Global Civilization Essays (Examples)

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Global Cultural Analysis Nigeria

Words: 5263 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25995575

Global Business Cultural Analysis

Nigeria

Nigerian History

Synopsis of Nigerian government

Nigerian monarchy to presidential system

The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government

Nigerian major commodities

Oil

Food

The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria

Cultural dimensions

Individualism

Power distance

Masculinity

Uncertainty

Model of culture

Universalism or Particularize

How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?

The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world

How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?

The role of women in the workplace

Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)

Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria

Conclusion

eferences

Abstract

Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…… [Read More]

References

Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.

http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=60705725&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)

http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=35745908&site=ehost-live&scope=site
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Global Cultural Politics the Process

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64656937

This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.

The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf

Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676

Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.

Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
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Global Business Analysis - India

Words: 4108 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29496853

This behavio is not consideed dishonest; in fact, and Indian peson would be consideed ude if he o she did not ty to attempt to give a peson what has been equested.

Anothe vey impotant aspect of business cultue in India is the meeting etiquette. Meeting Etiquette is influenced by all sots of cultual elements descibed above, including social class. Fo example, in India, one must geet the eldest o moe senio fist, and when leaving a goup each peson must bid faewell individually. Though shaking hands is common, this is only in big cities, whee the natives ae accustomed to Westenes. Men and women, howeve, do not usually shake hands.

The next pat of the business cultue is knowing Indian names, and whee they oiginate. Accoding to one aticle, names ae based upon "eligion, social class, and egion of the county." Fo Hindus fo example, in the noth, people…… [Read More]

references taken from "India: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette." (2011). Kwintesential. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .

List provided by Shukla, M. (2011). "Guide to India." Executive Planet: Wiki. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=India>.

Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .

Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from . s

McKnight, D., Stokes, P., Vilmenay, J. (2003). "India - A Market Analysis: For Staples Incorporated." University of Maryland. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from <  http://www.sixsmart.com/SSPapers/subindia.htm >.
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Global Warming as a Social

Words: 3315 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49315796

There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)

This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.

Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)

2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions

Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:

Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978

Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007.  http://alt-e.blogspot.com/ 

Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007  http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
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Global Change Science the Negative

Words: 3243 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67525149

As the road is being laid the fumes from the chemical materials and the concussive force of the construction equipment are devastating to local wildlife (Forman & Alexander, 1998). The result, is displaced organisms which ultimately put increased pressure for food, land, and water on other ecosystems. The extent of these ripple effects are still yet to be fully known.

In instances where above or below ground water supplies must be altered in order to make way for a new road system the effects are if anything more dire. When laying the bed of a road, it is nearly impossible to prevent a percentage of the chemicals used in the road surface itself from leeching into the soil (Forman & Deblinger, 2000). When in the presence of water those toxins are carried the course of the water supply affecting all of the vegetation and wildlife which it comes into contact…… [Read More]

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Global Warming and Ethics

Words: 1044 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65022579

Global Warming: Why it is not the greatest fear of the industrializing world, why it is such a great fear for the industrialized world

There is a threat that currently looms upon the horizon, in danger of choking the fragile health of the developing economies of the so-called Third World. This threat is not the so-called global warming phenomena. The long ranging environmental results of the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere still remains unknown, and the data is far from conclusive. What is known by international economists is that the threat of global warming, as deployed as a kind of buzz word and media scare tactic of the environmentalist movement could impede the growth of industrialized nations and reduce the chance of Third World countries improving their living standards.

Despite the words 'Trade not Aid,' as bandied about by corporations such as the Body Shop, there is…… [Read More]

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Global Business Culture Analysis China

Words: 5751 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10266160

Many of them are either uddhist or Taoist, and both of these religions teach respect very seriously. In order to understand the idea of respect amongst siblings in the way that the Chinese individuals see it, it becomes necessary to also understand some of the Taoist and uddhist traditions and beliefs. These are not always seen as being very significant, largely because many individuals in the west do not understand Taoism and/or uddhism, and therefore it gets largely ignored. However, it is also important to understand the importance of schooling and how this affects the way that the Chinese individuals think when it comes to the respect that they show to their siblings (ogdan & iklen, 1992).

Integration of the Elements by Locals

Religion and usiness in China

uddhism is the religion that is generally seen in the Chinese culture. uddhists seek an elimination of suffering. The uddha teaches that,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Balfour, Frederik. (2006). B&Q stores: Renovating China's attitudes. BusinessWeek. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/apr2006/gb20060425_120572. htm

Bass, Frank M. The Future of Research in Marketing: Marketing Science. Journal of Marketing Research 30, 1 (1993): 1-6.

Bogdan, R.C., & Biklen, S.K. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Cateora, P.R., & Graham, J.L., (2002) International Marketing 11th Ed. Mc Graw-Hill
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Global Warming Fact or Fiction

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35820876

Specifically, it has risen a full degree since 1957 (Crittenden & White, 2010; Muller, 2008). Similarly, there is no doubt that carbon dioxide levels have also risen significantly, thirty-six percent since their first recording (Muller, 2008). Proponents of the global warming hypothesis argue that this increasing level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is a cause of the greenhouse effect that traps warmth under the lower layers of the atmosphere and increases severe weather patterns and weather instability in general (Crittenden & White, 2010).

In many respects, the principle flaw in the global warming theory is not so much that it is illusory but that it is not necessarily harmful and also, not necessarily attributable to human behavior. The most responsible proponents of global warming acknowledge both of those uncertainties but argue that if the observed evidence is significantly related to global warming, and if global warming is the cause…… [Read More]

References

Crittenden, J.C. And White, H.S. "Harnessing Energy for a Sustainable World"

Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, No. 13; (2010): 4503 -- 4505.

Muller, R.A. (2008). Physics for Future Presidents: The Science behind the Headlines.

