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Genetic Testing: Identifying Associating Issues
This paper will examine Shelley urtt's writing "Dilemmas of Genetic Testing" as well as other sources on the subject of genetic testing. After having examined the resources available an opinion will be formed as to whether genetic testing is positive or negative for the patient and the expected child.
Genetic testing is becoming an option more commonly used by women during pregnancies to assess particular information concerning the health of the fetus they carry. Shelley urtt's writing questions the response to the new technology of genetic testing and the fact that the autonomy of individuals is being set aside as to their choices in continuing a pregnancy where the fetus is found to have genetic defects.
Shelly contends that:
For an anxious parent, genetic testing accompanied by the possibility of therapeutic abortion appears to enhance individual freedom providing an additional measure of control over one's…
APA Monitor Women's Medical Journal (1999) "Women's Health: A Multilevel Analysis of Women's Status and Self-Rated Health in the United States" 1999 June Vol.30 No.6 [Online] available at http://www.jamwa.org/index.cfm?objectid=2A80E5E6-D567-0B25-5BBE644F26DD5104
Mann, Rosemary J. (2004) Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, Volume 49, Issue 3, May-June 2004, Pages 182-187
Gates, Elena A. Gates, M.D. (2004) "Communicating Risk in Prenatal Genetic Testing" American College of Nurse Midwives. Elesevierk, Inc.
Marks, Joan H. (2003) "The Importance of Genetic Counseling" The American Medical Association Journal [Online] available at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v74n3/40795/40795.text.html
The genetic testing is used to measure the percentage or level of any risk associated to one's life. By studying gene mutation, it is predictable that a certain disease is likely to be occurring in future. However you may not find any symptoms of diseases until you do not suffer from it. (Mayo clinic staff, 2006). So with the help of genetic testing you can find all possible disease a person can suffer from.
It can be used only to find out the possibility of any risk that can be caused to any life but using genetic experimentation or cloning for the development of new species to experiment on human beings should be banned. The therapeutic cloning refers to the usage of human organs and specific parts of human body to be used for the treatment of any other person. (Margaret . McLean, 1998)
The healthier human being is better…
Wikipedia, "Genetic Testing." Wikipedia, 2007. 07 October, 07. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_testing
Elmore, Shaun. "DNA Testing & it's Uses in Today's Society." EzineArticles 02 August 2007. 07 October 2007 http://ezinearticles.com/?DNA-Testing-and-Its-Uses-in-Todays-Society&id=671072 .
How far will parents go to secure a better life for their child? Genetic testing has the potential to improve the lives of all human beings. By testing the genes of newborn, or even unborn children, parents and doctors can learn a lot about the predispositions the child might have towards certain conditions. This information can prove to be valuable in terms of setting out a course in life that can minimize the risk the child might have. There are, however, some legitimate concerns about the use of genetic testing, especially in unborn children. However, when used properly, genetic testing can be a valuable medical tool. Genetic testing should be used by parents to improve the health of their children.
Prevention of Future Diseases
Genetic testing provides information about genetic defects that we all carry. This information describes the predispositions that individuals have to specific conditions. ith this…
Pakenham, K. (no date). Medicine and genetic research. In possession of the author
Stein, R. (2012). Genome sequencing for babies brings knowledge and conflicts. NPR. Retrieved February 15, 2013 from http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/12/03/165272373/genome-sequencing-for-babies-brings-knowledge-and-conflicts-utm_source=NPR&utm_medium=facebook&utm_campaign=20121203
Stein, R. (2012) Perfection is skin deep: Everyone has flawed genes. NPR. Retrieved February 15, 2013 from http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/12/06/166648187/perfection-is-skin-deep-everyone-has-flawed-genes
Prenatal diagnosis serves a variety of purposes and I believe in its fundamental purpose it is good. In some cases, prenatal genetic testing can lead to timely medical intervention to mitigate or eliminate disease such as with congenital adrenal hyperplasia or a-thalassemia. In some cases, prenatal diagnosis reveals a lethal condition, such as anencephaly, trisomy 13, or trisomy 18. The choice to do genetic testing in the beginning is always individual. My choice, however, would be to have it done.
I'm for genetic testing for several reasons. Prenatal diagnosis allows families and medical professionals to prepare for the care of a child with special needs. This may be preparing neonatal care or preparing emotionally for the arrival of a special needs child. Prenatal diagnosis of a disease may also give parents time to educate themselves on the disorder of their child. Genetic testing also gives parents the option…
Genetic testing is a term used to refer to some type of medical test carried out to identify changes in genes, chromosomes or proteins. It is also known as DNA testing as it helps to detect changes in chromosome structure or DNA sequence. Over the past few decades, this biotechnology has become more popular to an extent that various genetic tests have emerged and expanded. Despite its popularity, genetic testing is associated with some risks and limitations including physical risks. Consequently, numerous arguments have been raised to support and disapprove the use of this biotechnology. This paper examines reasons for and against the use of this technology and provides a position statement.
Background of Genetic Testing
Genetic tests have become popular as they help to identify abnormalities linked to an inherited disorder. These tests are carried out in different ways though they require easily obtained blood specimens and entail distinctive…
Complex inheritance health issues mean people inherit multiple chronic health diseases or issues that can lead to diseases, compounding the likelihood of chronic illness (Kristoffersson, Cassiman, & Schmidtke, 2010). Common medical problems that can be inherited such as high blood pressure and diabetes, can lead to an illness like congestive heart failure in someone who inherits these medical problems. This is because diabetes may make it easier to become unhealthy in relation to diet and the genes responsible for the higher potential for high blood pressure could make the arteries of the heart more vulnerable to damage. There are apparent factors that can be associated in a complex inheritance health issue.
Genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell have simple origins (Kristoffersson, Cassiman, & Schmidtke, 2010). The parent or parents may have faulty gene that creates an environment for these kinds of diseases. However, other health issues are often…
Bennett, R. L. (2012). The family medical history as a tool in preconception consultation. Journal of Community Genetics, 3(3), 175-183. doi:10.1007/s12687-012-0107-z
Cohn, W., Ropka, M., Pelletier, S., Barrett, J., Kinzie, M., Harrison, M., … Knaus, W. (2010). Health Heritage©, a Web-Based Tool for the Collection and Assessment of Family Health History: Initial User Experience and Analytic Validity. Public Health Genomics, 13(7-8), 477-491. doi:10.1159/000294415
Kristoffersson, U., Cassiman, J. J., & Schmidtke, J. (2010). Quality Issues in Clinical Genetic Services. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Madian, A. G., Wheeler, H. E., Jones, R. B., & Dolan, M. E. (2012). Relating human genetic variation to variation in drug responses. Trends in Genetics, 28(10), 487-495. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2012.06.008
Genetic Testing and Insurance. Specifically, it will contain an analysis and key points of the article. This article discusses whether it is morally and ethically right to use genetic testing to deny health and/or life insurance to certain individuals who might have a genetic predetermination for a specific disease.
One key point is whether insurance companies should be allowed to use genetic testing to determine eligibility for insurance and/or to set premiums. Many states have already banned this process, because they feel it is unfair to use these types of tests to deny insurance when insurance is supposed to protect the individual if they suffer from health issues, whether they are genetic or not. In addition, this type of testing is very costly to the insurance companies, and there are only tests for a few, specific diseases, so they cannot pinpoint all the health risks anyone faces. Most insurance companies…
genetic testing work place? EXPECTATIONS: Please read: Genetic Testing Future Disability Insurance: Thinking Discrimination Genetic Age Paul Steven Miller. The Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics.
Genetic testing in the workplace
There is presently much controversy regarding genetic testing in the workplace, as even though it is not yet a common occurrence, employers appreciate the fact that it is very likely to assist them in experiencing as little loss as possible. Genetic monitoring and genetic screening have come to be two of the most important tools that an employer can use in order to determine whether an individual is or is not suitable for a certain job. Although one might consider that genetic testing in the workplace is a very effective form of settling on a candidate's appropriateness for a particular job, people fail to understand that the matter is much more complex and that it is possible for this technique…
MacDonald, Chris & William Jones, Bryn, "Ethics and Genetics: Susceptibility Testing in the Workplace," Retrieved July 31, 2011, from the Ethics for the Biotech Industry Website: http://www.biotechethics.ca/wgt/index.html
Claire, Andre & Velasquez, Manuel, "Read My Genes:
Genetic Screening in the Workplace," Retrieved July 31, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v4n2/genes.html
"Genetic Information and the Workplace," Retrieved July 31, 2011, from the National Human Genome Research Institute Website: http://www.genome.gov/10001732
Ethics and Legal Considerations of Genetic Testing
Genetic testing is ideally performed for many valid clinical purposes, including the diagnosis of existing genetic diseases, assessment of disease risks, prognoses of responses to drugs and identification of disease risks in unborn children (MedicineNet, 2002). Though valuable, genetic testing has created significant legal and ethical questions for the healthcare industry, including the Diagnostic Radiography field. rmed with advanced techniques for genetic testing, Diagnostic Radiologists are nevertheless forced to examine both the legality and the ethics of applying that technology. It is not logically possible to declare Genetic Testing per se ethical or unethical; rather, individual Genetics Testing procedures and the surrounding circumstances must be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. Furthermore, the ethics of Genetic Testing is separate from the ethics of whatever actions are performed due to the testing results.
n Overview of Genetic Testing
Genetic testing is an immense category of…
According to Immanuel Kant's Deontological ethical theory, only acts done from duty are morally worthy. Those dutiful, morally worthy acts are the hallmark of the "Dutiful Person" who rationally acts on principles of Universal Law. Moral worth is not based on intended or actual results; rather, moral worth is based on a "maxim" -- "a principle that one believes to be a rational principle of conduct" (Duncan, p. 2). Relying ultimately on Universal Law as the yardstick of morally worthy conduct, if the Dutiful Person cannot will a maxim to be within Universal Law, then the Dutiful Person will not act (Duncan, p. 5). Applying the "Dutiful Person" standard, the question of whether a particular type of genetic testing should be used depends only on whether it is morally worthy conduct within Universal Law.
In sharp contrast to the "Dutiful Person" is John Stuart Mills' "Utilitarian Man" of "Consequentialism." Consequentialism maintains that "whether an act is morally right depends only on consequences" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003); therefore, applying the "Utilitarian Man" standard, the morality of any type of genetics testing is judged only by its results.
Yet another philosophical ethical/moral theory is Carol Gilligan's feminist "Caring and Love" model, which asserts "that traditional moral theories, principles, practices, and policies are deficient to the degree they lack, ignore, trivialize, or demean values and virtues culturally associated with women" (Stanford Encyclopedia of
Medical specialists suggest the use of prenatal screening, as it will identify the possible risks of: the pregnancy and the available options for assessing / treating the fetus' health risks. Even though genetic testing incorporates numerous benefits, it is still important to remember that it involves risks as well. This is why issues surrounding: the moral and ethical considerations are increasing on DNA-based tests.
In every test, there are: ethical, legal and social implications involved. These will depend upon the objectives behind the examination. In medical cases, it is important to determine if there are possible treatments after the diagnosis. Moreover, the reasons of every decision are important, particularly when it is a prenatal case that is being tested. Nevertheless, all information about the patient must remain private. This is mainly because, of the outcome of genetic testing is fully related to the identification of the patient and his family…
Barigozzi, F., Henriet, D. (2009). Genetic information: Comparing alternatives regulatory approaches when prevention matters. Universita degli Studie, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche.
