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Germany esearch Project
Germany is a prominent country in Europe as it stands as the second most crowded nation and the biggest economy in Europe. Seeing how it has the largest economy, it does alter the links between the prominent nations in the world. German history is filled with social and political movements. Adolf Hitler and the era of Nazism is an unfortunate and prominent part of the History of the nation. It was after both the world wars that Germany was destabilized and broken into two pieces. Following the Second World War, in 1945 the country was taken hold by the Allied powers which included United Kingdom, America, France and the Soviet Union. (CIA)
After the invasion, Germany was torn into two nations with the Berlin wall in between. In 1949, just near the beginning of the cold war, two states were created. One was the Western Federal…
Aroneanu, E. (1996). Inside the concentration camps: Eyewitness accounts of life in Hitler's death camps. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Bideleux, R., & Taylor, R. (1996). European integration and disintegration: East and west. London: Routledge.
Brady, J. And Wiliarty, S. (2002). How Culture Matters: Culture and Social Change in the Federal Republic of Germany . German Politics and Society, 20 (2).
Cia.gov (n.d.). CIA - The World Factbook. [online] Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html [Accessed: 1 Dec 2012].
Germany's Failure in orld ar II
Germany had launched several successful attacks and was successful in conquering several territories such as Poland, Netherlands and France, that proved Germany is invincible. However, Germany failed in strategic planning. The first obvious attack was on Britain, where its aerial attacks were softened. If they had been strong and steadfast, Germany would have been successful in invading United Kingdom. However, German troops were called back. This was the first silent defeat of Germany. Secondly, it had attacked Russia without proper planning. Russia is a large country with large territory and winter.
Germany's Failure in orld ar II
In orld ar I, Germany's failure was because two reasons: inadequate alliances and war of several fronts. During the orld ar II, Germany was close to achieve its target but failed to win the war. Hitler failed to manage the areas he had conquered and this allowed…
Bell, P.M.H. The Origins of the Second World War in Europe. (3rd ed. 2007).
Brody, J Kenneth (1999). The Avoidable War: Pierre Laval and the Politics of Reality, 1935 -- 1936. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Davies, Norman (2008). No Simple Victory: World War II in Europe, 1939 -- 1945. New York: Penguin Group
Deist, Wilhelm et al., ed. Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 1: The Build-up of German Aggression. (2001). 799 pp., official German history
The two main problems that Germany faces during its current reunification process can be generalized and applied to other historical and contemporary situations. Nearly any nation attempting to piece itself back together after deep divisions would experience some economic, social, and political conflict. For example, after the Civil War, the United States dealt with heady economic, political and social problems that remain problems well over a century later. As in Germany, a lack of frank ethical discussions may have contributed to the lingering social problems in the United States. Under the GD government, big state-controlled industry prevailed and small independently-owned businesses were anathema. Free enterprise was suppressed for decades and stimulating small business growth after reunification has proven difficult in Eastern Germany. Similarly, the American government did little to invest in the stimulation of African-American entrepreneurship and the endemic poverty amongst black communities remains a poignant problem in the United…
Blacksell, Mark. State and Nation: Germany Since Reunification. Europa. Number 3 Article 5-1997. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www.intellectbooks.com/europa/number3/blacksel.htm
Delaney, Bill. "Germany Still Dealing with Remnants of Cold War." CNN World News. 1995. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www-cgi.cnn.com/WORLD/9510/germany/index.html
East Germany." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com
Manus, Susan. "Perspectives on German Reunification." Library of Congress Information Bulletin. Nov. 1997. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9711/sommer.html
There are opinions which consider in fact the invasion of Poland as an excuse for the start of the war. In this sense, the events in 1939 are known to have been an untrue story. More precisely, "Hitler desired war and any further attempts to negotiate peace were doomed to failure. The Nazis then staged a fake attack on a German radio outpost along the German-Polish border and used that as an excuse for invasion" (Quotes and sayings, n.d.) Therefore, it can be said that the invasion of Poland was indeed the event which triggered the start of the war. Hours after the invasion, the British and the French ultimatum was presented to the German Ambassador in the respective countries. They ultimatum was not respected, nor agreed upon by the German side which was determined to go to war against the estern side.
Poland represented only one step in Hitler's…
BBC. 1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany. N.d. 9 May 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/3/newsid_3493000/3493279.stm
Havers, Robin. The Second World War: Europe, 1939-1943 Volume: 2. New York: Rutledge, 2002.
Kagan, Robert. Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. New York: Knopf Publishers, 2003.
Kershaw, Ian. Hitler 1936-45: Nemesis. London: Penguin Books, 2001.
Hungary, omania, and Bulgaria joined Germany in 1940 while Yugoslavia and Greece were forced to submit thus multiplying the victories of Germany in the war.
These early successes of Germany were however short-lived. The surprise turnaround came when in June 1941 Germany forced ussia to side with the Allies by launching a joint attack on ussia. Initially Germany managed to destroy a major part of ussia but by December 1941, Moscow's staunch resistance had stopped the flow of victories for Germany.
Quickly after that the United States was forced to give up its neutral stand and join the war. Since U.S. has planned not to join the war, it was safely watching the progress and was not exactly a threat to any country. However in Dec 1941, Japan made U.S. join the war by attacking Pearl Harbor without any declaration of war. U.S. entered war with a vengeance…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright© 2004, Columbia University Press.
Bradley Lightbody, the Second World War: Ambitions to Nemesis (New York: Routledge, 2004)
Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2004
Today's Germany is a leading European country known for strong economy, highly developed technologies, high standards of life and other features of modern prosperous state. Today's Germany is a result of numerous bloody wars which were waged to unite German lands and create a new state in the center of Europe - strong and independent Deutschland, which would be treated by France and Britain as an equal. German impact on European and on world history was invaluable since Germany was and still remains to be one of the most progressive states. After overcoming tragedies caused by political and historical issues, Germany reached the top of progress and set an example for other European countries.
Speaking about Germany, we should take into consideration that historically it was not a centralized state; it was partitioned into small lands (states) which didn't seek for consolidation and unity as the ideology of unity…
Fulbrook, Mary German History Since 1800 Arnold Publishers 1998
Eihman, Michael Germany After the Great War Oxford University Press 1978
Before the rise of azism in Germany and the Second World War, there had been acts of violence and discrimination against the Jews, but there had never been a systematic policy for ridding Germany of its non-Aryan population. However, as the Third Reich gained homeland power under the banner of postwar nationalism and soon too began expanding its own borders, the territories conquered brought with them a larger collection of Jews, begetting a new proportion to the "Jewish problem." Hitler stressed the cleansing of the Jews, or Judenrein, as a valiant necessity, and by the end of the 1930s, Germany was engulfed in discussion of how to rid the land of the Jews. Mary Fulbrook discusses the ghettos, exportation to Madagascar, and mass-graves that were first toyed with, before the development of the sinister "final solution." (Fulbrook, 197.) The suppression of human emotions and enculturation of obedience restructured the…
Nevertheless, the fall of the Berlin wall brought both sides together with an ideology of unification and the birth of the Germany so long denied. "Even history is a product of the time in which it is written." (Fulbrook, 261.) The nationalist histories trumpeted a problem of belated unification, and twentieth century histories tell the story of the evils of Hitler's sociopolitical roots. But, with easing tensions and melding modern German, the "Germany problem" changes from a shameful past to one colored with the complex patterns ultimately at play. Bessel and Fulbrook lead divergent conversations into the same groups, uncovering different stories marked with a united past and future; the legacy of the Third Reich will never leave the Germans, but in its different explosions in both post-war Germanies, is united in the modern German republic with a common goal of bettered future.
