Strategic Partnerships With The EU Multiple Chapters

Length: 15 pages Sources: 20 Subject: Literature - African Type: Multiple Chapters Paper: #53769419 Related Topics: Foreign Aid, Political Corruption, Myanmar, Essential Oils
Excerpt from Multiple Chapters :

In this sense, it is not simply a matter of theoretical approach, but also one that is accompanied by data. More precisely, for instance, in the 1960s, when, as stated previously, the afflux of the development aid had not been significant, the real GDP per capita was $1,049. Compared to the 1990s when the development aid was more consistent, the real GDP per capita fell to $1,016 and in 1991 to even $970 (Andrews, What foreign aid can and can't do in Africa, 2010). This can be interpreted as being the result of a series of development strategies that did not improve the condition of the society. Also, this period was indeed characterized by increased political distress that only contributed to the way in which development programs were constructed, managed, and implemented.

In later years, through the United Nations programs, the increased donor contributions, the GDP per capita increased substantially, having an almost double value. Yet, even so, the HDI remained more or less unchanged, oscillating in the bottom half of the tables. As well, a poor management of funds, politics, and programming can only justify this.

1.3 the explicit and implicit motives of the donor countries to launch the strategic partnership programs for Ghana in the last four decades

Donors worldwide have implicit and explicit reasons for launching strategic programs all over the world. Officially, they provide a boost for development and for improving living conditions. China however, explicitly stated its reasons in the context of the Cold War. Also, as the world is no longer isolated from one another, donor countries also expect to benefit from a developing country by transforming it into a consumer market. However, this cannot be achieved without a development of the society.

However, even so, the official goals of donor countries are always in the spirit of the United Nations Charter. Still, this type of development has had its downfalls in creating inequality and thus a lack of absorption of development results.

An important tool for measuring the inequality in the development of countries throughout the world is represented by the Gini coefficient. The Gini coefficient "the coefficient measures the percentage of area under a Lorenz curve of perfect equality that lies between it and the actual Lorenz curve of a society, with higher Gini coefficients indicating greater inequality" (UN Habitat, 2003)

According to the United Nations, the Gini coefficient has dramatically increased in the last decades, from the 1950s onwards. There are several means through which the inequality can be measured worldwide. According to UN Habitat, there is the possibility of comparing countries if the situation in which the countries are viewed as individual homogeneous items (with an even income, for instance) or by comparing several factors such as household surveys as conducted in recent decades when information and the possibility of conducting surveys is more available (UN Habitat, 2003) Still, for the second option which is commonly used because it provides more accurate and reliable information, the results clearly point out that at a global level, the "mean per capita between 1988 and 1993

increased by 5.7% in real terms. The increase -- and more- went to the top income groups. Because of distribution change, the median income fell by 3%" (UN Habitat, 2003). It clearly appears that the issue of inequality has spurred since the beginning of development. This is not necessarily a matter of Africa, but rather of the world.

The situation is Africa in terms of inequality has also been considered as a cause of the ongoing civil unrests in most African countries. In this sense, the access to development resources for only a certain number of people and groups determine a different perspective in terms of influence and political leverage. In turn, these may fuel peace or war, but in any circumstance, it provides the resource for inequality.

The issue of inequality clearly affects Ghana as part of the African continent and influences in a negative manner the results provided by the development partnerships. In this sense, there are certain connections that are made at the level of human development. More precisely, the Gini coefficient points out the degree of inequality in a country. In its turn, combined with the value of the HDI (Human Development Index), the Gini coefficient and the HDI provide a view on the "quantity" of human development that is lost through inequality. This is justified through the way in which both indexes are calculated: while the first notes the comparison is viewed as a relatively viable democracy. Still, the inequality is translated in the physical reduction of the impact strategic partnerships have on Ghana, as 25% of these results are reduced by the lack of equality in terms of income distribution.

This loss is not only seen in the reports and figures. There have been clear examples of the lack of efficiency of the state run system of education for instance. In this sense, as an example, "sixth graders in Ghana had an average score of 25% on a multiple-choice test -- no different from what they would score by choosing answers randomly" (United Nations Development Program, 2010). Therefore, it can be argued that the educational programs undergone in Ghana in certain regions of the country are not efficient enough to impact the community or to increase the HDI.

Chapter 2 Analysis of the political situation in Ghana: political corruption and lack of economic transparency

2.1. Short political history of Ghana

Ghana is often considered to be a role model for the democratic breakthrough it achieved in the early 1990s after having suffered decade long struggles to fight corruption and military rule (Calvocoressi, 2008). However, in 1992, Ghana held its first free elections in decades and since then has experienced several electoral changes without any incidents to be reported to the international scene. However, despite its eventual turn to democracy with President Rawlings being elected in 1996, the international context as well as the lack of a strong viable vision for the next decades left the country to struggle deep into the rooted poverty.

