Genetic Testing Essays (Examples)

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Genetic Discrimination in Practice Case

Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15761092

However, an individual should be able to investigate their own roots, even if the science is questionable. hen such information is released into the public domain without the individual's permission though, a lot of harm can be done. Making invasions into a person's genetic history illegal is probably the best remedy.

Genetic testing has become an important tool for medical diagnosis and treatments (Norrgard) and therefore should be available to anyone needing or requesting such services. hat is done with this information, however, is another matter. Family members may suspect they have an increased risk for an early onset or even fatal disease, but would prefer not to know if effective treatments and cures are unavailable. Should one family member decide to get tested, then this may create friction between family members concerning their wishes and personal privacy because the results would have an impact on everyone in the family.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Norrgard, K. "Ethics of Genetic Testing: Medical Insurance and Genetic Discrimination." Nature Education 1.1 (2008). Web. 3 May 2013.

Abbott, a. "Genome Test Slammed for Assessing Racial Purity." Nature 486 (2012):167.
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Genetic Screening

Words: 2160 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55745991

Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.

Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.

Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/

McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004. http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/scopenotes/sn22.html

Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/mcclean/plsc431/students99/miller.htm. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
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Genetic Counseling Dealing With Its

Words: 2480 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92171465

"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.

Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.

Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic

Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5

Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
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Genetic Counseling

Words: 2111 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79630310

Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.

The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.

Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…… [Read More]

References

Brickell, K., Steinbart, E., Rumbaugh, M., Payami, H., Schellenberg, G., Deerlin, V. V.,... Bird, T. (2006). Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 63(9), 1307-11.

Campion, D., Dumanchin, C., Hannequin, D., Dubois, B., Belliard, S., Puel, M.,... Frebourg, T. (1999). Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J. Hum Genet, 65(3), 664-70.

CDC. (2015, March 3). Genetic Counselling. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/genetics/genetic_counseling.html

Goldman, J. S., MS, M., Hahn, S. E., Catania, J. W., Larusse-Eckert, S., Butson, M. B.,... Bird, T. (2011). Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: Joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Genet Med, 13(6), 597 -- 605.
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Genetic Nursing Future

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17783190

Nursing and Genetics

As noted by Lea (et al.) "Obtaining a family history is an established and familiar screening activity used by nurses and other healthcare providers across many healthcare settings" (Lea 2010:4). However, the increased commonality of doing a genetic profile on patients has made gathering such a family history far more revelatory than ever before. Nurses must gain a better understanding of how genetics affects patient health in a very specific fashion to be effective healthcare providers in the future. Nurses are "ideally situated" to inform patients about what genetic information means, given the patient-centered focus of the profession (Lea 2011: 3). Nurses must understand the implications of genetic testing to comprehend the extent to which a disease is likely to manifest itself in a patient. Patients must be able to realistically evaluate the threats they face.

At present, "genetic tests are offered to those suspected of having…… [Read More]

References

Conley, Y. & Tinkle, M. (2006). The future of genomic nursing research. Journal of Nursing

Scholarship, 38: 213-218

Lea, DH (et al. 2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43:1, 3 -- 12.

Lea, DH (2006). U.S. genetics nurses in advanced practice. Journal of Nursing Scholarship,
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Genetic Privacy Can We or

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20794242

" This category of identifiers, is however, weak. There are apparently a list of indicators such as name and address that have to be removed from the database in order to use the DNA evidence without notifying the person. When these markers are removed, the evidence is considered public. Yet there are potentials for those markers to resurface and privacy can never be ensured. Even though Angrist is in favor of a public pool of DNA evidence for the lofty goals of science, he agrees, "de-identification is increasingly difficult." It is becoming hard to disconnect names, dates, and places from the hemoglobin and NA. Science appreciates access to DNA because it can link certain traits with others and thereby advance scientific knowledge.

Although it is important to protect a person's privacy regarding DNA, it is too difficult to do so given the rampant greed in the biomedical industry and the…… [Read More]

References

Angrist, Misha. "Genetic privacy needs a more nuanced approach." Nature. 6 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-needs-a-more-nuanced-approach-1.12363 

Nature. "Genetic Privacy." 17 Jan 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-1.12238 

The Washington Times. "Editorial: Preserving Genetic Privacy." The Washington Times. 21 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/feb/21/preserving-genetic-privacy/
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Erroneous Thinking Behind Genetic Discrimination

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29290555

Newspaper Opinion Editorial

With advances in genetic studies, Canadians can learn if they are at risk of developing devastating diseases -- and so can their insurance companies. Genetic discrimination is growing as an increasing number of people are opting for genetic tests, including people at risk of developing Huntington's disease, a degenerative brain disorder that cannot presently be cured or slowed. Children of parents with Huntington's disease have a 50% chance of developing the disorder, and genetic testing can narrow the probability ratio even further.

