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They resort to force to resolve International Disputes quickly. They also have a very 'black and white view of the world' in that they see elements as 'good or bad'; 'friend or enemy'.. It is therefore said that America is living in a Hobbesian state of Anarchy, where freedom can only be protected using brute force and strength (agan 2003 p. 4).
This has been clearly represented in America's war with Iraq and the 'Axis of Evil' that has been dominating American Foreign Policy discourse since 9/11. This contrasts with a Europe, which is seemingly committed to 'soft politics, wanting to build a world where economic strength means more than military strength. A world where international institutions and laws- such as those demonstrated by the United Nations, reign supreme over unilateralism and a state-centric view of the world. Finally Europeans wish to spread the core ideals of Democracy, Rule of…
Kagan believes after so many years of discontent that Europe finally had the opportunity to settle down and exist beyond the realms of power politics (Kagan 2003; pg. 12-13). With that, Europe feels that it is unnecessary to rearm and expand their military prospects.
This coupled with the physiological theory that the more power America gains, the more they feel they need to police the world, dealing with every dispute in an aggressive way, has left Europe militarily weak, and their diplomatic ideals undermined. Finally Kagan argues that the world order was in fact America's intention after WWII, as there was a general feeling that the European system was rotten and Europeans were incubators of their own wars (Kagan 2003; pg 70). Therefore Roosevelt felt he was doing the world a service by weakening them strategically. Unfortunately when America decided that it was in their interest for Europe to be strategically powerful again, Europe had already committed to supranational bodies and diplomacy and showed no interest in becoming a super power (Politics and Power 2006).
From there, it is clear that America's power skyrocketed, and has left Europe dwarfed by their mere size even though some people believe that the United States should not show its authority in the Middle East. "Europe cannot hope to spend as much on their defense budget as America does, not do they seem to have any inclination towards that. However Kagan neglects to see the positives in living in the 'post-modern paradise' (Kagan 2003-page 53) that seems to have been created by Europeans, as well as the positive impact that a more diplomatic peace-centric force can have on the world" (Politics and Power 2006). Unfortunately, showing authority is not the best idea for America because most countries like the Middle East take offense to it due to the foreign policy, which gives this country the right to interfere with foreign affairs. The United States' foreign policy on the principle of the rule of power is highly overrated.
Corporations and Global Capitalism
As an institution, I feel that corporations are playing a negative role in American society. While they provide a lot of great tools for people, from mobile smart phones to services like online shopping, the reality is that behind the scenes of these corporations, things are not so great. The amount of pressure that workers experience when working at Amazon can be immense, and the work does not appear to be particularly rewarding or allow one to really develop any skills. A worker at Amazon is like a pin sorter in Adam Smith’s pin factory: what kind of profession or career is this? It is not one that can make a human being feel good about his job or want to show up to work every day when he knows he will just be sorting pins for the rest of his life. A person needs a…
My impressions of the debate
Listening the debate one cannot fail to see that there are major differences in perception of how socialism should work and if, addressing the primary question of the debate, socialism has failed. In general, my impressions on the debate is that, while socialism has proven to be a failure, we cannot in the modern day society, avoid the incorporation of some aspects of socialism. For example, the tax scheme all over the globe is oriented to a socialism idea of wealth distribution, and with particular reference to the United States, the welfare scheme is oriented to the socialism ideology of taking from the Haves and giving to the Have-nots.
The other major impression generated from this debate is the fact that, a society cannot run entirely on each of the two ideologies; capitalism and socialism. While the general economy can run on capitalism, the social…
Q1.Identifying global business opportunities
While the lowering of trade barriers through formal agreements such as NAFTA have been vitally important in expanding the possibilities of consumers to access a diverse range of products, technology has been an equally important factor in doing so. Through the ubiquity of the Internet, consumers can buy products from all around the world. They can view them and select them without ever having accessed a brick-and-mortar shop. Technology is not simply a way of making products more efficiently (although it does accomplish that objective). It is also an effective marketing ploy. Consumers can read about products and how they are consumed, and they often want to imitate those lifestyles.
For example, SUVs and Apple products are extremely popular amongst China's burgeoning middle class. "Sport utility vehicle sales surged to 2 million units in 2012, a 25.5% increase over the 1.59 million sales volume…
Chang, J. (2011). Why China loves Apple. CNN. Retrieved:
Chinese SUV sales hot, market divided. (2013). China Daily. Retrieved:
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
In this order of ideas then, he strives to come up with a theory that explains the construction of global networks, as well as the systems they use to grow and prosper. In order to make his case, Kendall looks at global structures constructed in various domains, including society and technology. He comes to the realization that global peace and order can only be achieved with the full cooperation and collaboration of all structures in the international system. Additionally, there must exist a will and a way in order for the mentioned goals to be achieved. While he recognizes that his arguments address a certain kind of economists and politicians who promoted the idea of a uniform and powerful globalization, he hopes that his points will the least make for an interesting reading.
inally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon…
Finally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon starts at the premise that there exists a direct connection between the three components of population, government and security. This conclusion was found throughout a previous study, which came to raise new questions that are answered in the current analysis. In a perfect world, peace would be achieved through fruitful partnerships between private and public players and would ensure the safety of all populations and all classes. Yet, this is not the case and Dillon argues that while governmentality is the collection of cooperations and collaborations, it represents more of a "technological ontology that proceeds through reflexive epistemologies."
In other words, there is a direct connection between technology and ontology as they validate each other and support each other in reaching the pre-established goals. "Here the dialogical interplay of the ontological and the technological is in evidence. If it takes a metaphysic to imagine a technic, it takes a technic to realize a metaphysic. But even that rendition fails to do justice to the co-evolutionary dynamic that exists in the power relations between technology and ontology. This is a mutually disclosive relationship in which each seems propelled by independent dynamics as well: the technologist continuously to interrogate and refine systems, the ontologist to secure the meaning of being.
Larner, W., Walters, W., 2004, Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces, Routledge
The resolution of this policy counsel meeting is the endorsement of a refinement of Australia's terror policy with respect both to the preservation of constitutional rights and in terms of approach its relationship to the United States with balance and diplomacy. Recognizing the severity the security threat but simultaneously recognizing the need to refine policies so as to diminish the tendency toward inflaming the political and ideological anger of the developing world, Australia must spend the coming decades finding ways to quell such hostility. This will mean a closer consideration of the economic, political and trade policies that often have run aground of the interests of the developing world. Likewise, it means that Australia must function as a continued partner to the U.S. But also as a voice of conscience with respect to the discretionary use of military force or diplomatic finesse.
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim…
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim Responses to the Discourse on Terrorism in the Australian Popular Media. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1).
Australian Federal Police (AFP). (2009). Fighting Terrorism in Australia. www.afp.gov.au
BBC News. (2006). Australian Loses Terrorism Appeal. BBC News.
Brown, M. (2009). Al-Shabaab terrorists 'living in Australia.' ABC News. Online at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/09/23/2693927.htm?section=justin
He disapproved of it because it went against what he termed "conventional wisdom." He was reacting to the views expressed in an article published in Asia Times about the failed expectation of U.S. trade policy. The intended benefits on the U.S. side in trading with China were in two groups. These were the multinational companies, which were set up in China, and the financial institutions, which funded their investments, trade flows and deficits (McCormack).
