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According to (Mishkin & Schmidt-Hebbel, 2007) this tool is so popular because it has a proven track record of creating macroeconomic stability. he authors explain that this stability is present because it promotes price stability. he authors further explain that even
"though the contribution of it to lowering inflation is still a matter of debate, empirical research suggests that it has significantly contributed to lowering inflation and its volatility, especially in emerging markets. Secondly, empirical evidence suggests that it has also improved other macroeconomic variables
(lower output sacrifice ratio, decreased influence of price shocks and output shocks on inflation, smaller inflation persistence. hirdly, it has facilitated stabilization of long-term inflation expectations, thus reducing the cost of maintaining low inflation (Mishkin & Schmidt-Hebbel, 2007)."
he authors further insists that while inflation targeting was not the only strategy at work in the promotion of price stability and lower inflation, it has certainly…
The authors further explains that some countries decide to adopt a hard version of a fixed exchange rate known as a currency board arrangement, other nations adopt a managed float. For instance, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Poland adopted such strategies. Although Hungary did not implement a full floating currency policy, it did implement an exchange rate band, which permitted the currency to increase and decline within this band by 15%. The authors also explain that the decision to abandon exchange rate pegs, was based on what nominal anchor to use in place of the fixed exchange rate. The authors posit that "While the Slovak Republic did not accompany the move to a floating exchange rate by an explicit introduction of new monetary policy framework, the other three countries opted for inflation targeting. Why did the authorities in these countries opt for inflation targeting, and why did they reject other alternative policy frameworks? (Jonas & Mishkin, 2003)" the authors declare that the answers to this question can be found in the examples learned from the implementation of alternative monetary policies.
One such alternative is the utilization of monetary aggregates to serve as intermediate targets and a nominal anchor. Yet, targeting monetary aggregates is not always an attractive policy for transitional economies. This lack of attractiveness id due to the fact that "The traditional problem of instability of money demand, and therefore the unstable relationship between the growth of money supply and inflation, could be a particularly serious obstacle to targeting monetary aggregates in transition economies. Economic transition is characterized by a sequence of price shocks, including corrections in administered prices and tax reforms that make the relationship between money supply and price level very difficult to predict (Jonas & Mishkin, 2003)." As such the volatility of money demand and money-price correlation is additionally affected by expansive changes in the financial sector (Jonas & Mishkin, 2003). These changes alter financial institutions and encourage the development new forms of financial assets. With this understood, having a monetary policy that depends completely on targeting money supply growth might be a rather unproductive (Jonas & Mishkin, 2003)..
In addition to monetary aggregates, transition economies may also implement a
DEVELOPMENT ELATED CONTOVESIES TAKING PLACE WITHIN GHANA or BETWEEN GHANA and OUTSIDE ENTITIES
Despite the promise of new oil revenues in the future, Ghana continues to struggle to allocate scarce resources in response to international issues including expatriates returning from abroad as well as significant numbers of refugees from neighboring countries, including 11,585 from Liberia and another 16,000 from Cote d'Ivoire (Transnational issues). In addition, the country is heavily involved in heroin and cocaine trafficking as well as international money laundering operations (Transnational issues). In addition, the movement of cattle between Ghana and neighboring nations represents a potential source of new animal-borne diseases (Frimpong, Bosona, Bobobee, Aklaku and Hamdu).
The research showed that although Ghana has a lot going for it, the country is still faced with many of the same types of economic development constraints that characterize a number of other African nations, including the need for improved…
Djanie, Akua. (2012, June). "George Bush Highway. In Ghana? George Walker Bush Highway.
Really? Why Would Anybody in Any Country of the World Want to Name a Street or a Road, a Major One at That, after Former American President George W. Bush? Therefore,
for Ghana, a Country in West Africa, to Name a Major Road after Him Is Shocking,
Disappointing and Totally Incomprehensible." New African 518: 38-40.
State of Healthcare in Ghana
The current state of healthcare in Ghana can be summarized as underdeveloped. Many parts of the country are not industrialized and suffer from preventable conditions and diseases due to poor water quality and sanitation problems. The country also shares many issues that are also present in many other regions in Africa such as the spread of malaria and HIV. Although Africa only has eleven percent of the world's population, it has over sixty percent of the world's HIV / AIDS cases and roughly ninety percent of the world's malaria cases, mainly in children under five[footnoteRef:1]. [1: (News Medical)]
The healthcare system is primarily provided by the government and administered by the Ministry of Health and the Ghana Health Services. There are different levels of health care that serve as an overall health network. Although there are some estern style for-profit facilities, these account…
AHSAG. "What We Do." 23 January 2012. AHSAG. Web. 27 January 2013.
Index Mundi. "Infant Mortality Rate." N.d. Index Mundi. Web. 22 January 2013.
News Medical. "Africa's health problems are getting worse says the WHO." 26 November 2006. News Medical. Web. 22 January 2013.
Ghana was ranked at 67.5 that depicts that the country is in the median range of being a failed state (FFP, ffp.statesindex.org). This ranking is significantly better as compared to other African countries but significant improvement is desired. Mounting demographic pressures and internal displacement of population of Ghana is within the medium range. Poverty index, part of the failed state index, is at 6.0 for Ghana that represents that there is a threat of poverty coming back if not tackled properly.
3- Particular Area in need of development
The HDI index of Ghana lies at 135 out of 187 whereas failed states index is at 67.7. This implies that the country is not under the threat of potentially high levels of poverty. The country is striving hard to come out of below-poverty line. The main threats to an improving situation are that 21.6% of Ghana's population is vulnerable…
AFDF. Appriasal Report Community-Based Poverty Reduction Project: Federal Republic of Nigeria. African Development Fund, (2000): 1-32. [ http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/NG-2000-140-EN-ADF-BD-WP-NIGERIA-AR-COMMUNITY-BASED-POVERTY-REDUCTION-PROJECT.PDF ]
Brautigam, Deborah a., and Stephen Knack. "Foreign Aid, Institutions, and Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa*." Economic development and cultural change 52.2 (2004): 255-285.
FFR, the Failed States Index 2012, the Fund for Peace, (2013). Web [http://ffp.statesindex.org/rankings-2012-sortable]
Grindle, Merilee S. "Good enough governance: poverty reduction and reform in developing countries." Governance 17.4 (2004): 525-548.
A big portion of the aid Ghana receives is usually directed towards the improvement of the health sector.
Ghana has an education system that starts from primary through high school to the university. The primary level takes 6 years, junior high school 3 years, senior high school 4 years and the university degree takes 4 years. The language of instruction in the education system is English (U.S. Department of State, 2011).
The country has a widely democratic system with a multiparty constitutional democracy firmly in place. It is one of the countries that there were contested election results as is the common practice in other countries in Africa. They have an executive, the legislature and the judiciary systems as the three arms of government that run the nation (Ghana Nation, 2011).