Genetic discrimination is unfair and the result of faulty, speculative thinking. Genetic discrimination is misleading also misleading as it is based on probability prediction, which can be absolutely incorrect. Genetic discrimination is defined as "the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. Consider that for many individuals whose parents do have Huntington's disease, only…… [Read More]

Sources:

Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing. (2008, June). Number 410. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [Web]. Retrieved  http://www.acog.org/ 

Resources%20And%20Publications/Committee%20Opinios/Committee%20on%20Ethics/Ethical%20Issues%20in%20Genetic%20Testing.aspx

CTV.ca News Staff (2009, June 9). Some Canadians suffering 'genetic discrimination.' Bell Media. Retrieved  http://www.ctvnews.ca/some-canadians-suffering-genetic-discrimination-1.406308 

Lapman, E.V., Kozma, C. And Weiss, J. (1996, October 25). Science, 274. Genetic discrimination: Perspectives of consumers.
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Prenatal Testing

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4779731

Prenatal Testing

For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.

Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.

This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.

Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.

Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC

Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
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Reasons for Psychological Testing

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4602887

socio-cultural issues that have the greatest influence on the administration of psychological testing. One social and legal issue that arisen in the recent literature is the use of psychological testing in conjuncture with genetic testing. Indeed, the article notes that there are ethical challenges and training implications for current and future psychologists in the field. The article notes that modern advances in the field of genome sequencing and genetic testing have created issues and ethical challenges relating to the general field of psychology. The reason there is an issue is that, more and more, patients will know their family's genetic history and will present with a disorder in mind rather than allowing for diagnosis to run its course. Further, this knowledge of the family history can lead to undue stress and problems with the patients themselves. There are further concerns that can rise from that overall paradigm including values conflicts…… [Read More]

References

Bram, A.D. (2013). Psychological Testing and Treatment Implications: We Can Say

More. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 95(4), 319-331.

doi:10.1080/00223891.2012.736907

Chong, V., & Kuo, B.H. (2015). Racial Identity Profiles of Asian-White Biracial Young
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Dangers Outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95587717

Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).

orks Cited

Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…… [Read More]

Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num

9&ctrlInfo=Round14%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH

This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
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Predictive Forensic and Carrier Genetic

Words: 1365 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5849911

(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology (2003) Using DNA to Solve Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_exsum.htm

DNA Forensics (2006) Human Genome Project. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Online available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml

Genetic Testing - Patient Privacy and Discrimination Considerations (2007) American Cancer Society. Online available at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_6X_Genetic_Testing_-_Patient_Privacy_and_Discrimination_Considerations_5.asp?sitearea=

Guidelines for Genetic Testing (2003) Genetic-Medicine Related Societies. August 2003.
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Privacy and Ethics in Medical Testing

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78003301

Ethics

Incidental findings are fairly common in the course of medical testing, occurring in around one-third of all tests (Ofri, no date). Yet, the medical field is torn about what the ethical implications of such findings are. In particular, it can be difficult to determine whether reporting such findings is important, and therefore medical practice seeks to establish a threshold of what should and should not be reported. This particular finding, that the son is not the biological son of the father, does not appear to be medically relevant. First, it is not relevant to the question at hand, which is whether the people in the family have the marker for Huntington's Disease. The child could or could not, and his parentage is not relevant to that question. Second, who is or is not his biological father is not a matter of medical health, and especially not an immediate matter.…… [Read More]

References

Illes, J. & Kirschen, M. (2014). Unexpected findings. Monitor on Psychology. Vol. 45 (3) 54.

Meiser, B. & Dunn, S. (2000). Psychological impact of genetic testing for Huntington's disease: An update of the literature. Journal of Neuroology and Neurosurgery Psychiatry. Vol. 69 (2000) 574-578.

Ofri, D. (no date). Ethical implications of incidental findings. Danielle Ofri. Retrieved April 2, 2016 from http://danielleofri.com/ethical-implications-of-incidental-findings/
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Genetic Structure of the Indigenous Hunter-Gatherer

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67395590

The Bushmen reached advanced age despite living under harsh conditions caused by periodic famine and untreated illness. Some of the Bushmen coding alleles have been associated with disease. The results of the present study may help to reevaluate these earlier reports. They may also help to identify potential population-specific incompatibilities of drugs that are prescribed globally.