When Cassidy was the lead negotiator for the U.S.-China 1999 Market Access Agreement and entry into the WTO, he assumed that China would be subjected to the governing laws of international trade (McCormack, 2008). There were encouraging predictions at that time that such entry would increase U.S. exports and American jobs. It would improve trade deficit with China and the "421" safeguard mechanism, focusing on industry, would be enforced by the succeeding president. The safeguards were…
Abbott, P. (2005). International informatics: the Chinese experience. CARING
Newsletter: Capital Area Roundtable on Informatics in Nursing. Retrieved on April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles/com/p/articles/mi_m5QFX/is_2_20/ai_n25121373/?tag=content;col1
Business Wire (2008). HST Global, Inc. announces negotiations with Chinese government. Vol. 15 #19. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on April 9, 2009 on http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2008_August_27/ai_n28032470/?tag=content;col1
McCormack, R. (2008). China's entry into WTO is questioned by former chief trade negotiator. Manufacturing & Technology News: Publishers and Producers, Inc.
The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…
Belal, H.M., Shirahada, K., & Kosaka, M. (2013). Value Co-Creation with Customers through recursive approach based on Japanese Omotenashi service. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1), 28-28.
Kim-Shyan Fam, Waller, D.S., Ernest Cyril, d. R., & He, J. (2013). Advertising dislikeability in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(1), 144-161.
Gloria, a.M., Wulf, C., & Mullen, H. (2013). Internet marketing to 50+ generations in the UK and France. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 45.
Marieke, d. M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85.
Global Business 8081
Technological and Economic Changes in Educational Sector of North America
Impact of Technological Change in Education Sector of North America
Impact of Economic Change in Education Sector of North America
Impact of Technological and Economic Changes in Educational Sector of China
The paper is providing the impact of changes in the aspects of economic and technology in the educational sector of North America. The discussion is further followed with the identification of the impacts of technology and economy changes in the China similar to that of North America.
Impact of Technological Change in Education Sector of North America
It is observed that the popularity of Massive Open Online Courses or MOOCs along with the other types of distributed learning is the form of major drivers of technological change in education sector of North America. The potential of MOOC provided the potential to open higher education to several…
Altbach, P.G., Gumport, P.J. & Berdahl, R.O., 2011. American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political, and Economic Challenges. s.l.:JHU Press.
Apple, M.W., 2012. Can Education Change Society?. s.l.:Routledge.
Bangay, C. & Blum, N., 2010. Education responses to climate change and quality: Two parts of the same agenda?. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(4), pp. 359-368.
Betz, F., 2011. Managing Technological Innovation: Competitive Advantage from Change. s.l.:John Wiley & Sons.
" Both Whitman and othkopf, like Fukuyama, refer to potential of globalization to build bridges between previously isolated worlds, and to harmonize what were once disparate cultures.
Huntington is joined by countless others in a chorus of pessimism about the future of the world. Mcibben warns about the ill effects of population growth on both human societies and the environment. Huntington, Mcibben, and analysts like them make valid points about the dangers posed by globalization. Their points can be heard and taken into account while at the same time embracing the positive vision espoused by Fukuyama and othkopf. As Whitman suggests, globalization means "Passage to more than India!" Uniting the world under a blanket of common goals and ideals of freedom, liberty, and creativity, all conscientious citizens can welcome a new paradigm of peace.
McKibben, Bill. "A Special Moment in History." Atlantic Monthly. Boston. May, 1998.
othkopf, David. "In…
McKibben, Bill. "A Special Moment in History." Atlantic Monthly. Boston. May, 1998.
Rothkopf, David. "In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?" Foreign Policy. Number 107, 1997, pp. 38-53.
Whitman, Walt. "Passage to India." Leaves of Grass. Retrieve 16 Oct 2007 at http://www.bartleby.com/142/183.html
The orld Bank is a likely source of support for such an initiative. Recent research has focused on the promise of rural development through a restructuring of agri-business (Jarosz, 1996) and the results are promising. Rural labor practices are subject to change and some of those changes do not require a global revolution. Instead of waiting for the IMF to collapse or fertilizer companies to go bankrupt, sustainable agricultural development advocates should focus on the community level.
The global food system is unjust by almost every measure. Billions of people are starving to death while another billion are suffering the ill health effects of too much food. Our domestic and international institutions have not only created this reality, but are situated now to support policies that perpetuate this reality. Change will not be easy and transformation will be even harder. Small, locally-led reform can begin in any community that…
Holt-Gimenez, Eric. 2008. The World Food Crisis: What's Behind it and What We Can
Do About it. Policy Brief #16. Institute for Food and Development Policy:
Jarosz, Lucy. 1996. Working in the Global Food System: A Focus for International
There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)
Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…
Andresen, F. (2007). Walking on Ice. Denver, CO: Outskirts Press.
Ayios, A. (2004). East West Relationships in Russia. Trust and Western Russian Business Relationships. (pp. 156 -- 180). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Horton, P. (2006). Religion. Russia and Belarus. (pp. 77 -- 83). Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications.
Jones, A. (1994). Education and Society in the New Russia. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.
Global Politics and Economy:
Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries
The world politics and economy of the late twentieth century were highlighted by the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the promise of a 'new world order' and the rise of 'globalization.' These developments were accompanied by a worldwide trend of increasing democracy, trade liberalization and booming economies. The start of the twenty-first century, on the other hand, has seen the emergence of the so-called 'clash of civilizations' and the long drawn out 'fight against terrorism' with the inevitable slump in global economies. In this essay we shall briefly discuss the major trends of the global politics and economy in this tumultuous period of world history.
Collapse of Communism
The 'Cold ar' period involving intense political and economic rivalry between the two superpowers, the U.S.A. And the Soviet Union, lasted from the end of orld ar…
Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.
Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002
Global Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility
An in-depth analysis of all possible factors responsible for the Social efforts
Socio-Economic, Cultural, Technological and Legal Factors
Strategic ideas involved in addressing corporate social responsibility issues
The Unique Composition of Microsoft
Creating etter-Quality Products
Using Conventional and Contemporary Resources
In recent years, augmented degree of interest has been shown on the subject of "Corporate Social Responsibility," also known as "CSR." This interest has been shown, both in the international/national business and academic circles, because almost all the current studies indicate that "Corporate Social Responsibility" increases the credibility of the business in the eyes of the stakeholders, both within and outside the organization (Isabelle and David, 2002).
Another reason for the increased interest being shown in the direction of "Corporate Social Responsibility," both by international/national business and academic circles, is because of the constant emphasis by the global society towards…
Bill Gates. Business @ the Speed of Thought: Succeeding in the Digital Economy. Warner Business Books; 2001
Christine L. Smith. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Dutch Approach. International Labor Review, 2002.
Doug Dayton. Selling Microsoft: Sales Secrets from Inside the World's Most Successful Company. Adams Media Corporation. 1999.
David Thielen, Shirley Thielen. The 12 Simple Secrets of Microsoft Management: How to Think and Act Like a Microsoft Manager and Take Your Company to the Top. McGraw-Hill. 1999.
Consumer Society or Capitalism
Consumer society which evolves out of capitalism has its advantages as well as its disadvantages. But even with its disadvantages, consumer society has now become an accepted from of modern society.
