden: Multiple symptoms and their impact as patient-reported outcomes. J Natl Cancer Inst Monographs 37:16-21.
Holdstock, Ruth (2010). Lung cancer. Practice Nurse, 09536612, 2010, Vol. 40, Issue 8.
Jemal, A, et al. (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer Journal Clinic; 1(61): 69 -- 90.
Societal Interventions in Genetic Diseases:
Genetic diseases are among the most common diseases that occur or affect a huge portion of the world's population. The main cause of the diseases is attributed to the mutations in genes that are fundamental for the usual functioning of the organism's cells. Following the mutation of a gene, the encoded protein fails to function properly and certain cellular processes are likely to go skewed resulting in genetic diseases. Due to their significant impact on the world's population, genetic diseases have profound effects at the individual, family, and societal levels. However, the effect of the diseases is largely experienced at the individual level because humans have genes similar to other living organisms.
As a result of the effect of genetic diseases on the three basic facets of a community or society, various interventions have been adopted to deal with the increasing problem. Notably, most of…
Samem, F.M.A. (n.d). Human Genetic Screening. Retrieved from North Dakota State University
Scacheri, C. (n.d.). Genetics and Society. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topic/genetics-and-society-11
Wood, J.L.N., Lakhani, K.H. & Henley, W.E. (2004). An Epidemiological Approach to Prevention and Control of Three Common Heritable Diseases in Canine Pedigree Breeds in the United Kingdom. The Veterinary Journal, 168, 14-27. Retrieved from http://www.ansci.wsu.edu/Courses/as464/notes/webdocs/Background%20Information/geneticdiseaseepidemiologyvetjournalagu2004.pdf
infertile couples turn to in vitro fertilization to try to have a baby. In this technique, sperm and egg are collected and used to create eight-cell embryos for implantation into a woman's uterus. At the eight cell stage, one of the fetal cells can be removed without causing harm to the developing fetus. Once removed, the cell can be genetically tested. Some couples may know that a particular genetic disease runs in their family. They might wish to avoid implanting embryos with the disease-causing genes. What if couple wanted to use genetic testing to select embryos for traits unrelated to disease, such as freckles or may be to select a gender. Do you think that couples undergoing in vitro fertilization should be allowed to perform whatever genetic tests they wish? Or do you think that there should be limits on what tests can be performed?
I strongly believe that there…
Brezina, P.R., Ross, R., Kaufmann, R., Anchan, R., Zhao, Y., & Kearns, W.G. (2013, September). Genetic normalization of differentiating aneuploid cleavage stage embryos. Fertility and Sterility, 100(3), S69. Retreived from http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282%2813%2902675-7/abstract
Feldman, H.S., Jones, K.L., Lindsay, S., Slymen, D., Klonoff-Cohen, H., Kao. K., Rao, S., & Chambers, C.D. (2012). Prenatal alcohol exposure patterns and alcohol-related birth defects and growth deficiencies: A prospective study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36(4), 670-6.
Korf, B.R. (2011). Principles of genetics. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D. (Eds.) Cecil Medicine (24th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier:chap 39.
This past two weeks have been really helpful for deepening my understanding of how nursing practice can have a direct impact on population health as well as improving individual health outcomes. Week one was particularly challenging as we addressed the principles of genetics, from the basic structures of DNA and RNA, to their functions in the body and throughout the life span. I had learned about replication, transcription, and translation earlier in biology classes, but this course material was presented at a higher level of learning. Also, this week’s material showed how I would apply this knowledge to practice, such as by analyzing cellular and chromosomal events with the goal of helping patients make informed decisions. We continued our learning about inheritance and genetics in the second week. This week proved particularly illuminating because of the interface between genetic testing and bioethics. Screening and diagnosis are poignant ethical issues when…
Lea, D.H., Williams, J. & Donohue, M.P. (2005). Ethical issues in genetic testing. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health 50(3): 234-240.
National Human Genome Research Institute (n..d). Issues in genetics. https://www.genome.gov/10000006/issues-in-genetics/
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…
Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.
Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/
McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004. http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/scopenotes/sn22.html
Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/mcclean/plsc431/students99/miller.htm. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.
Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…
Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.
Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic
Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5
Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
By treating genetic disorders, natural selection is interrupted -- these individuals do not die as they naturally would have, and so their genetic disadvantage no longer selects against them. iT could be argued, however, that humans have stopped evolving as biological creatures anyway; technology has provided the "cure" to many issues of natural selection, both from the species end of things and from the supply side (i.e. In making more resources more available to more people). Therefore, it is not really detrimental to the species as a whole to save the individuals with lethal alleles. Since we are no longer really evolving, and the prevalence of most lethal alleles is incredibly low anyway, the species as a whole is not made less healthy by the presence of these individuals or their alleles, despite the increased chance they have at procreating.