Furthermore, the results of this study have implications of admixtures that may be determined from further research. Population-wide PCA defines the Bushmen as distinct from the Niger-Congo populations as from Europeans. Within-Africa analysis separates the Bushmen from the divergent western and southern population, although ABT is within the southern Bantu cluster. However, variable relatedness of the Xhosa to Yoruba may suggest past admixture and/or historical diversity within this population. Within the Bushmen group, the authors predict that the Ju/' admixture and HGDP are essentially the same population. Divergence of KB1 and MD8 may be…… [Read More]

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Genetic Basis on Whether Thomas Jefferson Fathered Children With His Slave

Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40966542

genetic basis for the accusation that Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with one of is slaves. The writer explores the DNA evidence that was examined and discusses the odds that it conclusively identifies Jefferson as the father. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

For many years rumors had circulated that Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with a certain slave. It was handed down through the folklore lines as fact and commonly accepted among many African-American groups. As technology became more advanced and mankind had the ability to test such stories it became evident that it was a wives tale. Thomas Jefferson did not father a child by the slave in question, however, it was discovered that he did indeed father a different child by the same slave. Historical folklore has always accepted that Jefferson was the father of Sally Heming's firstborn son. Evidence has proven however, that…… [Read More]

References

Author not available, GENETIC EVIDENCE: THOMAS JEFFERSON FATHERED SLAVE CHILD., Xinhua News Agency, 10-31-1998.

Marshall, Eliot, GENETICS:Which Jefferson Was the Father?., Science, 01-08-1999.
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Genetic Algorithms Parallel Genetic Algorithms 1d Bin Packing Supercomputers

Words: 9676 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92159820

Solving the 1D Bin Packing Problem Using a Parallel Genetic Algorithm: A Benchmark Test

The past few decades have witnessed the introduction in a wide range of technological innovations that have had an enormous impact on consumers, businesses and governmental agencies. Computer-based applications in particular have been key in facilitating the delivery of a wide range of services and information, and computer processing speeds have consistently increased incrementally. Computer processing speeds, though, have a natural limit, with electricity being unable to travel faster than the speed of light. Therefore, even the optimal processing speeds attainable in the future will remain constrained in this regard, but there are some alternative approaches to computer processing that can further increase the functionality of computers, including parallel computing and genetic algorithms which are discussed further below.

Parallel Computing

In computing, the term "parallelism" is used to describe a system's architecture, in other words, "The…… [Read More]

References

Anderson-Cook, C.M. (2005). Practical genetic algorithms. Journal of the American Statistical

Association, 100(471), 1099.

Benkler, Y. (2004). Sharing nicely: On shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production. Yale Law Journal, 114(2), 273-274.

Blacklight. (2010, October 11). Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center. Retrieved from http://www.
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Psychological Testing of African Americans in the Army

Words: 3356 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90981843

American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).

Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:

Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile

ace

1940

1950

1960

1970

1970

White

40

49

56

68

78

Black

11

18

33

49

60

(Source: Binkin, p.94)

How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL

http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/01/assessment.html

Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.

Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
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Abortion After Prenatal Testing Methods of Prenatal

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88174952

Abortion After Prenatal Testing

Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis

There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.

The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.

Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
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Psychology Testing Psychometric Emotional Intelligence

Words: 12427 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79715879



As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.

Aims and Objectives

Aim

To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.

esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.

Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.

1.2 Objective…… [Read More]

References

Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.

Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008598359

Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
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Hemophilia the Most Common Genetic

Words: 3476 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95055081

The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).

All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy

Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia

Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Protecting Your Genes in Canada

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76467179

Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act in Canada

Canada, as the majority of the developed states, continues to battle discrimination in all aspects of life, including employment, health care, education and so on. And the nature of the discrimination targeted by society and legislators is multiple, indulging religious, gender, sexual or political orientation, so on and so forth.

Currently, a question is being posed as to the necessity of an act to prevent genetic discrimination in the North American country. The question is raised by the increasing focus placed on genetics these days and the potential impact they can have on the life of an individual, including their life style, their health care or their employment status.