Under the pressure of corporate politics, the commercialization of culture and the influence of mass media, the conventional literary values of Western society are deteriorating. For the public in general, the mixing and transformative experiences of culture have been restored by the joint viewing experience and by contribution in consumer trends. (Cronk, Consumerism and the New Capitalism) George Orwell described consumer society as the air we breathe. High worker output and high general levels of consumption typify efficiently improved societies of late 20th century. Though this prosperity is endorsed with making benefits like raised education and health care, it is also linked with much extended work hours, raised lose-lose social rivalry, uneven communities, economic disparity,…
Cronk, R. "Consumerism and the New Capitalism" Retrieved from http://www.westland.net/venice/art/cronk/consumer.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
"False atheism or the new-sacred ideologies - Page 5 / 7" Retrieved from http://atheisme.free.fr/Atheisme/Fae5_capitalism.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
"Features of a Consumer Society" Retrieved fromhttp://www.consultmcgregor.com/PDFs/features%20of%20consumer%20society.pdf Accessed on 20 April, 2005
'"Global Capitalism Has Developed A Planetary Consumer Culture Based Upon Exploitation And Exclusion: Discuss" Retrieved from http://www.jakeg.co.uk/essays/consumer_exploitation.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
Economics and Global Capitalism
The problem with the kind of thinking that postulates that human nature is based on self-interest is that underlying this supposition is the assumption that human nature is completely rational and logical and would never do anything to harm itself. This is not the case and economic booms and busts indicate as much. Self-interest is not always aimed towards a positive end. Sometimes, for instance, short-term self-interest is detrimental to long-term self-interest and vice versa. Sometimes people are motivated not by self-interest (at least in a temporal sense) but by charity, kindness, selflessness, self-sacrifice, or altruism. It could be argued that people sometimes believe they will be rewarded in a spiritual sense for these actions, but the basic idea is that they are essentially unselfish acts. Thus, to assert that self-interest is the rational motivating force behind human behavior is to really not understand humanity: humans…
Introduction to Economics and Global Capitalism
The book 23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism is a very captivating and thought provoking read that purposes to provide the reader with some fundamental truths regarding capitalism that may not be easily perceptible or known. This is information regarding capitalism that most people would overlook and hardly take them into consideration in an extensive manner. However, there are a number of things from the list that I was unaware of and gained insight from the information contained in the book. One of the key surprising aspects was Thing 4 that delineated that the washing machine has transformed the world more than the internet. This is largely for the reason that we are used to being in awe and fascinated by the spectacles of computing. We consider technological aspects such as the internet and telecommunication advances to be the things that have…
global strategy, retail giant Wal-Mart has a few different factors to consider, as is evident in the Newsweek article, "Wal-Mart World." Not only does Wal-Mart have certain factors that must be taken into account when considering their global strategy, but these choices differ from country to country.
According to the article, "Wal-Mart is the No. 1 retailer in the United States, Canada and Mexico, growing rapidly in Asia, but still a minor player in Europe and South America." This can be attributed to the ways in which Wal-Mart attempts to expand into these regions. For example, when considering whether or not to move into a region and how the process shall be achieved, Wal-Mart must look at things such as the country's current economy, local labor laws, how the country's market operates, what sort of government regulations are in place, and the country's culture, to name just a few.
Ernsberger, Jr., Richard. Wal-Mart World. Newsweek. (International ed.). New York: May 20, 2002. pg. 50.
Kotler Marketing Group. Defensive Strategy in Price Wars -- Asda. Retrieved November 14, 2003. Web site: http://www.kotlermarketing.com/resources/miltonkotler/seeds/s18.html .
Wal-Mart Stores. Third Quarter Earnings Call. Retrieved November 14, 2003. Web site: http://www.walmartstores.com/wmstore/wmstores/[email protected]@@@[email protected]@@@&BV_EngineID=ccciadcjjgkgekmcfkfcfkjdgoodglg.0&pagetype=news&template=NewsArticle.jsp&categoryOID=-8298&contentOID=13385&catID=-8248&prevPage=NewsShelf.jsp&year=2003 .
I believe my background and extensive business acumen, make me an ideal candidate for admission into your PhD program. As an international student, I believe that I also possess a unique approach to healthcare that differentiates me from other applicants to the program. The combination of a strong business background, unique skillset, and a passion for health will drive my continued success in the program. I will also help facilitate the growth of other members in my cohort through my diverse background from the Middle East.
To begin, I have a very strong track record of working together with others to derive mutually beneficial results within the healthcare industry. I have experience building entirely new healthcare departments, which requires vision, foresight, and strong communication skills. Through my leadership, I have also developed healthcare infrastructure programs design to provide aid to the poor and less fortunate. Here, I was able to…
Capitalism and Culture
The works of Smith, Marx, Freud and Wolf center around the history of capitalism and its meanings as it has emerged from the west: first from western Europe and subsequently from the United States of America. However, this is not the only light in which world economy might be seen. There are various economic systems that are viable in various cultures. These will be considered in terms of the above-mentioned authors, together with authors who write from a different perspective, including Sahlins and Appadurai.
The main characteristic of the capitalist system is that those who produce actual goods are employees. They do not own and cannot buy their own equipment and materials. Through this system, and especially through the advent of the machine, workers have been separated form the production process. Such displacement has occurred through coercion, especially during the early stages of the system,…
Kilcullen, R.J. "Marx on Capitalism." 1996. http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/Ockham/y64l06.html
Sahlins, M. "The Original Affluent Society," 1998. http://www.hrc.wmin.ac.uk/campaigns/ef/dt/affluent.html.
Szeman, I. Review: Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization by Arjun Appadurai. Public Worlds Volume 1. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.
Wolf, Eric R. Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
Nature of Capitalism
Susan Strange's theories of capitalism
Giovanni Arrighi's theories of capitalism
Capitalism, an economic which has dominated the Western world after the catastrophic failure of feudalism (Encyclopedia Britannica,2006). No consensus exists for an accurate definition of the term as well as how the term has been employed as a historical category (owman & Littlefield, 1999, p.1). . In this paper however, we analyze and define the capitalism while also comparing as well as contrasting the theories of Susan Strange, Karl Polanyi and Giovanni Arrighi on capitalism. We also explain how the three of them handled the issues of capitalism.
Capitalism, an economic which has dominated the Western world after the catastrophic failure of feudalism (Encyclopedia Britannica,2006). No consensus exists for an accurate definition of the term as well as how the term has been employed as a historical category (owman & Littlefield, 1999, p.1).However, a general agreement exists…
Arrighi, G (1978). Towards a Theory of Capitalist Crisis
Encyclopaedia Britannica,(2009)"Economic systems." Encyclopaedia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite. (Chicago:)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (2006)Capitalism.
Heilbroner, R.L. (2008).Capitalism. New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008)
Shareholder Capitalism as a Model for Economic Development
The idea that shareholder capitalism may serve as a powerful type of economic progression model has been made practical with the growth of credit along with a large marginal tax that delivers a security net for Americans, but additionally has its own limits.
Shareholder capitalism, and also the American structure of corporate governance which can serve as its main-operating-system, continues to be held out like a replica of economic growth and development for up and coming markets within the last era. This document reveals the roots of the model inside the U.S. And argues that this model has already established, in the best scenario, mixed success beyond the U.S. borders. Furthermore, the after-effects in the two financial bubbles in the early Twenty-first century shows that shareholder capitalism might not function as publicized even inside the U.S. During the economic crisis, sensible policymakers…
Armijo, L.E. (1999), 'Introduction and Overview', in L.E. Armijo (ed.), Financial Globalization and Democracy in Emerging Markets, pp. 10 -- 14. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Bekaert, G., C.R. Harvey and C. Lundblad (2005), 'Does Financial Liberalization Spur Growth?', Journal of Financial Economics, 77: 3 -- 55.