This means that traditional medical ethics, which demand that an…
Evolution & Genetic Drift
Evolution and Genetic Drift
The variety of human attributes evident in society comes as a result of the variety of alleles that direct the expression of human genotypes. This expression results in very different phenotypic traits that form the basis of human individuality. Based upon these traits, a person may be more or less likely to adapt well to their environment. hen viewed over a long enough time period, the frequency of allele distribution results in more or less advantageous phenotypes. Those phenotypes that are less adaptive to the surroundings make it harder for that individual to survive. This is the basis of natural selection, where desirable traits are selected for based upon the advantages that the phenotype confers. This is also the reason for changing allele frequencies, as those gene variants that are less helpful to the organism become (over time) less common in the…
Lewis, Ricki. Human Genetics: Concepts and Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill,
Moran, Laurence. "Random Genetic Drift." Downloaded July 23, 2004 from The Talk.
Origins Archive, Web site: http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/genetic-drift.html,1997.
Solomon, Eldra, Berg, Linda and Diana Martin. Biology. New York: Harcourt Brace
Prenatal genetic testing can prove useful to many expectant mothers under certain conditions. For example, those with inherited illnesses, those with children born with severe defects, those who are high risk of delivering a still born, and women over the age of 34 all present as likely candidates for prenatal genetic testing. It can help them identify what may be wrong with the fetus and what steps to take if something is found. However, pregnant women not at risk for such problems stand not to benefit from prenatal genetic testing as the procedure can be unsafe for the fetus and mother and is not entirely accurate.
Ethos means persuading a person through the persuader's credibility or character. Prenatal genetic testing is performed by a qualified doctor who has experience, and a history of formal education. By having a qualified doctor perform the procedure, it may result in a positive outcome…
, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…
Abaan, O. D and Criss, Wayne E (2002). Gene therapy in human breast cancer. 32
(2002): 283-291 Turkey Journal of Medical Science: Tubitak. Retrieved on April 15,
2010 from http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/medical/issues/sag-02-32-4-1-0204.pdf
Lowery, A.J., et al. (2009). MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor,
However, an individual should be able to investigate their own roots, even if the science is questionable. hen such information is released into the public domain without the individual's permission though, a lot of harm can be done. Making invasions into a person's genetic history illegal is probably the best remedy.
Genetic testing has become an important tool for medical diagnosis and treatments (Norrgard) and therefore should be available to anyone needing or requesting such services. hat is done with this information, however, is another matter. Family members may suspect they have an increased risk for an early onset or even fatal disease, but would prefer not to know if effective treatments and cures are unavailable. Should one family member decide to get tested, then this may create friction between family members concerning their wishes and personal privacy because the results would have an impact on everyone in the family.…
Norrgard, K. "Ethics of Genetic Testing: Medical Insurance and Genetic Discrimination." Nature Education 1.1 (2008). Web. 3 May 2013.
Abbott, a. "Genome Test Slammed for Assessing Racial Purity." Nature 486 (2012):167.
" This category of identifiers, is however, weak. There are apparently a list of indicators such as name and address that have to be removed from the database in order to use the DNA evidence without notifying the person. When these markers are removed, the evidence is considered public. Yet there are potentials for those markers to resurface and privacy can never be ensured. Even though Angrist is in favor of a public pool of DNA evidence for the lofty goals of science, he agrees, "de-identification is increasingly difficult." It is becoming hard to disconnect names, dates, and places from the hemoglobin and NA. Science appreciates access to DNA because it can link certain traits with others and thereby advance scientific knowledge.
Although it is important to protect a person's privacy regarding DNA, it is too difficult to do so given the rampant greed in the biomedical industry and the…
Angrist, Misha. "Genetic privacy needs a more nuanced approach." Nature. 6 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-needs-a-more-nuanced-approach-1.12363
Nature. "Genetic Privacy." 17 Jan 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-1.12238
The Washington Times. "Editorial: Preserving Genetic Privacy." The Washington Times. 21 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/feb/21/preserving-genetic-privacy/
" Indeed, a Danish study according to Kety et al. (as cited in Kalat, 2012) "found schizophrenia in 12.5% of the immediate biological relatives and none of the adopting parents." It can therefore be noted that although only a small percentage of the general population suffers from schizophrenia, having close familial relations with someone suffering from the same does increase an individual's chances of developing schizophrenia. The disorder is thus inheritable. This effectively means that Alan's chances of becoming schizophrenic are rather high given that both his parents had schizophrenia.
It is however important to note that as I had already indicated earlier, environmental factors also do play a role in the development of schizophrenia. If one twin is schizophrenic, then it does not automatically mean that the other twin could be suffering from the same condition as well. This effectively means that genetic predisposition is not the only cause…
Kalat, J.W. (2012). Biological Psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Kearney, C.A. & Trull, T.J. (2011). Abnormal Psychology and Life: A Dimensional Approach. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine -- NCBI, NLM (2012, February 13). Schizophrenia: Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from the NCBI, NLM website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001925/
Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.
The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.
Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…
Brickell, K., Steinbart, E., Rumbaugh, M., Payami, H., Schellenberg, G., Deerlin, V. V.,... Bird, T. (2006). Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 63(9), 1307-11.
Campion, D., Dumanchin, C., Hannequin, D., Dubois, B., Belliard, S., Puel, M.,... Frebourg, T. (1999). Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J. Hum Genet, 65(3), 664-70.