In its simplest form and formulation, genetic discrimination refers to the provision of different treatment to different individuals based on the genetic differences they reveal, such as a disease they have or could develop in…… [Read More]

References:

Watton, A. 2009, "Fighting genetic discrimination in Canada." Gene Watch, Vol. 21, No. 6,  http://www.parkinson.ca/atf/cf/%7B09510C2A-33CF-4B25-B007-FB673C2510B7%7D/Genetics%20and%20Pop%20Culture%202009%20-%20pages21-22.pdf  accessed on March 16, 2015

2009. "Genetic information discrimination." U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,  http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/genetic.cfm  accessed on March 16, 2015

"Genetic discrimination affects us all! Who has perfect genes?," Canadian Coalition for Genetic Fairness. http://www.ccgf-cceg.ca/en/about-genetic-discrimination accessed on March 16, 2015
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Atomic Testing Though Modern People

Words: 11346 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33269463



The First Nuclear Test

Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.

This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).

American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
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Cloning and Genetic Enhancement

Words: 587 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99592502

Heather D's decision not to be tested for the Huntington's gene a wise one?

Heather D's decision not to be tested for Huntington's is unwise given that Heather is about to become a mother. If she develops the disease, this could significantly impair her ability to parent a child. She should make provisions for the child if she has the mutation and should discuss the situation with her husband. The genetic test for Huntington's is not a test that merely indicates a tendency or a likelihood of developing the debilitating condition -- because of the fairly narrow chromosomal area affected by the mutation, scientists can predict with a great degree of certainty who will or who will not develop the disorder (579).

Q2. Does the genetic counselor's suggestion provide a satisfactory solution to the problem?

No. Most individuals who are opposed to abortion also view the termination of fertilized embryos…… [Read More]

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Discovery That There Are Genetic Links Between

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52011506

discovery that there are genetic links between Native Americans and Europeans. The conclusions of this research show that ancient Siberians have roots in Europe, not Asia.

The research is based on comparing genomes. The researchers sequenced a genome from 24,000-year-old Siberian boy and compared it with DNA samples from Native Americans, Europeans and Asians. The researchers assume that ancient Siberians crossed the Bering Land Bridge to become native North Americans, but this research shows that ancient Siberians were not entirely Asian, but were only 2/3 Asian and 1/3 from "Western Eurasia." The findings also confirm that while there are traces of European ancestry in many native Americans today, this does not necessarily mean that they had a European ancestor from the post-Columbia era.

The study was focused on genetic information, haplogroup . And mitochrondial DNA haplogroup U. These markers are common both in those of European ancestry and Asian peoples…… [Read More]

Reference

Balter, M. (2013). Ancient DNA links native Americans with Europe. Science. Vol. 342 (25 October 2013) 409-410.
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Psychological Testing

Words: 1536 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64787182

Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are commonly used to establish individual capabilities and characteristics. Such inference is derived as a result of collecting, integrating and interpreting information about a person (Marnat, 2009). It constitutes measuring variables through the use of procedures and devices crafted to demonstrate a person's behavior (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Assessment of personality is, ideally, the measuring and evaluating of psychological aspects such as one's values, states, world view, personal identity, acculturation, behavior styles, sense of humor and the related characteristics of an individual (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Personality tests are designed to determine the character of a human being or their disposition. The initial personality tests were designed to examine and predict disorders of clinical nature. The tests are still useful today and are applied to determine cases in need of counseling. The latest personality tests are used to measure normal characteristics (Miller, Mclntire, & Lovler, 2011).…… [Read More]

References

Cattell, H. E., & Mead, A. D. (2008). The sixteen-personality factor questionnaire (16PF). The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, 2, 135-178.

Cohen, R. & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Friedman, M. (1996). Type A Behavior: Its Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press (Kluwer Academic Press)

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
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Should Parents Be Permitted to Choose the Gender of Their Child

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40826416

Genetic Engineering

hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?

Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.

Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British

Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.bmj.com.

Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.

Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au.
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The Process of Development and Testing for Drug Manufacturers

Words: 1613 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15315384

Drug Development (From Nature to the Market)

The process of drug development is a complex one. The pharmaceutical industry is required to adhere to strict governmental regulations, set out by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which involve numerous phases of testing and clinical trials, close monitoring of the drug's effects on users, its stability, dosage forms (the preparation), and so on. This paper will describe the drug development process, as it proceeds from nature to the market.

Drugs that eventually make it to the marketplace can come from a variety of sources -- plants, animals, microbes, synthetic chemistry, biotechnology, and even modified molecules. Years of research and billions of dollars are invested by pharmaceutical companies as they seek out new, potential drugs for the market. All of this effort has resulted in the FDA's approval of 1,200 drugs for the marketplace since 1950 (Munos 960). The "recipes" that have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bamelis, Lotte; Evers, Silvia; Spinhoven, Philip; Arntz, Arnoud. "Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of the Clinical Effectiveness of Schema Therapy for Personality Disorders." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 171, no. 3 (March 2014): 305-322.