Berle, A.A. And G.C. Means (1932), The Modern Corporation and Private Property, Modern Reprint, 1991 edition. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Brandeis, Louis (1914), Other Peoples' Money: and How the Bankers Use It. New York: Frederick A. Stokes.
Ethics Must Be Global Not Local
Ethics Must Be Global, Not Local
International Business equirements
Global Business Ethics
The large business units expand their operations in global markets through their own presence as well as franchising and distributors. The business operations are expanded on the basis of various standard practices. The business freedom provided by countries and various global practices are utilized as a basis for taking global operational decisions. The business also encounters various legal, operational, and ethical issues related to the local market. However in order to expand business beyond borders and physical boundaries of countries it is required to maintain a degree of uniformity in products and ethical practices followed throughout the manufacturing processes. It is advised to understand various aspects of international business requirements, global operations, ethical practices, and recommendations to assert a standard for global ethical business operations.
International Business equirements:
Beer, L.A. (2010). A Strategic and Tactical Approach to Global Business Ethics. USA: Momentum Press.
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. USA: South-Western Pub.
George, B. (2008, February 12). Ethics must be global, not local. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2008-02-12/ethics-must-be-global-not-localbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice
Martens, P., Akin, S.-M., Maud, H., & Mohsin, R. (2010). Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.Globalization and Health, 6(1), 16.
Statement: Capitalism has great productive potential, but because in it, production is for the purpose of making a profit, it often does not meet human needs
The production stage in a capitalist society, according to Carl Marx comprises of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. While the latter is used in reference to the owners of the production means, the former refers to the working class. The relevance of capitalism cannot be overstated especially when it comes to the efficient utilization of resources. This is more so the case given on this front, innovation and individualism is promoted; hence further optimizing the economic system. Producers in this case also seek to further enhance their returns by increasing output and investing more in innovative initiatives - hence effectively improving the quality of goods and services offered for sale. In the ideal capitalist economy, inefficiencies are eliminated through the inherent operation of supply…
Income Distribution Gap
The global fiscal crisis will be borne by the millions of people who do not have a share in the benefits that were derived from the global economic expansions that occurred previously. Not only has the gap widened between low wage earners and high wage earners in nations across the globe, the world's income gap distribution has widened. Economists have long concluded that a limited degree of income inequality contributes to worker motivation, promotes innovation, and rewards talent and effort. Nevertheless, when income differences become too great, the dynamics become counter-productive. unaway income inequality is considered to be a destructive force, such that "rising income inequality represents a danger to the social fabric" ("Board of Canada," 2012). The repercussions from excessive income inequalities include children not attending school so they can contribute to household earnings by going to work, increased crime rates, lower life-expectancies, and malnutrition.
Acemoglu D (2009) Introduction to modern economic growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Card D. And DiNardo JE (2002). Skill biased technological change and rising wage inequality: Some problems and puzzles. Journal of Labor Economics, 20(4), 735.
Jones CI (2002) Introduction to economic growth (2nd ed.). New York, NY W.W. Norton.
Milanovic, B (2005) Worlds apart: Measuring international and global inequality, 180 -- 81. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
I agree with the authors that the main problem with capitalism is its lack of an ideological basis, and really its denial of any process by which ideology could be implemented. That is, the basic tenet of the free market concept is that enforced regulation limits profitability and growth, and that the markets themselves will correct any mistakes by rising to meet demand. This has proven already not to be the case for certain unprofitable ventures, such as public transit, which is nearly always operated at a loss. The fact that you can take a bus to work is a testament to the fact that capitalism does not answer everything. Even worse, though, are the instances where capitalism provides an incomplete answer. The issue of health care is very important in this country and around the world; under the capitalist and globalist economy, many people are unable to afford the…
financial crisis a "crisis of capitalism?
Compare and contrast the theories of Susan Strange, Karl Polanyi and Giovanni Arrighi. Explain how three of them accessed issues of Financial crisis and its relationship with capitalism
Starting from 2008 onwards, we are currently experiencing an unremitting state of economic recession. Each of the three theorists stated in this essay have different perspectives of whether or not the recession indicates crises of capitalism. Whilst Susan Strange and Karl Polanyi have a more optimist perspective on the subject and indicate that rather than crisis, the recession may, in effect, be, in the first case, a misplaced paradigm (or different, tortured perspective) and in the second case, only a slight wrench that necessitates government intervention for amending a temporary situation, Arrighiri sees the situation as indeed manifesting something that is intrinsically, irremediably, and inherently wrong in the structure of capitalism itself. Each of these views…
Giovanni Arrighi (2000) Workers North and South) in C. Leys and L. Panich, eds., The Socialist Register. London: The Merlin Press
Giovanni Arrighi (1996). Capitalism and the Modern World-System: Rethinking the Non-Debates of the 1970s"
Giovanni Arrighi (2001) Braudel, Capitalism and the New Economic Sociology, Review, XXIV, 1
One of the failures of the current system is that it often does not account for cultural and resource differences between nations - instead a one-size fits all economic system is imposed universally. Over time, each society will find its own path. Some societies will fail to adapt and ultimately disappear. That is part of the evolutionary process. The key is that right now all societies are not given the same opportunity to succeed whereas the fundamental principles of capitalism suggest they should be.
As more people realize that happiness is more important than money, we will see profound shifts towards knowledge and culture, and the pursuit of wealth will be taken up by other cultures. As they too achieve the type of sustained comfort experienced today in many estern societies, they too will shift towards the pursuit of happiness over money. There will be a major obstacle to overcome…
Saul, John Ralston. (2000). LaFontane-Baldwin Symposium, Inaugural Lecture. Speech online. Accessed April 3, 2008 at http://www.operation-dialogue.com/lafontaine-baldwin/e/2000_speech.html
Saul, John Ralston.(2005). The Collapse of Globalism and the Re-Invention of the World. Toronto: Penguin Canada.
Saul, John Ralston (1995). The Unconscious Civilian. Toronto: Anansi, Massey College.
Sahtouris, Elisabet. Globalization as a Natural Evolutionary Process. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.pcdf.org/Living_Economies/Supporting_Essays/globalization.htm
Tariffs, like labor unions, are set up to benefit a select few workers according to Murphy. Just as labor union unfairly penalize those who are not a part of them, tariffs build an imaginary economy world of high wages and great benefits for products that are no better than something any other untaxed, un-tariff corporation could provide. It is in this way that Murphy argues that tariffs unfairly burden the American economy and create both distrust and anger in the economic powers that trade with America. If unfair tariffs are allowed to exist, those countries that now import American goods at high prices will begin to import them from elsewhere, or could even decide to produce the goods more cheaply in their own land. This does nothing to benefit American workers and corporations, and is not a behavior associated with free market capitalism.