CDC. (2015, March 3). Genetic Counselling. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/genetics/genetic_counseling.html
Goldman, J. S., MS, M., Hahn, S. E., Catania, J. W., Larusse-Eckert, S., Butson, M. B.,... Bird, T. (2011). Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: Joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Genet Med, 13(6), 597 -- 605.
Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases and Clinical Challenges [Internet]. 1. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; [cited 2013 Nov 10] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Qx2cWaAk2pEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prenatal+Diagnosis:+Cases+and+Clinical+Challenges&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9jCCUufnNZOrhQfh0YDACg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prenatal%20Diagnosis%3A%20Cases%20and%20Clinical%20Challenges&f=false
Knowles J. 2007. Huntington's Disease [Internet]. 1. New York: Rosen Pub. Group; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RX2Er7NpMSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ameBUqWBDYjBhAfy9YDQCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease&f=false
Lemiere J. 2004. Huntington's disease: Early Detection and Progression of Cognitive Changes in Patients and Asymptomatic Mutation Carriers [Internet]. Leuven: Leuven University Press; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vdhgGGgLQSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease:+Early+Detection+and+Progression+of+Cognitive+Changes+in+Patients+and+Asymptomatic+Mutation+Carriers&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGqBUqDzJ6XG7AbVz4CIDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease%3A%20Early%20Detection%20and%20Progression%20of%20Cognitive%20Changes%20in%20Patients%20and%20Asymptomatic%20Mutation%20Carriers&f=false
Roos R. 2010. Huntington's Disease: A Clinical Review. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases [Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 12] 5:40. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-5-40.pdf
Huntington's disease affects families
What is Huntington's disease, and how does it affect the patient and his family? How does one deal with the patient? Is there any cure for the disease, and what is it? When was the disease discovered? Who discovered it, and how was it discovered? What way is support offered from external sources for the disease, and how can one avail of the support? What, exactly is Huntington's disease? It is a genetic disease that affects the central nervous system, in individuals who are thirty years and above, though it does occur sometimes in people younger than this. When the disease occurs, it occurs as an inherited autosomal dominant condition, and it affects all or most of the family members within the same family. The onset of symptoms and of the rate of the progression of the disease may differ between the different family members, and…
A Brief History of Huntington's disease. 8 July, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/basics/timeline/r2.html Accessed on 22 March, 2005
Abuse of the patient. Retrieved From
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…
Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy
Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia
Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is linked to genetic inheritance, and more than 250 genes have been explored as having potential links with CAD. Although these genes are thought not to directly pass on CAD, research has seen that some mutations within these particular genes actually increase the risk of CAD within an individual who as immediate family members who have already suffered from the affects of CAD. Further research has pinpointed six genes out of that larger batch which may also play a role in heart disease. As seen in people who have experienced heart disease, variations of these six genes prove relatively common in individuals under the age of sixty-six years old. Researchers are using these new and continuous findings regarding heart disease's genetic base in order to compile genetic testing which can prepare individuals to have to potentially take measures to avoid heart disease. Utilizing genetic testing can…
Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).
Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…
Causes and risk factors. (2016). Health Communities. Retrieved from http://www. healthcommunities.com/huntingtons-disease/cause.shtml.
Denbo, S. M. (2013, January 1). Balancing the rights of children, parents and the state: The legal, ethical and psychological implications of genetic testing in children. Southern Journal of Business and Ethics, 5, 188-190.
Domaradzki, J. (2015, January 1). Lay constructions of genetic risk. A case-study of the Polish Society of Huntington's Disease. Polish Sociological Review, 189, 107-111.
Draper, B. (2004). Dealing with dementia: A Guide to Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
Huntington's Disease (HD) is a heritable genetic disease that is neurodegenerative in nature. It impacts every aspect of the human condition -- the physical (muscular), the mental (memory and cognition), and behavior (mood). The onset of the disease varies with the majority of cases appearing in adults. As it is a genetic disease that is caused when genes are inherited, all persons who have the defective gene in their bodies act as carriers and may pass it on to offspring. Thus, a copy of a defective Huntington gene is the culprit, and when genes are passed down through the generations, one defect is all that is needed in order for an individual to develop the disease. Once the gene is possessed, onset at some point is certain, as the "monogenetic etiology" consists of a single defective inherited gene that needs no other external factors or variants for causation (Lu, Yang,…
Hungtington Disease. (2013). Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/huntington-disease
Kojovic, M., Cordivari, C., Bhatia, K. (2011). Myoclonic disorders: a practical approach for diagnosis and treatment. Ther Adv Neurol Disord, 4(1): 47-62. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3036960/
Landles, C., Bates, G. (2004). Huntingtin and the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. EMBO Reports, 5(10): 958-963. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299150/
Lu, X., Yang, W. (2012). Huntingtin Holidya: Progress toward an antisense therapy for Huntington's Disease. Neuron, 74(6): 964-966. Retrieved from http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(12)00512-0
Genetic Link of Alcoholism
Introduction great deal of attention and research has recently been concentrated on the genetic link of alcoholism and on the possibility of accounting genetically for drunken behavior. Early studies found reliable genetic transmission of alcoholism. Much of this research focused on the offspring of alcoholics and on the biochemical or neurological abnormalities they inherit that possibly lead to pathological drinking. Other studies focused on a gestalt of personality traits (concentrating on impulsiveness and antisocial activity) that can end in alcoholism.