New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
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Global Politics and Economy Late 20th and

Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32286190

Global Politics and Economy:

Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries

The world politics and economy of the late twentieth century were highlighted by the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the promise of a 'new world order' and the rise of 'globalization.' These developments were accompanied by a worldwide trend of increasing democracy, trade liberalization and booming economies. The start of the twenty-first century, on the other hand, has seen the emergence of the so-called 'clash of civilizations' and the long drawn out 'fight against terrorism' with the inevitable slump in global economies. In this essay we shall briefly discuss the major trends of the global politics and economy in this tumultuous period of world history.

Collapse of Communism

The 'Cold ar' period involving intense political and economic rivalry between the two superpowers, the U.S.A. And the Soviet Union, lasted from the end of orld ar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.

Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002

World History
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Global Warming the Issue of

Words: 1948 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10574505

This is true regardless of your belief on this particular issue.

In the last work to be discussed in this document "Global arming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms" there is a cry, by educators to come to terms with the facts about global warming and get a sense of how to teach these facts to educators and students. The information being given to educators is depressing, as one student educator stated and figuring out a way to teach the issues is difficult. ithout the development of a greater understanding of the "butterfly effect" of technology there will likely not be a more responsible humankind.

If the global warming trend continues, the results could be depressing indeed: melting polar ice along with thermal expansion of the oceans could raise the sea level, flooding coastal cities, and many agricultural landscapes could dry out, becoming deserts. And yet,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cline, William R. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1992.

Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Parsons, Michael L. Global Warming The Truth behind the Myth. New York: Insight Books, 1995.

Rye, James A., Donna D. Strong, and Peter A. Rubba. "Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms." Social Education 65.2 (2001): 90.
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Global Changes in the Missiology

Words: 9755 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77300433

" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)

Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:

(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;

(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bosch, David Jacobus (1991) Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission, American Society of Missiology Series; No. 16. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.

Gelder, Craig Van (2007) the Missional Church in Context: Helping Congregations Develop Contextual Ministry. Volume 1 of Missional Church Series. Missional Church Network Series. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.

Guder, Darrell L. (2000) the Continuing Conversion of the Church. Grand Rapids, NI: Eerdmans, 2000.

Hesselgrave, David J> (2007) Will We Correct the Edinburgh Error? Future Mission in Historical Perspective. Southwestern Journal of Theology.Vol. 49 No. 2 Spring 2007.
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Global Social Economic Perspectives Global

Words: 2927 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12766737



Those countries who have developed their own WMD programs and have not signed various non-proliferation agreements, highlights this hypocrisy that is existing in the international community. Where, no one is willing to force new countries that develop their own WMD programs to commit to such standards. This is problematic, because it telling the world that those countries not committing to various non-proliferation efforts, can maintain their programs (in secrecy) despite the international standard that is in place. At which point, other nations will seek to start their own WMD programs, as they see this as a double standard. Where, you are not supposed to have these weapons, yet once you do they may not apply.

When you combine this with the fact, that those countries that have not signed various international accords are also not making such disclosures to the IAEA; will more than likely be inclined to pass this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cimbala, S. (2005). Nuclear Weapons and Strategy. New York, NY: Routledge.

Gardner, H. (2007). Risks of Nuclear Proliferation. American Global Strategy and the War on Terrorism. (pp. 81 -94) Aldershot, UA: Ashgate.

Heng, Y. (2009). The Proliferation Security Initiative. Risk, Global Governance and Security. (pp. 87 -- 95). New York, NY: Routledge.

Lia, B. (2004). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Globalization and the Future of Terrorism. (pp. 39 -- 48). New York, NY: Routeledge.
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13th Century the World's Civilizations -- by

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58843206

13th century, the world's civilizations -- by the most accurate of definitions -- were emerging from lower cultural and technological evolution to a higher plane of refinement. Thought, manners, life situations, and the like were being considered as important as survival.

From 1200 to 1600 AD, Europe demonstrated its emergent renaissance; France, Asia, Africa, and the Northern Hemisphere were sending explorers to uncharted territories and discovering wonders not yet conceived. Average citizens took control of personal destinies and global civilizations shrunk the world practically overnight. The end of the period of increased contact ushered the Industrial Revolution into the lifestyles of the largest countries in the world and with it entered competition. Marketplace dominance, intellectual pursuits, quality of life, and a longer life expectancy emerged as one result of ever-increasing contact with other nations.

Examples of Global Contact

In 1275, Marco Polo discovered "burning black rocks" while traveling through China.…… [Read More]

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Civilizations Have Often Resulted in Dramatic Changes

Words: 854 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79303708

civilizations have often resulted in dramatic changes to both sides. Peaceful encounters bring transfers to new goods, new technologies and new ideas, while encounters built on conflict can change outlooks, governments and ways of life. A violent culture clash occurred with the Crusades, while a more peaceful meeting of the cultures occurred with traders from Europe (especially Venetians) heading eastward to Asia. These two encounters between civilizations would lead to much of what we see in the geopolitical world today. We have conflict in the Middle East between the Arab world and the Western world. We also see global trade as a major driving force in the world. This trade also would eventually lead to the age of exploration and mass colonization.

The rise of Islam and the response of Christian Europe during the Crusades not only characterized its era, being one of the most important events of the time,…… [Read More]

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Global Warming and Its Effects for Many

Words: 1671 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17760174

Global Warming and Its Effects

For many years, people have been talking about how the weather has changed over the past ten years. In fact, you may have witnessed these changes first hand. The earth's climate has been continuously changing for millions of years. Currently, studies indicate that the Earth is undergoing global warming. The first time I ever heard about global warming was a television commercial. I remember that the commercial featured two children and an adult. In the commercial, the adult started to explain global warming, however his explanation was beyond the scope of the children's understanding. The little girl in the commercial was too confused by the explanation that then prompted the adult to flash-forward into the future to show the children the effects of the climatological concept he was talking about. While the trio are seen in a luscious park at the beginning of the commercial,…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Gore, Al. An Inconvenient Truth. United States: Paramount Classics, 2007. DVD.