Racism and the Environment
Murphy's take on…
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…
Shop Goes Global" tells the meaningful story of the tenacity, beneficial opportunism and importance of capitalism. The article opens memorably, discussing one of the most historical moments of the 20th century -- the destruction and removal of the Berlin Wall. While the eradication of the Berlin wall symbolized many things to many people, for the most part it symbolized the unraveling of communist rule in Eastern Europe. And the unraveling of communist rule in Eastern Europe meant opportunities for all -- not just opportunities for citizens of Eastern Europe, but for everyone, because the 20th century demonstrated how the world was becoming more and more of a global society. The article tells the story of Paul Panitz, an American who went to a government-run copy center in Budapest, which was apparently one of the very few copy centers in Hungary at all; however this was no surprise. As the article…
Globalization profoundly alters relationship global North South
The international exchange and integration of economies, societies, cultures, and governing policies play host to the worldwide phenomenon known as globalization. Countries interact through transportation, trade, and communication; inherently influencing the respective realms of economy and political agenda. Traditionally, globalization is highlighted by this integration of economic and political systems across the globe, however this exchange transcends into societies, ethics, cultures, industry, ecological effects, and a myriad of other global influences. Globalization is a process perceived as "good" or "bad" depending on geography, profession, and how one relates globalization in terms of values (othernberg 2002). A person in Los Angeles, London, io de Janeiro, and Hong Kong would identify differently with the concept of globalization, just as opinions vary between business leaders, elected officials, and the unemployed. Some understand globalization to be the Americanization of world culture and a source of United States…
Arrighi, G. (2003), 'Industrial convergence, globalization, and the persistence of the North-South
Divide', Studies in Comparative International Development, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 3-31.
Avi-Yonah, R.S. (2005), 'Bridging the North/South Divide: International redistribution and tax competition', Michigan Journal of International Law, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1-17.
Escobar, A. (2004), 'Beyond the third World: imperial globality, global coloniality and anti-globalisation social movement'," Third World Quarterly, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 207-230.
Globalization is delineated as the socio-economic transformation and development process of eradicating trade, investment, cultural information technology, and political barriers across nations. The benefits of globalization include increased growth in the economy, political integration in various expanses, and interdependence among countries of the world. The key international institutions that facilitate globalization include the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and the World Trade Organization (WTO). To begin with, the IMF plays a significant role in global financial stability by facilitating global trade that promotes job creation, poverty reduction and economic growth. It also encourages exchange rate stability and an open system for international payments. Secondly, the World Bank aids in trade liberalization, transference of information and knowledge to developing countries to underpin sustainable development. Lastly, the WTO established the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which encompasses global trade in goods through the considerable decrease of…
One of the most interesting ethical dilemmas that continues to plague ethicists and policymakers is the struggle to reconcile the need for free enterprise with the need for social justice. Another ongoing ethical issue is related to organizational culture, shifting social norms, and whether individual actors in organizations define the tenor of the organization as a whole. Neither of these genuine ethical dilemmas can be resolved simply. The first bears itself out in what often appear to be glaring violations of every ethical principle and logical construct. Free enterprise has helped to bolster economic growth and development, as well as to empower individuals to innovate and contribute to society. Yet free enterprise has not been truly free, with access to power and resources constrained by factors like race (Kerr & Walsh, 2014), gender (Tufarolo, 2015), and class (Shin, 2014). Of these variables, race and gender remain salient barriers to achieving…
Future of Capitalism
Current Economic Crisis according to Schumpeter and Keynes
A justification of the economic crisis can be precisely explained by shedding light on the perspectives of famous economists. The information gained through this method will not only be informative but will also motivate further research. The two economic theorists chosen are Joseph Schumpeter and John Maynard Keynes (Blankenburg & Palma, 2009). Their thoughts appear to be most pertinent to this crisis. Keynes presents a very keen insight into the crisis through his rationalization of market psychology and concentration on cumulative demand. On the other hand, Schumpeter's thought on improvement and business cycle offers a different informative justification.
The existing economic crisis has its origin rooted in the assumption about the real estate sector. The review of the incidents that have happened, began with the permission of quite low interest rates to financial institutions for borrowing. By a small…
Audretsch, D.B., & Link, A.N. (2012). Entrepreneurship and innovation: public policy frameworks. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(1), 1-17.
Bezemer, D.J. (2009). "No One Saw This Coming": Understanding Financial Crisis Through Accounting Models. Routledge.
Bibow, J. (2009). Keynes on monetary policy, finance and uncertainty: Liquidity preference theory and the global financial crisis. Routledge.
Bichler, S., & Nitzan, J. (2010). Systemic fear, modern finance and the future of capitalism.
The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work with case studies in order to understand how economies work. A good starting point is to consider the issue through multiple different lenses, so that we can understand how the crisis occurred and what prescriptions might be best suited for response either to address the root problems or to engage in prevention. This paper will consider the works of Marx, Schumpeter and Keynes in analyzing the financial crisis. All three of these men would have been able to understand its causes, but likely would have taken very different approaches to solving the problem.
The second issue at hand is the question of the future of capitalism. We have a pretty good sense at this point of what the response of…
Cox, W. & Alm, R. (2013). Creative destruction. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/CreativeDestruction.html
Eichengreen, B. (2010). The crisis of financial innovation. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://emlab.berkeley.edu/~eichengr/crisis_finan_innov.pdf
Isfeld, G. (2012). Canada's banks shake off global sector crisis. Financial Post. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://business.financialpost.com/2012/10/10/canadas-banks-shake-off-global-sector-crisis/
Liu, H. (2008). Too big to fail moral hazard. Asia Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JI23Dj12.html
Gender, Work and Global Economy: The Impact of Globalization on Human Trafficking
The process of globalization has facilitated an integrated world economy and although it has had numerous positive impacts, it continues to produce negative impacts as well. For instance, it has led to the increase of human trafficking at such an alarming rate that it is now considered the third most wide spread and fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world - after weapon and drug trafficking. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime UNDOC (2015) human trafficking is the recruitment, transfer, transportation, or receipt of people by improper means such as fraud, threat, coercion, abduction or use of force with the aim of exploiting them.
Kempadoo (2005) explains that the vice first caught the attention of the public at the start of the 21st century and it is now a lucrative business that has became…
Acker, Joan.(2004). Gender, Capitalism and Globalization. In critical sociology, Vol. (30)1, 1-27.
Burke, M.C. (2013). Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge
Kempadoo, Kamala. (2005). Introduction: from Moral Panic to Global Justice: Changing Perspective On Trafficking "In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights: Paradigm Publishers 193-204.
Kuokkanen, Rauna (2006). Globalization as Radicalized, Sexual Violence . International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(2): Taylor and Francis . P.299 -315.
When this happens, the standard of living and income levels will remain stagnant. (Bhargava, 2006, pp. 341 -- 362) (Cazurra, 2008, pp. 12 -- 27)
Moreover, corruption will increase the costs of doing business inside a particular area. This is troubling, as it will lead to less employers relocating to the region. Instead, they will seek out locations where there are lower amounts of corruption. This is a part of an effort to keep their costs as low as possible so that they can increase their overall returns and remain competitive in the global marketplace. For the region, this will result in less high paying jobs (which helps contribute to an increase in the unemployment rate). (Bhargava, 2006, pp. 341 -- 362) (Cazurra, 2008, pp. 12 -- 27) (Heineman, 2006, pp. 75 -- 86)
How can MNCs deal effectively with these problems?
The ways that MNCs are able to deal…
Berg, N. (2004). How Multi-National Corporations Deal with their Social Political Stakeholders. Asian Business and Management, 3 (3), 299 -- 313.
Bhargava, V. (2006). Global Issues. Washington DC: World Bank.