According to Holden (1985, p. 38), "A decade ago such a theory (of inherited antisocial personality and alcoholism) would have been dismissed as out of hand." Today, this viewpoint has gained broad acceptance amongst psychologists. New research has created more detailed deterministic models of alcoholism based on biological concepts models, which have had a significant impact on the thinking of both public and clinical workers.
Goodwin, D (1991). The genetics of alcoholism. In McHugh, PR & McKusick, VA (Eds.) Genes, Brain and Behavior. New York: Raven Press Ltd.
Holden, C. (1985), Genes, personality and alcoholism. Psychol. Today 19 (No. 1): 38-39, 42-44.
Murray, Robin M. And Stabenau, James R. (1982). Genetic Factors in Alcoholism Predisposition. Encyclopedic Handbook of Aloholism. New York: Gardner Press Inc.: 135-143.
O'Connor, Sean. (2002). Self-reported subjective perception of intoxication reflects family history of alcoholism when breath alcohol levels are constant. Alcohol Clinic Review.
The Bushmen reached advanced age despite living under harsh conditions caused by periodic famine and untreated illness. Some of the Bushmen coding alleles have been associated with disease. The results of the present study may help to reevaluate these earlier reports. They may also help to identify potential population-specific incompatibilities of drugs that are prescribed globally.
Furthermore, the results of this study have implications of admixtures that may be determined from further research. Population-wide PCA defines the Bushmen as distinct from the Niger-Congo populations as from Europeans. Within-Africa analysis separates the Bushmen from the divergent western and southern population, although ABT is within the southern Bantu cluster. However, variable relatedness of the Xhosa to Yoruba may suggest past admixture and/or historical diversity within this population. Within the Bushmen group, the authors predict that the Ju/' admixture and HGDP are essentially the same population. Divergence of KB1 and MD8 may be…
Health Care - Researching Genetic Defects
The many issues addressed by the nursing profession sometimes mean that a nurse will not immediately know the answer to a patient's question. Constantly seeking to improve the quality of care and patients' participation in their own care, a nurse understands that he/she is an eternal student and must develop excellent research skills. Those research skills should be developed for the internet and electronic communications, as well as written sources, in order to use the wealth of information provided by all those sources.
Google Advanced Search (Google, Inc., 2012) is an excellent and very fast source of information on a wide range of topics, as long as precise key words are used. Google Advanced Search is used instead of Google because Google Advanced Search allows the researcher to give exact, precise phrases along with other terms on other lines and gain information nearly immediately.…
Google, Inc. (2012). Google Advanced Search. Retrieved on December 2, 2012 from www.google.com Web site: http://www.google.com/advanced_search
Google, Inc. (2012). peer-reviewed "Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome" - Google Search. Retrieved on December 2, 2012 from www.google.com search Web site: http://www.google.com/search-as_q=&as_epq=Ehlers-Danlos+Syndrome%2C+hypermobility+type&as_oq=peer-reviewed&as_eq=&as_nlo=&as_nhi=&lr=&cr=&as_qdr=all&as_sitesearch=&as_occt=any&safe=images&tbs=&as_filetype=&as_rights=#hl=en&lr=&tbo=d&as_qdr=all&q=peer-revi
Linux Information Project. (2005, December 26). Peer Review Definition. Retrieved on December 2, 2012 from www.linfo.org Web site: http://www.linfo.org/peer_review.html
National Institute of Health. (n.d.). Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome hypermobility type. Retrieved on December 2, 2012 from rarediseases.info.nih.gov Web site: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/Condition/2081/EhlersDanlos_syndrome_hypermobility_type.aspx
Nursing and Genetics
As noted by Lea (et al.) "Obtaining a family history is an established and familiar screening activity used by nurses and other healthcare providers across many healthcare settings" (Lea 2010:4). However, the increased commonality of doing a genetic profile on patients has made gathering such a family history far more revelatory than ever before. Nurses must gain a better understanding of how genetics affects patient health in a very specific fashion to be effective healthcare providers in the future. Nurses are "ideally situated" to inform patients about what genetic information means, given the patient-centered focus of the profession (Lea 2011: 3). Nurses must understand the implications of genetic testing to comprehend the extent to which a disease is likely to manifest itself in a patient. Patients must be able to realistically evaluate the threats they face.
At present, "genetic tests are offered to those suspected of having…
Conley, Y. & Tinkle, M. (2006). The future of genomic nursing research. Journal of Nursing
Scholarship, 38: 213-218
Lea, DH (et al. 2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43:1, 3 -- 12.
Lea, DH (2006). U.S. genetics nurses in advanced practice. Journal of Nursing Scholarship,
Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…
He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.
Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.
Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.
Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…
(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors
Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.
Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Paget's Disease Of Bone
James Paget, 1877
Paget's disease of bone
general information about disease
Effects of disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Treatment and Prognosis for patient
disease can be treated but not cured.