Devettere, R.J. (2009). Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Jecker, N.A., Jonsen, A.R., Pearlman, R.A. (2007). Bioethics: An introduction to the history, methods and practice. Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Jones, N.L., Smith, A.M. (2005). Genetic information: Legal and law enforcement issues. New York: Nova Publishers.
In this case, Harry also has no moral obligation to receive genetic testing. Although another argument would state that Harry is morally required to disclose to his wife that she may have to deal with the monumental task of caring for a person with Huntington's disease before they are married, Harry and his fiancee are both consenting adults. If she does not demand to know, she cannot hold him responsible in the future. Where Harry does become responsible for getting the genetic testing is when his future children are considered. Harry is morally required to determine whether he will not only be unable to care for his children because of an early struggle with the disease and death, but also whether or not he will pass the disease along to them. If Harry does not get the testing, he subjects his unborn children to the possibility of a life of…
Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis
Genetic testing is defined as a diagnostic process that is carried out on individuals suspected to be at high risks of some inherited genetic disease as evidenced in family history. This procedure is not carried out because the individual belongs to a high risk population and involves comprehensive analysis of gene products, chromosomes, and DNA. Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a diagnostic process that is utilized to predict the likelihood of a baby to have certain genetic disorder ("Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing," 2008).
Prenatal genetic diagnosis has become a common and important practice in attempts to predict and deal with certain genetic diseases in children. Since its one of the common practices during prenatal care, the techniques utilized in prenatal genetic diagnosis have challenged the traditional conception of justice (Denier, 2010, p.102). This is possible because PGD does not consider natural inequalities among individuals to be…
Denier, Y. (2010, February 24). From Brute Luck to Option Luck? On Genetics, Justice, and Moral Responsibility in Reproduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 35, 101-129.
"Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing." (2008, June). The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.acog.org/ Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Ethics/Ethical-Issues-in-Genetic-Testing
Skirton, H. (2015, April 29). Direct to Consumer Testing in Reproductive Contexts -- Should Health Professionals be Concerned? Life Sciences, Society and Policy, 11(4). Retrieved from http://lsspjournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40504-014-0018-3
Su, P. (2013, September). Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: A Comprehensive Review. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 86(3), 359-365. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767220/
1. The concerns Tonya and Lisa have regarding genetic testing raises several ethical questions that Dugas (2005) outlines. The right to self-determination is central in matters linked to genetic testing, and nurses do need to understand their role in providing informed consent when patients are faced with a decision similar to that of Tonya and Lisa (Dugas, 2005). In addition to providing patients with all the information they need to make informed decisions, nurses also have an ethical duty to strengthen relationships among all members of the healthcare team to promote patient advocacy during the decision-making process. As Dugas (2005) points out, “establishing the links among families, health-care systems, and community is an integral part of the nursing role in genetic health care,” (p. 106). As this case study also reveals, genetic testing is unique in that patients are “revealing information about their genetic makeup that typically remains unknown to…
BreastCancer.org (2017). Seeking your genetic information: Pros and cons. Retrieved online: http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/testing/genetic/pros_cons
Dugas, R. (2005). Nursing and genetics. Journal of Professional Nursing 21(2): 103-113.
Frank, T.S. & Braverman, A.M. (1999). The pros and cons of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer risk. International Journal of Feertility and Women’s Medicine 44(3): 139-145.
Nathan's mother died of Huntington's Disease, a genetic condition to which he may or may not have been predisposed. He opted not to take a genetic test, even when asked to do so by his employer. It was Nathan's right to opt out of the test, but Nathan claims discrimination and can make a case based on HR493, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Likewise, the Council for Responsible Genetics is an organization protecting the rights of individuals from having the results of their genetic tests made public. The flip side of the issue is the financial burden felt by insurance companies and the private sector. Insurance companies and the private sector need to know the person's genetic profile in order to make the most profitable decisions for them. Therefore, the ethical issues raised in this case have to do with the rights of corporations vs. The rights of individuals;…
Prenatal genetic testing can prove useful to many expectant mothers under certain conditions. For example, those with inherited illnesses, those with children born with severe defects, those who are high risk of delivering a still born, and women over the age of 34 all present as likely candidates for prenatal genetic testing. It can help them identify what may be wrong with the fetus and what steps to take if something is found. However, pregnant women not at risk for such problems stand not to benefit from prenatal genetic testing as the procedure can be unsafe for the fetus and mother and is not entirely accurate.
Ethos means persuading a person through the persuader's credibility or character. Prenatal genetic testing is performed by a qualified doctor who has experience, and a history of formal education. By having a qualified doctor perform the procedure, it may result in a positive outcome…
However, an individual should be able to investigate their own roots, even if the science is questionable. hen such information is released into the public domain without the individual's permission though, a lot of harm can be done. Making invasions into a person's genetic history illegal is probably the best remedy.
Genetic testing has become an important tool for medical diagnosis and treatments (Norrgard) and therefore should be available to anyone needing or requesting such services. hat is done with this information, however, is another matter. Family members may suspect they have an increased risk for an early onset or even fatal disease, but would prefer not to know if effective treatments and cures are unavailable. Should one family member decide to get tested, then this may create friction between family members concerning their wishes and personal privacy because the results would have an impact on everyone in the family.…
Norrgard, K. "Ethics of Genetic Testing: Medical Insurance and Genetic Discrimination." Nature Education 1.1 (2008). Web. 3 May 2013.
Abbott, a. "Genome Test Slammed for Assessing Racial Purity." Nature 486 (2012):167.