Coustasse A, Kimble CA, Stanton RB, Naylor M. "Could the Pharmaceutical Industry

Benefit from Full-Scale Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology with New Regulations?" Perspectives in Health Information Management (Fall, 2016).  http://perspectives.ahima.org/couldpharmabenefit/ 

Munos, Bernard. "Lessons from 60 Years of Pharmaceutical Innovation." Nature
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Staffing Organizations-Reference Reports Background Testing

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44376323



The rules enforced by EEO prohibit BSS from applying neutral employment practices and policies that might have a disproportionately adverse impact on the applicants of a certain color, sex, religion, and origin. If BSS does not adhere to these rules, then it would be violating the rules of any business operation. EEO has enforced rules that hinder BSS from obtaining information about an applicant's age if it is unreasonable to peg the job position on age alone. EEO stipulates that if BSS insists on job tests, then the tests must be related to the job and BSS must include people from all races, of different color, background, religion, sex and should not make the judgment based on disability. BSS must have a sign language interpreter on standby in case an applicant needs an accommodation. Such an accommodation must be made available by BSS. However, the accommodation must not cost BSS…… [Read More]

References

Heneman, H.G., Judge, T.A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. (2012). Staffing organizations (7th ed.). Middleton, WI: Mendota House.

McLean, G.N. (2006). Organization development: Principles, processes, performance. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
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Danville Airlines the Ethical and Legal Consequences

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31536917

Danville Airlines

The ethical and legal consequences of testing employees without their knowledge or consent puts Danville Airlines into a defensive position, having to both explain to David eiger why they are not letting him fly, and potentially to his attorneys how the testing took place at all. The issue of genetics testing raises ethical and legal conflicts, creating a paradox for companies who practice this type of screening (Howard, ichardson, Thorpe, 2009). Danville Airlines has been negligent in their process of medical screening, allowing samples taken from eiger to be sent to a genetics screening lab (Darden, 2004). Especially detrimental to eiger is the emotional trauma and pain of being diagnosed with Huntington's disease, the same disease which took his father's life as well (Darden, 2004). Danville is now in the paradoxical situation of having told people outside the company of eiger's condition, also informing eiger he will no…… [Read More]

References

Avitabile, C., Jappelli, T., & Padula, M. (2011). Cognitive abilities, healthcare and screening tests. Journal of Population Ageing, 4(4), 251-269.

Darden Business Publishing. (2004). DANVILLE AIRLINES. University of Virginia. Retrieved on August 24, 2012 from

Howard, DH, Richardson, L.C., & Thorpe, K.E. (2009). Cancer screening and age in the United States and Europe. Health Affairs, 28(6), 1838-47.

Hunter, D. (2005). Diversity and sensitivity issues in management: The case of the genetic screening questionnaire. The Business Review, Cambridge, 4(2), 249-252.
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Ethics and Responsibility Danville Airlines

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57478150

Danville Airlines

Discuss the issue of genetic testing and screening. What are the benefits and the drawbacks of genetic testing? Specifically, what were they for eiger?

The benefits of genetic testing are pretty obvious. Genetic testing allows potential employers and other individuals receive a clear and proper snapshot about the genetic fingerprint of the people they're dealing with. This is particularly important because certain jobs are susceptible to certain forms of intense stress and nearly every profession requires that employees and other individuals be able to engage in specific tasks related to the proper administration of the job. If an individual is genetically susceptible to a certain condition that can jeopardize his ability to do a job correctly or even safely, then a prospective employee has a clear and present right to know that -- some might argue. For example, if a prospective employee were genetically susceptible to gradual blindness,…… [Read More]

References

Mead, J. (2004). Danville Airlines. Retrieved from UofV
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Technology Has Revolutionized Society Communication Transportation Commerce

Words: 1736 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84215378

technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…… [Read More]

References

About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database:  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/ 

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html
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Bonnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome Ethically Defensible or

Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27743173

onnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome

ETHICALLY DEFENSILE OR NOT

onnie Steinbock and Down's Syndrome

Prenatal genetic testing is a medical procedure, which detects genetic abnormalities early, to enable the mother or parents to make appropriate decisions about the condition (Khasin, 2013). Unlike prenatal genetic screening, which requires only a blood test, prenatal genetic testing obtains a direct sample of the amniotic fluid through a needle. The result is, therefore, more reliable. Prenatal genetic testing has been commonly used in detecting genetic abnormalities, such as Down Syndrome, Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13. Trisomies are extra chromosomes, which are not compatible with life. This means that children with these chromosomes die shortly after birth (Zieve et al., 2013). The main ethical issue against the procedure is that a finding of Down's Syndrome or another genetic abnormality leads women to seek abortion. Since there is no cure for these diseases, the discovery can only…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arras, J.D. et al. (2007). Ethical issues in modern medicine: contemporary readings in bioethics. 7th edition. McGraw-Hill Education -- Europe.

