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The second most studied instance of genocide is the methodical killing of the Armenian population that lived in the Ottoman Empire during and following the First World War. However, there were also other ethnic groups that were targeted by the Ottoman Empire during the same period such as Greeks and Assyrians murdered in a broader context of killing non-Muslims (Dixon, 2010). There are some historians who consider those groups to be a part of the same procedure of elimination by the Turks. In any event the genocide was executed by way of indiscriminate massacres and deportations. The deportations were forced long-term marches into the dessert under extreme conditions that were designed to bring about the death of those that were deported. The beginning of the genocide is generally reported as April 24, 1915 (ed Sunday) when the Ottoman authorities arrested 250 Armenian community leaders and intellectuals in Constantinople. Following…
Akcam, T. (2004). From empire to republic: Turkish nationalism and the Armenian genocide. London: Zed Books.
Dixon, J. (2010). Defending the nation? Maintaining Turkey's narrative of the Armenian Genocide. South European Society and Politics, 15(3), 467-485.
Holthouse, D. (2008). State of denial: Turkey spends millions to cover up Armenian genocide. Southern Poverty Law Center, Intelligence Report, Summer, 130, 48-57. .
Mazian, F. (1990). Why genocide?: The Armenian and Jewish experiences in perspective. Ames: Iowa University Press.
This is despite the politics, regarding the authority and scope of the court. Where, it is slowly proving to have an impact, in prosecuting those who commit acts of genocide. (Reynolds)
Cleary, the various international laws are having an impact upon the way wars are being fought. Where, the act of genocide is becoming increasingly discouraged, because of the conventions that are in place and an effective mechanism to prosecute such crimes. However, the creation of an international court to effectively go after those who commit such atrocities is: continuing to be hotly debated. At the heart of the issue, is the overall power of the court in relations to the nation state's court system and how it will be used. This has caused some countries (such as the U.S.) not participate in the ICC. Since, the United States is the biggest advocates of human rights; this causes many to…
"Rome Statute." UN. 2002. Web. 27 Jun. 2010
Dworikinb, Anothony. "The Hague Tribunal After Milosevic." Open Democracy. 2006. Web. 27 Jun. 2010
Reynolds, Paul. "Charles Taylor." BBC. 2007. Web. 27 Jun. 2010
Shah, Anup. "United States and the International Criminal Court." Global Issues. 2005. Web. 27 Jun. 2010
Former President Bill Clinton "stood by" while what Power calls "the fastest, most efficient killing spree of the twentieth century" ravaged families in Africa. In 1998, he would issue an apology for the inactivity (Power). Indeed, his refusal to call the genocide by the term that Lemkin designated for the violence just 50 years prior was met with international scorn.
The Darfur crisis is another, more recent, exhibit of genocide. In this case, a military group called the Janjaweed has engaged in the execution and displacement of many black Africans. This time, the United States did not hesitate to use the term, but the incident brought forward a controversy regarding genocide as a legal term and when it can and cannot be used (British Broadcasting Corporation).
Regardless of its legal definition, genocide is an incredible travesty of international proportion. In the 21st century, as globalization and education attempt to cross…
BBC. "Analysis: Defining genocide." BBC. 1 Feb. 2005. 15 Feb. 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3853157.stm
Cable News Network. "A Brief History 1400-1994." CNN. 1996. 15 Feb. 2009. http://www.cnn.com/EVENTS/1996/year.in.review/topten/hutu/history.html
Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide." The Atlantic. 2001. 15 Feb. 2009. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200109/power-genocide .
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "What is Genocide?" 7 Oct. 2008. 15 Feb. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007043
In other words, until the amount of the dead is considered high enough to have an internal effect, there will be little or no aid to the endangered population.
Raphael Lempkin was a man who escaped Nazism in 1939 and came to the U.S. After the war, he worked with the League of Nations to ensure that crimes against a group of people would be punished. He is credited with coining the term "genocide." He was not just concerned with the murderous actions of the Nazis, but also of the Ukranians and Russians, Poles and Slavs, and all other groups who were victimized because of how they differed from the attacking group.
"Ghost of Rwanda."
In Rwanda, 800,000 people were killed by racial extremists. The Tutsis were massacred by the Hutu because of racial differences. The Tutsis had been a rebellious group which demanded equal land from…
"?Ghosts of Rwanda?
- YouTube." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 30 July 2011.
"Preventing Genocide - Gallery - Eyewitness Testimony - Raphael Lemkin." United States
These were merely some of the first steps in the dehumanization of the Jewish people, and once Germans began to look at Jews as something less than themselves, they were able to permit genocide to occur.
Of course, not all genocide occurs in the same way. In Rwanda, there was a long history of animosity between the Tutsi and the Hutu. The two groups were engaged in outright warfare against each other. Therefore, there was more of a basis for actual distrust, hatred, and even murder, because of ongoing bi-lateral hostilities between the groups. What really pushed the situation towards genocide in Rwanda was the use of children as soldiers. Taken while they were still very young and formative, these children were used as cannon fodder, and those that survived were frequently stripped of the ability to empathize or any of the other characteristics that most people consider human. In…
The challenge on traditional culture that is resulted from both external cultural and political influences, as well as internal changes is extremely strong and this is the core of Islamic fundamentalism. Fundamentalism arises as a backlash towards the fragmenting of national identity and cultural transparency. Many traditionalists feel that they need to compensate for the growing modernity of their nations by bringing back their fundamental roots, and thus they take extreme actions. This is evidenced particularly in audi Arabia, where the conflict between fundamentalists and modernists are evident. While the nation is awash with oil wealth, it has transformed them into a modern state with all of the benefits of economic status and technology. However, fundamentalists argue that the country has left behind their religion and cultural values to succumb to western wealth. Therefore they consistently combat these forces through the employment of radical measures including terrorism. The rise of…
Sources. How do these criteria help us to improve our understanding of the Past?
The criteria for evaluating primary and secondary sources is the understanding of how to correctly interpret documentation and evidence that is given first and second hand. Primary source documents are documents that come from the specific time period that reflects the event without any additional interpretation. While secondary sources are information that has been processed and explained through an intermediary. Both of these sources are extremely important in understanding the past as they dictate how we can fully appreciate and understand the impact of historical events. The Criteria itself works because it teaches us when and how to understand different types of sources. For instance, primary sources give an excellent interpretation of perspectives, but does a very poor job of giving us a broad and macroscopic understanding of specific issues. Whereas secondary sources are extremely important in evaluating a broad perspective of events while being very poor assessment of the specific events because they are often biased with the conclusions and perspectives of the author.