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…
Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.
Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/
McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004. http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/scopenotes/sn22.html
Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/mcclean/plsc431/students99/miller.htm. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.
Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…
Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.
Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic
Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5
Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.
The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.
Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…
Brickell, K., Steinbart, E., Rumbaugh, M., Payami, H., Schellenberg, G., Deerlin, V. V.,... Bird, T. (2006). Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 63(9), 1307-11.
Campion, D., Dumanchin, C., Hannequin, D., Dubois, B., Belliard, S., Puel, M.,... Frebourg, T. (1999). Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J. Hum Genet, 65(3), 664-70.
CDC. (2015, March 3). Genetic Counselling. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/genetics/genetic_counseling.html
Goldman, J. S., MS, M., Hahn, S. E., Catania, J. W., Larusse-Eckert, S., Butson, M. B.,... Bird, T. (2011). Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: Joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Genet Med, 13(6), 597 -- 605.
Nursing and Genetics
As noted by Lea (et al.) "Obtaining a family history is an established and familiar screening activity used by nurses and other healthcare providers across many healthcare settings" (Lea 2010:4). However, the increased commonality of doing a genetic profile on patients has made gathering such a family history far more revelatory than ever before. Nurses must gain a better understanding of how genetics affects patient health in a very specific fashion to be effective healthcare providers in the future. Nurses are "ideally situated" to inform patients about what genetic information means, given the patient-centered focus of the profession (Lea 2011: 3). Nurses must understand the implications of genetic testing to comprehend the extent to which a disease is likely to manifest itself in a patient. Patients must be able to realistically evaluate the threats they face.
At present, "genetic tests are offered to those suspected of having…
Conley, Y. & Tinkle, M. (2006). The future of genomic nursing research. Journal of Nursing
Scholarship, 38: 213-218
Lea, DH (et al. 2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43:1, 3 -- 12.
Lea, DH (2006). U.S. genetics nurses in advanced practice. Journal of Nursing Scholarship,
" This category of identifiers, is however, weak. There are apparently a list of indicators such as name and address that have to be removed from the database in order to use the DNA evidence without notifying the person. When these markers are removed, the evidence is considered public. Yet there are potentials for those markers to resurface and privacy can never be ensured. Even though Angrist is in favor of a public pool of DNA evidence for the lofty goals of science, he agrees, "de-identification is increasingly difficult." It is becoming hard to disconnect names, dates, and places from the hemoglobin and NA. Science appreciates access to DNA because it can link certain traits with others and thereby advance scientific knowledge.
Although it is important to protect a person's privacy regarding DNA, it is too difficult to do so given the rampant greed in the biomedical industry and the…
Angrist, Misha. "Genetic privacy needs a more nuanced approach." Nature. 6 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-needs-a-more-nuanced-approach-1.12363
Nature. "Genetic Privacy." 17 Jan 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-1.12238
The Washington Times. "Editorial: Preserving Genetic Privacy." The Washington Times. 21 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/feb/21/preserving-genetic-privacy/
Newspaper Opinion Editorial
With advances in genetic studies, Canadians can learn if they are at risk of developing devastating diseases -- and so can their insurance companies. Genetic discrimination is growing as an increasing number of people are opting for genetic tests, including people at risk of developing Huntington's disease, a degenerative brain disorder that cannot presently be cured or slowed. Children of parents with Huntington's disease have a 50% chance of developing the disorder, and genetic testing can narrow the probability ratio even further.
Genetic discrimination is unfair and the result of faulty, speculative thinking. Genetic discrimination is misleading also misleading as it is based on probability prediction, which can be absolutely incorrect. Genetic discrimination is defined as "the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. Consider that for many individuals whose parents do have Huntington's disease, only…
Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing. (2008, June). Number 410. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [Web]. Retrieved http://www.acog.org/
CTV.ca News Staff (2009, June 9). Some Canadians suffering 'genetic discrimination.' Bell Media. Retrieved http://www.ctvnews.ca/some-canadians-suffering-genetic-discrimination-1.406308
Lapman, E.V., Kozma, C. And Weiss, J. (1996, October 25). Science, 274. Genetic discrimination: Perspectives of consumers.
For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.
Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.
This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…
Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.
Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.
Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
socio-cultural issues that have the greatest influence on the administration of psychological testing. One social and legal issue that arisen in the recent literature is the use of psychological testing in conjuncture with genetic testing. Indeed, the article notes that there are ethical challenges and training implications for current and future psychologists in the field. The article notes that modern advances in the field of genome sequencing and genetic testing have created issues and ethical challenges relating to the general field of psychology. The reason there is an issue is that, more and more, patients will know their family's genetic history and will present with a disorder in mind rather than allowing for diagnosis to run its course. Further, this knowledge of the family history can lead to undue stress and problems with the patients themselves. There are further concerns that can rise from that overall paradigm including values conflicts…
Bram, A.D. (2013). Psychological Testing and Treatment Implications: We Can Say
More. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 95(4), 319-331.
Chong, V., & Kuo, B.H. (2015). Racial Identity Profiles of Asian-White Biracial Young
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…
Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology (2003) Using DNA to Solve Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_exsum.htm
DNA Forensics (2006) Human Genome Project. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Online available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources /Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Incidental findings are fairly common in the course of medical testing, occurring in around one-third of all tests (Ofri, no date). Yet, the medical field is torn about what the ethical implications of such findings are. In particular, it can be difficult to determine whether reporting such findings is important, and therefore medical practice seeks to establish a threshold of what should and should not be reported. This particular finding, that the son is not the biological son of the father, does not appear to be medically relevant. First, it is not relevant to the question at hand, which is whether the people in the family have the marker for Huntington's Disease. The child could or could not, and his parentage is not relevant to that question. Second, who is or is not his biological father is not a matter of medical health, and especially not an immediate matter.…
Illes, J. & Kirschen, M. (2014). Unexpected findings. Monitor on Psychology. Vol. 45 (3) 54.