Ghana is a member of the majority of the international bodies like the UN and the International Criminal Court…
Ghana Nation, (2011). Ghana: System of Government. Retrieved November 18,
2011 from http://www.ghananation.com/Government/
Ghana Web, (2011). History of Ghana. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/history/
Global Finance, (2011). Ghana Country Report: GDP data and GDP forecasts; economic, financial and trade information; the best banks in Ghana; country and population overview. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from http://www.gfmag.com/gdp-data-country-reports/267-ghana-gdp-country-report.html#axzz1e59NFtdW
Blunch and Verner (Determinants of Literacy)
How does a country make progress? The answers seem to be obvious on paper - if difficult to effect in the world itself. Those of us who are citizens of the First World tend to believe that we understand what is required for a nation to "develop." But Blunch and Verner, in their study of literacy and numeracy skills in Ghana, demonstrate how complicated the idea of "development" is and how culturally specific.
That development should take different courses in different parts of the world should, in fact, not be a surprise to us at all. One of the problems of modernization projects has always been that there is a certain essential arrogance to nearly all of them because there is embedded in them the idea that every "backward" country could improve itself (i.e. become like the nation that is sponsoring the modernization…
Branford, S. And Kucinski, B. (1988). The Debt Squads. London: Zed Books.
Broad, R. (1988). Unequal Alliance. Berkeley: UC Press. http://canadianeconomy.gc.ca/english/economy/globalization.html
Alcohol in Ghana and South Africa
The impact of the economic revival of Africa as a continent and some of the emerging economies, in particular, has created disposable income in the hands of a large section of people. This has enhanced the market and sale of alcohol products in a manner similar to other lifestyle or FMCG products. Despite a number of problems that include counterfeiting and smuggling, the alcoholic market beverages market in African is believed to be on track to clock the faster growth in the segment globally till 2017 (Evans, 2015).
In recent decades, Ghana has developed as an economy and its impact is evident in the industries in the country. One of the major industries that have developed with the advent of foreign brands slowing infiltrating the market tin Ghana is the burgeoning alcohol segment. Ghana has recently emerged as an economic power in the continent…
Evans, P. (2015). Thirsty for Growth, Liquor Giant Taps African Market. The Wall Street Journal, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/thirsty-for-growth-liquor-giant-taps-african-market-1438309801
South Africa's boozing habits revealed. (2016). Businesstech.co.za. Retrieved 30 July 2016, from http://businesstech.co.za/news/lifestyle/113654/south-africas-booze-habits-revealed/
Toesland, F. (2016). Alcohol consumption rising in Africa despite obstacles. African Business Magazine, p. 1. Retrieved from http://africanbusinessmagazine.com/sectors/retail/alcohol-consumption-rising-in-africa-despite-obstacles/
Welbeck J, Y. (2015). Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Correlates of Alcohol Use among Older Adults in Ghana. J Alcohol Drug Depend, 03(03). http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6488.1000202
The Economic Implication of Ghana's Oil Discovery
Ghana's Oil Discovery
The Economic Implication of Ghana's Oil Discovery: the Case Study of Takoradi Community
This paper presents a research proposal which have been prepared for the future research on the economic implications of oil discovery in Ghana. It starts with a brief introduction to the whole case scenario by introducing Ghana and its recent oil discovery and proceeds by explaining the research questions and highlighting the major research objectives. The major part of the paper consists of a comprehensive literature review which has been done to discuss the aforementioned business issue in the light of most recent articles, news, and research publications. The literature review completely focuses on discussing the economic implications of this oil discovery for Ghana from both positive and negative perspective. The research design and data collection section presents the techniques and ways in which the…
Addu, A., 2011, Oil and Gas: A Boost to Ghana's Economy, Available at [Accessed 15th September, 2012]
Arthur, K., Otu, Y., & Intsiful, P., 2010, Economic and Social Impact of the Emerging Ghana Oil Industry, Available at [Accessed 15th September, 2012]
Aryeetey, C., Barthel, M., Loehr C., & Ossei, R., 2008, Empirical Study on the Determinants and Pro-Development Impacts of Foreign Direct Investment in Ghana, Legon, Ghana: Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research
Auty, R., 1998, Resource Abundance and Economic Development, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
speak attending a Ghana, Africa wedding celebration. detail descriptive families dynamics traditional food. It speak heritage.
Weddings are special events in the African culture. Not only is the couple at the center of attention, but also the two families, which become connected. African people highly value this ceremony and its significance in the wider context of life. Therefore, great attention is paid to the specific traditions, the clothing, food, activities and obviously the ceremony itself. Although in modern times, Western characteristics have been introduced, old traditions are still visible and families do their best to preserve them. This paper will describe a few elements characteristic of a typical African wedding I attended some time ago.
In Ghana, the marriage proceedings are a lengthy process, which actually starts before the official ceremony, with the groom asking the bride's family for permission, by what is known as "knocking on the door" -…
African-American Wedding Traditions. Retrieved March 7, 2013 from Worldly Weddings: http://www.worldlyweddings.com/african-traditions-a/121.htm.
African wedding cultural traditions by country. Retrieved March 7, 2013 from Afrykaconnect: http://blog.afrykaconnect.pl/?p=219.
Jumping Brooms. Retrieved March 8, 2013 from Worldly Weddings:
2% of the population is younger than 14; 58.2% is aged between 15 and 64 and 3.6% is over the age of 65. This affect Giam's in a positive way as most of the population is properly aged to work
The median age of the population is 20.2 years, with 19.9 years for men and 20.4 years for women
The birth rate is of 29.85 births per 1000 individuals
The death rate is of 9.55 deaths in 1000 individuals
The infant mortality rate is of 53.56 deaths in 1000 live births
The life expectancy at birth is of 59.12 years, with 58.31 in men and 59.95 in women. This affects Giam's in the meaning that they will have to hire young workers. Furthermore, several personnel features might change simply due to the fact that the life expectancy in Ghana is more than five years shorter than the retirement age in…
Coutsoukis, Photius, 2004, Ghana - Economy Index, http://www.photius.com/countries/ghana/economy/index.html , last accessed on January 15, 2008
Pellechio, Anthony; Zanforlin, Luisa; Begashaw, Girma and Fabrizio, Stefania, 2000, Ghana: Economic Development in a Democratic Environment, 2007, Ghana, Central Intelligence Agency, the World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov /library' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa?
AIDS in Ghana
AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, has devastated much of Africa, hitting this continent worse than any other in the world. In fact, in the year 2000, 80% of the world's total AIDS-related deaths were within Africa. (C 2000) One of the areas hit the hardest by this virus has been the Sub-Saharan region. Ghana, within that region, has also been ravaged by AIDS, but it has a significantly lower percentage of AIDS cases than much of the rest of Africa. While the AIDS within Ghana has many of the same causes and effects on the people who are infected with the disease, it is a unique situation within Africa because of its particular effects on the women of the country, and the fact that there are comparatively fewer AIDS cases within this country.
The first reported cases of AIDS in Ghana were…
BBC. 2003. "Africa's Aids burden." UK: BBC News, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1045156.stm )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Brief Statistics on HIV / AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/functionalities/statusandimpact/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=13 )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Women and AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/barefacts/practicalinformation/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=24 )
Ofeibea Quirst-arcton. 2003. "Aids Treatment Plan Begins In January." Accra: AllAfrica.com, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://allafrica.com/stories/200311300172.html )
The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis.