Additional countries, such as Argentina, Czech epublic, Chile, Slovak epublic, Spain, Balearic Islands and the Vatican made a Holodomor declaration. ussia continues to be complete denial and is utilizing it political influence to refute that this event ever happened and that it was a deliberate act. In fact, in ussia it has been made illegal to commemorate this event. Stalin's Soviet communist success of relying food as a weapon to assume power over a specific people and eliminate them was a first. Since then, this has become a much-used vehicle in the arsenal of communist regimes, such as China, North Korea, Ethiopia, Cambodia, and Zimbabwe, to follow suit and do the same to their people (Weitz, 2003)
Some people may not consider this a true "genocide," but what is happening in Darfur cannot be anything but an annihilation of a people. What is worse, it did not happen decades ago,…
Courtois, S. (1977) The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Boston: Harvard University
Darfur Scores Accessed April 14, 2010. Available at www.darfurscores.org/darfur
Hollander, Paul 2008 Political Violence: Belief, Behavior, and Legitimation New York: Macmillan.
Hryshko, V. (1983) The Ukrainian Holocaust of 1933, Toronto: Bahrianyi Foundation.
Genocide in Germany
What are the questions you are asking in your paper and what is the main argument?
What constitutes genocide and what was the worst genocide in recent world history? Genocide is a traumatic part of world history. The term genocide was coined in the aftermath of World War II. When the world learned that more than six million Jewish people had been murdered by the German military because of their beliefs, the universal reaction was disgust and disbelief.
What are the five sources you will be using?
Bartov, Omer. The Holocaust: Origins, Implementation, Aftermath. New York, NY: Routledge,
Dwork, Deborah & Robert Jan van Pelt. The Holocaust: a History. New York, NY: Norton,
Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust. New York, NY: Henry Hold, 1985. Print.
Paxton, Robert O. Europe in the Twentieth Century. 5th. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College,
Rossel, Seymour. The Holocaust:…
In 1959, Mutara III died and was succeeded by Kigeri V. he Hutus contended that the new mwami had not been properly chosen, and fighting broke out between the Hutus and the utsis (who were aided by the wa). he Hutus emerged victorious, and some 100,000 utsis, including Kigeri V, fled to neighboring countries. Hutu political parties won the election of 1960; Gregoire Kayibanda became interim prime minister. In early 1961 a republic was proclaimed, which was confirmed in a UN-supervised referendum later in the year. Belgium granted independence to Rwanda on July 1, 1962(History http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0860866.html)."
he first president elected following the Constitution adoption was Kayibanda / He was then re-elected two more times.
In 1964, following an incursion from Burundi, which continued to be controlled by its utsi aristocracy, many utsis were killed in Rwanda, and numerous others left the country (History http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0860866.html).In 1971-72, relations with Uganda were bitter…
To put it in terms that are easily understood, if one had been a Tutsis, residing in Rwanda at the time of the Genocide one would not be alive today.
Genocide is not a word that is used without deep thought. It is a word that congers up visions of mass murders for no reason. It is a word that paints a picture of all human compassion gone bad and the delightful killing of thousands or hundreds of thousands of innocents.
The United Nations provides a definition of Genocide to be "acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group (History, 1999)."
Although at a declarative level, genocide is considered to be one of the greatest crimes against humanity, few countries are actually wiling to become actively involved in stopping it. In the last decade there have been numerous examples of the UN failing to prevent the death of millions of people throughout the world. Maybe the most significant example is Rwanda; there was a general trend among the Security Council members to limit the commitment of national troops for a consistent UN presence in Kigali. The arguments against a humanitarian intervention to stop the fighting between the Hutu and Tutsi revolved around the implications such actions might have had on the neighboring countries and their undermining of authority in the region, as well as the on the inability to assure security for the UN personnel. (Graybill, 2002) Taking into consideration the failure of the UNSOM I and UNSOM II and the…
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Dec. 9, 1948, 78 U.N.T.S. 277, entered into force Jan. 12, 1951.
Graybill, Lyn. "Responsible.... By Omission: The United States and Genocide in Rwanda." Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. Winter/Spring 2002: 86-103.
Russbach, Oliver. L'ONU contre l'ONU. Le droit international confisque. Paris: La Decouverte, 1994.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003.
The author of this report has been asked to review and summarize the ongoing genocide and other atrocities that have been occurring in West Papua since World War II. Further, it will be explored why and how these atrocities and instances of genocide have been obscured and hidden from the peoples of the West by the media and other bodies that should normally report and summarize what is really going on. While some reports of atrocities and wrongdoing is conjecture or fiction, this is certainly not the case with West Papua.
To give a little bit of context, the West Papua region mentioned above in the introduction is a province and section of Indonesia. Part of the problem when it comes to journalists reporting on the area is that journalists are often condemned and shunned when they so much as ask about the region and what is going…
Cultural Survival. (2015). West Papua: Forgotten War, Unwanted People. Cultural Survival. Retrieved 9 September 2015, from http://www.culturalsurvival.org
Davidson, H. (2015). Reports journalists were banned from asking about West Papua condemned. The Guardian. Retrieved 9 September 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/04/reports-journalists-were-banned-from-asking-about-west-papua-condemned
Green Left. (2015). West Papua: Report details genocide by Australian-backed
Genocide the term "genocide" is a harsh word. It is a word used to describe the decimation of an entire people and culture. Sadly, this word has also become common cultural and political parlance in the vocabulary of America and the world today, given the horrific events that transpired during orld ar II in Europe, and later, during the 20th century in Cambodia, Rwanda, and Bosnia. But is the present American nation, long before these chronicled events of recent memory, stained with a similar historical blemish of cultural eradication? ere the words spoken by one English colonist, "the only good savage is a dead savage," (Relle & Madras, 2003) merely hyperbole or representative of the English nation's entire ideology regarding the native peoples of the Americas?
David Stannard says yes, what transpired between the colonists and the natives was genocide. Specifically, he states of the war between the colonists of…
Stannard, David. American Holocaust. Oxford University Press, 1992.
Katz, David. The Pequot War Reconsidered." From The New England Quarterly. June 1991.
Relle, James & Larry Madaras, Taking Sides/Clashing Views on Controversial Issues In American History. Volume I. 10th Edition. Duskin McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Both Nazism and Communism have been proved of being highly ineffective and dangerous for humanity.
Some of the reasons which made it easier for the genocide that took place during the Holocaust to occur were Hitler's clever schemes and the favorable conditions in which Germans were searching for a scapegoat that they could blame for their deficiencies.