Carbon dioxide 07 Dec.2007

Discover the scientific facts on global warming effects 07 Dec.2007

Greenhouse Gas Emissions 07 Dec.2007
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Global Ecological Civilization Essay

Words: 1466 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Introduction

The global ecological crisis is the largest challenge which humanity has ever had to face (Gare, 2017). Besides, abusing the natural resources, our present method of consumption and production of goods, all modeled on economic production and not based on bio-capability, is jeopardizing the living conditions of humans, yet simultaneously changing the social foundations of human beings. International threats and dangers evolved when the social fabric of the ecological and social system exceeds and supersedes its environmental counterpart. Global environmental or ecological threats and dangers are not just social-psycho constructs created for promoting a new method of social regulation on the people. They are the result of an economic development model wherein environmental deficiencies are being shared by everyone, while the financial benefits would be helpful to some and it shall change our planet for a considerable period. The most probable global cataclysmic threats and dangers seem to emerge from human actions,…… [Read More]

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Global and Domestic Marketing

Words: 1139 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32733230

economic factor is probably the first to be considered when making a domestic or international marketing decision. In terms of the international marketing decisions, the economic factor will determine the initial export decision. Indeed, the economic factor practically summarizes everything in terms of the financial and economic health of the country in which the marketing decision will be applied, but with a direct impact on social or demographical factors as well. I am referring here to the population's income, for example, which will help determine whether some of the more expensive products of a product portfolio will have a chance of being commercialized in a certain country.

In this sense, the domestic marketing decision may possible be in two different situations. First of all, if the product is commercialized in a country with a similar economic condition, it is likely that the marketing decisions will bear a high rate of…… [Read More]

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Global Business Cultural Analysis

Words: 8186 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23504537

business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…… [Read More]

References

Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.

Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink  http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm 

Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Global Human Development

Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85012049

UNDP Report Study

Human Development Report 2011:

A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations

Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…… [Read More]

From the data presented above, it is clear to see that, indeed, the studies mentioned in this paper correlate with the status of the countries at present and that Estonia and India seem to be faring a lot better than the DRC and Mexico. For example, it is clear that the DRC has gone down considerably in all four areas. Mexico, however, is a different story. It seems that it has gone up in all facets, which is does not correlates with research on Mexico that shows fluctuation in progress. It is a pity that the 2010 report does not yet have all the facts on Mexico, because they could, again, fluctuate due to the drug wars. The statistics for Mexico might look so great, despite the problems the country faces, due to Mexico's proximity to the U.S. And the help it receives from this country. Lastly, it is evident, especially from the GDP growth, that both India and Estonia have been growing steadily, as has Mexico, which is great news. Though this is in stark contrast to the DRC, which is at a pitiable $291 in GDP for 2010, according to the UNDP data in the table above.

This paper has presented a multitude of facts to examine what makes a country progress, while others stagnate. With the help of a comprehensive literature review and UNDP reports, the essay has concluded the two of the examined countries, Estonia and India, are faring better economically and political (and thus from health and education perspectives) than the DRC and Mexico. This has been due to the fact, as read in the literature review, that the first two countries have either international support in terms of trade and/or manpower and organization. The latter two, as seen above, are either torn apart by violence, or have a history of ineffectual political organization, and thus cannot fully prosper financially. Furthermore, their literacy rates, survival rates and GDP are substantially lower. In order to rise, Mexico and the DRC, and the latter especially, must find a way to put violence aside, so that the country may join in the progress of the modern world.

Though this research seems comprehensive, it has only analyzed other studies and the UNDP reports. Thus, a shortcoming is the inability of the researcher to be on the ground, or at least speak to experts on the issue, both inside the specific country and outside of it to obtain opinions on whether the poorer countries of the world can ever reach the kind of development that they should. Thus, the study presented here must be continued so that we may find future patters for development and help countries such as the DRC and Mexico advance in the world economy.
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Do Global Problems Require Solutions by Global Agencies

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76299903

Global Problems equire Solutions by Global Agencies? If So, Which?

Today, the world is rife with problems, but the historical record suggests that it always has been. In sharp contrast to the past, though, modern global problems are truly enormous in terms of their diversity and scope. While emerging economic powerhouses such as China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and Malaysia are reaping the benefits of an increasingly globalized marketplace, the demand for food and fuel has skyrocketed along with their prices. Competition over scarce resources has always been a source of conflict, but current signs indicate that the competition for resources in the future will become truly fierce because current supplies of fossil fuels are being depleted at an increasingly faster rate. In this environment, regional conflicts and even global war are potential outcomes that will require global solutions. To determine which global agencies will play a role in implementing and…… [Read More]

References

Ki-Moon, B. (2011, March 11). Remarks to the UN General Assembly. United Nations.

Retrieved from http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusRel.asp?infocusID=137&

Body=food+crisis&Body1=.

Searchinger, T. (2011, July). A quick fix to the food crisis. Scientific American, 305(1), 14.
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Clash of Civilizations and the

Words: 3266 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38750801



The second case of cultural reaffirmation that Huntington discusses is that of Muslim societies which have followed a different path towards the reassertion of their cultural identity. In these societies, religion has been the main factor of cultural distinctiveness and influence. Huntington argues that religion is the main factor which distinguishes Muslim societies from the others, and that the resurgence of Islam "embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world" (Huntington 1998: 110). As far as the causes behind this resurgence, Huntington talks about the failure of state economies, the large and oftentimes rather young population of these countries, as well as the authoritarian political regimes of these nation states.

In light of these arguments, Huntington predicts great clashes will occur among civilizations. However he also identifies a possible cooperation between Islamic and inic cultures…… [Read More]

Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs 72.3 (1993): 22-49.