Paget's Disease of Bone
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…
Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.
Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.
Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.
Overview and Brief History of the Condition:
Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.
The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…
Agabegi, E. & Agabegi, S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Hagerstown, MD. 157.
Bunevicius, R. & Prange, AJ. (2006). Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism:
pathophysiology and treatment options. CNS Drugs. (20:11). 897-909.
Cawood, T., Moriarty, P., & O'Shea, D. (2004). Recent developments in thyroid eye disease.
The disease commonly known as "Elephantitis" is actually scientifically termed Elephantiasis. It is a disease of the skin that is caused by a number of crucial factors which, when working in conjunction with one another, cause human tissue to thicken and swell. This paper will examine Elephantiasis, provide a background of the disease, and describe current methods of treatment.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Elephantiasis cannot occur without the help of a small parasite, which may be passed into the blood stream through contact with mosquito carriers. Such parasites which assist in the onset of Elephantiasis are B. timori, uchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi ("Lymphatic Filariasis"). Yet, while these parasites help in the onset of the disease, they are not the sole cause. On the contrary, Elephantiasis requires a number of factors before it can actually develop. First, it requires the introduction of the parasite…
Hajdu, Steven. "A Note from History: Elephantiasis." Annals of Clinical & Laboratory
Science, vol. 32, no. 2 (2002): 207-209. Web.
"Lymphatic Filariasis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Web. 6
June 2013. < http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/lymphaticfilariasis/index.html >
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…
Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:
PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694
EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf
Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
HD is extremely debilitating, and if the patient lives long enough, the symptoms can become extremely severe. It is not uncommon for patients who suffer from the disease to suffer extreme depression and sometimes suicide, so developing medications that could delay or slow the disease are extremely important, and laboratory testing should definitely continue in this area.
Laboratory work in the past decades has helped develop a much deeper understanding of the disease. A group of writers note, "Within the last 4 decades, great strides have been made that have furthered our understanding of the neural bases of HD" (Montoya, Price, Menear and Lepage 2006). This is also extremely important in the understanding and eventual eradication of the disease.
All of these results are extremely positive for families who know they suffer from the disease, and for hopefully preventing the disease in the future. Without laboratory testing and research, many…
Editors. 2010. Huntington's Disease. [Online] Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm [Accessed 18 May 2010].
Goolkasian, Virginia. 2001. Delving into Huntington's Disease. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), September, 34.
Klager, Joseph, Ayana Duckett, Susan Sandler, and Carol Moskowitz. 2008. Huntington's Disease: a Caring Approach to the End of Life. Care Management Journals 9, no. 2: 75+.
Lechich, Anthony J., Deborah Lovecky, Carol Moskowitz, Sybil Montas, Ayana Duckett, Anne Pae, Kathy Knoblauch, David Saks, Dorothy Toliver, Eileen Fogarty, and James Pollard. 2008. Survey of Community-based Programs Serving U.S. Families with Huntington's Disease: Perceived Barriers and Facilitators in the Residential Placement Process. Care Management Journals 9, no. 2: 65+.
" (Fleming et al., 1994)
B. Genetic Factors
hile environmental factors are shown to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease there are also specific mutations linked to the development of PD in certain populations. For example it is reported that a study conducted on Parkinson's Disease and hereditary genetic risks of developing this disease states findings that researchers in the study "...found that ethnic Chinese individuals carrying a mutation they indentified in the LRRK2 gene are over two times more likely to develop the disease than non-carriers." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004) the study was conducted at Mayo Clinic in 2004. The research team not only discovered the LRRK2 gene and the role it plays in Parkinson's disease but as well discovered "...a number of mutations in LRRK2 a gene that codes for poorly understood protein, leucine-rich repeat kinase." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004)
One of the mutations 'G209S…
Wood-Kaczmar, a., Gandhi, S. And Wood, NW (2006) Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease Trends Mol Med. 2006 Nov;12(11):521-8. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Links
Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease.
Priyadarshi, a., Khuder, SA, Schaub, EA and Priyadarshi, SS (2001) Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: a metaanalysis. Environe Res. 2001 Jun; 86(2):122-7.
How yeast is helping us to understand Parkinson's Disease (2009) Psysorg 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.physorg.com/news154950981.html
Alzheimer's Disease: An Overview
Disease description and possible misconceptions
Alzheimer's disease is one of, although not the only type, of dementia elderly patients may suffer. The most common form of the illness occurs after age 60. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease before the age of 60 is less common, but the symptoms and worsening of the illness tends to be swifter in nature. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease has a known genetic component. "Certain genes...such as APOE epsilon4 allele" are linked to a greater likelihood of developing Alzheimer's (Jasmin 2010). In older patients, the difference between dementia and Alzheimer's can be difficult to determine. "The only way to know for certain that someone has AD is to examine a sample of their brain tissue after death," to determine if the tissue sample exhibits neurofibrillary tangles, "twisted fragments of protein within nerve cells that clog up the cell;" neuritic plaques, "abnormal clusters of dead and…
Gwyther, L.P. (2004). Ask the expert: Common questions about Alzheimer's disease.