In terms of the relations between Ghana and its major donors, China and the EU, Giles Mohan writes a comprehensive overview of the relations Ghana has with China and the potential political and economic interests that may drive China to indeed become a crucial donor for Ghana. More precisely, the author connects the new found Chinese desire to invest in the African country to the new found oil reserves in Ghana. Furthermore, he contents that given the past nature of the relations between China and the rest of the world (such as the EU for instance), the presence of China in Ghana is also geopolitically related and not necessarily humanitarian and development related. The perspective is valuable because the author points out potential political linkages between the resources found in…
Boafo-Arthur, K & Essuman-Johnson, a 1993, Ghana, Some Foreign Aid issues, Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 2010. Ghana. CIDA. viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/Eng/JUD-124141510-QL7
Chachage, C.S.L., 1987, Towards a critique of development theories in Africa. Vol. l9 No J / 987.
Crawford, G 2004. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in Africa: The Case of Ghana" POLIS Working Paper Number 10 viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/research/working-papers/wp10crawford.pdf
In this sense, it is not simply a matter of theoretical approach, but also one that is accompanied by data. More precisely, for instance, in the 1960s, when, as stated previously, the afflux of the development aid had not been significant, the real GDP per capita was $1,049. Compared to the 1990s when the development aid was more consistent, the real GDP per capita fell to $1,016 and in 1991 to even $970 (Andrews, What foreign aid can and can't do in Africa, 2010). This can be interpreted as being the result of a series of development strategies that did not improve the condition of the society. Also, this period was indeed characterized by increased political distress that only contributed to the way in which development programs were constructed, managed, and implemented.
In later years, through the United Nations programs, the increased donor contributions, the GDP per capita increased substantially,…
UN Habitat. (2003). The challenge of slums - global report on human settlements 2003. United Nations Human Settlements Program.
United Nations Development Program. (2010). Human Development Report. Washington: Palgrave Macmillan.
Andrews, N. (2010).; Understanding the context of Aid and socio economic development in Ghana. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
Andrews, N. (2010). Foreign Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Ghana'S Development: The Case for "Bringing Culture Back in "to the Analysis . International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2 (5), 95-104.
market communication plan for Divine Chocolate that produces chocolates for a noble cause of supporting the cocoa farmers of Ghana and promoting Fair Trade. The paper consists of an analysis of its business environment as well as a set of recommended strategies which it can use to beat the competition and effectively communicate its marketing messages to the most potential target customers.
Divine Chocolate is one of the leading Fair Trade chocolate manufacturers in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to producing the best quality chocolates, Divine Chocolate also aims to promote fair trade in the Global community. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the current business and marketing strategies of Divine Chocolate and proposes a market communication plan which can help it better understand its target market, effectively run its advertising and promotional campaigns, and beat the competitor brands which are supported by numerous unknown credential…
Batra, R., Myers, J.G., & Aaker, D.A. 2009, Advertising Management, 5th Edition. New Delhi: Pearson.
Batsell, J. 2004, Bumper crop of coffee labels, Available at [Accessed March 7th, 2013]
Brassington, F. & Pettitt, S. 2006, Principles of Marketing, 4th Edition. Harlow: Prentice-Hall.
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. 2010, Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
NYC African Restaurants
African Restaurants in NYC
The restaurant's soft industrial lighting makes the chrome gleam. A soft and expansive backdrop of blue gives the space a cool and slightly futuristic industrial like a hip loft in the future. Exposed brick walls are tinged in a blue sheen and the distressed wood chairs and tables have been stained steel gray and have marble table tops. In three weeks, Cisse Elhadji, the owner of Ponty Bistro in Midtown, will open his new restaurant La Terengea. Located at 144 West 139th St., the restaurant us nestled in between the Hudson and Harlem rivers a few blocks west of the City College of New York. The location of the restaurant is quite lucrative given its relative proximity to both Central Park as well as Yankee Stadium.
Though Elhadji has succeeded once with an African restaurant, La Teregenga is still a gamble.…
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
The systematic changes to the environment that takes place on a planetary scale may in a manner influence the global markets, the geopolitics as well as other social systems in a different manner when compared to the location-specific shocks in weather conditions that are totally uncorrelated with the state of weather in certain other regions. The predictable weather changes as well as the unpredictable nature of weather shocks may in a way generate various different social responses regardless of their state and nature (whether identical or not).The paper argues out the correlation between weather and war in a unique and yet clear manner.
Glazebrook, T (2011).Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana.
Hypatia. Vol (26) 4
In this paper, Glazebrook (2011) investigates the influence of weather on women via a case study conducted in Northeast Ghana. The argument is that there is a need, both practical and ethical…
Glazebrook, T (2011).Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana.
Hypatia. Vol (26) 4
Hsiang, SM and Meng, KC and Canes, MA (2011).Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nat u r e Vol (476).
African-Americans History And Culture
The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.
"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto ican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call…
Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.
Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.
Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…
Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.
Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
This then gives the work reasonable transferability.
The second article addressed the challenge faced by the wives of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, the researchers examined the perceptions of nine wives whose husbands were experiencing PTSD. The data were collected using a semi-structured in-depth focus group. The sample design for the research is purposeful and consequently the researcher was unable to derive statistical generalizability from their data. However, the data collected would have great depth and authenticity since it would represent the phenomenon more completely than another approach.
The focus group lasted two hours and provided an opportunity for the wives to engage in rich discussion about their experiences (Strauss & Corbin 1990). The group discussion was conducted in Hebrew; it was videotaped and later transcribed. The use of the focus group would be beneficial for this problem because the quantum of available data…
Creswell J.W. (1994).Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. London: Sage
Dekel, R, Goldblatt. H., Keidar, M. Solomon, Z. Polliack, M. (2005). Being a Wife of a Veteran
with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Family Relations, 54(1): 24-36.
Assia Djebar Alifa Rifaat examine experiences women > Muslim societies postcolonial North Africa/Egypt. Similarly, > Mariama Ba Ama Ata Aidoo concerned gender women > postcolonial est Africa (Senegal Ghana).
Gender and Society in Islamic tradition
Assia Djebar's "omen of Algiers in their apartment," Mariama Ba's "So long a letter," and Ama Ata Aidoo "Changes: a love story" are three novels discussing essential concepts in the lives of Muslim women. These three books address traditional Islamic topics, like polygamy, gender discrimination, and the way Muslims generally perceive women in their society.
Djebar, Ba, and Aidoo apparently wanted to address accounts explaining what numerous Muslim women have to go through. hat is particularly interesting about the women portrayed in these manuscripts is that they acknowledge their underprivileged position but they eventually decide that it is better for them to accept it rather than do anything to change their lives.
"So long a…
Aidoo, Ama Ata. (2004). "Changes: a love story." Heinemann.
Ba, Mariama. (1989). "So long a letter." Heinemann.
Djebar, Assia. (1999). "Women of Algiers in their apartment." University of Virginia Press.
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was a pioneer of sociology and a forerunner to civil rights activists later in the 20th century. DuBois used sociology as a tool or lens for viewing structural problems in the society, especially racism and racial inequality. W.E.B. DuBois earned his degree from Harvard University and after that established one of the first sociological research centers in the United States, called the Atlanta Sociological laboratory.