There have been several points in history that defined the start of Ghana on the path of democracy and economic development. These included the status of former British colony which in a sense provided a much better situation for Ghana at the moment of independence and on the other hand the grip of the socialist communist rule in the 70s and 80s. This final aspect translated into economic chaos, which eventually led to Ghana being among the poorest countries in the world by the beginning of the 1990s.

The political scene was marked by the need and desires to regroup towards a development oriented society after gaining independence. Thus, according to Andrews (2010), "from 195 -- 1966 Nkrumah began the first phase of Ghana's post independence development. The second phase commenced after his overthrow in 1966 to 1982 -- a period of gross political and economic instability. The third phase (1983-2000) is the period of the SAPs implementation and the final phase (2001- present day) is a continuation of the second wave of SAPs, the period of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers involving Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategies I and II" (Andrews, What foreign aid can and can't do in Africa, 2010). Therefore there have been several initiatives aimed at providing a more comprehensive approach to development in Ghana. However, the international context as well as the political environment in the country denied Ghana the opportunity to build on the potential acknowledged by many analysts after the independence from the British Crown.

Overall, in terms of historical background, Ghana has been both fortunate and not fortunate. More precisely, it was unfortunate for having been a colony but fortunate for being a British colony as the British Empire had a particular system of colonialism that allowed its colonies to develop harmoniously inside the Empire.…

Sources Used in Documents:

Bibliography

UN Habitat. (2003). The challenge of slums - global report on human settlements 2003. United Nations Human Settlements Program.

United Nations Development Program. (2010). Human Development Report. Washington: Palgrave Macmillan.

Andrews, N. (2010).; Understanding the context of Aid and socio economic development in Ghana. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Andrews, N. (2010). Foreign Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Ghana'S Development: The Case for "Bringing Culture Back in "to the Analysis . International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2 (5), 95-104.


Cite this Document:

"Strategic Partnerships With The EU" (2011, March 23) Retrieved August 4, 2021, from
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/strategic-partnerships-with-the-eu-3455

"Strategic Partnerships With The EU" 23 March 2011. Web.4 August. 2021. <
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/strategic-partnerships-with-the-eu-3455>

"Strategic Partnerships With The EU", 23 March 2011, Accessed.4 August. 2021,
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/strategic-partnerships-with-the-eu-3455

Related Documents
Partnership Concepts Partnership: Practices and Concepts the
Words: 1456 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Government Paper #: 78564961

Partnership Concepts Partnership: Practices and Concepts The objective of this work in writing is to critically review partnership working and how it has been central to health and social care policy and discuss why it has not been successfully achieved in practice. This work will draw on relevant theory, policy and ethical issues, organizational frameworks and partnership working. Partnerships The concept of partnership is examined in the work of Carnwell and Carson (nd) which

Strategic Planning Process Scenario Situational Overview- Forming
Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Business Paper #: 28000787

Strategic Planning Process Scenario Situational Overview- Forming a company that will market and distribute farming equipment into the country of Romania. Initial situational analysis shows unique challenges based on several factors in the country: long history of communism and corrupt infrastructure; rocky, mountainous soil; little experience in entrepeneurialship; some bureaucratic and/or logistical challenges to getting product into the country (supply chain). Strategic Planning Process Overview- When contemplating a new venture, one cannot

Strategic Impact on Globalization Is a Process
Words: 3835 Length: 12 Pages Topic: Economics Paper #: 46616960

Strategic Impact on Globalization Globalization is a process that brought in changes in all walks of human existence the world over. The liberalization has created a global community and brought in the IT revolution and new forms of services like outsourcing. The changes in the world outlook and technology changes have changed the way business and international trade is done and has thus revolutionized the strategies and corporate behavior. It has

Policy Brief About EU-Russia Relations
Words: 3997 Length: 12 Pages Topic: Government Paper #: 66068719

The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a

Building Strategy Partnership As the
Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Government Paper #: 53096566

This was one of the factors that led to the foundation of the EU, as small, less powerful nations united in an effort to gain and hold power in a collective effort (Tyldesley). Therefore, in the "Five Lenses" and especially so in the case of EU, power is in essence the coin of the realm. In other words, without holding a superior position to others, class structure would not

Renault-Nissan Partnership Underwent a Significant
Words: 4553 Length: 16 Pages Topic: Business - Management Paper #: 23423724

Innovations in product are not transmitted throughout the organization. This means that there are production synergies between the different Coloplast facilities that are not presently exploited. The company can mitigate the impact of health care reform therefore by improving its product processes. Their industry is beginning to shift from cash cow status to one characterized by tight margins and high volumes. Coloplast must become a low-cost producer, to use Michael