National Women's Health Report, 26(6), 7-7. Retrieved:
Harman, D. (2000). Alzheimer's disease: A hypothesis on pathogenesis. Age, 23(3), 147-161.
Though there are state laws and federal laws that militate against discrimination at any levels, the application of this law is a challenge and the patients end up being discriminated against anyway. The victims will most likely end up in nursing homes where they will receive treatment but this separates them from the family life.
The other factor is the cost that weighs down the concerned people in terms of medical bills. It is a disease that is expensive to manage since there are numerous scans that one must get and the cost of specialized care doesn't make it any better. The good news however is that there are several organizations that have volunteered to help the victims of this disease like Hunters Hope (2009) which was purposefully formed to cater for patients of the disease in terms of support and information among many other organizations.
Alexander C. Guo,…
U.S National Library of Medicine (2011). Krabbe Disease. Retrieved April, 11, 2011 from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/krabbe-disease
University of Maryland Medical Center (2009). Krabbe disease - Overview . Retrieved April, 11,
2011 from http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001198.htm
To find out if you have ALS, your doctor will do a physical exam and will ask you about your symptoms and past health. You will also have tests that show how your muscles and nerves are working." (ebMD, 1) These tests may given the physician cause to observe the nerve cells where atrophy has occurred. Because ALS will generally prove debilitating to both upper and lower motor neurons, symptoms demonstrating a degeneration in both capacities will frequently be a tip-off that ALS is present.
Host/Intermediate host or Life
The individual who is host to this condition will have a limited life expectancy. ALS is a fatal disease which may run its course in a period of months or over a number of years. But as with the namesake of the condition in the U.S., Lou Gehrig, even those in peak physical condition may be struck by an aggressive advancement…
Aebischer, P. & Kato, a.C. (2007). Playing Defense Against Lou Gehrig's Disease. Scientific American.
Ray, S.S. & Lansbury, P.T. (2004). A Possible Therapeutic Target for Lou Gehrig's Disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(16), 5701-5702.
Reichenberg, E. (2008). Understanding ALS. ALS Hope Foundation.
Walling, a.D. (2006). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Lou Gehrig's Disease. American Academy of Family Physicians.
What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions
There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.
Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002
Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…
Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004
Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Although it was once considered a rare disease, Huntington's disease (HD) is now known to be one of several frequently encountered hereditary diseases. It is estimated that 30,000 people in the U.S. have the disease. People affected by HD require extensive care from their families and loved ones, and because of this need, this devastating condition affects a wide circle of people close to those who are ill ("Huntington's Disease"). This widespread affect on so many lives is one reason that promoting HD awareness is so important.
HD is an inherited brain disorder that leads to loss of physical control and mental capacity. Caused by an inherited defect in a single gene, HD is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person needs only one copy of the defective gene to develop the disorder. ith the exception of genes on the sex chromosomes, a person inherits two…
"Huntington's Disease." Family Caregiver Alliance. 2003. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.
Mayo Clinic Staff. "Huntington's disease." Mayo clinic. 5 May 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.
detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.
The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]
Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]
Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…
bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.
3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135
4.Author not available,  Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm
5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. . Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.
6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
But people cn help protect themselves by stying wy from known risk fctors whenever they cn (Cncer Risk Fctors, 2012).
In order to contin spending, the U.S. helth cre system needs to ddress rising rtes of treted disese insted of requiring higher cost shring from consumers (Thorpe, Florence, Howrd ∓ Joski, 2005). There re mny things tht the stte of Cliforni is doing in order to help prevent Cncer in the stte. The Cncer Prevention Institute of Cliforni (CPIC) ws strted in 1974 s the Northern Cliforni Cncer Progrm. This institute works cross ll communities in order to:
investigte the cuses of cncer by exmining the genetic, environmentl, nd virl origins of cncers, nd, once these cuses hve been recognized,
id prevention by clssifying where suitble intervention cn stop cncer before its begins, nd they mke sure tht cncer prevention nd tretment strtegies benefit ll people everywhere by: wtching the…
aid prevention by classifying where suitable intervention can stop cancer before its begins, and they make sure that cancer prevention and treatment strategies benefit all people everywhere by: watching the occurrence of cancer amid the general public, examining racial or ethnic-based disparities in cancer prevention strategies or care choices, educating the public in regards to cancer prevention, treatment and survivorship alternatives, and reaching out to underserved populations in order to make sure that they have equal access to these advances (Cancer Prevention Institute of California, 2012).
The state of California spent $15,199,092 on Cancer in 2011(Key Health Data about California, 2012), which appears to be helping as can be seen by the overall decrease in Cancer rates over the last several years. The knowledge gained by these types of programs aids in the development of interventions, awareness and education campaigns, and other outreach activities that target cancer (Fairley, Pollack, Moore & Smith, 2009).
Cancer is a topic of great concern across the country but especially so
One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).
In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…
Cohen, Elwood. (1999). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Coughlin, Patricia B. (1993). Facing Alzheimer's. New York: Ballantine Books.