One of the issues that DeBois explored was the phenomenon of "double consciousness." Double consciousness refers to the fact that whites assume they are the normative person, and so have a singular consciousness as an American. Black people, on the other hand, refer to themselves (and are referred to) as African-Americans. The difference is powerful when viewed from a sociological perspective, and can explain a lot about the identity that black people develop in opposition to white dominant…
Christianity and Islam both facilitated the growth of sub-Saharan African kingdoms, both in the East and West. In Aksum, trade was "essential" to the kingdom's development in northwestern Ethiopia, as it was strategically located geographically on a major trade route linking India with the rest of Africa, the Mediterranean, and Arabia (p. 205). Unlike many other kingdoms in Africa, the Aksum fully embraced Christianity within the first few centuries of the religion's dissemination. Aksum was in fact one of the earliest Christian empires, operating fully independently from ome, where Christianity would take root and become the hub of European cultural, economic, and political life. In its heyday, the kingdom of Aksum depended on the Christian mythos and ethos to sustain its centralized power under King Ezana, who declares his power to be God-given in his stele: "he has given me strength and power and favoured me with a great name…
Sources of World Societies. Second Edition. Bedford/St. Martin's.
Colonialism marked the expansion and power of countries like Britain and France. The British and French had substantial influence and power in places like Cameroon, Chad, Congo, and South Africa. After some time passed, these former colonies gained independence and attempted to stabilize their respective economies. However, most gained no ground and remained dependent on things like foreign aid to survive. Such hardship brought in a new form of power dynamics, neocolonialism. Neocolonialism is a stark reminder of the power developed nations have over former colonies; West Africa's cocoa industry demonstrates how poorer nations remain poor through the limited export of raw resources that maintain dependence and diminish innovation.
Neocolonialism is “a situation of infringed national sovereignty and intrusive influence by external elements” (Langan, 2018, p. 1). While countless scholars may feel ‘squeamish’ if someone invokes the term, it rings true for the various situations African countries face…
2005). A study by the Center for Economic and Policy Research reported that "77% of countries [that had received loans from the B-IMF) for which data is available saw their per capital rate of growth fall significantly during the period 1980-2000." And by the late 1990s, the article continued, the IMF could no longer "pretend that structural adjustment had not been a massive disaster in Africa, Latin America and South Asia." And so in 1999, the B-IMF met and renamed SAPs the "Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility."
PROS/CONS: The first five pages of this paper was a review of many of the "cons" of SAPs. hat are the positives? riting in the orld Bank Research Observer, John illiamson, who created the phrase "ashington Consensus," complains that the term "has been invested with a meaning...significantly different from that which I had intended..." Moreover, illiamson spends the majority of his article not…
Ankomah, Kofi. "IMF and World Bank Sponsored Structural Adjustment Programs in Africa: Ghana's Experience." University of Chicago Press (2001): 499-501.
Bello, Walden, & Guttal, Shalmali. "Crisis of Credibility: The Declining Power of the International Monetary Fund." Multinational Monitor, July/August 2005, 19-22.
Brym, Robert J.; Chung, Stephanie; Dulmage, Sarah; Farahat, Christian; Greenberg,
Mark; Ho, Manki; Housein, Khadra; Kulik, Dina; Lau, Matthew; Maginley, Olivia;
An investor choosing between two different companies must undertake several steps in order to determine the best investment. In addition to understanding the industry of the company from a strategic perspective, a thorough financial analysis should be conducted. The strategic analysis will help to understand the underlying trends of the financial assessment. The financial analysis should include a ratio analysis, and should focus on the key areas of liquidity, solvency, leverage and profitability. In addition, the performance of the company's equity should be analyzed, particularly in relation to the company's financial performance. This will help to determine if the current share price is good value. This report will analyze two different companies -- Marks & Spencer and Tullow Oil -- using these criteria. There will also be a brief corporate social reporting analysis.
Marks & Spencer Overview
M&S is a department store retailer based in the UK, but operating…
Marks & Spencer 2010 Annual Report. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://annualreport.marksandspencer.com/overview/about-us.aspx
Yahoo! Finance: Marks & Spencer. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/bs?s=MKS.L+Balance+Sheet&annual
TullowOil.com. (2011). Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://www.tullowoil.com
Yahoo! Finance: Tullow Oil. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/is?s=TLW.L+Income+Statement&annual
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)
-- but Glaxo contends that Cipla violates the companies' patents and international intellectual- property agreements"(Boseley, 2002). In moral defense of its actions, Glaxo's CEO, told shareholders "Some people might see patents as the obstacle to getting medicines to patients in poorer countries. Nothing could be further from the truth....Even in countries where low cost generics are available millions of people are dying every year because they cannot obtain low cost generic treatments for malaria, TB and other common diseases. e should also remember that 95% of the medicines on HO's Essential Drugs List are not covered by patent protection anywhere in the world, let alone in developing countries, many of which have no effective intellectual property laws" (Samson, 2001).
Still, a recent scandal revealing that "nearly $18 million worth of reduced-price HIV drugs intended for impoverished Africans have been intercepted by profiteers and shipped back to Europe to be sold…
Boseley, Sarah (6 Sept. 2002). "Glaxo cuts AIDS drug prices in Africa." The Guardian. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,786919,00.html
Glaxo: Cheap AIDS drugs not enough." (25 May 2001) BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1351153.stm
HIV Drugs for Africa Diverted to Europe. (3 Oct 2002). Centers for Disease Control.
International News. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.thebody.com/cdc/news_updates_archive/oct3_02/hiv_drugs.html
It had started in the present-day Sahel region of south-eastern Mauritania and western Mali. (The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa) The evidence for this is again not in written records, but archeological evidence, and this also makes it clear that the history of Ghana has been influenced a lot by geographical changes. A similar situation exists with Egypt. There was a discovery by archeologists in the late 20th century that there was human habitation before 8000 BC in an area in the southwestern corner of Egypt, which is near the border with Sudan. Who are these people? They are likely to have been nomads attracted to this area of Egypt because of the hospitable climate and environment. Now it is exceptionally dry, but once that area had grassy plains and temporary lakes which were caused by seasonal rains. (Encyclopedia: History of…
Brass, Mickey. The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa. Retrieved at http://www.antiquityofman.com/Complex_WA_EA.html. Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: History of Africa. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Africa . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: History of Ancient Egypt. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Ancient-Egypt . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: Sahara. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Sahara#History . Accessed 14 September, 2005
They face 8 competitors there. The largest country for OI overall is Montenegro, in part because there are no competitors operating in that country (Mixmarket, 2009).
Thus, in any given market, OI can expect competition from a wide number of microfinance institutions. In general, these institutions are charitable organizations based in estern countries. They each have similar objectives and are not motivated by profit, therefore there is low intensity of competition between them. Groups do not necessarily work together, but may instead avoid each other's territories. The competition keeps OI's operations small in many countries, but it also provides more choice for entrepreneurs in those countries to receive financing.
The main impact of competition for OI is with respect to funding dollars. OI must work hard to compete against not only other microfinance organizations, but charities of all stripes for the finite dollars available from both private and institutional donors.…
Opportunity International website. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.opportunity.org/
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation website. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Grants-2007/Pages/Grant-48772.aspx
Mixmarket.org website. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.mixmarket.org/en/partners/partners.quick.search.asp
Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004).