Bessel, Richard. Nazism and War. New York: Modern Library, 2004.
Fulbrook, Mary. History of Germany, 1918-2000: The Divided Nation. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
However, German producers expect the markets in other countries to become like theirs, but there is very little chance that this will ever happen, since the customers will not agree with the premium cars' high costs, and the demand for this kind of cars is likely to decrease.
The German producers' orientation seems to be in disharmony with the customers' needs. For example, they develop fast and powerful vehicles that can easily reach 125 mph, but the speed limit in many areas is 55 mph. This will cause a shift in the demand, the customers will orient towards less powerful cars that cost less. Drivers nowadays are facing many restrictions and they are also much more aware and preoccupied of the environment than they were a decade ago, and the new direction that car demand is taking now proves it.
Buyers' choice is now influenced by other factors also, such…
Germany's car industry: The big-car problem. Germany produces some of the fastest and most luxurious cars in the world, but is that yesterday's game? (22 Feb 2007). The Economist. Retrieved March 11, 2007 at http://www.economist.com/business/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8738865 .
Germany, Federal Republic of German Bundesrepublik Deutschland, is a major industrialized nation in central Europe (Germany pp). It is a federal union of sixteen states. Although Germany has a long, complex history and rich culture, it did not become a unified nation until 1871 (Germany pp). Before then, Germany was a confederacy,1815-1867, and, before 1806, it was a collection of separate and quite different principalities (Germany pp).
The seventh largest country in Europe, Germany has a total area of 137, 827 square miles of terrain that ranges from low-lying coastal flats along the North and Baltic seas to a central area of rolling hills and river valleys, to the forested mountains and snow-capped Alps in the south (Germany pp).
Germany has an estimated population of 82, 424, 609 people, and is overwhelmingly urban, where most people lead a prosperous, comfortable lifestyle with adequate leisure time and comprehensive social welfare benefits…
" The consolidation of the nation-states meant first the union of pre-existing states, and second the creation of new ties between the government and the governed. Seton-atson traces the beginnings of the trend toward the formation of a German nation some four or five centuries before it actually occurred, and he notes that such things as the religious wars of the sixteenth century retarded any progress in this direction. After Napoleon, there were 39 states in Germany:
The German Confederation which now replaced the defunct Holy Roman Empire... had no central parliament... All the states were ruled by German governments... There was thus no question of Germans suffering from foreign rule. The problem was not independence but unity. (Seton-atson 93)
The national identity of Germany developed slowly and in stages. Even after orld ar I, while Germany had become a republic, the old internal state boundaries were maintained, with considerable…
Overy, Richard and Andrew Wheatcroft. The Road to War. New York: Random House, 1989.
Seton-Watson, Hugh. Nations and States. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1977.
In the short-term, the Bolshevik Revolution and the subsequent withdrawal of Russia from the Eastern Front was very advantageous for Germany, enabling it to conserve its rapidly-depleting military resources. Lenin's intention in negotiating a peace was obviously not altruistic but the fact that the communists were determined to modernize the country and institute what they considered to be an ideal form of government. This was impossible while continuing the war which Lenin already regarded (with some justification) as a conflict that had resulted from squabbling between the imperial powers and which had little to do with where Russia was heading in its future. Secret alliances and tensions between the great powers touched off a series of events which caused the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand to have a 'snowballing' effect in terms of declarations of war. The conflict which followed was bloody and except for Russia after its regime…
Germany's Migrant Crisis
Starting from October 2014 to October 2015 European countries received an overwhelming influx of migrants from various countries. The word migrant describes a person who leaves home to seek life in a new country or region. Due to many economic, violence, abuse and poverty issues, people begin to migrate to places thought to be a safe haven. Most of the migration came from the inhabitants of Syria. Other countries that were soon to follow many of the Syrians were Afghanistan, Kosovo, Iraq, Albania, Pakistan, Eritrea, Nigeria, Siberia and Ukraine. Most of the migrants fleeing their countries are coming onto Europe claiming the asylum status. The Common European Asylum System (CEAS) was put into place to ensure the rights of refugees under the international law are protected. The system was out in place to set out minimum standards and procedures to process and assess asylum applications. Out of…
Bagnai, A., Granville, B., Soy, A. (2015). The Economic Consequences of Greece.
Project Syndicate. Retrieved from http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/greece-eurozone-breakup-by-alberto-bagnai-et-al-2015-02
BBC News. (2016). Cologne attacks: Merkel proposes tougher migrant laws. BBC.
Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35271171
While the baies in Gemany to such independent entepising ae inceasingly being diminished in the face of opening global tade outes, it is still the case that Gemany's public and pivate means to stimulating independent entepising ae less accessible and less plentiful than those found in the United States. Though in many ways, this is something which is subject to change based on such fluctuations in the economy as the pessues on the value of the Ameican dolla today as compaed to the elative success of the Euo which undescoes the unionized Geman economy, the eseach and findings poduced by the suvey questionnaie consideed hee indicate a cultue which is moe pedominant in the United States. The concen of this cultue is with the vaiation of the maketplace though the entance of a multi-statified class of contendes.
An impotant finding which does not efute ou study's pimay esolutions but which…
references either to ultimately competing on a global level or filling gaps left in the local market with acknowledgment of the impact levied on the landscape by globalization. Particularly, when speaking of future strategies, 22 out of 50 German respondents would mention either 'free trade,' 'globalization' or the "EU." This compares with balance to the 24 American respondents of 54 study participants who would mention either 'free trade,' 'globalization,' or 'international growth.' These can be considered relatively equivalent degrees of understanding as to the relationship between SME development and globalization in either context. This is an outcome which suggests that patterns in Germany may well be subject to change in the future, despite the resolutions yielded here.
Ultimately, the findings which have been produced by the survey here conducted would endorse the overall argument that cultural factors have long promoted a distinction in entrepreneurial tendencies between the United States and Germany where the former places a greater deal more emphasis on independent business enterprising than does the latter. Indeed, the survey respondents would produce the qualitatively observed finding that in terms of both motive and means, American entrepreneurs would be illustrative of a culture where small and medium enterprise orientation is encouraged and supported through various sociologically induced avenues. By comparison, it was found that the German entrepreneurs who responded to the survey were less likely than their American counterparts to be either motivated or funded by avenues caused to existence by cultural or sociological factors. Instead, there appears a greater likelihood amongst German entrepreneurs to reflect a motive and a means for entrepreneurship with individual and personal implications. This tends to suggest that compared to their American counterparts, German respondents tend not to reflect specific cultural patterns relating to entrepreneurial activity. This is to say that where we may not necessarily conclude that there is a pattern which dissuades or restrains German entrepreneurs from engagement in the process, we can conclude that there is an apparent pattern whereby lesser opportunity or encouragement exists to help stimulate engagement in the process.
Based on what is understood of the entrepreneurial process through the present body of research, this contributes to the resolution that there does exist a relationship between culture and entrepreneurship and that moreover, this culture is more strongly reflected in the United States than in Germany. Nonetheless, we may also resolve that Germany is currently in a state of opening, with free trade and the various realities of the European Union causing it and many of its neighbors to engage markets with a greater interest in diversification. As so many entities of a large corporate nature move operations to markets where cost opportunities are more flexible, local activity has become an increasingly important part of retaining dynamism and competition in domestic contexts. As the research here denotes, in this regard of encouraging and supporting SME development, the German market will come increasingly to identify with the market in the United States.