Powell, Lenore S. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease: A Guide for Families. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
A and Katie Courtice. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)
Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:
Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html
Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html
Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
Creatine treatment started at 6, 8, and 10 weeks of age, analogous to early, middle, and late stages of human HD, significantly extended survival at both the 6- and 8-week starting points. Significantly improved motor performance was present in both the 6- and 8-week treatment paradigms, while reduced body weight loss was only observed in creatine-supplemented R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks." (Dedeoglu, et al., 2003) Specifically it is stated that the "...Neuropathological sequelae of gross brain and neuronal atrophy and huntington aggregates were delayed in creatine-treated R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks. We show significantly reduced brain levels of both creatine and ATP in R6/2 mice, consistent with a bioenergetic defect. Oral creatine supplementation significantly increased brain concentrations of creatine and ATP to wild-type control levels, exerting a neuroprotective effect. These findings have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that creatine therapy initiated after diagnosis may provide significant clinical benefits to…
NINDS Huntington's Disease Information Page (2009) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Online available at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm
Hamilton, J.M., et al. (2004) Rate and Correlates of Weight Change in Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology Neuroscience and Psychiatry 2004; 75:209-212. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Online available at http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/75/2/209
Gaba, Ann M. et al. (2005) Energy Balance in Early-Stage Huntington Disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 6. June 2005.
Djousse, L. (2002) Weight Loss in Early Stage of Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology 2002. Nov. 12:59(9): 1325-30.
Alzheimer's, on the other hand, directly affects brain cells, and if there is uncertainty, patients and their families should certainly ask for a second opinion.
The population most likely to suffer from the disease is the elderly, but this is not always the case. esearchers note, "Alzheimer's disease is not part of the normal aging process, although it affects predominantly elderly people. Whereas only 10% of those 65 years of age and older are affected by this disease, the percentage may be as high as 48% in those 85 years of age and older" (Handy, Turnbull, Edwards, & Lancaster, 1998, p. 1-2). In addition, there are more rare forms that strike patients in middle age. These researchers write about, "a rare form of Alzheimer's that strikes in middle age and is passed down to 50%, on average, of offspring" (Tanzi & Parson, 2000, p. xiii). This form of the disease…
Editors. (2004). About Alzheimer's. Retrieved from the Alzheimer's Association Web site: http://www.alz.org/AboutAD/WhatIsAD.asp12 Nov. 2004.
Edwards, a.J. (1994). When memory fails: Helping the Alzheimer's and dementia patient. New York: Plenum Press.
Handy, R.C., Turnbull, J.M., Edwards, J., & Lancaster, M.M. (Eds.). (1998). Alzheimer's disease: A handbook for caregivers. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Keltner, N.L., Zielinski, a.L., & Hardin, M.S. (2001). Drugs used for cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Perspectives in psychiatric care, 37(1), 31.
Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.
For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…
Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,
Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),
Gerdner L.A., & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284-291.
Klunk, W. E et al. (2004). "Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease using the novel positron emission tomography tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B." Annals of Neurology,
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).
In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.
There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…
ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health
Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html
CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.
28, October 2004, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET
Introduction to Fibromyalgia
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
Effects of the symptoms on the body.
isk factors and preventive steps.
Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.
Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…
Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740
Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms .
Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF
KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x
A Brief Description of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs in middle-age to older adults. The disorder has a mean beginning of about 55 years of age. The incidence of Parkinson's disorder increases with age. PD affects about 0.15% percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). PD was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson's "Essay on the Shaking Palsy."
In 95% of PD cases diagnoses there is no genetic association (no one in the family has it) and these cases are designated as sporadic PD. In the small number of remaining cases the disorder is inherited (Dauer & Przedborski, 2003). A condition known as secondary Parkinsonism that resembles the physical presentation of PD can be brought on by a number of drugs or other conditions such as dopamine antagonist medications, hypoxia, and from brain tumors (APA, 2000).
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W. & Paradiso, M.A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain,
Second Edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Rosacea is a skin disease that affects millions of people. The chief cause of rosacea is still unclear and hence all treatment is based on a preventive basis rather than a curative one. The management of this chronic condition is made easier by a combination of different therapies, which includes oral antibiotics, topical gel and latest laser treatments.
Rosacea is one of the chronic skin diseases which affects an astounding 13 million people in the United States alone. Initially characterized by reddening of the face, the disease may gradually develop eruptions on the face giving a totally distorted look. While we are aware that some external factors like food and temperature trigger a flushing we still don't have a clue as to what is the root cause of Rosacea. Apart from the damaging effects on the skin, in a majority of the cases the disease also affects the eyes in…
Fred Wilson "Laser Offers relief in diminishing Rosacea," July 1st, 2002 http://www.dermatologytimes.com/dermatologytimes/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=24834
2) Jonathan Wilkin, "Standard Classification of Rosacea" "A Special report,"
Journal of American Academy of dermatology" April 2002, Vol 46
3) Designed by "Simon Darken," "What is Rosacea," Accessed on 27th February 2003, http://www.about-rosacea.com/overview.htm
Sarcoidosis is a sometimes-lethal disease affecting primarily the lungs and thoracic lymphatic system, and its hallmark feature is noncaseating granulomas in multiple tissues and organs (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36; American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 736). Over 90% of all sufferers have pulmonary involvement, but granulomas are frequently found in other organs and tissues, including the skin, eyes, liver, spleen, parotid glands, central nervous system, muscles, bones, and genitourinary tract (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36). When death does result, it is typically due to pulmonary fibrosis. What follows is a review of pulmonary sarcoidosis from a clinical perspective.