Use of esources to Finance Conflict
Forest products are also often used to pay for conflicts. Timber requires little investment and can be converted to cash more cheaply than oil, which requires technology. Control over timber resources can shift the balance of power during a conflict and affect how long the conflict lasts. Underfunded armies, military, police, and rebel forces often finance themselves by cutting trees. Conflicts in Cambodia, Burma and Liberia have been funded with timber, and in each of those countries the wood produced more than 100 million dollars per year (Global esources, 2004).
Incompatible Uses Leading to Conflict
Use or misuse of resources can be very profitable on one hand but ruinous to another. For example, jurisdictional conflicts have heated up…
Breaking the habit (2004). The Nation (Feb 9), 178 (5), 11-14.
Brown, V.J. (2004). Battle scars: Global conflicts and environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (17), 994-1003.
Coles, C. (2004). Resources for peace. The Futurist (Jan/Feb), 38 (1) 6.
Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (2002). IUCN/IISD E&S Task Force. Johannesburg: World Summit on Sustainable Development.
hat is Multicultural Literacy?
Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.
Authors and Artists for Young Adults. (2001). Diego Rivera. Retrieved October 16, 2012,
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (2006). W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Gale Biography in Context.
Stevens, Elizabeth Years, and Brown, Rachel. (2011). Lessons Learned from the Holocaust:
Blogging to Teach Critical Multicultural Literacy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 31-51.
Works of Maya Angelou
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss author Maya Angelou, and some of her most important works. Specifically, it will discuss why her work is important, and give a brief biography of the writer. Maya Angelou has been an inspiration to writers, women, and Blacks ever since she began writing. Her career has spanned decades, and shows no signs of slowing down. Awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1971, Maya Angelou and her works are national treasures, meant to be enjoyed, contemplated, and to give inspiration forever.
Maya Angelou was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on April 4, 1928. Her name was Marguerite Annie Johnson. Her brother Bailey gave her the nickname "Maya," for "My" and "my sister."
Maya's mother, Vivian Baxter, was a nurse and card dealer; her father, Bailey Johnson Sr., was a doorman and also a dietician or meal…
art form, dance provides the means by which to fuse political and creative power. The body can communicate political ideology, subverting social norms in subtle ways. Dance frequently communicates issues related to race, class, gender, and power. Dance can also be used to either reflect or change values and norms.
For example, ballet was born in the Baroque court of Catherine de Medici, who recognized the potential for dance to symbolize the bringing about of order in a chaotic world ("Baroque Court: Catherine de Medici"). A similar function of dance can be found among the Bedoyo of Java, for whom dance undertook a cosmological as well as a political pertinence: creating or exhibiting order in a world that was otherwise chaotic or unpredictable. Dance reveals the potential for human beings to be disciplined and use their bodies to create order, as opposed to allowing themselves to slip into temptation. In…
"Asante Court: The Asante of Ghana," (n.d.).
"Baroque Court: Catherine de Medici," (n.d.).
"Bedoyo of Java," (n.d.).
"Louis XIV: The Sun King," (n.d.).
However, when looking at such pictures, one has difficulties to understand the reasons for which hunger is a problem in the American states. There is a certain luxury in the meetings and forums which does not reveal the actual situation among the common people.
Overall, it can be concluded that the online communication is indeed a great step forward for promoting ideals, ideas, values, and most importantly initiatives. In the case of the OAS and the Hunger Project, these two entities chose to promote such values and initiatives differently. This is largely due to the different nature of the two, of the different cultural background, and in particular to the different approaches the two have on issues such as hunger.
Ghadessy, Mohsen. Text and context in functional linguistics.. Amsterdam: John enjamins, 1999.
Hunger Project. 2010. Accessed 28 May, 2010 from http://www.thp.org/
Hunger Project. Learning the True Meaning of "Comfort"…
Ghadessy, Mohsen. Text and context in functional linguistics.. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1999.
Hunger Project. 2010. Accessed 28 May, 2010 from http://www.thp.org/
Hunger Project. Learning the True Meaning of "Comfort" with THP-Ghana . N.d. Accessed 28 May, 2010 from
Then they need to present the change to the employees as being realistic, reliable and measurable. There needs to be milestones set so that as the change process progresses the employees can see that the work that they are doing is actually accomplishing the goals that have been set forth.
8. What characteristics of Dr. Mimi Silbert, leader of the Delancey Street Foundation, make her approach to change so innovative and successful?
Mimi Silbert does not share the same background as her fellow residents but she lives at Delancey Street, abides by its rules, and takes no salary. Her determined spirit and unlimited energy have built an organization that is unique in its entrepreneurial and self-governing structure. Her dedication to enacting her vision of an educational community of change has inspired residents to break their destructive cycles and take responsibility for themselves and others. Dr. Silbert has gained national and…
Change management. (2009). Retrieved November 23, 2009, from Businessballs Web site:
Facilitation Resources. (2009). Retrieved November 23, 2009, from University of Minnesota
Web site: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/citizenship/DH7429.html#overview
The thesis of the article is that the United States cannot and will not remain satisfied with the current status quo, but would rather attempt to improve the system it is part of in the future.
If one looks at the example that globalization gives, this is certainly true. In many ways, the United States has led the technological and economic progress for the past couple of decades and globalization, as a phenomenon, also means that its efforts in this direction are likely to spread around the world in a much quicker manner. With improved communication and higher interconnectivity, change is brought about at a quicker pace.
The U.S. efforts during the Bush Administration went far beyond the economic and technological transformation that the U.S. supported abroad. Bush also promoted a widespread campaign of establishing democracies abroad, which means an effort to export the political model from the United States…
S. government is not in favor of dual citizenship as a policy matter due to the problems it might bring. But there is a felt need that dual citizenship must be allowed because of considerable rise in global migration from other nations into America. Dual citizenship benefits the American society in more ways than one. Economic advantages are primary, as also social and political benefits. Besides, it also assists in legalizing the exercise over them of governmental power; it minimizes the risk that they will be subject to discriminatory treatment. Granting dual citizenship makes the immigrants to naturalize and develops a strong bond with the labor force. The estimated encouraging influence of dual citizenship rights on the rates of naturalization also suggests that some of the relative advantages in employment might be due to acquisition of American citizenship.
Brummett, Suzanne. Dual Citizenship. 2002.
Hansen, andall; Weil, Patrick. Dual Nationality,…
Brummett, Suzanne. Dual Citizenship. 2002.
Hansen, Randall; Weil, Patrick. Dual Nationality, social rights and federal citizenship in the U.S. And Europe. Berghahn Books. 2002.
Joly, Daniele. International migration in the new millennium.
" (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325) This was the real thing: more than a half-million Tutsi murdered- three-quarters of the population -- and the attempt by the wandan state and the Hutu majority to exterminate every last Tutsi." (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325)
The question is if this can be compared to the general holocaust and the Armenian genocide, which the world watched helplessly, could the massacre have been prevented? The question is more academic. Having seen that the clashes between ethnic groups, and those who are opposed to share the natural bounties with a community they regard as unnecessary probably the total prevention of the genocide design is not possible. Can an action by the authority like the UN then have mitigated it? The answer to that question lies in the way the nations view the sovereignty and the need for intervention form the UN. It is impossible to…
Confessore, Nicholas. 2000. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. - Review. Washington Monthly, pp: 7-8.