The study here conducted elucidates several prospects for more precise or empirical examination. In particular, the basic nature of the survey, which was formed of open-ended questions, bears with it certain strengths but also betrays some weakness in the formality of the study. Namely, the open-ended format does allow for considerable flexibility in response. For a study such as this, which is intended to breach the surface of the subject matter as a way to steward efficiently future studies of a deeper or broader intent, open-ended questioning is appropriate.
e. The produced unit can be easily exported to other parts of the world. Germany is the corridor for East and West. Germany has proven vast potential of massive technology, and economic incentives. Germany is ranked as the major exporter of the industrialized goods, and due to its proximity to all the major routes it shares major proportion of the trade. 'Germany leading exporter, Americans lagging behind.' (TIMES March 2006). The country has trade agreements with all neighboring countries and continents.
Germany due to its advance technology, and research work has performed miraculously, and its strategic location has further supported the ongoing activities and is responsible for the increasing momentum. Germany has been wise enough to build diplomatic relations with all the countries, and agreements are signed with other countries on the basis of the interest and profitability rather than difference of ideology. Germany has always kept the differences in…
The Cross-National Transfer of Human Resource Management Practices in German and British.
Contemporary Germany: A Handbook.
hat had formerly been strong national "brands" such as the French wine, Belgian chocolate, Swiss watches and banks, etc. either disappeared entirely or were simply re-branded as German products. The exports of German production were primarily consumed by trade partners in Central and Southern Africa, Asia, and South America (Mills). Boycotts of German products remained in effect for many years in North America and England. but, over time, even these barriers fell.
Most significantly, without the ability of the international community to bring any real effect to bear on the situation of the Jews in the new Germany, the eradication of Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals and other "undesirable" groups expanded and became a true genocide (Priest). hile a European version of the American Civil-ar era Underground Railroad existed to secret targeted people out of Germany, it succeeded only in rescuing a few thousand survivors over the course of the next twenty…
Kersten, Felix. The Memoirs of Doctor Felix Kersten. Trans. Ernst Morowitz. New York: Doubleday, 1947.
Mills, Charles. If Germany Won World War II. Alexandria: Apple Cheeks Press, 1997.
Moorcock, Michael. "If Hitler Had Won World War Two..." Telegraph.co.uk 07-11 2005: 2.
Priest, Christopher. The Separation. Baltimore: Old Earth Books, 2005.
The religious aspect of the conflict is that the Jews believe that the land was given to them by God and they were destined to return to the land while the Muslims (who constitute the majority of the Palestinians) also consider Palestine and particularly Jerusalem to be holy land. Since many Israelis have immigrated from Europe, there is an element of racial enmity between the two communities as well. ("Summary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict")
hy are a lot of people in U.S. so fearful of NAFTA?
NAFTA has evoked opposition and fear from opposite ends of the political sphere. hile the labor unions, environmental groups and consumer advocates such as Ralph Nader had always predicted that the agreement would result in "increased pollution, lost jobs, lower wages and contaminated food," (Day, para 2) staunch conservatives such as Pat Buchanan have now joined the chorus against such 'free trade agreements.' riting…
Buchanan, Patrick. J. "Defeat NAFTA." The Washington Times. July 27, 2005. September 12, 2006. http://www.washtimes.com/op-ed/20-4529r.htm
Day, Bill. "The NAFTA Nightmare." Multinational Monitor.org. n.d. September 12, 2006. http://www.multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1992/10/mm1092_10.html
The Reunification of Germany." Encyclopedia Britannica Article. 2006.
Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. September 12, 2006. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-58219
Germany controlling South-West Africa, ritain controlling India, imperialistic attitudes 'ruling' countries differed / similar. The main differences similarities-based relationships European countries respective countries, actions militaries natives line, natives retaliated.
In spite of the fact that the Imperialist Era has had a severe effect on society as a whole, Imperialist nations have taken different attitudes in colonizing new territories. One of the primary purposes of actors like ritain and Germany was to exploit the territories that they conquered with little to no regard concerning the individuals who previously inhabited these areas. However, while the ritish accepted the idea of having colonists live alongside of indigenous populations, the Germans were less enthusiastic concerning the concept and focused on removing native populations from some of the territories that they conquered. While one might initially be inclined to consider that ritish control in India and German control in South-West Africa was relatively similar, the…
Mill, James and Hayman Wilson, Horace, "The History of British India," (The History of British India)
Ole Oermann, Nils, "Mission, Church and State Relations in South West Africa Under German Rule (1884-1915)," (Franz Steiner Verlag, 1999)
London Yearly Meeting, "British India: the duty and interest of Great Britain, to consider the condition and claims of her possessions in the East: addresses delivered before the members of the Society of Friends, at their yearly meeting, Devonshire House, Bishopsgate Street, on the 1st of June, 1839," (Johnston and Barrett, 1839)
Germany: a few good risk-takers," by Andreas Tsortzis. It was printed in The Christian Science Monitor. Although this newspaper is American, it provides excellent coverage of foreign events as well. The article I chose was a news article. It focused on complaints by some German economists that there is no innovation in German industry. The author, Andreas Tsortzis, explained that the problem was partly caused by the government funding research and finding out too late that the invention would not be worth the investment.
The article reflects a macroeconomic concept in showing that government support for projects wastes money. A private company would 'cut its losses' a lot sooner because it needs to protect its profits. The government does not need to make profits. Because the government can raise more money through taxes, it does not spend wisely.
A second economic principle the author explained was about Germany's big companies.…
Tsortzis, Andreas. "Wanted in Germany: a few good risk-takers. " Christian Science Monitor, March 29, 2004, accessed online March 29, 2004 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0329/p07s02-woeu.html
Therefore, he felt that very soon in the future, he would feel overwhelmed by the escalating situation, and thereby be forced to undertake certain measures, which would most definitely lead to war. If a European war were to be prevented from taking place, then the Kaiser must help him, and the Kaiser must also stop the allies from going too far.
Kaiser replied to the telegram immediately, and stated that he too was gravely concerned about the tensions in Russia, and that the actions of Austria in Serbia, in which the Archduke Francis Ferdinand had fallen victim to the atrocious crime of murder, were responsible for the mounting pressures and tensions within Serbia. At the same time, Kaiser said: "I cannot consider Austria's action against Serbia an ignoble war" and this was because of the fact that Austria knew very well that whatever promises Serbia managed to make on paper…
August 1914, the German Declaration of war on Russia. Accessed 20 July 2006; available at http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/germandecruss.html
August 1914, the German request for free passage through Belgium. Accessed 20 July 2006; available at http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/germpassbelg.html
August 1914, the Belgian Refusal of Free Passage. Accessed 20 July 2006; available at http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/belgsayno.html
August 1914, Sir Edward Grey's Speech before the House of Commons. Accessed 20 July 2006; available at http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/greytalk.html
Economic Analysis & Core Competencies
Germany is an industrialized economy, and one of the wealthiest countries in the world. It's GDP ranks 5th in the world, and is the largest in the European Union. The Germany economy is highly-diversified, and there is a strong manufacturing sector. As part of the European Union, Germany trades within the world's largest economy. This also means that all European companies have access to the German market, which makes this market highly competitive. The growth rate of the German economy is relatively slow, at just 1.6%, following two years of very slow growth (CIA World Factbook, 2015).