Causes and isk Factors
The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but research into the nature of the resulting granulomas suggests immune dysregulation in genetically susceptible individuals is the primary causative factor (American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 738-740). The genetic contribution appears to be significant, as evidenced by an…
American Thoracic Society. (1999). Statement on Sarcoidosis. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 160, 736-755.
American Lung Association. (2010). State of lung disease in diverse communities 2010. Lung.org. Retrieved 5 Mar. 2012 from http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/lung-disease-data/solddc_2010.pdf .
Baughman, Robert P., Lower, Elyse E., and du Bois, Roland M. (2003). Sarcoidosis. Lancet, 361, 1111-1118.
Drent, Marjolein, De Vries, Jolanda, Lenters, Merinke, Lamers, Rob J. s., Rothkranz-Kos, Snjezana, Wouters, Emiel F.M. et al. (2003). Sarcoidosis: Assessment of disease severity using HRCT. European Radiology, 13, 2462-2471.
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…
Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518 .
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html .
Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri .
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
, 1998). It is hard to know where the boundary stops between psychological and physical illness, since the two are, often intimately combined with one affecting the other.
QOL, as De Vries and Drent (2008) point out is often confounded with state of physical health but actually it reflects one's emotional and psychological welfare. Nonetheless, the two are intimately related in that each affects the other.
Conducting a through review on the subject with key words involving 'Sarcoidosis and health status', Sarcoidosis and quality of life" or Sarcoidosis and fatigue" De Vries and Drent (2008) ended up with 15 studies that they considered relevant to their subject.
Counter-intuitively, they discovered that the greatest challenge on QOL as effected by was the patient's fatigue caused by the disease. Breathlessness, reduced exercise, and impaired working and physical activities were the most frequent reported hindrances. The instrument used was the World Health Organization…
American Thoracic Society (1999) Statement on Sarcoidosis, 736-749
The report provides a thorough overview of Sarcoidosis discussing new developments and demonstrating how much in the field remains enigmatic.
Bona, J. et al. (1998) Neurosarcoidosis as a Cause of Refractory Psychosis: A Complicated Case ReportAm J. Psychiatry 155:8, 1100-1107
The report describes Sarcoidosis and gives a case history as example.
Pathogens and Diseases:
Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.
Spread of Pathogens:
Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best
Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
Fletcher, V. (2006). How your birthday can cause allergies. UK News: Northern and Shell Media Publications. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/206427/How-your-birthday-can-cause-allergies
Jedrychowski W. et al. (2003). Prenatal lead exposure heightens childhood allergies.
Environmental Health News: Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on June 5,
2011 from http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience.prenatal.lead-exposure-heightens-dhildhood-allergies
Schonberger et al. (2005). Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum
IgE at birth in high-risk children. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology: PubMed.
Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18702655
Lin L. et al. (2010). Prenatal allergen & diesel exhaust. Allergy, Asthma, & Clinical
Immunology: Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://ccceh.hs.columbia.edu/ped-papers/LinAAC12010.pdf
Matthias, W. et al. (2005). Latitude, birth date and allergy. PLosMedicine: Public
Library of Science. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info.doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020794
Pyrhonen, K. et al. (2010). Season of the first semester of pregnancy predicts sensitization to food allergens in childhood: a…
Adams, S. (2011). Autumn babies "more likely to have food allergies. The Telegraph:
Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved on June 4, 2011 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/8073048/Autumn-babies-more-likely-to-have-food-allergies , html
Aichbhaumik N. et al. (2008). Prenatal exposure to household pets influences fetal immunoglobulin E. production. Clinical & Experimental Allergy: PubMed. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18702655
Campbell, D. (2010). Chance of developing allergies linked to moth of conception.
Newspaper Opinion Editorial
With advances in genetic studies, Canadians can learn if they are at risk of developing devastating diseases -- and so can their insurance companies. Genetic discrimination is growing as an increasing number of people are opting for genetic tests, including people at risk of developing Huntington's disease, a degenerative brain disorder that cannot presently be cured or slowed. Children of parents with Huntington's disease have a 50% chance of developing the disorder, and genetic testing can narrow the probability ratio even further.
Genetic discrimination is unfair and the result of faulty, speculative thinking. Genetic discrimination is misleading also misleading as it is based on probability prediction, which can be absolutely incorrect. Genetic discrimination is defined as "the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. Consider that for many individuals whose parents do have Huntington's disease, only…
Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing. (2008, June). Number 410. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [Web]. Retrieved http://www.acog.org/
CTV.ca News Staff (2009, June 9). Some Canadians suffering 'genetic discrimination.' Bell Media. Retrieved http://www.ctvnews.ca/some-canadians-suffering-genetic-discrimination-1.406308
Lapman, E.V., Kozma, C. And Weiss, J. (1996, October 25). Science, 274. Genetic discrimination: Perspectives of consumers.