Kamrava, Mehran. "Political Culture." In Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East. New York: Chatham House Publishers, 1998: 201-223.
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Organization the Empathic Civilization by

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3342694

" To determine the empathy / entropy paradox is the grave test of our species' aptitude to endure and flourish. At any time a new energy government has congregated with a new communications upheaval, society is pressed toward further difficulty. This time around is serious nevertheless, we may not have sufficient time to change. The Empathic Civilization is rising, but will it happen fast enough to ward off global catastrophe?

The author said, "It is increasing difficult to find anything in the world untouched by globalization" (169). This appears to be a reliable and authoritative theme as the author seems to give modest hope that we will ever come out from a consumerist mindset and way of life. itzer seems to demolish hope that globalization will dwindle and possibly give us glimpses of what once was and no longer will be. There emerges be a core fear of "nothing."

Globalism,…… [Read More]

References

Rifkin, Jeremy. 2009. The Empathic Civilization. The Penguin Group. ISBN: 9781585427659.

Ritzer, George. 2007. The Globalization of Nothing. Upper Saddle River, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN: 1412940222

Riggs, Frederick (2006). Global Forces and the Discipline of Public Administration. In Jean-Claude Garcia-Zamor and Renu Khator, eds., Public Administration in the Global Village. Westport, CT: Praeger, 17-44.

Said, Edward (2009). Culture and Imperialism. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.
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Huntington's Clash of Civilization Confirm or Refute

Words: 2005 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35623839

Huntington's Clash Of Civilization

confirm or refute Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis

Huntington's clash of civilization

Scholars, journalists, and policy makers have adopted and popularized the ideas of Samuel P. Huntington, who was a professor of government at Harvard University, to explain the emerging post-cold war world. According to Huntington, the world is divided into a number of distinct civilizations that are irreconcilable because they hold to entirely different value systems (Huntington, 1993, 22-49).

This essay in tends to refute the Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis by first of all looking at the summation of this thesis, before the researcher gives his own perspective of Huntington's theory. In the third section of this study, supporting evidence that draws from the readings from this essay and other accredited outside sources are discussed before the essay concludes.

Summation of Huntington's clash of civilization thesis

Born Samuel P. Huntington in 1927; a political…… [Read More]

Work cited

Ankerl, Guy. (2008) Global communication without universal civilization Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. pp 74-89

Blankley, Tony, (2005) The West's Last Chance: Will We Win the Clash of Civilizations?, Washington, D.C., Regnery Publishing, Inc., p 56-88

Djilas, Aleksa: (2006) "Democracy, Destiny, and the Clash of Civilizations": Transitions, the journal on post-communist society's pp 49

Fox, Jonathon, (1994) Ethnic minorities and the clash of civilizations: A quantitative analysis of Huntington's thesis. British Journal of Political Science, pp 415-435.
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Clash of Civilizations Samuel P

Words: 2233 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23271805

Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.

Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…… [Read More]

References

Cleveland, W.L. (1999). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Gelvin, J.L. (2008). The Modern Middle East: A History. New York, (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press.

Gumley, F. & Redhead, B. (1992). The Pillars of Islam. London: BBC Books.

Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 22-49.
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Clash of Civilizations There Is

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99971854

It is probable that Cameron inspired his film from the traditional conflict between Christianity and Islam. Some of the most influent forces in society have been devoted to impose their power over the rest of the world, similar to how humans did not hesitate to take up arms against the Na'vi when the latter did not want to comply with the former's requests.

In Avatar, the human race is apparently determined to demonstrate that it is unwilling to accept compromise and that it is determined to prove its superior strength despite the consequences. The masses are aware that the new world order is closing in and that they have to be among those who are more powerful in order for safety to be ensured. Cameron's film practically reflects feelings in society today and in the recent years in an apparent attempt to alert people about how it is essential for…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Dir. Cameron, James. Avatar. 20th Century Fox, 2009.

Huntington, Samuel P. (1997). "The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order." Simon and Schuste.
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Clash of Civilizations and the

Words: 1525 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42095630



Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Affairs (Summer 1993): 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 23.

Anatol Lieven, "Analysis: roots of the conflict between Georgia, South Ossetia and Russia." The UK Times Online. (August 11, 2008). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article4498709.ece (accessed September 2, 2009).

Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 23-24.

Anatole Lieven, "Analysis."

Anatole Lieven, "Analysis."

Natalia Antelava. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." C (January 12, 2004). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3406941.stm (accessed September 2, 2009).

Robyn Dixon, "Putin acks U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times (March 2, 2002). http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).

ibliography

Antelava, Natalia. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." C, January 12, 2004,

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3406941.stm

Dixon, Robyn. "Putin acks U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times, March 2,

2002, http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).

Lieven, Anatol. "Analysis: roots of the conflict between Georgia, South Ossetia and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Antelava, Natalia. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." BBC, January 12, 2004,

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3406941.stm 

Dixon, Robyn. "Putin Backs U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times, March 2,

2002,  http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748  (accessed September 2, 2009).
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Classical Civilization Citizens the Death

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 144783

We will look to the representatives of the middle class for advice and help in our good governance.

We will promote a peaceful and non-conflicting approach towards all other empires and countries and will try to sort out the differences we have with some of our enemies. One of the first things in terms of foreign policy is meetings with our enemies and discussion of current problems. We don't believe in wars: wars cost money and we want to spend money doing more useful things, such as building the infrastructure and developing new public use projects. Negotiations will be undertaken, but remain assured that we will not give up on anything that is fundamentally vital for the survival of our great nation.

The competition for resources is a challenge we must all face, but finding alternatives such as wind power can help us become more independent in terms of our…… [Read More]

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Technology and Global Exosystem

Words: 2489 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32847362

Technology and Global Ecosystem

An Analysis of the Implications of Technology and the Global Ecosystem

The 21st century promises to usher in innovations in technology that cannot yet be imagined, and the advancements to date have provided many in the world with unprecedented standards of living. Improved methods of transportation and communication, combined with more leisure time than ever in which to spend it has resulted in many people developing a keen appreciation for technology and what it promises for mankind; an unfortunate concomitant of these innovations in many parts of the world, though, has been an intensive assault on the globe's ecosystem in an effort to bring emerging nations into line with the productivity being experienced in the developed nations of the world. As a result, a debate over whether or not technology threatens the integrity of the global ecosystem has emerged in recent years, and pundits warn that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anton, Philip S., James Schneider and Richard Silberglitt. The Global Technology Revolution:

Bio/Nano/Materials Trends and Their Synergies with Information Technology by 2015.

Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.

Bjornerud, Marcia. (1997). "Gaia: Gender and Scientific Representations of the Earth." NWSA
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West to East Current Global Economic Trends

Words: 1739 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4371462

West to East

Current Global Economic Trends and Their Lasting Effects: The Value Shift to the Eastern Hemisphere

Since the beginning of the Modern Age, when global commerce first became a reality, the Western Hemisphere has had a much greater share of the world's wealth and value capacity than the eastern half of the world. This was centered in Europe, at first, and could arguably said to persist even as far back as the Ancient Greeks and Egyptians, who were able -- along with successive nations and cultures living around the Mediterranean -- had many disparate trading partners with vastly different goods. The Mediterranean, however, actually served to connect the Eastern and Western worlds, and trade was still limited to those civilizations that actually bordered this interconnecting sea. It was Europe's spread into the New Worlds of what are now North and South America that led to Western domination of…… [Read More]

References

Bloomberg. (2005). "The new world economy." Business Week. Accessed 13 November 2010. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948401.htm

Chaddha, P. (2010). "Shift in global trade: Look East policy." The Economic Times. Accessed 13 November 2010. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/opinion/interviews/Shift-in-Global-Trade-Look-East-Policy/articleshow/6290606.cms

Hoge, J. (2004). "A global power shift in the making." Foreign Affairs. Accessed 13 November 2010. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/59910/james-f-hoge-jr/a-global-power-shift-in-the-making

McRae, H. (2008). "Economic View: The world's authorities must recognise the eastward shift in financial power." The Independent. Accessed 13 November 2010.  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/comment/hamish-mcrae/economic-view-the-worlds-authorities-must-recognise-the-eastward-shift-in-financial-power-1020283.html
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Technology Global Warming Undoing

Words: 1192 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50625284

If Americans continue to live as if technology is the most important thing, then there will be no technology and no improved quality of life for future generations. The scientist esselman underlines Nainoa's words with statistics, that current data on global warming suggests that the earth's increasing overall temperatures have exceeded normal expectations of variation in climate fluctuation (216). "The warming [trend] since 1957" when careful records began to be kept by scientists, "has been remarkably uniform over the east-west extent of the northern Atlantic" (217). In Africa, the glaciers on Mount Kenya have already shrunk by forty percent since 1963 (216).

These are all measurable statistics and facts. Deprived of science as a result of scientific so-called progress, Nainoa has the wisdom of a shaman, not a scientist, but the emotional impact he has upon esselman is profound. Nainoa is wise, even in a world lacking in science, perhaps…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wesselman, Hank. Spiritwalker: Messages from the Future. New York: Bantam, 1996.
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culture clash of civilizations and global conflict

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18156333

Post: Global Conflict: Mass Population Migration and the EU

The Brexit crisis reflects ongoing tensions in the European Union related to a complex of problems including the decreased relevance of national sovereignty within the European Community and also the increased relevance of immigration policy in light of mass population migrations into Europe. Individual European nations have also contended with domestic crises linked to the same cluster of issues, which at the risk of oversimplification can be boiled down to economics. The Greek economic crisis shows that while national and cultural identity do matter, economics matters far more in the fomentation of international crises. Crises generally emerge over perceived or real resource scarcity: those resources can be tangible such as land, water, oil, money, or minerals. However, often those resources are intangible or symbolic as with power, clout, and status. The United Kingdom has for centuries wielded considerable power, retaining global…… [Read More]

References

Chua, A. (2014). A world on the edge. Wilson Quarterly, 38(1), 101-122. http://library.esc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=a9h&AN=94318652&site=ehost-live

Fox, J. (2001). Two civilizations and ethnic conflict: Islam and the West. Journal of Peace Research, 38(4), 459- 472. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org.library.esc.edu/stable/424897?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Huntington, S. P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations. Foreign Affairs, 72(3). 22-49. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.esc.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=d984c31e-a98a-4d90-a8bc- 408bb26072f4%40sessionmgr4007&vid=1&hid=4105
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Evolution of Civilizations as a

Words: 4219 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37397855

, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.

When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.

Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.

Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…… [Read More]

Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4

Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4

Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
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The Clash of Civilizations Article Review

Words: 1090 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29069425

fall of the former Soviet Union in the early 1990s spurred debate among policymakers and intellectuals about the shape of future of world politics, and the role that the U.S. would play in it. One of the greatest early voices in this debate was Samuel Huntington, who through his article, 'The Clash of Civilizations', took difference in civilization as the greatest source of conflict in the international political system in the post Cold-War period. According to Huntington, conflicts between civilizations seeking to gain and maintain influence in a new world order are the leading source of interstate instability in the post-Cold War era. Events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack in New York, as well as the bombings in London, Madrid, and Bali have been interpreted by many scholars as evidence for this particular paradigm. However, other scholars have come out strongly in critique of Huntington's viewpoint. One such scholar…… [Read More]

References

Ashraf, M. M. (2012). The Clash of Civilizations: A Critique: Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 32(2), 521-527.

Dunn, M. (2006). The Clash of Civilizations and the War on Terror. 49th Parallel, 20(1),1-12.

Huntington, S. P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations. Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22-49.
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Islam and the Clash of Civilizations

Words: 2254 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11951287

Islam and the Clash of Civilizations

orld civilization has known in the last decades some of the most important political, economic, and in particular cultural developments of the 20th century. The era after the end of the Cold ar determined a series of events that triggered numerous conflicts around the world, from the war in Kuwait in the early 1990s, to the genocide in Rwanda, human rights abuses and apartheid in South Africa, to the escalation of the terrorist phenomenon to dimensions never attained before.