Dorn, a. Walter; Matloff, Jonathan; Matthews, Jennifer. 2000. 'Preventing the Bloodbath: Could the UN have predicted and prevented the Rwanda Genocide?' Journal of Conflict Studies, vol. XX, no. 1, pp: 9-52.
Gellately, Robert; Kieman, Ben. 2003. The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. New York.
Riemer, Neal. 2000. Protection against Genocide: Mission Impossible?. Praeger. Westport, CT.
Secondly, even the beginning of the film presents an African motif. The drums that open the scene are representative for the ancient tribal singing and dancing. The same drums are present in Cullen's poetry, revealing a deep African symbol. Moreover, the drums also make the passage from the contemporary life in which the film is first set, to the imaginary and ancient time of slavery.
The characters are as well particularly chosen. For instance, Joe, a white skinned slave is important for pointing out the traditional individual that tries to escape his past, through all means possible. He rejects his mother, who is the embodiment of the African spirit, he worships a white God, Virgin Mary, and in the end, he takes on a position that implies behaving in a similar manner as the white oppressors.
Joe's mother, Nunu, represents in the film the symbol of the African heritage. She…
Cesaire, a.(1984) Africa. In Aime Cesaire: The Collected Poetry.Translated by Clayton Eshleman and Annette Smith, University of California Press.
Cullen, C. (1928). Harlem Wine. Retrieved 2 November 2007, at http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/52567-Countee-Cullen-Harlem-Wine
Cullen, C. (2007). Heritage.retrieved 2 November 2007, at http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/heritage/
Hughes, L. (2007) the Negro speaks of Rivers. Poets.org. Retrieved 2 November 2007, at http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15722
submitted, the Ivory Coast is set to swear in Alassane Ouattara as the country's new president (CNN, 2011, 1), ending over six months of internal turmoil that threatened to lead the country into outright civil war, and challenged the international community's ability and willingness to respond. Ouattara had been unable to take the presidency despite winning last November because losing incumbent Laurent Gbagbo refused to cede power (Ibid). On April 11th, 2011, pro-Ouattara forces arrested Gbagbo after an assault on his residence in the capital Abidjan with the assistance of French forces (Harding, 2011).
The standoff was challenging for the international community. The issue was domestic in nature, but stability both in the country and the region has been difficult to achieve. The prospect of a prolonged civil war was real, and this would not only have destroyed the Ivory Coast but would also have had a debilitating effect on…
AFP. (2010). Ivory Coast PM urges UN to speak out on poll results. AFP. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iedxpbLd4aBzQjdcFHeD-LdVH2qA?docId=CNG.347958328eebaf1a5122e531750726d6.c81
Africa Speaks. (2011). 2010 elections in Cote d'Ivoire: What most media do not tell you. Africa Speaks. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.africaspeaks.com/reasoning/index.php?topic=7026.0
Aloisi, S. (2003). New hope of Ivory Coast peace as rebels join talks. The Guardian. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jan/09/westafrica
AP. (2011). Gbagbo nationalizes cocoa in Ivory Coast. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Gbagbo-nationalizes-cocoa-in-apf-4254897232.html?x=0&.v=1
Although Bicycle production has grown to well over one hundred million bicycles in the year 2000, there are still specialty markets that have not been saturated. Couple that with the fact that there are still many nations in the world where citizens cannot afford to purchase automobiles, and a potential for new products becomes more obvious. With these factors in mind, this report will present reasons that will justify producing specialty bicycles in the Daniel Manufacturing Company's spare warehouse space.
It is obvious that world production is up. Currently, the largest producer of bicycles in the world is the nation of China. "China manufactured a record 52 million bicycles in 2000 -- over half the world total. Nearly two thirds of these were exported, with 17 million going to the United States." (Larsen, 2002)
The European Union's new found togetherness makes it seem like a large…
International Bicycle Fund. (n.d.). Bicycle Statistics: Usage, Production, Sales, Import, Export. Retrieved October 22, 2004, from http://www.ibike.org/statistics.htm
Larsen, Janet (2002). Bicycle Production Breaks 100 Million. Earth Polkicy Insitute,, . Retrieved October 22, 2004, from http://www.earth-policy.org/Indicators/indicator11.htm
Percent of Trips by Travel Mode (all trip purposes)
As household penetration increases, competition for products in the online marketplace also increases in those areas, as does the need for components to access the online marketplace. Further, as internet skills increase in companies and households around the world, the competitive advantage achieved from coordinating marketing across countries can be significant (Steinbock, 2000).
Microsoft, for example, has developed a huge online presence in response to household penetration increases and increases in online competition. As of November 2005, Microsoft operates websites specifically designed for each of 139 countries worldwide. Each web site contains information in the language of the country, contains products, services, and even images that reflect the culture of the country, and is aimed specifically at the household consumer and business consumer within that country. For example, when accessing the home page for the United States, advertising related products display information for new software called Microsoft Streets and Tips…
Fill, C. (2002.) Marketing Communications: Contacts, Strategies, and Applications, 3/e. New York: Prentice Hall.
Harris Poll # 97. (2004, December 8.) Different leisure activities popularity rise and fall, but reading, TV watching and family time still top the list of favorites. Harris Poll #97. Retrieved November 4, 2005 from Harris Poll Interactive Archive.
International Telecommunications Union. (2003.) World Telecommunication Development Report. Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunications Union.
Internet World Statistics. (2005.) Internet Usage and World Population Statistics. Retrieved November 4, 2005 from Miniwatts International. Web site: www.internetworldstats.com.
Soure Kodakanhi et al. (2006) iting Shreyer (1999), Table, page 19
Further reported by Kodakanhi et. al, is the fat that one of the Afrian ountries, and there are many, that faes poverty and inequality disaster is the ountry of Ghana. Advanes in tehnology in Ghana are stated to be "meager sine its independene in 1957." (2006) the eonomi development model based on it for developing ountries takes into aount the major onerns to it advent into these ountries whih are those of the: (1) Inability to invest in the it field due to poor finanial infrastruture; and (2) inadequate human power with the knowledge of it." (Ibid) the eonomi model, whih has been proposed, is one that has larger foreign investment and government poliies in support of it development as well as an awareness on the…
cited in Raji, Ayoade and Usoro, 2006) the roles that government play in the facilitation of appropriate use of ICT include: (1) approval of policies for the major sectors of the industry [National Telecommunications Policy, National Information
Trans-Saharan trade involved the trading across Sahara desert that linked the Mediterranean countries and the sub-Saharan Africa. The type of trade was initiated by omans after the introduction of camels in the regions of North Africa. This gave a room for the residents of central Sahara and the Berbers of North Africa to adopt the use of camels for transportation and as a source of food. Formerly, trading across desert was sporadic, however this became possible when camels were introduced thus making the contact and trading between Mediterranean world as well as, sub-Saharan West Africa to flourish. The commodities which were traded include weapons, textiles, and horses all these came from the Mediterranean while gold, animal products, and slaves came from the West Africa (Wright, 2007). However there were some commodities which came from central Sahara which included salt that was mined from prehistoric lakes that got dried up. The…
McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks, (2008). A History of World
Societies. Eighth Edition, Volume 1
Benanav, M. (2006). Men of salt: crossing the Sahara on the caravan of white gold. London:
The 2007 film The Bucket List depicts two men who are dying of cancer. They each help each other fulfill their final wishes and dreams. As they do so, they realize that most of the things on their "bucket list" were not material fulfillment but emotional and spiritual fulfillment. For example, they travel around the world together but are not truly happy until they are reconciled with their families. This is exactly how I feel about my own bucket list. I might have some materialistic and fun goals that I would like to achieve, such as learning how to SCUBA dive, and flying in a helicopter. However, the most important things in life for me are my children. Before I die, I want to know that they are all happy in their own way. I would love to see them all happily married with children.