Asch, A. (1999). Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy. Vol 89 # 1 American Journal of Public Health: Pubmed. Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508970/pdf

Khasin, M. (2013). Prenatal genetic testing ethics. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6597554_prenatal-genetic-testing-ethics.html
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Krabbe Disease

Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90314131

Krabbe Disease

Genetic Components of the Disease

Metabolic Components of the Disease

Causes of the disease

Symptoms of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease

Treatment of the disease

Cord lood Transfusion

Treatment for Late on-set Form

Gene Therapy

Incidence and Longevity of the disease

Socioeconomic Factors

Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)

Genetic Components of the Disease

GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors

Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.

Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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23 and Me and Genes

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72183955

Genetics testing has become a recent innovation in figuring out one's probability of becoming ill and also helps people figure out their roots, where their ancestors were from. Anne Wojciciki, the founder and CEO of 23 and Me Inc. has developed a way for regular people to order a personal genetic testing kit where they can spit and within a short time learn what they could be susceptible for and where they originate. While this may be fun to see where one comes from in terms of race and geographic area, it may not be as exciting when it comes to health outcomes. If someone is, for example, a carrier of the BCA1 gene, a mutation that dramatically increases the risk of breast cancer, this fun experience could quickly become one of terror and fear.

Some people do not want to know what they may die of and genetics testing…… [Read More]

References

Alz.org,. (2016). Alzheimer's & Dementia Risk Factors -- Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved 20 February 2016, from http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_causes_risk_factors.asp

Cooper, C. (2014). Jolie effect: her revelation doubled NHS breast cancer testing.The Independent. Retrieved 20 February 2016, from http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/the-angelina-jolie-effect-her-mastectomy-revelation-doubled-nhs-breast-cancer-testing-referrals-9742074.html
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Genetics Case Study

Words: 2558 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31535048

Genetics Case Study

Genetic Case Study: The Rita and Peter Trosack and Tay-Sachs Disease

Genetic testing is becoming a much more common practice in medicine today. This presents a unique set of challenges for medical professionals in virtually all specialties. The practical aspects of determining which test to order, and in interpreting the result accurately in the context of the family history, can be difficult.

Additionally, the ethical conundrums that frequently present themselves when genetic risk assessment and/or genetic testing is being considered can be daunting. These challenges present real concerns for medical professionals and patients alike.

Included in this paper is a review of some of the practical and ethical complexities associated with genetic testing. Pretest and posttest genetic counseling is also emphasized as an important and essential process in today's medical practice.

The Interdisciplinary Team

The interdisciplinary team members should include an obstetrician, a genetic counselor, a psychologist/psychiatrist,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Branda, K.J., Tomczak, J. And Natowicz, M.(2004) "Heterozygosity for Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff Diseases in Non-Jewish-Americans with Ancestry from Ireland, Great Britain, or Italy." Genetic Testing 8: 174-180.

Ensenauer, R, Michels, V and Reinke S. (2005) "Genetic Testing: Practical, Ethical, and Counseling Considerations." Mayo Clin Proc. 80(1):63-73.

Gravel, R.A., Kabak, M.M., Proia, R.L., Sandhoff, K., and Suzuki, K. (2001). "The GM2 gangliosidoses." In The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed.

C.R. Scriver, A.L. Beaudet, W.S. Sly, and D. Valle (eds.). McGraw- Hill, New York, vol. 1, pp. 3827-3876.
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Ethics as With Darwin's Theory

Words: 1281 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5380015

The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.

On the harm side, many…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html

Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm

Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.

Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
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Physical Privacy on February 9th

Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46158602



Burlington Nortern and Santa Fe Railway Company spokesman stated, "Te settlement is consistent wit te practice we've been following," said Ricard Russack. He also states tat te companies apologized to it's employees for running te tests and tey stopped all testing wen to suit was filed as tey were ordered.