The per capita GDP is $46,200. This figure is growing slowly. Germany presently ranks 27th in the world in this category, in line with Australia, Taiwan, Canada and Sweden. Most of the world's biggest GDP per capita figures come from city states or from oil nations.…
CIA World Factbook (2015) Germany Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 30, 2015 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html
Irwin, N. (2015). How Germany prevailed in the Greek bailout. New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/30/world/europe/how-germany-prevailed-in-the-greek-bailout.html
Nienaber, M. (2015). Volkswagen could pose bigger threat to German economy than Greek crisis. Reuters. Retrieved November 30, 2015 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/23/us-usa-volkswagen-germany-economy-idUSKCN0RN27S20150923
Gorning, M. & Micholson, C. (2015). German construction industry: new residential construction at cyclical peak -- public construction gaining ground. DIW Economic Bulletin. Retrieved November 30, 2015 from https://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.494750.de/diw_econ_bull_2015-03-3.pdf
marketing in Germany with marketing in the United States.
The United States Department of State provides cultural, political, economic and other information regarding the marketing opportunities in Germany. The www.export.gov site explains that Germany is currently the fourth largest economy in the world and it accounts for "…more than one-fifth of European Union GDP" (www.export.gov). Germany is in fact the largest trading partner in Europe for the U.S., and Germany is the sixth largest in the world for U.S. exports. ith a population of more than 82 million people, an economy that grew 3% in 2011, and with "…few formal barriers to U.S. trade or investment," Germany is an ideal place for an American company to market its goods and services (www.export.gov).
hat products find most success in the German market? The most successful entrants into the German market are "…those that offer innovative products" that feature "modern styling" and…
Beesley, Caron. (2010). Selling Imported Goods within the U.S.: Get Started with this
Small Business Checklist. Small Business Administration. Retrieved January 14, 2013,
From http://www.sba.gov .
Direct Marketing Association (DMA). (2011). DMA Releases Digital Marketing in the U.S. And Canada Report. Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://www.the-dma.org .
However, through several features and efforts, it did contribute to the process of Americanization of Germany. The first example in this sense is given by the decreasing restaurants industry within the central European country. Internationally recognized for their schnitzels, bratwursts, knackwursts or sauerbraten, the German restaurants are slowly decreasing in popularity. Once the dominant part of the restaurants industry, the traditional German restaurants now account for less that one third of all players within the sector. Their demise could easily be associated with internal and economic modifications, such as the high costs of running these types of facilities, but it can also be seen how the growing popularity of McDonald's generated a reduced demand for traditional restaurants. "The traditional German restaurant […] is rapidly disappearing in Germany. Such establishments now account for less than one-third of the German foodservice […] McDonald's Deutschland, Inc. is by far the biggest restaurant company…
Adam, T., 2005, Germany and the Americans: Culture, Politics and History, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1851096280
Adams, B., July 19, 2007, McDonald's Strange Menu Around the World, Trifter, http://www.trifter.com/Practical-Travel/Budget-Travel/McDonalds-Strange-Menu-Around-the-World.35517 last accessed on May 7, 2009
Cooke, W.N., 2003, Multinational Companies and Global Human Resource Strategies, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 1567205836
Fisher, J., 1999, Teen Life in Germany, Southern Center for International Studies, Retrieved from http://www.southerncenter.org/Winning_Teen_Essays.pdf on May 7, 2009
Goldhagen and Browning: How the Holocaust Could Have Happened
The Jewish Holocaust has inspired countless theories on how such an atrocity could take place in a seemingly humane and otherwise "normal" society, as Germany was in the 20th century. In other words, it was not really any different from any other society or culture in the modern era -- and yet understanding how the Holocaust could have happened, how human beings of the modern era could take part in such a mass killing, has been the debate of historians. This paper will compare and contrast the arguments of Daniel J. Goldhagen and Christopher R. Browning -- both of whom give a distinct take on how such an atrocity could happen.
The main substance of Goldhagen's argument is that Germans were able to take part in the killings of the Jews because under Hitler and the National Socialist German Worker's Party,…
Germany Illicit Drugs and Terrorism Issues
Germany's illicit drugs range from use of ecstasy, cannabis, cocaine, and heroin. Germany has made recent efforts as of February, 15th 2012 with the adoption of a National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy through the Federal cabinet that has the main aim of aiding individuals in reducing and avoiding their overall consumption of illicit and licit substances and associated addictive behaviors. Through prevention, addiction help, counseling/treatment, harm minimization efforts, and repression Germany hopes to provide the necessary changes to reduce drug usage. Germany is also making efforts towards battling terrorism through the creation of the BFE. The anti-terrorist unit aims to react quickly to potential or actual terrorist attacks through five locations and 250 security operatives.
Drug Possession and injection does not make up most drug disputes within Germany. Drug dealing, purchasing drugs online has become a big problem and that is…
EMCDDA,. (2016). Germany country overview - www.emcdda.europa.eu. Emcdda.europa.eu. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/countries/germany
Foster, A. (2016). Terrorism in Germany: Past terror attacks and plots. Express.co.uk. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/652765/Terrorist-attacks-Germany-Terrorism-Foiled-plots-Threat-Security-Islamic-State-ISIS
OSAC,. (2016). Germany 2016 Crime & Safety Report. OSAC. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from https://www.osac.gov/pages/Contentreportdetails.aspx?cid=19030
Tzanetakis, M., Kamphausen, G., Werse, B., & von Laufenberg, R. (2016). The transparency paradox. Building trust, resolving disputes and optimising logistics on conventional and online drugs markets. International Journal Of Drug Policy, 35, 58-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.12.010
Culture and Politics
Germany: How Culture and Politics Bring About Social Change
German history and culture are complex, and the country has been through a lot of changes, both in the past and more recently. In order to understand the cultural and political issues today, it is important to see where they have originated from and where they appear to be headed. That can also help foster social change and development, which is needed in every country in order to keep that country moving forward. Here, the political system of Germany will be addressed, followed by a cultural problem that is being seen in the present day. Once those two areas have been discussed, it will be shown how the German culture and political system can come together to create solutions to the problem, including the development of new policies and procedures. Germany has a rich history and there is…
A German Underclass? What Underclass? (2006). Spiegel.
Spiegel's article on the German underclass addresses the issue from the standpoint of German politics. In general, the upper classes are looking the other way and avoiding acknowledging that there is a problem with people in the country who do not have money and who need assistance. Until and unless this issue is acknowledged by the government, nothing will get done that will make things better for those people.
Dempsey, J. (2011). German Politics Faces Grass-Roots Threat. The New York Times.
The political parties in Germany are facing some threats from smaller organizations and coalitions that want to see real change. The multi-party system Germany has is valuable, but there are two parties in power and that can stifle other options for people who want to see change. Because of that, grass-roots threats are starting to appear sporadically as they lobby for changes to the political system.
West Germany sustained what many call an "economic miracle" rebuilding after the war. Their social market economy allowed for individuals to be entrepeneurial and yet be socially responsible to the state. With so much rebuilding necessary, but an entire Western Europe and the United tates ripe for importing and exporting, the economic future of the West was in high gear (Erhard, 2000). In contrast, East Germany as a client state to the oviet Union, was part of the large buffer zone Moscow set up between themselves and the West. Because so much of the GDP either went back to Moscow or to run the tasi, economic growth was typically stagnant, and there was little motivation for increased production or free spirit workers (Leonhard, 2000).
This also bled over politically; West Germany had free elections, East Germany's a ruse and the ruling elite chosen by Moscow. ocially, West German standards of…
Sources of Twentieth Century Europe (pp. 338-41). New York: Macmillan.
Wise, M. (1998). Capital Dilemma: Germany's Search for a New Architecture of Democracy. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press.
When the wall fell, the United States could somewhat smugly say, "I told you so" to the former Soviet sympathizers. Political and ideological victory was a key advantage of reunification for the United States.