The Khmer Rouge regime has ruled over Cambodia from 1975 to 1979 and it is yet another example of genocide when considering the number of innocents that it claimed and the reasons it had for doing so. Despite the fact that both the Khmer Rouge Regime and the Nazi Regime were guilty of taking the lives of millions, the methods through which the two acted are opposite with one being communist and the other fascist.
ith the Marxist leader Pol Pot in charge, the Khmer Rouge army attempted to take Cambodia back to…
Heidenrich, John G. How to Prevent Genocide: A Guide for Policymakers, Scholars, and the Concerned Citizen. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
Hirsch, Herbert. Anti-Genocide: Building an American Movement to Prevent Genocide. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
Leblanc, Lawrence J. The United States and the Genocide Convention. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991.
Mathuna, Mac Sean. "The Role of the Catholic Church in Yugoslavia's Holocaust." The Holocaust Revealed. 30 Oct. 2008. http://www.logon.org/_domain/holocaustrevealed.org/Yugoslavia/Yugoslavia-Croatia.htm
In the Nineteenth Century, Mahmud II and Abdulmecid promulgated reforms that gave to millet the sense it has always had to Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Western scholars, diplomats, and politicians.
The millet system furnished, degree of religious, cultural, and ethnic continuity within these communities, while on the other it permitted their incorporation into the Ottoman administrative, economic and political system. An ethnic-religious group preserved its culture and religion while being subject to continuous 'Ottomanization' in other spheres of life."
Non-Muslim minority groups, like the Armenians, were kept distinct from mainstream society, while at the same time performing functions that contributed to the well-being of the Ottoman society. The effect was one in which the Armenians, and others, became components in a kind of organic machine, each becoming associated with a specialized function within the Empire. To a considerable extent, they controlled their own affairs, and maintained their separate customs and…
Adalian, Rouben Paul. "Chapter 2 The Armenian Genocide." In A Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts, edited by Totten, Samuel, William S. Parsons, and Israel W. Charny, 53-90. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Arkun, Aram. "4 Into the Modern Age, 1800-1913." In The Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity, edited by Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 65-88. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005
Most obviously, the scale upon which murder is committed seldom comes close to the number of deaths in genocide. Genocide on the other hand is usually committed by politically powerful persons or groups of persons on a very large scale. The motive behind this is the total eradication of a certain population group within a country for political or ideological reasons. In this, the udan government and its concomitant perpetrators of this crime should be held accountable to the highest degree of the law.
Currently, no such accountability is manifesting itself. The question is whether there is anything that can be done. My opinion is that any problem can be solved when certain measures are taken. For this particular problem, the root behind the matter needs to be established. At the root of the genocide problem is an outdated convention for a new manifestation of the problem. The world is…
Human Rights Watch. "Darfur Drawn: The Conflict in Darfur Through Children's Eyes." 2005. http://hrw.org/photos/2005/darfur/drawings/4.htm
Publications: "Entrenching Impunity: Governmetn Responsibility for International Crimes in Darfur. December 2005
Volume 17, No. 17(A). http://hrw.org/reports/2005/darfur1205/index.htm
International Commission on Intervention and State Soverignty. "The Responsibility to Protect." Dec. 2001. http://www.iciss.ca/report-en.asp
There is much written concerning the Jewish Holocaust during orld ar II, when an estimated six million Jews were slaughtered or died from the elements and starvation, and there is much written concerning the African slave trade and the horrors surrounding the practice of slavery in America. However, little is written or even acknowledged concerning the genocide by the Europeans of the Native American people.
The term "genocide" derives from the Latin "genos," race or tribe, and "cide," killing, and means literally the killing or murder of an entire tribe or people (Genocide pp). The Oxford English Dictionary defines genocide as "the deliberate and systematic extermination of an ethnic or national group," and cites the first usage of the term as R. Lemkin's 1944 Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, "by genocide we mean the destruction of a nation or an ethnic group" (Genocide pp). In 1946, the United…
These include claims for Japanese revisionists that "… critics have stretched tales of Japanese brutality as means of putting political pressure on Japan and winning compensation."
There has in fact been a revisionist interpretation of the events at Nanking since the 1900s, with the intention of either ignoring or invalidating the resurgence of interest in the horrific facts of rape, torture and wanton slaughter attributed to the Japanese forces. For example, a report in 1995 states that the Japanese Supreme Court ruled that the "... government illegally deleted references in schoolbooks to atrocities the Japanese army committed during the war."
This revisionist attitude can be contrasted with the publication of the acclaimed bestseller by Iris Chang, entitled The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (1997), which has gone a long way to revitalizing the debate about the events and reigniting the condemnation of the massacre of…
Chang I. Exposing The Rape Of Nanking: Exclusive Excerpts From A Chinese-American Author's Unflinching Re-Examination Of One Of The Most Horrifying Chapters Of The Second World War, Dec 1, 1997, accessed 13 February 2003;available from http://www.newsweek.com/id/97533
Durdin T. "All Captives Slain," The New York Times, 18 December 1937.
Furtado P. "Nanking on Screen," History Today, June 2008, 7, accessed 7 July 2009; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5027686810 ; Internet;
Honda Katsuichi, The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame, ed. Gibney, Frank, trans. Karen Sandness, (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1999, accessed 7 July 2009, 262; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59112510 ; Internet.
In Genocide, Jane Springer starts by examining the mass murder of Africans in Darfur by the janjaweed (the armed Arabic horsemen, hired mercenaries of the Sudanese government, paid to exterminate the African people). Springer describes in vivid detail the plight of the African people, their hopelessness, and how the outside world barely seems to notice what is going on—the media only intermittently covering the genocide in Darfur.[footnoteRef:2] From there Springer pulls back from the micro and examines the macro—the history of human rights in the West, and where our present regard for human rights comes from—i.e., the ideals of the French and American Revolutions—the pursuit of life, liberty and happiness; equality, fraternity, liberty.[footnoteRef:3] Springer takes note of several of the defining moments and works of the 18th and 19th centuries that advocated or pushed for equal rights, whether for all people or for women—including Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of…
Andersson, Hilary. “China is fueling war in Darfur.” BBC, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7503428.stm
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract, 1762. Bartleby.com.
Springer, Jane. Genocide. Toronto, Ontario: Groundwood Books, 2009.