Meiser, B. & Dunn, S. (2000). Psychological impact of genetic testing for Huntington's disease: An update of the literature. Journal of Neuroology and Neurosurgery Psychiatry. Vol. 69 (2000) 574-578.
Ofri, D. (no date). Ethical implications of incidental findings. Danielle Ofri. Retrieved April 2, 2016 from http://danielleofri.com/ethical-implications-of-incidental-findings/
The Bushmen reached advanced age despite living under harsh conditions caused by periodic famine and untreated illness. Some of the Bushmen coding alleles have been associated with disease. The results of the present study may help to reevaluate these earlier reports. They may also help to identify potential population-specific incompatibilities of drugs that are prescribed globally.
Furthermore, the results of this study have implications of admixtures that may be determined from further research. Population-wide PCA defines the Bushmen as distinct from the Niger-Congo populations as from Europeans. Within-Africa analysis separates the Bushmen from the divergent western and southern population, although ABT is within the southern Bantu cluster. However, variable relatedness of the Xhosa to Yoruba may suggest past admixture and/or historical diversity within this population. Within the Bushmen group, the authors predict that the Ju/' admixture and HGDP are essentially the same population. Divergence of KB1 and MD8 may be…
genetic basis for the accusation that Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with one of is slaves. The writer explores the DNA evidence that was examined and discusses the odds that it conclusively identifies Jefferson as the father. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
For many years rumors had circulated that Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with a certain slave. It was handed down through the folklore lines as fact and commonly accepted among many African-American groups. As technology became more advanced and mankind had the ability to test such stories it became evident that it was a wives tale. Thomas Jefferson did not father a child by the slave in question, however, it was discovered that he did indeed father a different child by the same slave. Historical folklore has always accepted that Jefferson was the father of Sally Heming's firstborn son. Evidence has proven however, that…
Author not available, GENETIC EVIDENCE: THOMAS JEFFERSON FATHERED SLAVE CHILD., Xinhua News Agency, 10-31-1998.
Marshall, Eliot, GENETICS:Which Jefferson Was the Father?., Science, 01-08-1999.
American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).
Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:
Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile
(Source: Binkin, p.94)
How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…
Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL
Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.
Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
Abortion After Prenatal Testing
Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis
There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.
The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…
Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.
Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…
Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy
Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia
Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act in Canada
Canada, as the majority of the developed states, continues to battle discrimination in all aspects of life, including employment, health care, education and so on. And the nature of the discrimination targeted by society and legislators is multiple, indulging religious, gender, sexual or political orientation, so on and so forth.
Currently, a question is being posed as to the necessity of an act to prevent genetic discrimination in the North American country. The question is raised by the increasing focus placed on genetics these days and the potential impact they can have on the life of an individual, including their life style, their health care or their employment status.
In its simplest form and formulation, genetic discrimination refers to the provision of different treatment to different individuals based on the genetic differences they reveal, such as a disease they have or could develop in…
Watton, A. 2009, "Fighting genetic discrimination in Canada." Gene Watch, Vol. 21, No. 6, http://www.parkinson.ca/atf/cf/%7B09510C2A-33CF-4B25-B007-FB673C2510B7%7D/Genetics%20and%20Pop%20Culture%202009%20-%20pages21-22.pdf accessed on March 16, 2015
2009. "Genetic information discrimination." U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/genetic.cfm accessed on March 16, 2015
"Genetic discrimination affects us all! Who has perfect genes?," Canadian Coalition for Genetic Fairness. http://www.ccgf-cceg.ca/en/about-genetic-discrimination accessed on March 16, 2015
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
Heather D's decision not to be tested for the Huntington's gene a wise one?
Heather D's decision not to be tested for Huntington's is unwise given that Heather is about to become a mother. If she develops the disease, this could significantly impair her ability to parent a child. She should make provisions for the child if she has the mutation and should discuss the situation with her husband. The genetic test for Huntington's is not a test that merely indicates a tendency or a likelihood of developing the debilitating condition -- because of the fairly narrow chromosomal area affected by the mutation, scientists can predict with a great degree of certainty who will or who will not develop the disorder (579).
Q2. Does the genetic counselor's suggestion provide a satisfactory solution to the problem?
No. Most individuals who are opposed to abortion also view the termination of fertilized embryos…
discovery that there are genetic links between Native Americans and Europeans. The conclusions of this research show that ancient Siberians have roots in Europe, not Asia.
The research is based on comparing genomes. The researchers sequenced a genome from 24,000-year-old Siberian boy and compared it with DNA samples from Native Americans, Europeans and Asians. The researchers assume that ancient Siberians crossed the Bering Land Bridge to become native North Americans, but this research shows that ancient Siberians were not entirely Asian, but were only 2/3 Asian and 1/3 from "Western Eurasia." The findings also confirm that while there are traces of European ancestry in many native Americans today, this does not necessarily mean that they had a European ancestor from the post-Columbia era.
The study was focused on genetic information, haplogroup . And mitochrondial DNA haplogroup U. These markers are common both in those of European ancestry and Asian peoples…
Balter, M. (2013). Ancient DNA links native Americans with Europe. Science. Vol. 342 (25 October 2013) 409-410.