The Socialist Unity Party (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands), headed by Ulbrecht for decades, laid the foundations for the state-controlled industrial economy that would characterize East Germany and which might have crippled the Eastern provinces' potential to thrive as part of the EU. Like the former GD, West Germany also emphasized heavy industry during the Cold War as a key to their economic growth, but the FG permitted at least some form of free enterprise and also enjoyed having the United States as a wealthy trading partner.
Many of the lessons derived from reunification can also be incorporated into American foreign and domestic policy, informing for instance, methods of reviving economically depressed regions at home and abroad. However,…
Blacksell, Mark. State and Nation: Germany Since Reunification. Europa. Number 3 Article 5-1997. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www.intellectbooks.com/europa/number3/blacksel.htm
Delaney, Bill. "Germany Still Dealing with Remnants of Cold War." CNN World News. 1995. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www-cgi.cnn.com/WORLD/9510/germany/index.html
East Germany." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com
Manus, Susan. "Perspectives on German Reunification." Library of Congress Information Bulletin. Nov. 1997. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9711/sommer.html
Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands
There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure that is designed to return the inmate to society. Indeed, recidivism rate in the US is 40% -- meaning that 4 out of every 10 inmates released will return to prison within the first three years (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). In Germany and the Netherlands, such a rate is…
ussia that had once been a major power in Europe was significantly weakened in the middle of the 19th century and "From the end of the Crimean war in 1856 to the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, the question of which of the Great Powers would take its place was wide open" (Sperber, p. 6). The question was finally answered by the outcome of Franco-Prussian war.
The Franco-Prussian war brought the fragmented German nationality into a solid mould. It helped in achieving the national coherence that Germany had been looking for. Instead of being divided into various blocs, German people were finally united under one union and this had a huge impact on power and dominance of Germany on the world scene. "Close political union with Austria meant close political union with that section of German nationality within Austria. Complete political unity of the German nationality had been…
Wells, H.G. (2006) A short history of the World. Penguin Publishing.
Benedict, B. (1919) A History of the Great War. Bureau of National Literature Inc.
Sperber, J. (2008) Europe 1850-1914: Progress, Participation and Apprehension. Longman, 1st edition.
Reforms in France and Germany
Divided Government and Constitutional Reform
hen it comes to government, there are many forces within the framework, which influence political change for a nation and its people. hen it comes to the governments of Germany and France each are structured and managed differently, however, the same force of divided government has resulted in profound constitutional reforms for both countries. This paper will discuss the forces that expand the potential opportunities for change to result and influence the legislative process. This issue of divided government is present in both governments and its effect on legislation has both short-term and long-term ramifications. How each country is willing to accept divided government as a part of the political machine is where each country forms its own identity and path for the future decision-making environments. It is the country's ability to embrace divided government or its ability to reject…
Buckman, Kirk. "Divided Government and Constitutional Reform in France and Germany."
French Politics 2 (2004): 25-60.
Culture of Germany
Germany has a very unique culture that is shaped both by medieval realities, Cold War politics, and modern day success. Before becoming a country, Germany was made up of dozens of small fiefdoms or princeling states, territories that were German speaking but controlled by local municipal cities. Germany as a country did not exist formally until 1871 when the Prussian Kingdom defeated France, and became united with Bavaria and the West German states to form the German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm II were the leading forces behind the unification of Germany, and with the unification of Germany came great success and a rebalancing of power in Europe. The success of Germany at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century led to power struggles that split Europe into two, causing the start of World War I in 1914. (German…
"We have the right to question this situation," Zrihen said in the statement. "The presidency of the EU, which is a central element of the European legislative process, and is supposed to obey the democratic principles, accepts to be sponsored by a private company whose economic interests are directly put into cause by a legislative proposition on the agenda of the Council...Furthermore, knowing that the 'compromise' proposal emanating from the Irish presidency rejects all of the European parliament's first lecture amendments, which corresponds to the demands of Microsoft, there is a feeling of great worry"(Preimesberger, May, 14, 2004).
To conclude with, no one can deny Microsoft's positive impact on Germany, but this mustn't be used as a screen for its reprobatory actions that should be made public by the mass-media according to their gravity.
Ketmann, Steve. "Germany Denies Microsoft an." Wired News. 19 March 2001.
Ketmann, Steve. "MS Denies…
Ketmann, Steve. "Germany Denies Microsoft Ban." Wired News. 19 March 2001.
Ketmann, Steve. "MS Denies Windows 'Spy Key'." Wired News. 3 September 1999.
Peregrano, Rob. "Microsoft Windows: Insecure by Design." Washington Post. 24 September 2003.
Preimesberger, Chris. "Anti-Microsoft protest planned for EP session May 17." News Forge. 14 May 2004.
A fundamental economic concept of global commerce is, that in a marketplace with reduced hindrances towards the global movement of goods, nations can find it lucrative to focus on the creation of products that have a relative benefit in manufacturing (Wolak, 2011). This paper offers an evaluation of economic development methods and both, relative and absolute, benefit in global trade as it pertains to the USA, China as well as Germany.
By having a great quantity of low-priced work crews compared to the United States, it is no wonder that China as well as other developing nations, around the world, focus on the creation of labor-intensive items. For equivalent motives, the US may focus on the creation of products which are not only human but also physical-capital intensive due to the comparative wealth of a highly-knowledgeable work force and technically advanced products within the US. This particular split of…
With no actual Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) program in place to introduce the Wal-Mart Statement of Ethics, which was required by the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) for Wal-Mart to go public, the company floundered and alienated entire local and regional governments in Germany, ceasing labor unions to sue them to stop the Statement of Ethics from being enforced (Talaulicar, 2009). German workers, when handed the Statement of Ethics, immediately went to their labor union leaders, who quickly filed a complaint with local government authorities. The German unions claimed the Statement of Ethics was against the German Works Constitution Act (Talaulicar, 2009).
If Wal-Mart had actually defined a thorough Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) Program to launch the Statement of Ethics in Germany, taking the time to include more of the cultural and legal aspects of the country, they would have increased the odds of their success. Instead, Wal-Mart charged…
Christopherson, S. (2007). Barriers to U.S. style lean retailing: The case of wal-marts failure in germany. Journal of Economic Geography, 7(4), 451-469.
Talaulicar, T. (2009). Global retailers and their corporate codes of ethics: The case of wal-mart in Germany. The Service Industries Journal, 29(1), 1.
Policing in the U.S.A., UK, and Germany
The way law enforcement and the criminal justice system does its work in the United States has more similarities than differences with the way in which law enforcement and criminal justice is conducted in the UK and in Germany. This paper points to the similarities and the differences in approaches to policing and criminal justice in those three countries.
Criminal Justice in the United States
The USA has a presidential system of government, with one federal constitutional institution (with three branches, judiciary, legislative and executive), and 50 separate states with their own constitutions. In terms of the criminal justice system in the U.S. -- and law enforcement's role in that system -- there are four kinds of policing: a) federal policing (U.S. Dept. f Justice -- and several agencies within the DJ -- the Dept. f Homeland Security (Secret Service, Immigration, and the…
On pages 47-50, the author emphasizes the growing number of violent sex crimes that have been committed against children. About one-third of the "organized pornography rings around the world" are located in the United States and hence, since the 1990s, several pieces of legislation dealing with child molesters / sex offenders. Along with the "Wetterling Act" (the law that mandates sex offenders must be included on the national registry of sexual predators) and the Adam Walsh Protection and Safety Act (2006), the federal government provides funds for states to upgrade law enforcement and to provide sex offender information and registries. In the UK, the Violent and Sex Offender Register (VISOR) is very much like the National Sex Offender Registry (NSOR) in the U.S. The Sex Offences Act of 2003 describes more than 60 different kinds of sex crimes -- including possession of "indecent photographs of children" and the trafficking of children for sex purposes -- and like the U.S., sex offenders must register their residences and notify the government within 3 days (60-61).