Structure and Functions of Pre-Genocidal Societies: Nazi Germany and Cambodia
Between the two of them, the genocidal societies of Nazi Germany and Cambodia murdered around 8 million innocent civilians before being stopped by the international community. Not surprisingly, the targeted civilians in these genocides were also subjected to enormous economic discrimination prior to these respective "final solutions," and these issues form the basis of this analysis. This paper explores the relevant literature to describe the structure and functions of these two pre-genocidal societies with an emphasis on economic discrimination, including the historical background, the stages that a society tends to experience preparatory to genocide, and the economic conditions within these modern states prior to genocide. In addition, an analysis of the economic conditions of the people persecuted and their role within the economy prior to genocide is followed by an assessment concerning how these two states economically discriminated in the…
Bonnell, Andrew G. (2000, March). "Stephen H. Roberts' the House That Hitler Built as a Source on Nazi Germany." The Australian Journal of Politics and History 46(1): 1-4. Print.
Copeland, Colette. (2011, July-October). "Madness and Mayhem: The Aesthetics of Dark Tourism." Afterimage 39(1-2): 43-45. Print.
Doescher, Hans J. (2011, Spring). "Kristallnacht 1938." Shofar 29(3): 131-134.
Gorton, Sean. (2015, April 1). "The Uncertain Future of Genocide Denial Laws in the European Union." The George Washington International Law Review 47(2): 421-424.
Barak Obama recognize the Armenian Genocide?
The killing of more than 1.5 million Armenians in 1915 by the erstwhile Ottoman Empire rulers in Turkey is one of the biggest mass murders in human history as recognized by many countries. The Turkish rulers intended to drive away all of the Armenians during the time of the first world war to establish their supremacy, especially over the businesses that the Armenians held in the country. In this pursuit, there were mass murders and thousands of Armenians also died when they were forced to march through the desert ostensibly in the pretext of finding them a rehabilitation camp.
While many countries in the world have long recognized this act of cruelty by the Turkish as an act of genocide or mass murders with the intention of wiping out an entire community, there are some that still refuse to officially recognize the incident as…
Dadrian, V. (1992). Ottoman archives & denial of the Armenian Genocide. [Place of publication not identified]: [publisher not identified].
Hovannisian, R. (1995). The Republic of Armenia, 1918-1920. Watertown, Mass.: Armenian Review.
Jake Tapper, C. (2016). Obama again breaks a promise on the Armenian genocide. CNN. Retrieved 27 May 2016, from http://edition.cnn.com/2015/04/24/politics/armenia-genocide-obama-broken-promise-jake-tapper/
Wofford, T. (2015). Hillary's Shifting Stance on the Armenian Genocide. Newsweek.com. Retrieved 27 May 2016, from http://www.newsweek.com/hillarys-shifting-stance-armenian-genocide-324799
Armenian Genocide is considered, often, as being the earliest major genocide that occurred in the last (20th) century. This incident also serves as an example of the cost of agreeing to impunity for these cruelties. The genocide in Armenia was symbolic in the longstanding history of worldwide criminal legal-structure development, particularly with regards to elaborating the genocide law. As discussed by loxham1, the Armenian genocide was on the mind of Lemkin, when he formulated his theory on genocide. This example is often mentioned as the kind of incident that participants in international justice guarantee will not occur again.
Historical Overview of Armenian Genocide
In the months between autumn 1914 and summer 1915, a succession of decisions were made by the Ottoman regime that resulted in slaughtering of Armenian Christians. The Armenian community, before war, was scattered all over the Ottoman Empire. While the majority of these individuals were members of…
Bloxham, Donald. 'Genocide and The Armenian Case'. The Great Game of Genocide (2005).
Hovsepian, Margret. Hope After Genocide (2015): 49-50.
Jacobs, Dov. 'Jumping Hurdles Backwards: The Armenian Genocide And The International Criminal Court'. International Criminal Law Review 14 (2014): 274-290.
Tacar, Pulat, and Maxime Gauin. 'State Identity, Continuity, and Responsibility: The Ottoman Empire, The Republic Of Turkey And The Armenian Genocide: A Reply To Vahagn Avedian'. The European Journal of International L. 23, no. 3 (2012): 821-835. Retrieved from: http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/3/821.extract
Eric D. Weitz, A CENTURY OF GENOCIDE: UTOPIAS OF RACE AND NATION. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003,
Eric D. Weitz's text A CENTURY OF GENOCIDE: UTOPIAS OF RACE AND NATION puts forth the challenging question as to why the 20th century has seen a hideous explosion in the phenomenon of genocide, cross culturally, all over the globe, without any particular grounding in any one continent or nation. To answer this query, Weitz compares a historically and geographically diverse section of four of the past century's genocidal regimes: Stalin's Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, Cambodia under Pol Pot and Bosnia at the close of the century. He uses this comparative approach to demonstrate that although the Holocaust was a horrible event, it was not a unique event. Rather, it was the product of the same sort of historical forces as these other manifestations of genocide. Weitz identifies genocide as a phenomenon…
Is genocide innate? Look at primate behavior
What is the genetic/biological understanding of this?
Study the pre-historic and early historic tribes
How are societies formed? Is this innate behavior a precipitous to this formation?
Can societies be re-formed without genocide and bloodshed?
Is it true as Louis Dumont points out that man is incapable of recognizing hierarchy?
Why have governments such as the Communists and Fascists murdered so many people?
Some say that democracy ends genocide. Is that true?
Does government further promote ethnocentrism and fear/hate of others?
This paper will question the theory that genocide is innate and, if so, what this means to mankind in general. Is there a way of eradicating this genetic tendency? How? If not, what can be done to continue as a whole human race or -- homo sapiens?
Genocide in the 20th and 21st Centuries
Prompt: Sadly, genocide did not end with the Holocaust. In fact, a lot more people have died from genocide since orld ar II than were victims of it in the war itself. How and why has this happened? hat have been the steps taken to prevent, stop, and punish in regards to genocide since 1945? Have these efforts been successful or not? Explain why. In these more recent genocides, compare and contrast them. hat big similarities and big differences have there been? Do we see anything similar in most of them? If so, what and why? Based on what we learned about genocide in your lifetime (since the 1990s), are we on track to finally eradicate these horrors or are we a long way off from that? Explain.
The Second orld ar claimed the lives of tens of millions of civilians including…
"Past genocides and mass atrocities." (2016). United to End Genocide. Web.
Romaniuk, Scott Nicholas. (2015, March). "Genocide: A Normative Account." Romanian Journal of European Affairs 15(1): 86-90. Print.
Rubinstein, William D. (2004, April). "Genocide and Historical Debate: William D. Rubinstein Ascribes the Bitterness of Historians' Arguments to the Lack of an Agreed Definition and to Political Agendas." History Today 54(4): 36-40. Print.
They should be informed in advance and as thoroughly as possible what the study would be about and how their participation would be used. That consent must be constant from the start to finish of the experiment, study or survey. These studies have their worth to society. They are intended to save lives and promote optimum health. There are risks taken in exchange for the ideal, but the involved parties should be fully aware of them and willing to take the said risks. At any stage of the experiment, the participants should be free to back out if they wanted.