Psychological tests are commonly used to establish individual capabilities and characteristics. Such inference is derived as a result of collecting, integrating and interpreting information about a person (Marnat, 2009). It constitutes measuring variables through the use of procedures and devices crafted to demonstrate a person's behavior (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Assessment of personality is, ideally, the measuring and evaluating of psychological aspects such as one's values, states, world view, personal identity, acculturation, behavior styles, sense of humor and the related characteristics of an individual (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Personality tests are designed to determine the character of a human being or their disposition. The initial personality tests were designed to examine and predict disorders of clinical nature. The tests are still useful today and are applied to determine cases in need of counseling. The latest personality tests are used to measure normal characteristics (Miller, Mclntire, & Lovler, 2011).…
Cattell, H. E., & Mead, A. D. (2008). The sixteen-personality factor questionnaire (16PF). The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, 2, 135-178.
Cohen, R. & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Friedman, M. (1996). Type A Behavior: Its Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press (Kluwer Academic Press)
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?
Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.
Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…
Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British
Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.bmj.com .
Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.
Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au .
Drug Development (From Nature to the Market)
The process of drug development is a complex one. The pharmaceutical industry is required to adhere to strict governmental regulations, set out by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which involve numerous phases of testing and clinical trials, close monitoring of the drug's effects on users, its stability, dosage forms (the preparation), and so on. This paper will describe the drug development process, as it proceeds from nature to the market.
Drugs that eventually make it to the marketplace can come from a variety of sources -- plants, animals, microbes, synthetic chemistry, biotechnology, and even modified molecules. Years of research and billions of dollars are invested by pharmaceutical companies as they seek out new, potential drugs for the market. All of this effort has resulted in the FDA's approval of 1,200 drugs for the marketplace since 1950 (Munos 960). The "recipes" that have…
Bamelis, Lotte; Evers, Silvia; Spinhoven, Philip; Arntz, Arnoud. "Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of the Clinical Effectiveness of Schema Therapy for Personality Disorders." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 171, no. 3 (March 2014): 305-322.
Coustasse A, Kimble CA, Stanton RB, Naylor M. "Could the Pharmaceutical Industry
Benefit from Full-Scale Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology with New Regulations?" Perspectives in Health Information Management (Fall, 2016). http://perspectives.ahima.org/couldpharmabenefit/
Munos, Bernard. "Lessons from 60 Years of Pharmaceutical Innovation." Nature
The rules enforced by EEO prohibit BSS from applying neutral employment practices and policies that might have a disproportionately adverse impact on the applicants of a certain color, sex, religion, and origin. If BSS does not adhere to these rules, then it would be violating the rules of any business operation. EEO has enforced rules that hinder BSS from obtaining information about an applicant's age if it is unreasonable to peg the job position on age alone. EEO stipulates that if BSS insists on job tests, then the tests must be related to the job and BSS must include people from all races, of different color, background, religion, sex and should not make the judgment based on disability. BSS must have a sign language interpreter on standby in case an applicant needs an accommodation. Such an accommodation must be made available by BSS. However, the accommodation must not cost BSS…
Heneman, H.G., Judge, T.A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. (2012). Staffing organizations (7th ed.). Middleton, WI: Mendota House.
McLean, G.N. (2006). Organization development: Principles, processes, performance. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
The ethical and legal consequences of testing employees without their knowledge or consent puts Danville Airlines into a defensive position, having to both explain to David eiger why they are not letting him fly, and potentially to his attorneys how the testing took place at all. The issue of genetics testing raises ethical and legal conflicts, creating a paradox for companies who practice this type of screening (Howard, ichardson, Thorpe, 2009). Danville Airlines has been negligent in their process of medical screening, allowing samples taken from eiger to be sent to a genetics screening lab (Darden, 2004). Especially detrimental to eiger is the emotional trauma and pain of being diagnosed with Huntington's disease, the same disease which took his father's life as well (Darden, 2004). Danville is now in the paradoxical situation of having told people outside the company of eiger's condition, also informing eiger he will no…
Avitabile, C., Jappelli, T., & Padula, M. (2011). Cognitive abilities, healthcare and screening tests. Journal of Population Ageing, 4(4), 251-269.
Darden Business Publishing. (2004). DANVILLE AIRLINES. University of Virginia. Retrieved on August 24, 2012 from
Howard, DH, Richardson, L.C., & Thorpe, K.E. (2009). Cancer screening and age in the United States and Europe. Health Affairs, 28(6), 1838-47.
Hunter, D. (2005). Diversity and sensitivity issues in management: The case of the genetic screening questionnaire. The Business Review, Cambridge, 4(2), 249-252.
Discuss the issue of genetic testing and screening. What are the benefits and the drawbacks of genetic testing? Specifically, what were they for eiger?
The benefits of genetic testing are pretty obvious. Genetic testing allows potential employers and other individuals receive a clear and proper snapshot about the genetic fingerprint of the people they're dealing with. This is particularly important because certain jobs are susceptible to certain forms of intense stress and nearly every profession requires that employees and other individuals be able to engage in specific tasks related to the proper administration of the job. If an individual is genetically susceptible to a certain condition that can jeopardize his ability to do a job correctly or even safely, then a prospective employee has a clear and present right to know that -- some might argue. For example, if a prospective employee were genetically susceptible to gradual blindness,…
Mead, J. (2004). Danville Airlines. Retrieved from UofV
technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…
About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml
Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/
Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html
onnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome
ETHICALLY DEFENSILE OR NOT
onnie Steinbock and Down's Syndrome
Prenatal genetic testing is a medical procedure, which detects genetic abnormalities early, to enable the mother or parents to make appropriate decisions about the condition (Khasin, 2013). Unlike prenatal genetic screening, which requires only a blood test, prenatal genetic testing obtains a direct sample of the amniotic fluid through a needle. The result is, therefore, more reliable. Prenatal genetic testing has been commonly used in detecting genetic abnormalities, such as Down Syndrome, Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13. Trisomies are extra chromosomes, which are not compatible with life. This means that children with these chromosomes die shortly after birth (Zieve et al., 2013). The main ethical issue against the procedure is that a finding of Down's Syndrome or another genetic abnormality leads women to seek abortion. Since there is no cure for these diseases, the discovery can only…
Arras, J.D. et al. (2007). Ethical issues in modern medicine: contemporary readings in bioethics. 7th edition. McGraw-Hill Education -- Europe.