In conclusion, there are many similarities between the criminal justice systems in the UK, the U.S., and in Germany. The similarities can be explained because all three democratic countries basically face the same kinds of criminal issues -- terrorism, white color crime, crimes against children, violent crime, among other aspects of criminal activity -- and in all three countries police and federal agents are ultimately accountable to the citizens who pay the taxes to keep law enforcement well staffed and up-to-date vis-a-vis technology. In the UK, there is a movement to decentralize police services away from total federal control, but decentralization is already reflected in the U.S. And Germany.
Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under the Nazi regime: "The Jews are aliens in Germany -- in 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percent of aliens?"(Corelli, 2002).
Another important age group, the youth, received full attention from the part of the Nazis and the first youth organization was established in 1922 and was called the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. It went through a series of transformations and had several different names, till it finally became the name: Hitler Yugend. y 1935 over a half of the total German youth was member of this organization. After 1939 it became compulsory for the young Germans to join the organization.
It is obvious that children, young people, mothers were only…
1. Eher, Franz. On the German People and Its Territory.Nazi Propaganda: 1933-1945. 2007. Retrieved: Oct. 21, 2007. Available at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/hjhandbuch.htm
2. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Hitler and Nazi Germany a History 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. 2004
3. Welch, David. The Third Reich Politics and Propaganda 2nd edition. London. Routledge. 2002.
China vs. Germany
The author of this report has been asked to describe, compare and contrast two countries. One of those countries is to be part of the European Union (EU) while the other is to be outside of it. The countries that have been selected, respectively, are Germany and China. The items and facets that will be described for each country include culture, business practices, trade agreements, the currencies in play and the globalization that is in motion for both countries. While the two countries in question are very different in terms of their culture and political situation, there are also some stark similarities.
Germany, as many people are aware, is a part of the European Union. Even with the recent move by Great Britain to leave that group, Germany is far and away the largest economy in the group. Even with the main purpose of the European Union…
CIA. (2016). The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. cia.gov. Retrieved 16 October 2016, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html
CIA. (2016). The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. cia.gov. Retrieved 16 October 2016, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
ismarck's Impact On Foreign Policy In Germany And On The alance Of Power In Europe
Otto von ismarck (1815-98) is unquestionably one of the dominant figures of modern German, and European, history. Much of his fame as a statesman has always rested on his handling of foreign policy and diplomacy. His consistent policy was to position Germany as a unified and dominant power in continental Europe, consolidating her territorially and diplomatically to the point where she was, to use his own term, "satiated."
ismarck pursued an aggressive policy, involving Germany in three localized wars, seeking to isolate France and build alliances with Austria, and maintaining a suspicious distance from Great ritain, but did not seek war or territorial expansion when he believed such activity would threaten German stability. His achievement was to leave Germany stable, peaceful, and at the heart of the European states system; to integrate a dynamic and…
Stefan Berger, 'Historians and nation-building in Germany since reunification', Past and Present, no. 148 (August 1995), pp. 187-222.
F.R. Bridge and Roger Bullen, The Great Powers and the European States System, 1815-1914 (London: Longman, 1980).
Gordon A. Craig, Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).
George O. Kent, Bismarck and his Times (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978).
Post World War One, Germany boasted a booming economy and there was a need for healthy male workers to fill the demand. Germany was in need of men who could act as laborers for both factories and mines in the period after World War Two. This period bestowed Germany with much economic blossoming and swift expansion. Turkey and Germany had a recruitment treaty, which established terms for the guest workers; after Turkey, subsequent Islamic nations formed recruitment treaties with Turkey, such as Morocco and Tunisia. For many of these workers from Islamic nations, finding employment in Germany was a wise decision as it meant that they could receive good pay and send that money home to their families. Furthermore, it also meant they could increase their skillset, making them a more competitive worker when and if they returned to their native countries. However, even though this was a win-win situation…
Starting a small business in Germany
Small and medium enterprises are the vital part of Germany's economy and so the Government makes it easy for residents and non-residents to start and run a small business in any part of Germany. After considering whether a small business is perfect for you and your lifestyle, you can decide from the five different forms of business ownership. The next step is to choose an appropriate name for your business and then you can apply to the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology for license and permits. Understand the taxation rates of Germany and then look for means to brand your business using the right media. When these steps are undertaken, you are all set to begin your small business. The success rate in Germany is fairly high and this means, you have a fairly good chance of being successful.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2000). The OECD Small and Medium Enterprise Outlook. OECD Publishing.
Hall, Christine. (2001). Living & Working in Germany: Settle in Quickly and get the most out of your stay. Oxford, UK: How to books ltd.
Weidemann, Klaus. (October 22, 2007). Things to consider before starting a business. GetEnterprenuerial.com. Retrieved from: http://www.getentrepreneurial.com/starting-up/things_to_consider_before_starting_a_business.html
German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. (2011). Setting up a business. Retrieved from: http://www.existenzgruender.de/englisch/self_employment/launch/formalities/index.php
Otto Von Bismarck achieve the unification of Germany?
Del Delosandro T. Dugeon
Western Civilization II History 1102
It is proven by many centuries of international relations' history that some strong country appeared every century and was able to change the traditional system of international relations according to own values in this sphere. For example XVII century can be characterized as a period of French influence when French monarchs considered the main priorities of their foreign policy to be fighting for national interests of their mono-national country. XVIII century is famous for British equilibrium conception which meant that no European country should be stronger that any other state, particularly Britain. And the same occurred in 19th century when Germany led by Bismarck created new order in Europe, which meant that the major factor of international relations was military and economical strength. So, French theory of "raigon d'etat" (which meant using any…
1. Zieger, Michael The Iron Chancellor J& QPublishers 1979.
2. Geiss, Imanuel Bridgham, Fred The Question of German Unification: 1806-1996 University of California Press 1999
3. Schneider, Bruno German Empire Pacific Press 2000
4. Eyck, Erich Bismarck and the German Empire W.W. Norton & Company 1964
history of Germany, Japan, and Russia, comparing it with that of Mexico in the time-Period 1919-1945.
GERMANY, JAPAN, RUSSIA, AND MEXICO
One of the most interesting parallels between Mexico and the other countries in question is the way the people of Mexico reacted to what was happening in their country. Mexico, with its distinct peasant and upper-class populations, was ripe for changed during this time. "A veneer of Mexican culture scarcely overcomes the distance between the Mexican peasant and the Mexican citizen. The Mexican peasant, like peasants everywhere, lives in one world, the Mexican citizen in another" (Gran 160). However, while Russia, Japan, and Germany turned to socialism and dictatorship, Mexico turned to socialism for a time during the rule of Cardenas, but rejected it for a capitalistic democracy, much influenced by the United States. Cardenas' administration "expropriated U.S. And British oil companies. President Roosevelt and his ambassador to Mexico…
Gran, Peter. Beyond Eurocentrism: A New View of Modern World History. 1st ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1996.
Jones, Errol D. "26 World War II and Latin America." World War II in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, with General Sources: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Ed. Lee, Loyd E. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. 415-431.