Institutions and committees sponsoring or evaluating medical studies using live human subjects should clearly make a choice between the fundamental rights of these subjects to information and the future benefits to be derived by society from the researches. They should refrain from using live human subjects unless absolutely willing to…
Christian Century. AIDS Crisis Among Blacks Tire to Mistrust of Doctors. 2 pages. Christian Century Foundation: Gale Group, 2000
Claudio, Luz. The Turkegee Legacy Project. 2 pages. Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute of Environmental Health Services, March 2007
Hammer, Ben. Federal Government Awards $14 Million to Turkegee Bioethics Center. 2 pages. Black Issues on Higher Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates, November 20, 2003
Washington, Mary Dejevsky. Clinton Meets Tuskegee Victims. 2 pages. The (London) Independence: Newspaper Publishing PLC, May 17, 1997
Civil War and Reconstruction Question 2: What does the Civil War show that failed in the United States in this period?
The Civil War and its aftermath showed that the United States failed to create a cohesive national character and ethical identity. The nation was truly divided, symbolized by the fact that Abraham Lincoln received not a single Southern electoral vote, and less than half of the popular vote, but still became President (Slide 5). The majority of Southerners allied themselves with the Southern Democrat platform, and failed to align their outdated beliefs about race and economic exploitation with the more progressive norms evident in the North.
Yet slavery was only one of the meaningful points of divergence between different geographic and cultural segments of the nation. The economies of North and South were completely different from one another, with the North cornering the market on manufactured goods and the…
United States President Barack Obama had made a promise during the 2008 presidential elections that he would state the actions that Turkey committed in 1915 were an act of genocide against the Armenian people. However, every year since that promise, President Obama has broken it, always avoiding offending Turkey in order to keep their NATO ally happy and fighting alongside the United States. This is because not only is Turkey the only Muslim majority nation in NATO, making it a more important ally than Armenia, but it the country also has the second-biggest military in NATO (the first being the United States). As the battle in Syria wages on, and ISIS continues to grow along with problems arising in other parts of the Middle East like Iran, the United States is looking to do anything to keep Turkey on their side.
What is left is then a broken promise to…
Hovannisian, R. (1992). The Armenian genocide. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Lakoff, G. (2008). The Political Mind: Why You Can't understand 21st-century Politics with an 18-th century brain. New York: Viking.
Tapper, J. (2015). Obama again breaks promise on Armenian genocide. CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2016, from http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/24/politics/armenia-genocide-obama-broken-promise-jake-tapper/
Wafford, T. (2015). HILLARY'S SHIFTING STANCE ON THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE. Newsweek.com. Retrieved 13 May 2016, from http://www.newsweek.com/hillarys-shifting-stance-armenian-genocide-324799
wanda Genocide (1994)
The ole of Globalization
We know that the factors which resulted in the wanda genocide taking place were the ethnic hatred, ecological pressures and the civil war. However, what we don't know is why the genocide took place at all. Therefore, here we will be talking about the genocide that took place in 1994 only. Here the obvious features of the globalization as well as the international pressures that were faced by wanda will be discussed, along with this we will also be looking at the globalized forces that were brought together by the Arusha Accords which ultimately resulted in the happening of genocide. Later on, the Kaldor's 'New War' thesis will be examined in order to understand how wanda is a part of a broader 'new war' environment where conflicts are arising among the neo-ethnicities in their efforts to gain power.
Before the 1980's,…
Adelmann, H. & Suhrke, A. "Early warning and conflict management," JEEAR, Copenhagen, 1996
Chossudovsky, M. "Economic Genocide in Rwanda," Economic and Political Weekly (India) 13, April, 1996
Des Forges, A. "Shame -- Rationalizing Western Apathy on Rwanda," Foreign Affairs, 79:3, 2000
Goose S. & Smyth, F. "Arming Genocide in Rwanda," Foreign Affairs 73:5, 1994
atrocities happening in recent modern history of civilization. The two orld ars in the first part of the 20th century have demonstrated the human capacity to inflict harm and destruction on its peers. Perhaps one of the most significant event in the history of the Second orld ar is that of the genocide that took place on the Jewish community. During the war and immediately afterwards more than six million Jews are reported to have been massacred by the Nazi forces
However, despite the fact that the holocaust that took place during this time is mostly attributed to the Nazi forces and Adolf Hitler's plan to exterminate the Jewish population, there are numerous accounts of historians that point out the fact that the SS German troops would have been unable to achieve this great atrocity without the assistance of the local populations such as the Polish or the French. One…
Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005
Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995
Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/apr/08/historybooks.features (accessed April 23, 2013).
role that technology has played in terms of the genocide in wanda, both before and after.
With the scope and depth of technology, there is an ability to make natural disasters seem even worse -- worse in the sense that a degree of sensationalism can develop, making the incident seem more pervasive and more damaging. One of the major ways that technology has impacted the manner in which we consume news is via the fact that it makes the news more immediate and more accessible. As one theorist has argued, "…sensationalism played an important role in journalism and the spread of news. People would shoot the breeze about this guy getting eaten by a bear or that woman being involved in affair. It's human nature to be curious about things that might affect our own survival -- such as death and sex" (Sanders, 2011). Technology has taken the element of…
Binns, T. (2008). Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies. Trenton: Prentice Hall.
Collins, A. (2009). Disaster and Development. New York: Routledge Press.
Goose, S.D. (1994). Arming Genocide in Rwanda: The High Cost of Small Arms Transfers. Retrieved from: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50333/stephen-d-goose-and-frank-smyth/arming-genocide-in-rwanda-the-high-cost-of-small-arms-transfers
Hillhorst, D. (2013). Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crises: Everyday Politics of Crisis Response. New York: Routledge.
Memory refers to a mental process where information is encoded, stored, and retrieved for use (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The process of memory is not, contrary to what many believe, like a tape recorder that accurately records events. Instead, our recollection of events is pliable and subject to a number of influences (Loftus, 1979). For instance Buckley-Zistel (2006) discussed how the recollection of the past of horrific events such as the 1990's genocide in wanda is influenced by variables such as the roles of the people during the event or their current living situation. Connerton (2008) attempted to disentangle the notions that remembering is usually considered a virtue and forgetting is necessarily a failing of a person or people. He noted that forgetting is not necessarily a unitary phenomena and that forgetting might have a purpose. Even though wandans claim that remembering the genocide is important to avoiding reoccurrences in…
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence, The psychology of learning and motivation Volume 2 (pp. 89-195). New York: Academic Press.
Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006). Remembering to forget: Chosen amnesia as a strategy for local coexistence in post-genocide Rwanda. Africa, 76(2), 131-150.
Connerton, P. (2008). Seven types of forgetting. Memory Studies, 1, 59-71.
Loftus, E.F. (1979). The malleability of human memory. American Scientist, 67, 312-320.
Apparently, it would be impossible to consider the witch hunts to be an act of genocide because it would be unrealistic to believe that men would consider the killing of every woman and thus it would not mean that the witch hunt would involve the extinction of all women.
itch hunts have lasted until our present days and people in some African parts especially are still accusing and killing women that are believed to have performed acts of witchcraft.
Ellerbe, H. The itch Hunts:The End of Magic and Miracles 1450-1750 C.E.. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from Positive Atheism eb site: http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/ellerbe1.htm
Pavlac, B.A. Ten Common Errors and Myths about the itch Hunts, Corrected and Commented. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from King's College eb site: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/witch/werror.html
Case Study: The European itch-Hunts, c. 1450-1750. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from Gendercide atch eb site: http://www.gendercide.org/case_witchhunts.html
Ellerbe, H. The Witch Hunts:The End of Magic and Miracles 1450-1750 C.E.. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from Positive Atheism Web site: http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/ellerbe1.htm
Pavlac, B.A. Ten Common Errors and Myths about the Witch Hunts, Corrected and Commented. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from King's College Web site: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/witch/werror.html
Case Study: The European Witch-Hunts, c. 1450-1750. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from Gendercide Watch Web site: http://www.gendercide.org/case_witchhunts.html
The Search for the Truth in Rwanda, an argumentative essay
There are those who claim that elgium is the perpetrator in the extermination methods used in Rwanda however, there are those who claim that the Rwandan government itself may be to blame with ties to a loan from the IMF World ank. Among all the arguments leveled the most likely perpetrator of these crimes can be traced back to the Roman Catholic Church, who was the entity to first set a seal upon the Hutus and Tutsi people. This paper will explore the many arguments set forth in the Rwandan genocide event as to who is to blame for the atrocities that occurred.
A rief History of the HUTU & TUTSI of Rwanda:
The genocide, which occurred in Rwanda, has been and still is a hotly debated issue. Over 100 years ago Catholic missionaries created a bogus "pedigree"…
DeSouza, Leo J. (1997) Washington Monthly: Assigning blame in Rwanda: how to break the cycle of revenge in ethnic conflict Washington Monthly [Online] located at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_n9_v29/ai_19757663/pg_2
Toussaint, Eric (2004) "Rwanda: The Financiers of the Genocide" [Online] available at: http://www.cadtm.org/article.php3?id_article=611
TOUSSAINT, Eric. 1996. -- Nouvelles revelations sur les ventes d'armes --, 2
p., CADTM 19, Bruxelles, 1996
Wanton Loss of Life
A careful reading of David Livingston Smith's seminal treatise on the science of dehumanization, Less Than Human, reveals there is a fundamental relationship between the phenomena of dehumanization and that of genocide. There are countless examples which underpin this reality. Several genocides were accompanied by both thoughts and actions in which the perpetrators of these crimes against humanity seemed to consider their victims less than human. Livingston largely seizes upon this point in assembling what is his stance on the exact nature of the relationship between these two phenomenons. His central premise regarding that relationship is that on a basic level, dehumanization is almost a prerequisite for genocide -- and certainly is a causal agent in the carrying out of attempts to completely eradicate a certain group of people. Livingston argues dehumanization is a pivotal part of most attempts at genocide.
It is not difficult to…
Perhaps that more timely international cooperation could do better to save innocent people.
Stephanie Power covers a period from 1915 to 2001 with the increasing capacity of U.S. response to genocide. While in 1915, nothing could be done about the urkish genocide in Armenia, the U.S. role increased constantly to the ones played at the end of the 20th century in Yugoslavia and with the role in Saddam's Iraq. Perhaps such examples can help develop preemptive action towards genocide that can be acted upon in the future.
4. Between 1939 and 1941, Germany had started the war in Europe with its attack on Poland, on September 1, 1939, preceded by a series of aggressive actions such as the remilitarization of the Rhineland and the annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia. With Great Britain and France declaring war on Germany, armed conflict proceeded in Europe with the rapid German victories over Poland,…
The Treaty of Versailles saw the creation of the League of Nations as the organization that would attempt to guarantee world peace. Wilson, however, could not convince the U.S. Senate to join the League of Nation, mainly because the Senate saw this as a limitation of U.S. right to declare war on other countries. Lack of support and U.S. non-adherence to the organization are possibly some of the low points of Wilson's foreign policy.
On the other hand, Wilson was also active in his attempts to establish solid democracies in Latin America and towards stabilizing these countries. U.S. interventions in Mexico, Nicaragua, Haiti or Panama marked the period of WWI as well.
Cushing, Lincoln. 1997. 1898-1998 Centennial of the Spanish - American War. On the Internet at http://www.zpub.com/cpp/saw.html.Last retrieved on August 16, 2007
In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.
Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…
Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.
Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
Two, countries or world leaders might act with selfish motives. For instance, genocide might be ignored if that country is a valuable trading partner or a member of a strategic alliance.
Non-Violent Civil Disobedience
Discussion 1: Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Jr. And Nelson Mandela all organized massive movements based on non-violent solutions to major social crises. In each of these cases, non-violent solutions resulted in positive social change. Ghandi secured India's independence from British colonial rule; King bolstered the Civil Rights movement and helped break down institutionalized racism in the United States; and Nelson Mandela fought against apartheid even from within his prison cell. Each of these cases demonstrates the effectiveness of non-violence as a means to secure social change. Moreover, in each of these cases the non-violent movement brought the cause into the public arena. Ghandi, King, and Mandela garnered tremendous support for their causes by refraining from…
In 1918 Iceland became independent but remained under the rule of the Danish king. At the end of the war a plebiscite showed a 75% pro-Danish majority and the North Slesvig was once again reunited with Denmark (Miller 224).
As World War I was coming close and Denmark remained neutral Jews started moving to the country. There are no exact statistics since many of these immigrants were wary of the authorities, but as many as twenty to thirty thousand Eastern European Jews may have entered Denmark during this period and approximately 3,000 stayed permanently, thus doubling the Jewish population (Hammerich in Kisch). More did not stay because the existing assimilated Jewish community wanted to pay their passage out; they believed their position in society was threatened and latent anti-Semitism would spread. The Jewish congregation even actively cooperated with authorities such as the police to expel unemployed or unwanted individuals from…
Buckser Andrew. After the Rescue. New York: MacMillan, 2003
Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University, 2001
Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979
Kische, Conrad. The Jewish Community in Denmark: History and Present Status.