Many in te political and medical filed and te Equal Employment Opportunity Commission temselves feel tis is a landmark settlement wic will alt any future discriminations. "Tis was te rigt result. It gives people reassurance tat te potential arms of genetic testing are going to be taken very seriously in our society," said Wylie Burke, ead of te Department of Medical History and Etics at te University of Wasington in Seattle. (Wasington Post) "Tis landmark settlement provides important new protection against te emerging treat of genetic discrimination," Senator Edward Kennedy (Wasington Post) "Te Commission will continue to respond aggressively to…… [Read More]

http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A34877-2001Apr18?language=printerWired News

Kristen Philipkoski

http://wired-vig.wired.com/news_drop/news_lycatalog/story/0,2149,42971,00.html
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Ethical Situations What Does the Patient Have

Words: 882 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4124087

Ethical Situations

What does the patient have the right to know?

What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).

Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?

Regarding the "Dwarfism…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.

Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.

Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.
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Von Hippel-Lindau Von Hippel Lindau Disease Von

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45262901

Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]

References

He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.

Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.

Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.

Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.
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Autonomy and Pregnancy Personal Autonomy Lies at

Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34209029

Autonomy and Pregnancy

Personal autonomy lies at the heart of the pro-choice movement and is an issue that impacts every pregnant woman. Any person who has been pregnant can tell you that pregnancy has consequences to the individual, both short-term and long-term. Some of those consequences are seemingly minor, but others can be literally life-threatening. However, while the pro-choice anti-choice debate focuses on maternal rights and fetal rights, there is little discussion of the impact of maternal choices on fetuses when mothers choose to carry a pregnancy to term, but engage in behaviors that are less-than-optimum for fetal health. The reality is that maternal behavior has consequences for the lifelong health for the developing child. There are several maternal behaviors, such as alcohol or drug usage during pregnancy that can lead to lifelong disabilities for the developing child. However, there are other maternal behaviors that are linked to optimal fetal…… [Read More]

References

Munson, R. (2011). Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics. Cengage Learning.
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Gene Criminal Determining the Effect

Words: 1720 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22977372

Through the maintenance of proper scientific and ethical standards, the knowledge gained from this research could revolutionize the field of criminal justice and public rehabilitative systems.

eferences

Lowenstein, L. (2003). "The Genetic Aspects of Criminality." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 8(1), pp. 63-78.

Peele, S. & DeGrandpre, . (1995). "My genes made me do it." Psychology today 28(4), pp. 50-7.

Pieri, E. & Levitt, M. (2008). "isky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence." Bioethics 22(9), pp. 509-18.

eif, A.; osler, M.; Freitag, C.; Schneider, M.; Eujen, M.; Kissling, C.; Wenzler, D.; Jacob, C.; etz-Junging, O.; Thome, J.; Lesch, K. & etz, W. (2007). "Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment." Neuropsychopharmacology 32(11). pp. 2375-83.

eitz, W.; eitz-Junginger, P.; Supprian, T.; Thorne, J. & osler, M. (2004). "Association of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism with violence: relation…… [Read More]

References

Lowenstein, L. (2003). "The Genetic Aspects of Criminality." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 8(1), pp. 63-78.

Peele, S. & DeGrandpre, R. (1995). "My genes made me do it." Psychology today 28(4), pp. 50-7.

Pieri, E. & Levitt, M. (2008). "Risky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence." Bioethics 22(9), pp. 509-18.

Reif, A.; Rosler, M.; Freitag, C.; Schneider, M.; Eujen, M.; Kissling, C.; Wenzler, D.; Jacob, C.; Retz-Junging, O.; Thome, J.; Lesch, K. & Retz, W. (2007). "Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment." Neuropsychopharmacology 32(11). pp. 2375-83.
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Burlington Northern Railway - Is

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87437481

There is still much debate on the issue of genetic testing in the workplace (Schafer, 2001). It is safe to say however, that there is much more support for not testing than there is for testing. While the company may have some rights related to hiring and firing, a case like this must be considered at times individually. For example, if the employee in question had carpal tunnel before, and it was treated, and the employee was fully recovered, there is no reason for Burlington to test the employee for carpal tunnel disorder. If the person is recovered and develops a new injury, it qualifies for protection under the Americans with Disabilities Act.