Mayer, Dr. Eric. "1919-1945, Germany and Japan." Emayzine.com. 2001. 7 Nov. 2002. http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/germany%20and%20Japan%.html
Spenser, Daniela, and Friedrich Katz. The Impossible Triangle: Mexico, Soviet Russia, and the United States in the 1920s. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
The Golden Bull of 1356 fixed the number and identity of the electors. And while the Empire finally received an orderly method of choosing its sovereigns, the power of these sovereigns had largely passed from the center to the periphery. The old empire existed in name only.
Italy too is part of the story of the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. The part of Italy north of the Papal States was an actual part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Sicily, in the extreme south, was at times under the rule of the Emperors. In particular, Frederick II was famed for the glorious, and learned, court he maintained in Sicily. Italy was very strongly affected by political developments North of the Alps. The same divisions between Church and State that plagued the rest of the Empire were prominent in the Italians city states as well. For Italy, like…
orld Health Care Systems
Taking into account that this PBS Frontline production is several years old, and was produced before the Affordable Care Act was signed into law, some of the details shown in the video are certainly not current. Still, the comparison between the German healthcare system and the U.S. healthcare system shows a wide gap in service, in cost, in consumer satisfaction and in results. Meantime, the positive parts of the German healthcare system are far better and far fairer for the consumer than the system in the United States.
The German Healthcare System vs. The U.S. System
The PBS reporter states that the philosophy in Germany since the time of Otto von Bismarck (Prussian leader in the late 1800s) has been that "A government has to provide mechanism so all its people can get medical care when they need it (PBS). "The Bismarck model is used all…
Frontline. "Sick Around the World." Public Broadcast System. Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org . 2007.
Klein, Ezra. "Ten Reasons Why American Health Care Is so Bad." The American Prospect.
Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://prospect.org . 2007.
Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933
The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March 29, 1930, finance expert Heinrich runing had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Muller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichsprasident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. After an unpopular bill to help the Reich's finances had not found the support of the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the Sozialdemokratische…
By the time Bismarck had to leave the Chancellor's office in 1890, France and Russia were working to forge an alliance in both commercial and military terms. French capital markets were supplying Russian industrialization with the investment that was drying up, not least thanks to Bismarck's intervention, from the German side. The French arms industry looked to provide the Russian armies with modern equipment. Russian officers were lavishly entertained in Paris, and naval squadrons paid much-heralded visits to Le Havre and St. Petersburg. This was the "nightmare" that Bismarck had always feared, posing a threat to Germany's strategic borders in the west and to Austria's existence in the east.
Subsequent German foreign policy initiatives, notably the initiation of a large battle fleet under the naval laws of 1898 and 1900, drove Britain into diplomatic alignment (the Entente) with a Franco-Russian alliance already in the offing at the time of Bismarck's fall. "In 1912 Lord Haldane, then the British Secretary for War, hoped that, given the new correlation of forces, Germany might be willing to sign a naval agreement to limit numbers. In Berlin, however, Haldane met with stiff resistance from Tirpitz and the Kaiser: too much prestige and funds had been invested to retreat and acknowledge defeat. There was to be no arms control."
Intensified by the reign of the far more militaristic Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bismarck's legacy would contribute to the political culture in which Nazism found significant support-bases. As a result, in Germany, as in Japan and Italy, later attempts to extend democracy would succeed in establishing the unstable democracies of the Weimar Republic. Despite advances in industry and science under the Second Reich, Germany retained a despotic aspect to its character, due to
Also unlike the president, it is entitled to be part of the political party. This is an important aspect because its adherence to the party ensures its support for the political figure and for the measures to be taken throughout the mandate. This enables the administration to avoid potential situations when political support lacks.
Political accountability rests in the power of the Parliament to hold accountable the Government. In this sense, similar to the other cases, the Parliament plays a crucial role in the life of the executive branch. Given the fact that the Executive is represented by the major parties in the Parliament, the interpellations of the Government are often settled. In any case, the strong relation between the executive, the political parties, and the parliament enable a strong relation and commitment on the lines of the ruling parties.
Efficiency of the systems
It is rather difficult to consider…
French Constitution. Accessed 10 June 2010 from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp
Gregg, G.L. The Presidential Republic: Executive Representation and Deliberative Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
Hoffmann, V., Hellmut Wollmann (eds). State and local government reforms in France and Germany: divergence and convergence, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2006.
Newton, K., Jan W. van Deth Foundations of comparative politics: democracies of the modern world. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, 2005.
The free election of Hitler as a ruler was soon adopted by the Nazis' philosophy and Hitler was presented as a man of the people. The Nazis inoculated into people's mind the idea that since they had chosen Hitler as their ruler, he must be the right man.
All in all, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was aimed at subjugating and controlling the people and it was done through the manipulation of people into achieving the Reich's goals. As such, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was that of eliminating all individual features and unifying the population's objectives in the direction desired by the Nazis.
3. The Gleichschaltung philosophy as applied by the Gestapo and the SS
In order to gain control over the people, the Nazi thinkers needed the support of military and police forces. The necessary aid came from the Geheimes Staatspolizei-Amt or Gestapo and from the Schutzstaffel, or the SS. The…
Feuchtwanger, E., Nazi Gleichschaltung, Volume 7, Number 2, History on the Web, http://www.history-ontheweb.co.uk/concepts/concept72_gleichschaltung.htm , last accessed on October 19, 2007
Orlow, D., the History of the Nazi Party: 1933-1945, Canadian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 7, No.3, Sept 1974
Evans, J.R., the Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939, New York, Penguin, 2005
Browder, G.C., Hitler's Enforces: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution, the American Historical Review, Vol. 103, No. 3, June 1998
Luxemburg and Von Bingen
Germany has a history of being a nation of strong people with strong wills. They are categorized as individuals who work for the greater good of their country even when it means self-sacrifice. Hildegard von Bingen and Rosa Luxembourg were both important women from Germany who changed much of the way that people lived and thought in their homeland. Both women were living in a society where women were systematically oppressed by members of the male gender and yet were able to overcome the sanctions put upon them due to their gender. History has painted them as activists but they both also had ambition which was necessary in order to overcome the large chasms between their desires and what was available to women of the eras. Although separated in time by some seven centuries, the women shared many characteristics, including intelligence, bravery, and a willingness to…
Von Trotta, Margarethe. (Director). (1986). Die Geduld der Rosa Luxemburg [DVD]. West
Von Trotta, Margarethe. (Director). (2009). Vision: From the Life of Hildegard von Bingen.
[DVD]. Germany: Zeitgeist.
The picture presents a monster tattooed with communist symbols. He is destroying a city that is equipped with electricity and other modern embellishments of civilizations. People are running for their life. On its face value, the picture can be taken as the criticism of communism. However, associating communism and Jewish origin with destructivity is not a naive gesture at all. It has an evil nature in itself showing hatred and intolerance for others in the society.
The descriptive text for the picture tells us that it is a propaganda poster depicting a stereotyped Jewish communist who is in the act of destroying Germany. Do we need to know more? This shows the hatred one cherishes against the Jew and the communists. This becomes crystal clear that the propaganda poster delineates the anti-Semitic as well as anti-communist mentality of the Nazis while this particular poster makes a caricature of…
Nation, Industrialization and Ideology
For the U.S., the idea of nationhood developed simultaneously with the rise of Industrialization. Industrialization enabled the concept of nationhood to be made possible. This concept in America was intertwined with the ideology of “Manifest Destiny” that was first promulgated by John L. O’Sullivan in 1845. Sullivan called it America’s “manifest design of Providence in regard to the occupation of this continent”[footnoteRef:2] and used this “manifest design” as justification for America to expand its borders as far as possible and assert its nationhood status even in the face of Native Americans who had claim to certain territories. Once America had reached the West Coast, it began to look overseas and used its doctrine of Manifest Destiny to spread its influence into Asia with the Spanish-American War. Industrialization gave the U.S. the means to ramp up its military, and the ideology of expansion being God’s will for…
Monet started his creative activity being young by making scratches and cartoons for a local frame-maker. He took classes of art from Eugene Budent, who taught him lessons of work on open air. Later he goes to Paris and enters the circle of Paris painters. Because he had no financial support he enters French army and after military service he continues painting with Pierre-Auguste enoir, Alfred Sisley, Edgar Degas, Gustave Caillebotte, Frederic Bazille who were experimenting and searching for a new style different from official canons of art.