Therefore, I could…
Kail, R.V. & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2007). Human Development. 5th edition. Cengage.
Reiner, R. (2008). The Bucket List [feature film].
UN Security Council
Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…
AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,
Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.
Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.
Cloud Computing at Tullow Oil
Tullow Oil is one of the renowned multinational companies in the oil and gas exploration industry. The company is headquartered in London in United Kingdom. The firm had investment interests across 150 licenses in 25 countries and had up to 67 producing fields. In 2012, the firm produced 79,200 barrels on average each day. The largest activities are based in the Atlantic Margins and Africa where there is a discovery of oil provinces for places such as Uganda, Kenya, French Guiana, and Ghana. The company's main production is based in six African countries and Southern North Sea. Jubilee oil field in Ghana's offshore was discovered back in 2007 and production started in 2010. This is the largest discovery of the company.
Cloud Computing Case Analysis
As the storage and bandwidth prices continue to drop, the solutions of cloud-based services are translating into attractive…
Bahga, A., Madisetti, V., (2013). Cloud Computing: A Hands-On Approach. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Barry, D.K. (2012). Web Services, Service-Oriented Architectures, and Cloud Computing: The Savvy Manager's Guide. New York: Newnes.
Erl, T., Puttini, R., Mahmood, Z., (2013). Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture. New York: Prentice Hall.
Furht, B., Escalante, A., (2010). Handbook of Cloud Computing. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Strategic Management Challenges Globalization
Strategic Management and Challenges of Globalization
"Innovation's Holy Grail"?
The article observes that sustainability and affordability are concepts with superior implications on company's premium pricing strategies. The elements therein influence innovation's drivers with fewer executives knowing the best ways of coping with certain shifts. Firms make various offerings available to many people through selling cheap and well-developed services and products on fewer resources (Prahalad & Mashelkar, 2010). Firms respond to such challenges by establishing strategies that permit the creation of more products using fewer resources and selling cheaper prices. The search for extensive manufacturing costs, as well as fresh talent sources, increase the pressure on globalization that leads to complex supply chains, cross-border interdependencies, and knowledge chains.
The article supports the notion of Gandhian innovation that goes against traditional categories relating to products, process, and pricing. The focus is on changing business dynamics, synthesizing technologies, and…
Grant, RM. 2013, Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Wiley; eighth edition
Haberberg, A., Rieple, A., 2008. Strategic Management: Theory and Application. New York: Cengage Oxford University Press.
Hill, C., Jones, G. 2012. Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. New York: Cengage Learning.
Hitt, M., Ireland, R.D., Hoskisson, R., 2012. Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. New York: Cengage Learning.
Clarify and discuss the purposes of corporate communication strategies
In definition, corporate communication encompasses the entirety of a company's endeavors to have communication that is not only efficacious but also effective in attracting revenues. In particular, it can be delineated as a tool utilized by corporate managers in the way that they make certain that all kinds of internal and external communication are in synchronization in the most efficacious manner. The general purpose of corporate communications strategy is to institute and sustain positive engagement between the company and its stakeholders (Cornelissen, 2011). In addition, the purpose of the corporate communication strategy takes into account the promotion of effectual corporate principles and beliefs, a comprehensive distinctiveness, a fitting and capable association with all channels of communication and instantaneous, responsible means of communicating in all circumstances (Cornelissen, 2011). The organization in consideration is Coca Cola Company. In particular,…
Adrian, A. D., Downs, C. W. (2004). Assessing Organizational Communication: Strategic Communication Audits. New York The Guilford Press.
Cornelissen, J. (2011). Corporate Communication: A Guide to Theory and Practice. London: SAGE Publications.
Eisenhauer, T. (2015). 15 Ways to Measure the Effectiveness of Internal Communications within Your Company Intranet. Axero. Retrieved 9 July 2016 from: https://axerosolutions.com/blogs/timeisenhauer/pulse/325/15-ways-to-measure-the-effectiveness-of-internal-communications-within-your-company-intranet
Essays, UK. (November 2013). Purpose of Corporate Communication Strategy Marketing Essay. Retrieved from https://www.uk***.com/essays/marketing/purpose-of-corporate-communication-strategy-marketing-essay.php?cref=1
F. Impact of Structural Adjustment Policy Preconditions
According to Shah the preconditions impact poorer countries in a devastating manner and it is reported that the following factors result in "further misery for the developing nations" and ultimately keep these countries dependent on nations that are developed: (1) Poor countries must export more in order to raise enough money to pay off their debts in a timely manner; (2) ecause there are so many nations being asked or forced into the global market place -- before they are economically and socially stable and ready -- and told to concentrate on similar cash crops and commodities as others, the situation resembles a large-scale price war; (3) Then, the resources from the poorer regions become even cheaper, which favors consumers in the West; (4) Governments then need to increase exports just to keep their currencies stable (which may not be sustainable,…
Poulizouh, Thierry (2007) Chief of Staff Ministry of Economy, Planning and International Cooperation Central African Republic: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper -- Preparation Status Report. International Monetary Fund, Feb 2007, IMF Country Report No. 07-58. Central African Republic Ministry Of Economy, Planning And International Cooperation Office Of The Minister Steering Committee On The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Permanent Technical Secretariat Of The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper No. 3325/2006/MEPCI/DIRCAB/CP-CSLP/STP-CSLP Bangui, November 17, 2006.
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (1999) The World Bank, Projects and Operations. Online available at: http://web.worldbank.org /WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,contentMDK:20120705~menuPK:51557~pagePK:41367~piPK:51533~theSitePK:40941,00.html
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers -- Operational Issues (1999) Staffs of IMF and the World Bank. 10 Dec 1000. International Monetary Fund. Online available at: http://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/prsp/poverty1.htm#II
Shah, Anup (2010) Structural Adjustment -- a Major Cause of Poverty. Global Issues. Online available at: http://www.globalissues.org /article/3/structural-adjustment-a-major-cause-of-poverty' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
4. Which companies are in the strongest position? Which companies are in the weakest position?
Two undisputable leaders of the confectionery industry are represented by the Hersheys Foods Corporation and by Nestle. Both of them are however characterized by the fact that they are large size companies, which operate in numerous sub-fields of the foods industry, without being actually specialized in chocolates and gourmet sweets.