Cazurra, a. (2008). The Types of Corruption and FDI in Transition Economies. Journal of International
Management, 14 (1), 12-27
Future Global Corporate Strategy and International Management
The emergence of strategic management has always been attached to military history (Tallman, 2007). Studies in this area reveal various examples where the strategic management of offensive and counter-offensive led to decisive victories. Within the corporate sphere, it emerged following the Second World War. The dramatic growth of world nations such as China, Japan, and the U.S.A. served a beneficial environment for large international corporations that needed evolution in their planning and thought process. In fact, the competitive climate has created challenges for global corporations to sustain the success chart without meeting the changing requirements of business and adopting a strategy to counter these changes. Strategic management is an art that uses the processes and principles of management to create the mission or objective of any business. It identifies a proper target to meet the objective, established current opportunities and constraints in the…
During, W. E., Oakey, R. P., & Kauser, S. (2001). New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium. Amsterdam: Pergamon
Dhillon, G., & Ebrary, Inc. (2001). Information Security Management: Global Challenges in the New Millennium. Hershey, Pa: Idea Group.
Devinney, T. M., Pedersen, T., & Tihanyi, L. (2010). The Past, Present, and Future of International Business & Management. Bingley: Emerald
Howes, R., & Tan, J. H. M. (2003). Strategic Management Applied to International Construction. London: Telford
Governance Following the Financial Crisis
Principles of Good Governance Following the Global Financial Crisis
Many high profile companies suffered a downfall following the 2008 global financial crisis. The meltdown spanned across various nations including the top world economies. Accusations on the cause of the downfall pointed to the failure by institutional investors inadequate monitoring of investments. In 2007, the collapse of the subprime mortgage market in the U.S. marked the beginning of the financial crisis. The escalating default rates and the decline in housing prices contributed to the economic meltdown. Companies such as AIG, Freddie Mac, Lehman rothers, and Freddie Mae filed for bankruptcy protection (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD] 2010). A series of government bailouts followed various financial institutions including HOS, Citigroup, and Washington Mutual, amongst others. Key policy makers fault weaknesses in corporate governance that explain the financial crisis.
Following the adverse economic implications, top…
Bainbridge, SM 2012, Corporate Governance after the Financial Crisis, OUP USA, New York
de Lange, DE 2011, Cliques and Capitalism: A Modern Networked Theory of the Firm, Palgrave Macmillan, New York
Hodne, Murphy, Ottenbacher, Ruggles 2013. 'Australia and the United States: A Comparison and Contrast of Corporate Governance Practices' Drake University. Available from http://faculty.cbpa.drake.edu/dmr/0301/DMR030105S.pdf (2013)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD] 2010. 'Corporate Governance in the Wake of the Financial Crisis' Selected International Views. Available from http://unctad.org/en/Docs/diaeed20102_en.pdf (October 2010)
In the past few years, Myanmar has been one of the world's fastest-growing economies. This success has been the result of a new government under Aung San Suu Kyi, which has resulted in democratic reforms and a shift towards a more capitalist economy. Annual GDP growth rates in the past few years have been around 7%, which puts Myanmar in the top ten for GDP growth, but the country is still very poor, with a GDP per capita of $6300, ranked 163rd in the world. While several neighboring countries are global leaders in textiles, the industry is relatively nascent in Myanmar. Yet, clothing ranks as the #6 export earner for the country (CIA World Factbook, 2018). This paper will examine the current state of the clothing industry in Myanmar, and what this means for fashion merchandising.
The Economic Situation
When Myanmar was under military rule, even in Yangon, the…
The Effect of the Eurozone Today on Global Financial Markets
Global markets are so intertwined today that what affects one is definitely going to have an impact on another. Case in point, the recent issues in Greece and other European Union (EU) countries have had a global effect and have wrought havoc on the Eurozone. Because if this global connectedness, large banks and organizations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are even more important today than they were in the past.
The EU's finances are powered by the countries that have become member nations, but those finances are guarded by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the IMF. The ECB is the institution that is responsible for the Euro, the currency of the EU, and it is also the organization responsible for negotiations regarding the economic difficulties of EU member nations. Since Greece, Spain, Italy and others have had…
Dam, Kenneth W. "The Subprime Crisis and Financial Regulation: International and Comparative Perspectives*." Chicago Journal of International Law 10.2 (2010): 581-594.
European Central Bank (ECB). "Recently Published." Monthly Bulletin, 2012. Web.
International Monetary Fund (IMF). "About the IMF." International Monetary Fund, 2012. Web.
Halmai, Peter, and Viktoria Vasary. "Real Convergence in the New Member States of the European Union (Shorter and Longer Term Prospects)." The European Journal of Comparative Economics 7.1 (2010): 229-237.
Thus, to use an American basketball star as your key marketing tool points to the success of globalizing tactics employed by American transnationals in spreading the "American way of life." The fact that Nike accomplished this by using exploitive labor practices in their Asian factories is the seamier side of the story, one that elicits no sympathy for practitioners of global capitalism. y continuing these practices - and by continuing to spread American culture through the media, effectively asserting America's hegemony over the developing world - LaFeber argues that violent instability will be provoked, both at home and abroad. Considering the fact that this book was written in 1999, it is easy to see how prescient LaFeber's argument is from a post-9/11 standpoint.
LaFeber, Walter. Michael Jordan and the New Global Capitalism. New York:…
LaFeber, Walter. Michael Jordan and the New Global Capitalism. New York: Norton, 1999.
In Social Problems, Coleman & Kerbo (2009) discuss ways globalization and neoliberalism have impacted global inequalities and disparities. Global inequalities are not caused by singular policies but are tremendously complex, requiring nuanced perspectives and points of view. Economists, sociologists, and scholars frequently debate whether neoliberalism and global capitalism are causing or exacerbating global inequalities, or whether the ideologies and practices of the free market may be used to promote global equality instead. Martin Hart-Landsberg (2006) and Norberg (2004) weigh in on the debate. In “Neoliberalism: Myths and Reality,” Hart-Landsberg (2006) claims that globalization and the neoliberal policies that support unbridled capitalism worldwide are harmful to the working classes—the majority of people worldwide. Essentially, Hart-Landsberg (2006) claims neoliberalism and globalization increase global inequalities. Norberg (2004), on the other hand, claims that globalization is leading to less inequality. In “Three Cheers for Global Capitalism,” Norberg (2004) claims free enterprise and deregulation lead…
Objective observers cannot but agree that the world has never been a better place than this and now.
Norberg ascribes and attributes the swift adoption of globalization to the freedom of decision-making, whereby it has enabled individuals and economic freedom as the precedence for political freedom (2003). He writes:
In the long run, it is hard for dictatorships, once they have accepted economic freedom, to avoid introducing political liberty as well (p 269)."
He zeroes in on the relationship between freedom of all kinds and globalization as his overall and primary defense of global capitalism and globalization. He views global free markets as the best culture and path for individual freedom of choice that has spurred him since student days as an acknowledged anarchist who shock fellow anarchists with his analytical abilities. The focus, therefore, should be on bringing this freedom to peoples who have not experienced it before and…
Bhagwati, Jagdish. In Defense of Globalization. Oxford University Press, 2004
Fisher, Stanley and Michael Mussa. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity?. An International Monetary Fund Issues Brief, 2000-2001
Norberg, Johan. In Defense of Globalization. Cato Institute, September 1, 2003
Porter, Keith. New Era Replaces Cold War and Space Age. About.com, Prime Media, 2005. http://globalization.about.com/cs/whatisit/a/whatisit.htm
On one hand, international service companies will increase the original price of the company, mainly because to the original demand, now one will also need to add the additional charges of the international service companies, acting as intermediaries. However, on the other hand, it is more viable for the original producing companies to outsource, due to a lower opportunity cost.