Asch, A. (1999). Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy. Vol 89 # 1 American Journal of Public Health: Pubmed. Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508970/pdf
Khasin, M. (2013). Prenatal genetic testing ethics. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.
Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6597554_prenatal-genetic-testing-ethics.html
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…
(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors
Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.
Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Genetics testing has become a recent innovation in figuring out one's probability of becoming ill and also helps people figure out their roots, where their ancestors were from. Anne Wojciciki, the founder and CEO of 23 and Me Inc. has developed a way for regular people to order a personal genetic testing kit where they can spit and within a short time learn what they could be susceptible for and where they originate. While this may be fun to see where one comes from in terms of race and geographic area, it may not be as exciting when it comes to health outcomes. If someone is, for example, a carrier of the BCA1 gene, a mutation that dramatically increases the risk of breast cancer, this fun experience could quickly become one of terror and fear.
Some people do not want to know what they may die of and genetics testing…
Alz.org,. (2016). Alzheimer's & Dementia Risk Factors -- Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved 20 February 2016, from http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_causes_risk_factors.asp
Cooper, C. (2014). Jolie effect: her revelation doubled NHS breast cancer testing.The Independent. Retrieved 20 February 2016, from http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/the-angelina-jolie-effect-her-mastectomy-revelation-doubled-nhs-breast-cancer-testing-referrals-9742074.html
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html
Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm
Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.
Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
Burlington Nortern and Santa Fe Railway Company spokesman stated, "Te settlement is consistent wit te practice we've been following," said Ricard Russack. He also states tat te companies apologized to it's employees for running te tests and tey stopped all testing wen to suit was filed as tey were ordered.
Many in te political and medical filed and te Equal Employment Opportunity Commission temselves feel tis is a landmark settlement wic will alt any future discriminations. "Tis was te rigt result. It gives people reassurance tat te potential arms of genetic testing are going to be taken very seriously in our society," said Wylie Burke, ead of te Department of Medical History and Etics at te University of Wasington in Seattle. (Wasington Post) "Tis landmark settlement provides important new protection against te emerging treat of genetic discrimination," Senator Edward Kennedy (Wasington Post) "Te Commission will continue to respond aggressively to…
http://www.washingtonpost.com /ac2/wp-dyn/A34877-2001Apr18?language=printerWired' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
What does the patient have the right to know?
What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).
Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?
Regarding the "Dwarfism…
Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.
Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.
Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.
Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…
He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.
Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.
Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.
Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.
Through the maintenance of proper scientific and ethical standards, the knowledge gained from this research could revolutionize the field of criminal justice and public rehabilitative systems.
Lowenstein, L. (2003). "The Genetic Aspects of Criminality." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 8(1), pp. 63-78.
Peele, S. & DeGrandpre, . (1995). "My genes made me do it." Psychology today 28(4), pp. 50-7.
Pieri, E. & Levitt, M. (2008). "isky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence." Bioethics 22(9), pp. 509-18.
eif, A.; osler, M.; Freitag, C.; Schneider, M.; Eujen, M.; Kissling, C.; Wenzler, D.; Jacob, C.; etz-Junging, O.; Thome, J.; Lesch, K. & etz, W. (2007). "Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment." Neuropsychopharmacology 32(11). pp. 2375-83.
eitz, W.; eitz-Junginger, P.; Supprian, T.; Thorne, J. & osler, M. (2004). "Association of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism with violence: relation…
Lowenstein, L. (2003). "The Genetic Aspects of Criminality." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 8(1), pp. 63-78.
Peele, S. & DeGrandpre, R. (1995). "My genes made me do it." Psychology today 28(4), pp. 50-7.
Pieri, E. & Levitt, M. (2008). "Risky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence." Bioethics 22(9), pp. 509-18.
Reif, A.; Rosler, M.; Freitag, C.; Schneider, M.; Eujen, M.; Kissling, C.; Wenzler, D.; Jacob, C.; Retz-Junging, O.; Thome, J.; Lesch, K. & Retz, W. (2007). "Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment." Neuropsychopharmacology 32(11). pp. 2375-83.
There is still much debate on the issue of genetic testing in the workplace (Schafer, 2001). It is safe to say however, that there is much more support for not testing than there is for testing. While the company may have some rights related to hiring and firing, a case like this must be considered at times individually. For example, if the employee in question had carpal tunnel before, and it was treated, and the employee was fully recovered, there is no reason for Burlington to test the employee for carpal tunnel disorder. If the person is recovered and develops a new injury, it qualifies for protection under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
An ethical decision is one that is common or generally accepted by the majority to be right or wrong. An ethical and moral decision is one that most people would agree on, if not all. If the…
Nolo, 2004 "Exceptions to Employment Discrimination Laws, FindLaw for Small
Business," Nolo. Retrieved December 2, 2007:
Schafer, Sarah. "Railroad Agrees to Stop Gene-Testing Workers," Washington Post,
Their heritage is important because certain ethnic groups are more likely to be carriers of Tay-Sachs. "The incidence of Tay-Sachs is particularly high among people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Patients and carriers of Tay-Sachs disease can be identified by a simple blood test that measures beta-hexosaminidase a activity." (NINDS, 2011). Because the Trosacks have a fetus with Tay-Sachs, it is not necessary to test their blood and examine the beta-hexosaminidase a activity of either of the parents. However, doing so may help Peter transition out of denial and understand the reality of the diagnosis.