The ocky Mountain Chocolate Factory is on the other hand a less powerful competitor within the industry, but it does reveal potential. "I must admit I'm intrigued by ocky Mountain Chocolate Factory. While the company's clearly not a Hershey in scope, and despite its share price having been essentially flat over the past year, I would venture that its debt-free balance sheet and its earnings growth will stand it in good stead going forward" (Case 22).
5. What moves are rivals likely to make next?…
Case 22: Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory, Inc.
Between 1950 and 1984, the Green evolution began to influence farming. This saw world grain production improve by 250%, even though much of this gain was non-sustainable. These agricultural technologies temporarily increased crop yields, but there are signs as early as 1995 that not only are these technologies reaching their peak of assistance, but they may now be contributing to the decline of arable land e.g. persistence of pesticides leading to soil contamination and decline of area available for farming. Developed nations have been willing to share these technologies with developing nations that have famine crisis, but there are ethical restrictions in regards to thrusting such technologies on lesser developed countries. This is often accredited to an association of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides with a lack of longevity. It is thought that these technological advances might not be as great in those famines which are the result of war. Increased…
Chossudovsky, Michel. 2008, Global Famine, viewed 11 August 2010,
Harsch, Ernest. 2003, Famine spreads across Africa, viewed 11 August 2010,
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
Notwithstanding the challenges involved, the stakes are high and there is little room for false starts or experimentation; therefore, identifying a general set of best practices that Gambian organizations can follow in developing their own set of sustainable productivity practices represents a valuable and timely undertaking, which relates to the purpose of the study which is discussed further below.
Purpose of Study
The overall purpose of this study was to study to provide a review of the relevant juried and scholarly literature together with the findings of a survey of Gambian business leaders to generally identify the most pressing priorities for developing the nation's infrastructure and sustainable organizational productivity. The specific purpose of the study was to determine whether SMEs face the same types of challenges of to optimum performance as their larger corporate counterparts, and to identify any peculiar organizational characteristics that determine levels of performance between SMEs and…
About us. 2010. The Gambia Experience. Retrieved from http://www.gambia.co .uk/Docs/About' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
A "linguist" would bring the slave broker on board the ship that had traveled upriver, and at that point there were negotiations and the broker (owner of the slaves that he had kidnapped) wanted to know of course what merchandise was being offered, what the commission the captain of the vessel was to receive, and he wanted to know what other offers might be out there on the coast from the other slavers. At the end of the day, if the broker liked the deal, and if the trader liked the slaves that the broker brought to the river (or the coast), the company "surgeon" was called in to check the health of the prisoners, and if that passed muster, a deal was struck. The male slaves were put in irons on the main deck; the children and women (not ironed) were placed on the quarterdeck; and the boys were…
Anstey, Roger. (1975). The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition 1760-1810. Atlantic
Highlands, NY: Humanities Press.
Dodson, Howard, Moore, Christopher Paul, and Yancy, Roberta. (2009). Becoming American:
The African-American Journey. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
23. "96 degrees in the shade." Third World (Jamaica). Reggae Greats
The guitar opening in "96 degrees in the shade" make the song sound not like reggae but like soft rock or smooth jazz. In fact, as the song progresses I was surprised that it took so long for the quintessential reggae sounds to start: including the syncopated rhythms and baseline.
24. "Dodi Li." Theodore Bikell (Israel). Folk Songs of Israel
Meaning "My beloved is mine," Dodi Li is a classic Israeli folk song that has been sung by an astonishing variety of groups including Peter, Paul, and Mary and the Milwaukee Children's Choir. The song emphasizes beautiful vocals and heartfelt Hewbrew lyrics. Theodore Biskell's version is evocative especially because the vocals are haunting and resonate throughout my soul. Moreover, the song is deceptively simple with simple soft strumming and drums in the background.
25. "Slow Hora/Freylekhs." The Klezmer Conservatory…
A mixture of innate talents and supportive relationships resulted in achievement and resiliency. Social learning theory suggests that resiliency, and the ability to turn negatives into positives, such as Angelou's use of her difficult life as a source for literary autobiography and poetry, is not biologically based, but depends upon being exposed to social opportunities and the willingness of others to develop the subject's natural gifts.
But this ability to 'mine' her life's challenges may itself be partially due to a biological stress response that is more productive for individuals such as Angelou than other individuals. esilience does not so much imply an invulnerability to stress, but rather an ability to recover from negative events: "Considerable data exists suggesting that young people functioning well under high stress often show higher levels of emotional distress compared to their low stress peers" (Olsson et al. 2003, p.3). In other words, a natural…
Ewart, Craig K., Randall S. Jorgensen, Edith Chen, Sonia Suchday, & Karen a. Matthews.
(2002). Measuring stress resilience and coping in vulnerable youth: The social competence interview. Psychological Assessment, 14 (3), 339 -- 352. Retrieved May 9,
2010 at http://www.psych.ubc.ca/~healthpsych/EdithArticles/PA2002.pdf
Maya Angelou: Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved May 9, 2010 at http://www.biography.com/articles/Maya-Angelou-9185388?print
Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic decentralization provides a great deal of insight into the manner in which individual nations in Africa have coped with a decentralized democratic structure. The purpose of the book was to examine under what conditions decentralization reforms in Africa evolve into effective local governance. The authors consistently explain the political structures of the local governments. In doing so the text illustrates the conditions that lead to successful decentralization efforts. The research presented is lucid and presents readers with a different perspective than other books and scholarly articles on this particular subject. The authors found that factors such as legitimate authority and adequate resources are conditions that are needed to ensure that decentralized democratization can occur.
In addition, the information presented in the text is essential for the continent of Africa, other nations that are undergoing similar changes and the international community as…
Devas N. The Challenges of Decentralization. Retrieved February 10, 2010 from; https://bvc.cgu.gov.br/bitstream/123456789/2037/1/nickdevas-2.pdf
Olowu D, Wunsch JS. 2004. Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic decentralization. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, Colo.
Peck R. African Today (Book Reviews) Olowu, Dele, and James S. Wunsch. 2004. Local Governance in Africa: The Challenges of Democratic Decentralization. 51.3 (2005) 138-140
Olowu D, Wunsch JS. 2004. Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic decentralization. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, Colo.
Citizens in the region's poorest countries, Paraguay and Honduras, make just above $4,000 per year, while those in the wealthiest countries, Chile and Mexico, make almost $15,000. The institutional legacy in the region is one clouded by inequality and corruption. In its brief on the region, the World Bank emphasizes the role of institutional development to alleviate poverty among vulnerable groups, a result in part of the lasting legacy of inequality due to colonial influences.
Asia. This region ranges widely from very poor nations such as Nepal (GDPpc of $1,100) to very wealthy nations like ingapore ($51,600). Because colonial dominance of this region was carried out by a relatively few European settlers, it was ultimately incomplete, leaving many of the region's own institutions intact or enhanced. The World Bank's comments on how governments across the region are reacting to the recent economic turndown are in line with an expectation that…
Sources of Economic Growth in China, 1952-1998. Issues in Political Economy, Vol 17.
World Bank. (2009). Regional Briefs. www.WorldBank.org. December 13, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/ .
Relation Between IPRI and GDP Per Capita by Region
Source: International Property Rights Index, 2009. (http://internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/UserFiles/File/ex4_9relationbtwniprigdpbyreg.pdf).