Again, this type of judgment is functional in a non-transnational economy as well, but in an international context, one tends to have an atomicity of potential international service providers, outsourcing can be extended virtually to no limits and, additionally, the overall costs of the producing company are likely to be much smaller. As shown, this only works in an international capitalist system, where supply and demand work freely on the market, only then is the producer looking for the lowest costs for his company in a global context and only…
Maitra, P., 1997, Globalization of Capitalism, Agriculture and the Negation of Nation States, International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 24, Issues 1/2/3, pp. 237-254, MCB UP Ltd.
Mehmet, O., 1996, on Globalization and Capitalization, Managerial Finance, Vol. 22, Issues 5, pp. 31-40, Barmarick Publications
May 2, 2002, Globalisation under Scrutiny, the Economist
September 27, 2008, Globalisation and Its Critics, the Economist
The transnational class is believed to be a new breed of dominant class stemming from the new economic order (i.e. global capitalism) which gives way to a highly mobile capital which all the more strengthens social polarization (obinson & Harris, 2000). Secondly, (and at the same time) the group recognizes that institutions like IMF and WB aligns with the dominant class as seen in the group's website which has a special section for these institutions under eclaiming the Commons - where the group's critiques against the policies implemented by IMF and WB among many others can be found.
The transnational class works had in hand with supranational institution according to the work of obinson and Harris (2000) as they write, "the historical block is composed of the transnational corporation and financial institutions, the elites that manage the supranational economic planning agencies..." (par. 3).
Focus on the Global South (2009).…
Focus on the Global South (2009). Who We Are. Retrieved at http://focusweb.org/who-we-are.html?Itemid=120onMarch 18, 2009.
George Mason University Website (2009). Marxist Origins of Communism, II. Retrieved at http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx2.htm . onMarch 18, 2009.
Robinson, W.I. & Harris, J. (2000). Towards a Global Ruling Class? Globalization and the Transnational Capitalist Class. Retrieved at http://www.net4dem.org/mayglobal/Papers/RobinsonHarris7_16.pdfonMarch 18, 2009.
Mass production and mass advertising "by the creation of new wants and new means of gratifying those wants" renders individuals complacent and dependent upon 'the system' of production and they are made to feel that their purchase of the next new prefabricated product is a radical act of individualism (34).
The "official, ceaseless searching for a new sensibility" that is at the heart of the restless spirit of modernism, commercials counsel us, can now be treated by buying the latest device (34). Bell envisions a future where inflation, bigger government, and a sense of entitlement produced by the capitalist emphasis on gratification, will only lead to more and more unhappiness and more and more consumption and more dependence upon faceless entities.
It is hard to read Bell's words and not wonder how modern, global capitalism relates to his thesis. The Internet has been a boon to marketers, and seems on…
Globalism and the Culture of American Consumption
The United States has long been a world leader on many fronts. The presidential administration of Theodore Roosevelt may have been the first to declare openly that Americans wanted to show that they were a global power, but the U.S. had long had interest in global politics. In the last decade of the eighteenth century, America fought land and sea battles in the Mediterranean against the Barbary pirates (Sassen 216). The Marine Hymn which talks of "the shores of Tripoli" is dedicated to that conflict in which U.S. Marines first fought on foreign soil. An intrepid spirit has caused the free men and women of America to create innovations in business, finance, war, agriculture, and other industries that have been the envy of the rest of the world. This has produced a certain amount of arrogance among the people and leaders of the…
Barber, Benjamin. Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy. New York: Corgi Books, 2003. Print.
Fotopoulos, Takis . "Globalization, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalization Movement." Democracy & Nature: The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. 7.2 (2001): 111. Print.
Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. 488. Print.
Norberg, Johan. In defense of global capitalism. United States: Cato Institute, 2003. Print.
There is a sense of common tribal identity but every succeeding generation has seen this identity grown more fragmented. Even the purists and the traditionalists who try to define an essential core of the Mesquaki identity are themselves a kind of a splinter faction, rather than representatives of the core of the tribe.
The unity of the tribe now comes through the common economic support provided by the gambling on the reservation rather than from a common sense of culture and identity that links generations. The Mesquaki will likely survive in the future in the sense that the tribe will profit off of the casino and many tribal members will still remain on the reservation to live. But the culture will inevitably fragment and change, pulled in different directions from a number of competing forces. The first force is that of the outside white society which for many young Indians…
Foley, Douglas. The Heartland Chronicles. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press,
Economics and Global Capitalism
The American Dream has always been tied to homeownership, yet homeownership has always been a prospect made possible through long-term loans made to credit-worthy applicants. For Main Street, this was mainly the case at least since the Baby Boomers came to age. For subsequent generations, predatory lending came about as the monetization of debt became another way for Wall Street to make money off Main Street. The American Dream prior to this was connected to the concept of upward mobility, but this too has been linked to the prospect of homeownership. Essentially, the American Dream has always been a dream about ownership of assets, of being at the minimum part of the middle class—a status that anyone could achieve in America so long as he was willing to work hard. Today, with globalization and the offshoring of manufacturing, the blowing of credit bubbles, the devaluation of…
Globalization in Terms of Family Studies and Psychology
Globalization: The ealities of Families
Globalization can be defined as the unfolding resolution of the contradiction between ever expanding capital and its national political and social formations. While the expansion of capital once represented that associated with national capital and later that associated with corporations expanding from the national to the transnational, it has now come to represent that which occurs without the assistance of or located in nations. These changes have been brought about by globalization which has led to the shift of the main location of capital accumulation from the national to the supranational or global level. With the emergence of globalization, economics has gained a more important place in the matters of humans than politics and public policy has become superseded by corporate demands. These matters as well as those that suggest that the best interests of the private…
Carrington, V. (2001). Globalization, family and nation state: reframing family in new times. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 22 (2), 185-200.
Cheung, F. & Tsui, M. (2002)A wake-up call to the social work profession. Families in Society, 83 (2), 124-125.
International Labour Organization (2002). ILO tackles social consequences of globalization. Press Release, ILO News, (27 February 2002). Geneva, Switzerland.
Hetata, S. (1998). Dollarization, fragmentation, and God. In S. Fish, & F. Jameson, (eds). The cultures of globalization. NC: Duke University Press, pp. 273-290.
The dependency interactions were sustained by the cooperation of ranks and elites in the periphery who benefited from their economic associations with the core states.
On the other hand, the problem of underdevelopment was basically diagnosed on the basis of weaknesses of domestic ranks in poor countries. While these diagnoses recognized the exploitative global interactions between rich and poor states, they were conducted on the basis that poor countries failed to play a historic role in overhauling conventional elites and practices as well as leading political and economic development.
While the concepts developed by dependency theories were adopted by several developing countries, they were condemned for being too deterministic through an overemphasis on the role of global forces on nations in the South. This criticism included the fact that dependency theories were efficient in explaining why countries didn't develop as compared to their explanations on how some nations really developed.…
Dyck, R. (n.d.). The Politics of Development and Underdevelopment. In Studying Politics: An
Introduction to Political Science (pp. 372-400).