Analysis of Theories
The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.
To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…
S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.
5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).
The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.
With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…
1. Howard Jones. 2001. Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations from 1897, Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.
2. Robert Kennedy. 1999. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, New York: Norton
3. Samantha Power, a Problem From Hell: American in the Age of Genocide
Ethnicity is one of the more fluid concepts in sociology because one's ethnicity is largely defined by membership in a social group. The social group shares a common background, whether through experience or ancestry and they share characteristics that set them apart from other groups. Many times these characteristics are stereotyped, but the stereotypes are derived from a reality where the majority of members of the group do, indeed, share those characteristics. Moreover, one's ethnicity is not limited to a single background. A person can have multiple ethnicities by having a family that derives from multiple different ethnic traditions. However, a person can also have multiple ethnicities because larger ethnic groups can be further subdivided into smaller ethnic groups, sometimes referred to as tribes.
Ethnicity is also intertwined with race, which is an interesting concept. Genetic analysis has revealed that there is greater similarity than difference among humans from…
Bayer, M. 2009. "Reconsidering primordialism: An alternative approach to the study of ethnicity." Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1639-1657.
Caliendo, S. & Mcilwain, C. 2011. The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity, London:
Cornell, S. & Hartmann, D. 2007. Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World,
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…
An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.
Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp
Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…
The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns had the Algerians and the Native Americans been able to organize en masse in rebellion. Poverty pits neighbor against neighbor in the competition for limited resources.
Furthermore, race and social class become linked together and offered up as false proof that the oppressed groups are inherently inferior. Economic oppression also serves another key goal that helps perpetuate colonial rule: ignorance. Stripping the underclass of access to capital or to the means of production, the ruling class ensures lack of access to…
Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. City Lights Books, 1997.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Azzedine Haddour, Steve Brewer. Routledge, 2001.
Time and again mankind has proven himself to be resourceful, skilled, and deliberate in taking on the forces of nature. hen mankind acts in a way that is contrary to the forces of nature, such as building fixtures or structures in the path of well-known paths of natural destruction, then mankind is challenging the forces of nature that bind mankind to the earth - the domain that God created for and gave to mankind.
However, when mankind succumbs to his own inner capacity for evil, then he is exercising free will. That that capacity for evil is capable of reaching extraordinary levels of destruction is the manifestation not of the devil, but of man's own reaction to the incremental levels of evil, the fueling of power that comes from exercising free will over others who are not capable, or who won't, act to prevent that exercise of free will over…
Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies?
Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen." The Atlantic Monthly Sept. 2001: 84-108. Questia. 26 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002381507 .
Nazis decided to commit genocide. Was this always Hitler's intention from the beginning? If not, why and when did it change? If so, why the various policy changes? Please illustrate your answer with specific historical examples.
While the process of killing a lot of people in a dedicated and concentrated fashion might seem easy enough, that was far from being the case. One method that was ruled out right away was the use of bullets due to the cost and time involved. There was also deemed to be a toll on the soldiers committing the killing. In terms of process, the Nazis went so far as to actually engage in tests. For example, they tested using carbon monoxide and cyanide gas. The early "guinea pigs" were Russian prisoners and mental patients. Expulsion was considered as well but the expansion of the country made this a hard sell because invading other…
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
saw two houses: one in the suburbs and one in the center of town. he suburban house was less expensive than the one in town so there must be something wrong with it.
he fallacy present in this remark revolves around the notion that when something costs less, it's as a result of some sort of flaw. While there is an expression "you get what you pay for" this expression is not always absolute. Many times there is a host of reasons why something might cost less than something else, and many of these reasons will have nothing to do with flaws or something being "wrong" with the house. For instance, the house might be priced less because it is further a way from the center of town, or might have an undesirable view or might be on a street where some tragic act of violence occurred. Regardless, none of…
The fallacy of this statement is that it seeks to separate human actions from religion. The reality is that man human actions are motivated by their spiritual beliefs and it might be sound in theory to attempt to separate them, but that is not realistic.
20. Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. Therefore, all men are Socrates. (Woody Allen Love and Death 1975)
The fallacies of this statement cannot even be stated. It is illogical and absurdist.
Such conflicts appear when the dominating model is in contradiction with the ideologies and behavior of the subordinated groups. Genocide usually comes with this kind of conflicts, when the involved groups grow to hate each other so much that they decide to establish an unofficial war to terminate the other groups as a way to eliminate the cause of their annoyance. This phenomenon can manifest itself in many ways, from social discrimination and exclusion, accompanied by stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination, going as far as political actions, violent confrontations, genocide, terrorism and war.
The use of violence or threat to recur to it with political intentions aimed towards minorities or communities is usually carried out by nongovernmental groups or secret organizations that operate outside the regular parameters of official war or political negotiation. They often seek revolution or civil war. More than military goals, terrorism seeks to cause panic within the…
2007) Charismatic Leadership. Retrieved March 05, 2007, from website: http://changeminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htm
2007) Ethnic cleansing. Retrieved March, 05, 2007 from Answers.com, website: http://www.answers.com/topic/ethnic-cleansing
Maurer, D. (2002) What are traditional societies? Retrieved March 05, 2007, from Historyexplained.com website: http://www.historyexplained.com/index.php/ebook/main/2/event=read
2007) What is terrorism? Retrieved March 04, 2007, from Terrorism research, website: http://www.terrorism-research.com/
It is due to inadequate "civilized amenities," meaning, that people are subjected to drinking water that is contaminated by feces. It can also be treated with lots of fluids and electrolytes, but these countries do not have the knowledge or resources to save people from dying from cholera.
8. John Updike Down the River In what respectis Uncle Tom's Cabin superior to Huckleberry Finn?
Because the black man, Jim, in Twain's story, is a more realistic person. He is responsible, and has dreams of buying his deaf daughter's freedom, while experiencing his freedom on the raft. Uncle Tom is not a genuine character.
9. Elizabeth Kolbert Dead Reckoning Why have the Turks refused to acknowledge the Armenian genocide?
The Turks are afraid of losing their identity as a nation. They do not want to admit that their existence as a nation is the result of war crimes.
They want the…
The misappropriation of Native American imagery, iconography, cultural ideology, and fashion is nothing new. After all, a slew of professional sports teams continue to run with Indian names and logos in spite of the controversy in doing so. A few sports teams, like the Atlanta Braves Major League Baseball franchise, boast insidious "tomahawk" chants during their games.