The peak of the terrorist threat was reached on September 11, 2001 when the attacks on the orld Trade Center in New York fully demonstrated the power, influence, and capacity terrorist groups can master. Along with the terrorist phenomenon, the other regional conflicts still ongoing in parts of the Middle East and Africa, point out the increased differences that exist throughout the world between different…… [Read More]

Works cited

Baxter, Kylie; Akbarzadeh, Shahram. 2008. "U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East." Routledge.

Huntington. S. 1993."The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs, Summer.

Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. "The True Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Policy, Mar/Apr2003, Issue 135

Krishna, S. 2008. Globalization and post colonialism. Hegemony and resistance in the twenty first century. Rowman, Littlefield Publishers, New York.
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International Marketing in a Global

Words: 8749 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38054998



PUPOSE OF THE STUDY

The focus of this research on international marketing and its applicability in an international context is the main contribution of this study. The addition to the literature is using the cultural framework of proportion of immigrants in the society to understand how cultural differences affect the applicability of international marketing. That is, the paper will expand on other international marketing papers to present a wider look at how international marketing differs form other countries. The study also refines the analytical framework by exploring firms in Dublin, Ireland in the business sector -- the sample as chosen from this population to get the unique perspective of these firms. How are modern business strategies that use direct marketing tools and new technological processes affecting specific sectors in the society? Also, what is the role of firms in Dublin, Ireland as it relates to the immigrant population? These are…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Australian Government. 2007. "Business to proportion of immigrants in the society." Australian Trade: Trends and Opportunities. Retrieved on March 29, 2010 from http://www.austrade.gov.au/Business-to-proportion of immigrants in the society/default.aspx

Bayati, A. And Taghavi, A. 2007. The impacts of acquiring ISO 9000 Certificate on the performance of firms in Dublin, Ireland in Tehran. The TQM Magazine, 19(2), pp 140-149.

Cateroa, R. 1987. International Marketing. Illinois: Irwin Incorporated.

Crick, D. Obaidi, M., Chaudhry, S. 1998. Journal of Marketing Science, 4(7), pp 187-199.
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History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16341967

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
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Revolutions the History of Modern Human Civilization

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88844686

evolutions

The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.

The Scientific evolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French evolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial evolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.

The Scientific evolution

The Scientific…… [Read More]

References

Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th

Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.

Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.

Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.
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Environment the 11th Hour Film Global Warning Climate

Words: 392 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18177520

Environment

The 11th Hour (film):

Global warning/climate change impacts all of humanity, and therefore it is not a local but a global concern that requires multidisciplinary intervention (general point made throughout film).

Weather and climate issues have been in the mainstream media, and events are happening more frequently (beginning of film).

Climate change can be framed as a matter of national security, and there may be "environmental refugees," (middle of film).

The rate of decline and tragedy is accelerating at a rapid pace, making immediate intervention necessary (throughout the film).

Existing and emerging technologies provide the solution (toward the end of the film)

Essence of Permaculture

Permaculture is an extension of "systems thinking" (3)

Permaculture is not just about land use but about a whole method of living and sustaining human communities that goes beyond food and energy and toward lifestyle (3)

The Permaculture Design Course " has been the…… [Read More]

References

Baxter, W.F. "People or Penguins."

The Eleventh Hour (Feature Film, 2007).
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James Rarick Western Civilization II

Words: 3653 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18069719

The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.

6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire

People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…… [Read More]

Resources, 01.07.1997)

9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)

10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)

11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)

12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
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African Civilization an Africa Outlook Characterized by Mbiti and Temples

Words: 2445 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49723310

Mbiti and Tempels

There have been many religious theories previously based on the part of the world it originates from and the people it represents. One of such theories is the Africano theory which is further represented by two different theories which represent the religious beliefs of the African people. These theories have been named Mbiti and Tempels.

These theories have in common the fact that both of them believe that Africans and religiously notorious and people have their own set of beliefs and practices. Though Africa is a country which tend to represent people who have more or less a similar background but it is an undeniable fact all of them have their own sets of beliefs.

The major reason why Africa has so many religions is the fact that Africa is represented by tribal people and each tribe has its own religion. The renowned fact about African religions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Okrah, Kwadwo A. Nyansapo (The Wisdom Knot): Toward an African Philosophy of Education. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Roberts, John W. From Trickster to Badman: The Black Folk Hero in Slavery and Freedom. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1990.
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Samuel Huntington Defines Culture as

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5217304

It was generally a peaceful method of setting personal and social example of moral and caring behavior so others will join Islam because of its clear advantage for human desire for better, honest and non-violent life. But during history especially in the early days of Islam, Jihad by sword was an acceptable method, although never the only option. By its definition Jihad is therefore, global.

Yes there is a global Jihad that wishes to establish Islam every where in the world through acts of terrorism and religion imposition. The war is best understood as a global insurgency, initiated by a diffuse grouping of Islamist movements that seek to remake Islam role in the world order. They use terrorism as their primary but not as their sole tactic. Therefore they offer the best approach to defeating global jihad but in a single country.

David J. Kilcullen theory is devoted to counterinsurgency…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Edward W. Said, The Class of Ignorance, Vintage, New York, 2000.

Hardcover, Globalization, Poverty and Conflict: A Critical 'Development' Reader:; 1 edition. Amazon, 2004

Huntington, Samuel and Schuster, The Clash of Civilizations and The Remarking of World Order, Touchstone, New York, 1996

Kilcullen, David, The Accidental Guerilla: Fighting small wars in the midst of a big one, 2009
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Occam's Razor Cuts Up Occam's

Words: 1787 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86245279

This was done so that the flag would stand out from the flagpole... The bar was also not quite the full width of the flag, so that it was slightly furled to give a 'wave look' to it." (Red Zero, 2003) Other complaints, such as mismatched shadows in the moon-landing photographs also seem to have simpler explanations. While having a photo being faked does seem to simply explain multi-angled shadows, allowing that the rough ground alters the lay of shadows is even simpler. So it would be possible to generally apply Occam's Razor and say that evidence points to the moon landings being real, even though faking the landing would be easier than actually doing it.

ibliography

Cosnette, D. (2003) the faked Apollo landings. Retrieved September 30, 2004 at http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.html.