Dyck, R. (n.d.). WORLD POLITICS: Global Anarchy, Global Governance. In Studying Politics:
An Introduction to Political Science (pp. 434-452).
Half the Sky from a Feminist Perspective
In the last sixty years, women in estern countries and to a lesser extent the rest of the world have become outspoken about women's rights, demanding equal rights in political, economic, cultural, social, and domestic spheres. Their struggles and activism, generally known as feminist movements, helped to elevate the status of women in many countries. Yet, as Nicholas D. Kristoff and Sheryl udunn document in their book Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for omen orldwide, the struggle for gender equality is far from over. Kristoff and udunn demonstrate the deeply troubling picture of gender relations around the world where women and girls are systematically subjected to brutality, mistreatment, and discrimination. In their attempt to expose gender inequality in the world, Kristoff and udunn are largely successful, but their analysis is not well-grounded in feminist scholarship, which weakens their argumentation.
Einstein, Zillah. Global Obscenities: Patriarchy, Capitalism, and the Lure of Cyberfantasy. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
Healing, Raven. "White Stockings and Black Widows: Women in Chechnya -- Myths and Realities." Off Our Backs 35.3/4 (2005): 44-47. Web. 22 Oct. 2011. JSTOR.
Kristoff, D. Nicholas, and Sheryl Wudunn. Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide. New York: Knopf, 2009. Print.
globalization been a force for development or for underdevelopment?
Globalization and Development: An Uneven Exchange
Globalization is the network of international flows of goods, services, money, information, ideas and people. It is the force that helped nations developed into economic powers, becoming players on the international stage. Globalization while an instrument of positive change in many regions of the world it has also contributed to escalating levels of income disparity, environmental degradation, the eroding of state power on the international stage and the increase in activity and sophistication of trans-national criminal organizations. This paper demonstrates how globalization and the promotion of specific economic policies is a boon to specific countries such as South Korea while other nations are increasingly marginalized. Weak nation-states are subject to the influence of non-state international actors such as trans-national corporations and criminal organizations. These external factors destabilize a nation's central government and its authority therefore…
Bank for International Settlements. Foreign direct investment in the financial sector - experiences in Asia, central and eastern Europe and Latin America, 2004. Retrieved 12 December at http://www.bis.org/publ/cgfs25.pdf , 1-25.
Bergsen, Albert J., and Omar Lizardo. 2004. "International Terrorism and the World System." Sociological Theory 22: 38-52.
Cumings, Bruce. 2005. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Evans, Peter. "The Eclipse of the State? Reflection on Stateness in an Era of Globalization," World Politics, 50 (October 1997): 62-82.
capitalistic economy surfaced right after the era of feudalism ended. The capitalistic economy system favors a handful of wealthy private entities that control rest of the economy. These corporate actors utilize the resources and labor in their favor to create a monopoly of their own. The profits are multiplied by these corporations and the government acts responsible for ensuring taxes payments and in return the masses are provided social justice. In the first quarter of 20th century when industrial revolution was taking place, capitalism seemed like a great idea as formulation of unions and governments helped the under privileged.
Originally the idea of capitalistic economy was supposed to keep check and balances on the supply and demand functions. The scenario should have been in the best interest of the society as corporations were compelled to share profits with the overall society. But after orld ar 2 as the industrialization period…
Ed Fin (February 1, 2003). All social and economic problems caused by an unfair distribution of wealth. Retrieved January 12th, 2012 from Policy Alternatives http://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/commentary/all-social-and-economic-problems-caused-unfair-distribution-wealth
John J. Macionis & Linda M. Gerber (May 2007). Sixth Canadian Edition of Sociology, Chapter 11. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from Pearson http://wps.pearsoned.ca/ca_ph_macionis_sociology_6/73/18923/4844438.cw/index.html
Roger B. Butters (2007. Teaching the Benefits of Capitalism, Free Market Forum 2007 Panel 3: How to Teach Economics, Pg: 4. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from Hillsdale College Seminar database http://www.hillsdale.edu/images/userImages/afolsom/Page_6281/Butters.pdf
The current trend in trade agreements has demanded a reevaluation of such change that is likely to remain an aspect of IHM for its entirety. "International law clearly delineates that companies have human rights responsibilities, although some of the specific responsibilities are ambiguous." (Aaronson, 2003, p. 63) Significant lawsuits against U.S., UK and Canadian Multinational organizations has made it clear that if business and government are not willing to police themselves, on issues of universal human rights, such as labor policy and political and social intimidation through the workplace then the international communities will do so independently through amendments and amalgamations to trade agreements.
Scullion reiterates the importance of the issue of International HM in the second edition of Human esource Management: A critical Text, edited by John Story. In this section Scullion elaborates on the ideas that were introduced in the first edition by the same author and editor.…
Aaronson, S.A. (2003, Spring). Courting International Business: What Are the Human Rights Obligations of Global Capitalism?. The International Economy, 17, 63.
Briscoe, D.R., & Schuler, R.S. (2004). International Human Resource Management: Policies & Practices for the Global Enterprise. New York: Routledge.
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Scullion, H. (2000) "International Human Resource Management" in Human Resource Management: A Critical Text Second Edition. J. Story editor. Stamford CN: Cengage Learning Business Press. 288-313.
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, firms must stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields in order to sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, consumers and investors have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers and shareholders, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. Due to the variety in the effects of the globalized market realized by different nations and regions, some areas of the world have targeted specific business sectors and have subsequently gained a competitive advantage . The manufacturing industry provides a superb example of an industry that has grown, been geographically compartmentalized, and transformed…
Busch, J. (2010, April 7). The New Apple iPad: High-Tech Supply Chain Transparency. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from http://www.enterpriseirregulars.com/16057/the-new-apple-iPad-high-tech-supply-chain-transparency-part-1/
Clark, D. (2010, April 5). iPad Taps Familiar Apple Suppliers. The Wall Street Journal .
Fleisher, B.M., & Yang, D.T. (2003). Labor Laws and Regulations in China. China Economic Review, 14 (4), 426-433.
Hejazi, W. (2011, February). International Trade Theories. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from http://www.witiger.com/internationalbusiness/tradetheories.htm
There are definitely similarities between the two works. They are each a collection of essays that cover a multitude of complicated topics and opinions within the redefinition of modern social movements. The idea that social movements and political power are continuing to change is the main concern of both works. For ose, it is the advanced liberal that is molding social movements and political discourse within the Western world, whereas for Wignaraja, it is showing how the social movements of the past in places like Africa simply were not effective enough and need to evolve into more sympathetic movements designed for the people, not the ruling parties alone. Modern theories and discourse must be able to adapt with these changes.
Almond, Gabriel Abraham & Verba, Sidney. 1989. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Sage Publications.
Calhoun, Craig. 1994. "Social Theory and the Politics of Identity."…
Almond, Gabriel Abraham & Verba, Sidney. 1989. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Sage Publications.
Calhoun, Craig. 1994. "Social Theory and the Politics of Identity." In Social Theory and the Politics of Identity. P. 9-36. Wiley-Blackwell.
Chandhoke, Neera. 2002. "The Limits of Global Civil Society." Global Civil Society. Centre for the Study of Global Governance. P 35-53.
Rose, Nikolas S. 1999. Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. NY: Cambridge University Press.