The latest trend in Native misappropriation is not much more tasteful than a Cleveland Indians jersey in the fashion world. Several manifestations of the disturbing trend have emerged in consumer culture. One is that commercial manufacturers Forever 21 and Urban Outfitters have been selling lines of clothing and jewelry that is culturally insensitive as well as illegal. A second trend, exposed by bloggers around the Internet, is the lewd use of Native-style feathered headdresses. These recent trends are highly disturbing in that consumers by now ought to know better. Especially hipsters, a…
"Chief Pendant Necklace. WTForever21. Blog. Retrieved: http://wtforever21.com/2011/08/chief-pendant-necklace/
Kane, Rachel. "Forever 21 Sells Faux Native American Items in Their Columbus Day Sale." Huffington Post. October 10, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rachel-kane/forever-21-columbus-day_b_1000788.html#undefined
"Native American culture shouldn't be appropriated for fashion." Turn the Page. Oct 29, 2011. Retrieved online: http://taholtorf.wordpress.com/2011/10/29/native-american-culture-shouldnt-be-appropriated-for-fashion/
Native Threads. Website: http://www.nativethreads.com/
n "Some Moral Minima," Lenn Goodman argues things simply wrong. Do Goodman ? Using specific examples, explore challenges Goodman presents relativism. Determine universal moral requirements, defend answer.
Moral minima: Goodman's arguments against relativism
Given the increasing globalization of modern society, combined with the influence of postmodernism, the philosophy of moral relativism has become increasingly popular and accepted within the academy. However, according to Lenn E. Goodman's essay "Some moral minima," some things are 'just wrong.' Goodman writes: "All living beings make claims to life" (Goodman 2010: 88). In other words, to protect the sanctity of human life, sometimes it is necessary to lay down certain absolute ground rules of morality that, regardless of cultural differences, must be obeyed. These include prohibiting: terrorism; hostage taking and child warriors; slavery, polygamy, and incest; and rape and female genital cutting (Goodman 2010: 88).
However, while these ideas may seem like 'no brainers'…
Goodman, Lenn. (2010). Some moral minima. The Good Society, 19 (10): 87-94.
Following their dramatic loss in the First orld ar, the people of Germany were suffering greatly, both emotionally and physically during the period of the 1920s and into the 1930s. The harsh stipulations of the Treaty of Paris forced the German government into a fragile and fragmented institution which was ripe for the abuse of power-hungry would-be tyrants. The people, eager for a strong figure to look up to, would have accepted almost anyone with perhaps any political agenda so long as the person said the right things and gave the people hope. Enter onto the world stage one Adolph Hitler. Between 1932 and 1933, Adolph Hitler was able to rise from the position of relative insubordinate in the government, to fuehrer and leader of the entire country of Germany. The only way that one man could have achieved such political success in so quick a time has…
Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2007. Print.
Bessel, Richard. Life in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University, 1989. Print.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb. "To the German Nation." Modern History Sourcebook. 1806. Print.
Goebbels, Joseph. "Our Hitler: a Radio Speech to the German People in Honor of the Fuhrer's
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…
ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/
Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.
Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
Goldhagen and Browning: How the Holocaust Could Have Happened
The Jewish Holocaust has inspired countless theories on how such an atrocity could take place in a seemingly humane and otherwise "normal" society, as Germany was in the 20th century. In other words, it was not really any different from any other society or culture in the modern era -- and yet understanding how the Holocaust could have happened, how human beings of the modern era could take part in such a mass killing, has been the debate of historians. This paper will compare and contrast the arguments of Daniel J. Goldhagen and Christopher R. Browning -- both of whom give a distinct take on how such an atrocity could happen.
The main substance of Goldhagen's argument is that Germans were able to take part in the killings of the Jews because under Hitler and the National Socialist German Worker's Party,…
They wagged their heads in sympathy and then proceeded to speak in the barren legalism of constricted hearts of their inability to intervene in the domestic affairs of other nations and of their own inviolate immigration laws."
(Leff, 2005, p. 218)
The Psychology of the Denial of Historical Fact
Numerous examples exist of the extent to which even individuals without anti-Semitic animus ignored what, in retrospect, might be considered painfully obvious. In fact, the ultimate fate of European Jews under Nazi occupation was so outrageous that even many Jews caught within the Nazi snare either could not or would not recognize the reality and magnitude of what was in store for them. Many German Jews, in particular, could have taken the opportunity to leave the country before that option was cut off by German authorities. If the victims of horrific persecution cannot easily accept the evidence in front of them,…
Leff, Laurel. Buried by the Times: the Holocaust and America's Most Important
Newspaper. Cambridge University Press: New York. 2005.
Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory.
Penguin Group: New York. 1993.
NATO intervened and bombed Serbia and Montenegro for two months, influencing the Yugoslav government to remove its forces from Kosovo. The Kosovo republic declared its independence in 2008, receiving limited support from the rest of the world, as some countries refused to accept its independence.
Former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic's power had been lost and he surrendered to security forces facing various charges relating to power abuse and genocide in former Yugoslavia. He did not live to see the final verdict that his trial would have because of his death in 2006. February, 2003, marked the ending of the Yugoslav republic, consequent to an unsuccessful attempt made by Serbia and Montenegro to collaborate.
1. Akhavan, Payam. Howse, Robert. (1995). "Yugoslavia, the Former and Future: Reflections by Scholars from the Region." Brookings Institution.
2. Banac, Ivo. (1998). "The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics." Cornell University Press.
1. Akhavan, Payam. Howse, Robert. (1995). "Yugoslavia, the Former and Future: Reflections by Scholars from the Region." Brookings Institution.
2. Banac, Ivo. (1998). "The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics." Cornell University Press.
3. Benson, Leslie. (2001). "Yugoslavia: a concise history." Palgrave Macmillan.
4. Judah, Tim. (1997). "The Serbs: The Sweet and Rotten Smell of History." Daedalus, Vol. 126.
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
(2) Blockade (Kennedy, .F., 1969), which would prevent the Soviet Union from carrying out its mission of establishing a Soviet missile base on the island of Cuba, and will send the message to the Soviet Union that they are attempting to cross the line where the United States can maintain a hands-off policy (Powell, Samantha, 2003, pp. 6-7). and, should the first two fail, (3) an air strike and invasion of the island wherein the United States will seize control of the island and work towards making it either a U.S. territory, or we will work to install a democratic government (Kennedy, .F., 1969).
These are the recommendations of this council.
Donald, .(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.
Kennedy, .F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.
Powaski, .E. (1998). The Cold War…
Donald, R.(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.
Kennedy, R.F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.
Powaski, R.E. (1998). The Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888344