An ethical decision is one that is common or generally accepted by the majority to be right or wrong. An ethical and moral decision is one that most people would agree on, if not all. If the…… [Read More]

References

Nolo, 2004 "Exceptions to Employment Discrimination Laws, FindLaw for Small

Business," Nolo. Retrieved December 2, 2007:

http://www.smallbusiness.findlaw.com/

Schafer, Sarah. "Railroad Agrees to Stop Gene-Testing Workers," Washington Post,
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Genetics Technology

Words: 2679 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77976389

Genetics Technology

WHERE THE UCK STOPS

Interdisciplinary Team

This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical

Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf

Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107

# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
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Trosack Family Dealing With a

Words: 3127 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13360078

Their heritage is important because certain ethnic groups are more likely to be carriers of Tay-Sachs. "The incidence of Tay-Sachs is particularly high among people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Patients and carriers of Tay-Sachs disease can be identified by a simple blood test that measures beta-hexosaminidase a activity." (NINDS, 2011). Because the Trosacks have a fetus with Tay-Sachs, it is not necessary to test their blood and examine the beta-hexosaminidase a activity of either of the parents. However, doing so may help Peter transition out of denial and understand the reality of the diagnosis.

Tay-Sachs impacts a person by interfering with genetic lipid storage. An insufficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase a, which is responsible for biodegrading gangliosides, leads to a buildup of the ganglioside GM2 in tissues and nerve cells in the brain (NINDS, 2011). Because gangliosides develop, and normally degrade, rapidly in infancy, the disease progresses…… [Read More]

References

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010 November 17). Tay-Sachs disease. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from PubMed website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002390/

American Pregnancy Association. (2006). Chorionic villus sampling: CVS. Retrieved

November 11, 2012 from http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/cvs.html

Genetic Alliance. (2012). Home. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from  http://www.geneticalliance.org /
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Huntington's Disease Huntington's Chorea

Words: 2877 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66784189

Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…… [Read More]

References

DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases and Clinical Challenges [Internet]. 1. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; [cited 2013 Nov 10] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Qx2cWaAk2pEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prenatal+Diagnosis:+Cases+and+Clinical+Challenges&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9jCCUufnNZOrhQfh0YDACg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prenatal%20Diagnosis%3A%20Cases%20and%20Clinical%20Challenges&f=false

Knowles J. 2007. Huntington's Disease [Internet]. 1. New York: Rosen Pub. Group; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RX2Er7NpMSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington's+Disease&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ameBUqWBDYjBhAfy9YDQCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease&f=false

Lemiere J. 2004. Huntington's disease: Early Detection and Progression of Cognitive Changes in Patients and Asymptomatic Mutation Carriers [Internet]. Leuven: Leuven University Press; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vdhgGGgLQSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington's+Disease:+Early+Detection+and+Progression+of+Cognitive+Changes+in+Patients+and+Asymptomatic+Mutation+Carriers&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGqBUqDzJ6XG7AbVz4CIDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease%3A%20Early%20Detection%20and%20Progression%20of%20Cognitive%20Changes%20in%20Patients%20and%20Asymptomatic%20Mutation%20Carriers&f=false

Roos R. 2010. Huntington's Disease: A Clinical Review. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases [Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 12] 5:40. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-5-40.pdf
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Genetics Largely the Result of the Completion

Words: 441 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88853592

genetics, largely the result of the completion of the Human Genome Project, has helped change the face of modern medicine. Genetic testing of an individual can not only help identify current diseases and disorders, but also help suggest treatment modalities and identify potential future illnesses. For example, patients with a family history of breast cancer can be tested for the breast-cancer gene, and, if positive, decide whether to pursue preventative therapies, such as pre-cancerous mastectomies. However, it is critical for healthcare workers to understand all of the ramifications of genetic testing so that they can answer patient questions about those tests. For example, if a genetic test can identify a disorder, but there is no preventative care or treatment for that disorder, will that knowledge help or harm the individual?

Summaries

Lea, DH (2009). Basic genetics and genomics: A primer for nurses. The Online

Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2).…… [Read More]

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Human Genetics Inheritable Neuropathies Are Among the

Words: 2275 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69927185

Human Genetics

Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare problems, their symptoms, and consequences are equally fatal. Charcot Marie Tooth disease is among the inherited neuropathies, which has significantly shown potential and fatal consequences to people. Notably, the disorder does not have any known cure, but there are numerous therapies to control the disease. Although this is the current case, advancements in medicine, are gradually bearing fruits because experts have discovered a way to diagnose some types of these deadly disorders. Other types of neuropathy disorders include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNNP), hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN), and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN or hereditary sensory neuropathy). In a second part of this paper is an experiment to detect HaeIII in given human DNA samples. Owing to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

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Murphy, M.S. et al. (2012). CharcoteMarieeTooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes and guidelines for genetic testing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 83, pp. 706-710

Orita, M et al. (1989). Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 86, pp. 2766-2770.

Saporta, S.D. A et al., (2011).Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) Subtypes and Genetic Testing Strategies. Ann Neurol, 69(1), pp. 22 -- 33