Tay-Sachs impacts a person by interfering with genetic lipid storage. An insufficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase a, which is responsible for biodegrading gangliosides, leads to a buildup of the ganglioside GM2 in tissues and nerve cells in the brain (NINDS, 2011). Because gangliosides develop, and normally degrade, rapidly in infancy, the disease progresses…
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010 November 17). Tay-Sachs disease. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from PubMed website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002390 /
American Pregnancy Association. (2006). Chorionic villus sampling: CVS. Retrieved
November 11, 2012 from http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/cvs.html
Genetic Alliance. (2012). Home. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from http://www.geneticalliance.org /
WHERE THE UCK STOPS
This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…
CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical
Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf
Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107
# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
genetics, largely the result of the completion of the Human Genome Project, has helped change the face of modern medicine. Genetic testing of an individual can not only help identify current diseases and disorders, but also help suggest treatment modalities and identify potential future illnesses. For example, patients with a family history of breast cancer can be tested for the breast-cancer gene, and, if positive, decide whether to pursue preventative therapies, such as pre-cancerous mastectomies. However, it is critical for healthcare workers to understand all of the ramifications of genetic testing so that they can answer patient questions about those tests. For example, if a genetic test can identify a disorder, but there is no preventative care or treatment for that disorder, will that knowledge help or harm the individual?
Lea, DH (2009). Basic genetics and genomics: A primer for nurses. The Online
Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2).…
Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases and Clinical Challenges [Internet]. 1. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; [cited 2013 Nov 10] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Qx2cWaAk2pEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prenatal+Diagnosis:+Cases+and+Clinical+Challenges&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9jCCUufnNZOrhQfh0YDACg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prenatal%20Diagnosis%3A%20Cases%20and%20Clinical%20Challenges&f=false
Knowles J. 2007. Huntington's Disease [Internet]. 1. New York: Rosen Pub. Group; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RX2Er7NpMSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ameBUqWBDYjBhAfy9YDQCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease&f=false
Lemiere J. 2004. Huntington's disease: Early Detection and Progression of Cognitive Changes in Patients and Asymptomatic Mutation Carriers [Internet]. Leuven: Leuven University Press; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vdhgGGgLQSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease:+Early+Detection+and+Progression+of+Cognitive+Changes+in+Patients+and+Asymptomatic+Mutation+Carriers&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGqBUqDzJ6XG7AbVz4CIDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease%3A%20Early%20Detection%20and%20Progression%20of%20Cognitive%20Changes%20in%20Patients%20and%20Asymptomatic%20Mutation%20Carriers&f=false
Roos R. 2010. Huntington's Disease: A Clinical Review. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases [Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 12] 5:40. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-5-40.pdf
Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare problems, their symptoms, and consequences are equally fatal. Charcot Marie Tooth disease is among the inherited neuropathies, which has significantly shown potential and fatal consequences to people. Notably, the disorder does not have any known cure, but there are numerous therapies to control the disease. Although this is the current case, advancements in medicine, are gradually bearing fruits because experts have discovered a way to diagnose some types of these deadly disorders. Other types of neuropathy disorders include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNNP), hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN), and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN or hereditary sensory neuropathy). In a second part of this paper is an experiment to detect HaeIII in given human DNA samples. Owing to…
Brown, W.M. (1980).Polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA of humans as revealed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 6, pp. 3605-3609.
Murphy, M.S. et al. (2012). CharcoteMarieeTooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes and guidelines for genetic testing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 83, pp. 706-710
Orita, M et al. (1989). Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 86, pp. 2766-2770.
Saporta, S.D. A et al., (2011).Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) Subtypes and Genetic Testing Strategies. Ann Neurol, 69(1), pp. 22 -- 33
It uns in the Family
What is the chance that Melissa will develop HD and what could she expect if she did develop the disease?
Huntington's Disease is caused by a dominant mutation in a gene, meaning that if one or both of the gene that carries this mutation has the Huntington's mutation, the disease will manifest physically (NIH 2011). In other words, if one of a person's two biological parents had or has Huntington's Disease, there is at minimum a fifty percent chance of an offspring inheriting the disease, and inheritance will lead to expression if given enough time (May Clinic 2011). Because Melissa does not have access to any pertinent information other than that her mother had the disease, calculating her potential for developing the disease becomes much more complex, as all alternatives must be considered. The Punnet squares below help to illustrate this:
Mayo Clinic. (2011). Huntington's Disease. Accessed 23 July 2011. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/huntingtons-disease/DS00401/DSECTION=risk%2Dfactors
NIH. (20110. NINDS Huntington's Disease Information Page. Accessed 23 July 2011. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm
Torrey, T. (2010). The Pros and Cons of Genetic Testing. Accessed 23 July 2011. http://patients.about.com/od/yourdiagnosis/ss/genetictestingproscons.htm
Tree.com. (2011). The Pros And Cons Of DNA Genetic Testing. Accessed 23 July 2011. http://www.tree.com/health/genetic-health-pros-cons.aspx
Large size is a primary expressing symptom of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The authors also used imaging analysis hardware and software, as well as using the patented CpGenome DNA modification kit for further testing.
Explain how the article relates to genetics topics addressed in lecture.
The article relates to a wide range of genetics topics including chromosomal abnormalities, alleles, the use of fluorescence in chromosomal analysis testing, cytogenetic abnormalities, genotypes, phenotypes, karyotypes, and the process of chromosomal rearrangement or deletion de novo.
Explain the significance of the species chosen for use in the study.
The species chosen for use in the study was human; significance does not need to be explained. The authors did need to receive consent from the parents for all diagnostic procedures, which were performed within the ethical guidelines of the Institutional Review Board of the Hannover Medical School.
Explain the most significant conclusions presented in the article.