Technique developed by Monet and other impressionists was unique and innovative. Monet realized that a painting which was made on the open air, has a unique freshness and liveliness, which is unable to be achieved when working in the workshop, where artist plans the painting beforehand. Monet advised artists to rebuild the impression of image perception substituting routine objects by some naive…
Hannoosh, M. Delacroix, E. 1995.Painting and the Journal of Eugene Delacroix. Princeton University Press
Jobert, B. 1998. Delacroix. Princeton University Press
Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller
Forge, a. 1995.Monet Art Institute of Chicago (Artists in Focus).Harry N
History of German cuisine is one that links diet with culture and region: food ever follows function in the history of the Germanic people. hether due to region, custom, or contact with others, the German culture has seen a distinct cuisine emerge from its heritage and history. Historical events are responsible for bringing about certain fare. For instance, because of the scarcity of cream in Germany in the Middle Ages, bread was used as a binding ingredient in sauces, and baking itself served a culture significance for Germans throughout the centuries (from the use of bread in Christianity to the pagan heritage use of bread) culminating in the special decorative braiding and twisting of the dough (as seen in Bavarian pretzels) designed as a special treat. In other cases, geography is important in the cuisine that developed in particular regions (the ales in the North for example). This paper will…
Davidson, Alan. National and Regional Styles of Cookery. UK: Prospect Books, 1981.
Heinzelmann, Ursula. Beyond Bratwurst: A History of Food in Germany. UK:
Reaktion Books, 2014. Print.
eporting standards for financial transactions have been varied with regard to countries and companies across the globe for many years. This fact has made it difficult for transactions to be reported with any great degree of accuracy. This was especially true in Germany where there was no true German GAAP. What the rest of the world has considered the German GAAP, the GoB, was actually comprised of here say and opinion gleaned from many different sources. With the advent of the IASB that the European Union adopted in 2007, Germany has finally decided on a single standard with which to govern financial reporting. Large companies within the country, such as Deutsche Bank, have had to make adjustments to the new standards, but this does not seem to have caused a problem. Since the country has loosely used international standards for many years, the new IASB is not new…
Bonthrone, R. (2000). German financial accounting and reporting. Translation Journal, 4(3). Retrieved from http://translationjournal.net/journal/13finan.htm
Deutsche Bank. (2011). Company. Deutsche Bank. Retrieved from http://www.db.com/en/content/company/company.htm
Feige, P. (1997). How "uniform" is financial accounting in Germany? European Accounting Review, 6(1), 109-122.
Gornik-Tomaszewski, S., & McCarthy, I.N. (2003). Cooperation between FASB and IASB to achieve convergence of accounting standards. Review of Business, 24(2), 52-61.
One common truism in the world of business is that mergers often fail. The task of negotiating a company merger with two other multinational companies is thus a daunting one. There are many reasons which cause mergers to fail, but one of the most common is that of miscommunication between the multiple entities. The fact that one of the nations is from Germany and the other is Japanese may further complicate matters, given that Japan is a traditionally high-context culture, where the content of what one says is less important than the manner and to whom one says it; speech also tends to be much more indirect. In contrast, Germany, similar to that of the United States, tends to be a very low-context culture where the explicit meaning of what a speaker conveys is all-important.
Issues Negotiating in a Diverse Cultural Environment
What is perceived as an obstacle or a…
The main problem with GD Communism was that it was essentially full of itself -- completely idealistic and pretentiously embracing a "newfound" optimism and faith in a youthful spirit. Everything was supposedly new -- all the old institutions were influx -- and corruption was on its way out, as though it was something that could be eradicated simply by adopting the right policy, by implementing the right socialist or communist agenda. There was nothing really logical about any of it: corruption is a staple of the human condition -- always has been and always will be. Human nature does not change just because the manifesto changes. Human nature is constantly being pulled in two directions at once. With its idealistic goggles on, the GD simply spoon fed optimism and pride in itself to young generation, insisting that they reject what came before -- the sacred institutions, the sacred…
The Director of the Youth Institute Comments. (1988). GHDI.
The New Youth Program of the Communist Party. (1963). GHDI. Retrieved from http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=835
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…
Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar
Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.
"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.
22 Mar 2012.
Germany has had many tumultuous events in its past, especially before and after World War II. Although Germany experienced turmoil before the start of the war, after the war, they decided to take a different approach to foreign policy and focused on rebuilding their economy as well as improving their skilled labor force. Now Germany has a stable economy and healthy and skilled workforce. The old saying: "German engineering" shows the caliber of artisanship involved in German manufacturing. They reduced their need to prove their military might in lieu for labor force development and reduction of foreign military interference.
In a recent article by Kundnani, the writer details the determination of Germany to remain out of foreign affairs. "…it illustrates the strength of Germany's ongoing reluctance to use military force as a foreign-policy tool even in a multilateral context and to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe" (Kundnani, 2011, p. 31). This…
Brakman, S., Garretsen, H., & Schramm, M. (2004). The strategic bombing of German cities during World War II and its impact on city growth. Journal Of Economic Geography, 4(2), 201-218. doi:10.1093/jeg/4.2.201
Crafts, N., & Toniolo, G. (1996). Economic growth in Europe since 1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kundnani, H. (2011). Germany as a Geo-economic Power. The Washington Quarterly, 34(3), 31-45. doi:10.1080/0163660x.2011.587950
Maier, C. (1977). The politics of productivity: foundations of American international economic policy after World War II. International Organization, 31(04), 607. doi:10.1017/s0020818300018634
Germany has established itself as a successful country with a growing and stable economy. In terms of its economic policies, since 2014 its score has fallen by .2 placing it into rank 5 within the international top ranks. Of its many efforts to stabilize the country, the most notable is increased regulation, meaning pension-system expansions and a minimum wage (). Along with economic policies favoring regulation, Germany has remained strong in terms of employment growth and export performance, allowing for low unemployment rates and rising wages. While Germany has improved and stabilized, the rising influx of refugees has put a damper on the country's ability to create new policies for the labor-market.
Regardless, there are many positives in Germany's economic policies that has boosted tax revenue. The boost also comes in terms of reduction of debt-to-GDP ratio even with rising debt. Germany has done an amazing job of successfully addressing…
It was in the World War 2 that something so huge was tried by The Nazi Germany that it was just impossible to continue it. Genocide was attempted by Adolf Hitler and his comrades; they made systematic and deliberate attempts to kill all of the Jewish community. Jews were blamed by the Nazis for the misfortune that they faced in World War 1 because of which after the war Hitler made it his mission to kill all the Jews. This genocide started in 1939 and lased till 1945. Adolph Hitler was the one by whom this whole thing was introduced as he wanted to get rid of all the minority races from Germany (Bergen, 2009).
In the World War 2 there was a lot of suffering but what happened with the Jews can't be forgotten. The Jewish people had a set of laws for them which were known…
Bergen, Doris (2009). The Holocaust: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield.
Longerich, Peter. (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford: Oxford University Press.