Easton, K. (2002) Occam's Razor. Paranormality.com: the a to Z. Of paranormal, supernatural and unusual phenomena. Retrieved September 30, 2004…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cosnette, D. (2003) the faked Apollo landings. Retrieved September 30, 2004 at  http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.html .

Easton, K. (2002) Occam's Razor. Paranormality.com: the a to Z. Of paranormal, supernatural and unusual phenomena. Retrieved September 30, 2004 at http://www.paranormality.com/occam's_razor.shtml

Kaku, Michio. (1995) Hyperspace: a scientific odyssey through parallel universes, time warps and the tenth dimension. New York: Anchor.

Marrs, J. (1997) Alien agenda: investigating the Extraterrestrial presence among Us. New York: HarperPaperbacks
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Case Study of Lego

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42517377

Stability means life. People, businesses, and organizations usually attribute change to a type of death where the old way is gone and the new way takes over. Although some may view change as good, change is inevitable. Change is unplanned or planned and is often a response to forces and pressure. Many types of change exist within organizations from transitional to developmental and even transformational change. In order to implement change within an organization, those willing to undertake such tasks must be visionary, implementing sound strategies. Such strategies enable growth and change even when employees may struggle to accept change or resist it.

Often one sees forces for change from several key areas such as customer focus, technology, and/or globalization. If there is a demand for change or a recent trend, this may supply the seeds to alter things within an organization. A good example of this is the Lego…… [Read More]

References

Jick, T., & Peiperl, M. (2003). Managing change: Cases and concepts. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
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Cosmopolitan Is the Greek Word

Words: 2145 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 840360

Appiah concluded by remarking that, 'it is a pallid version of cosmopolitanism that barely deserves the name, and if we can excuse ourselves because others are shirking their responsibilities, we are barely principled' (Anthony, 2006).

Assessment of Theories

The contemporary political theorists considered cosmopolitanism as 'citizenship of the world, which is a critique of ordinary theories of political obligation, with their tendency to focus on our duties to fellow citizens, not to people elsewhere' (Patrick, 2005). The consequence of the cosmopolitanism is expected to be 'single world government with corresponding global citizenship' (Patrick, 2005). Surprisingly such aspirations have not discussed by the serious circles. The modified and renewed version of the cosmopolitanism includes 'everyone in the world in a single global web of mutual obligations' (Ulrich, 2006). However the reservations and criticism mounted against cosmopolitanism is relevant to the negligence of the 'obligations of reciprocity'; there has been consensus on…… [Read More]

References

Noah Feldman. Cosmopolitanism Law. Cambridge University Press. 2006.

Ethan J. Leib. Rooted Cosmopolitans. Policy Review. Issue: 137. 2006. Hoover Institution Press.

Luis. Political Theory of Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Case for the World State. Routledge. 2004. pp. 32-46.

Patrick Hayden. Cosmopolitan Global Politics. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2005. pp. 176-189.
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Role of HR in Strategic Management Planning

Words: 2213 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10781855

H in Strategic Management

INTOUCTION

It was after the Korean War that an entirely new breed of college educated managers appeared on the scene and exuded a greater sense of responsibility that translated into a wave of consciousness for social well-being and social upheaval that swarmed through the second half of the 20th century (Losey 1998). Their influence markedly changed the thought of the American employee. But another group in the 60s and the 70s heightened the established interest in laborers welfare and feelings to the point of affecting all facets of business, including the growth of market research, communications and public relations. This second wave shifted focus from scientific management to the employer-employee relationship. The new gear led to the development of programs that increased wages and fringed benefits and the eliciting of worker ideas and initiative in recognizing the link organizational philosophy or policy to greater productivity (Losey).…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Losey, Michael. (1998). HR Comes of Age -- History of Human Resource Management. HR Magazine. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_n3_v43/ai_20514399

2. Oswald, Sharon, et al. (1991). Strategic Management of Human Relations: the American Steel and Wire Company -- Company Profile. Business Horizons. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n3/v34/ai_10817055

3. Siger, Marc. (2000). Strategic Human Relations Management Committee: Books Examine the Role of HR Professionals. HR Magazine: Society for Human Resource Management. http://www.findarticles.com/p/artices/mi_m3495/is_12_45/ai_68216379

4. Weatherly, Leslie. (2003). The Value of People. HR Magazine. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_9_48/ai_108315188
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Accounting-History Was the 20th Century

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22013255

It wasn't until the 1920s and '30s that their blue-collar counterparts began to get paid vacations as well.

Americans in the late 20th century "worked more days per year than workers in other prosperous nations, such as those in Europe, yet on average, had less vacation time (Sabga, 2001)." Americans averaged two to three weeks off a year, in sharp contrast to many European nations which guaranteed up to six weeks a year. This is due to the fact "unlike in other countries, particularly Europe, vacations in the United States are not guaranteed by the government (Sabga, 2001)."

oles of Women

Women have played important roles in science and technology, however many times they have faced "social, economic, and intellectual obstacles (Kohlstedt, 2004)." In the early 20th century, the United States benefited from the efforts of "women of distinction like Anna

Botsford Comstock and Ellen Swallow ichards, while in Europe…… [Read More]

References

Asmar, Marwan. Dr. (31 December, 1999). "The makers of the 20th century." The Star (Jordan,

Middle East.

Cowen, Tyler. (January, 2000). "Who Says the Arts Are Dying?" USA Today (Magazine). (accessed 28 November, 2004). www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1272/2656_128/58576593/p1/article.jh).

Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. (22 March, 2004). "Sustaining gains: reflections on women in science and technology in 20th-century United States." NWSA Journal.
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Good and Bad About Religious Diversity

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40265235

PLUALISM BEST FO SOCIETY?

Diversity and Pluralism

Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?

Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?

Diana Eck (1997) takes great pains to distinguish between diversity and pluralism, as it relates to the religions practiced in the United States. The word 'diversity' simply means that Americans practice more than one religion, but a religious pluralism implies an ongoing effort by each faith to engage with each other to negate the negative outcomes often associated with diversity. For example, Eck (1997) list three philosophies individuals may turn to when faced with religious diversity: exclusion, assimilation, and pluralism. An exclusionary philosophy demands that members of other religions, should they desire a life in America, strip themselves of their religious affiliation if it differs from the dominant religious faith in America, i.e., Christianity. A person supporting an assimilation philosophy would welcome diversity, but only if immigrants promised to…… [Read More]

References

Dick, P.K. (1968). Do androids dream of electric sheep? New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Eck, D.L. (1997). From diversity to pluralism. In: On Common Ground. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from http://www.pluralism.org/encounter/challenges.

McFaul, T.R. (2006). Religion in the future global civilization. The Futurist, 40(5), 30-6.
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Business Analysis of Singapore

Words: 4853 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73924066

Global usiness Cultural Analysis: Singapore

The objective of this study is to answer the questions how the major elements and dimension of culture including religion, ethics, values, attitudes, manners, customs, social structures, and organizations integrated in Singapore by local conducting business. As well, this work will answer how these elements and dimensions compare with United States culture and business. Finally, this work will examine the implications for United States businesses that wish to conduct business in Singapore.

The work of Abeysinghe and Choy (2009) reports that the economy in Singapore has been undergone a transformation that has turned it into "…an Asian powerhouse…" due to the "far-sighted economic policies. The economy of Singapore is proof of the outcome of a market-driven economy taking place during fast development of high per capita income, and an environment free of corruption in which the workforce is both motivated and educated. The financial infrastructure…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abeysinghe, T. And Choy, Meng Choy (2009) The Singapore Economy: An Econometric Perspective. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Abeysinghe, Tilak. 1996. Electronics and Growth Cycles in Singapore. National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, Econometrics Studies Unit, Mid-Year Review of the Singapore Economy.

Asian Wall Street Journal. 1994. "Singapore Unveils Plans for Performing Arts Center," July 22 -- 23: 1.

Bachtiar, I. 2002. The conservation story. In Skyline, Commemorative Edition 2002. Singapore: Urban Redevelopment Authority.
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Building an Empire in a Classical Civilization

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21058833

First Edict of Iacolesamun

I, the Great Priests of Priests and King of Kings, solemnly charge you my people beneath the gaze of the RE the Immortal God, the Sun and Light, by whose all-seeing eyes the world is held -- it is He who set me upon the holy throne, to be His voice and His incarnation to you. I speak to you with the authority of the son of RE, and the lawful Bridegroom of the Priestess of GA the Mother and the Earth. I who am at the head of the priesthood speak to you of truth. For seven years I have traveled the world, following the wisdom of my Father RE. At the Delphic temples I was given His edict, which I pass unto you.

From this day forth, let no law be written in stone, for the laws of God are carved upon the hearts…… [Read More]

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Globalization in The Clash of

Words: 1211 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62686286

In estern discourse, Eastern civilizations including Islam are associated with anti-estern values whereas Jews and Christians have come to embody what estern civilization entails: social and economic progress and colonial dominion. After September 11, Islam became the est's arch-nemesis and vice-versa. Yet the clash of civilizations had begun centuries earlier: during the rise of the Ottoman Empire and its face-off with the predominantly Christian Europe.

If Huntington's argument is correct, then the clash of civilizations must transcend the East/est divide. Instead of East and est, the world's culture clashes will take place between the various cultures that comprise East and est. For instance, a cursory examination of the diversity of cultures in the Middle East proves that intra-Eastern culture clash is as significant a source of military and political conflict as the East/est culture clash. The Sunni/Shi'ite divide poignantly affects foreign relations in the Muslim world, often to a far…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations." 1993. Retrieved April 4, 2008 at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19930601faessay5188/samuel-p-huntington/the-clash-of-civilizations.html

Makdisi, Ussama. "Anti-Americanism" in the Arab World: An Interpretation of a Brief History." Retrieved April 4, 2008 at http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/89.2/makdisi.html
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Warming Speech Preparation Outline the

Words: 1646 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45841580

Even [make personal] for those of us living in developed nations, the impacts of acting against global warming are very detrimental

i. [higher pitch, yet calm; almost condescending] small manufacturing firms that are just starting out will not be able to afford the technologies and processes that meet new emissions standards or purchase the credits for excess emissions that are popular parts of most global warming plans

1. This is unfair to small business, giving bigger players an advantage

[pause]

2. This is unfair to consumers [gesture towards self and audience],

reducing competition and innovation

C. Global warming is just the latest specter created by certain officials to distract the citizenry from the real problems facing the country, like the growing wealth gap and rampant corruption -- it makes people get impassioned and feel like they are doing something without actually fixing the broken system

"Taking action against the misinformation…… [Read More]

References

Booker, C. (2010). The Real Global Warming Disaster. New York: Continuum.

Daly, J. (2007). Global warming lies. Accessed 15 October 2011.  http://www.globalwarminglies.com/ 

De Jong, N. (2009). Lies, lies, and more lies. New York: Xulon Press.

Horner, C. (2008). Red Hot Lies. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishers.
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Foreign Affairs

Words: 1484 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26807934

Clash of Civilizations?

Politics, ideology, and economics have been sources of conflict throughout modern humanity. All have played out in the rise and fall of every empire to date. Be it the oman, Ottoman, British, or American Empire; they have all gained influence by exerting these aspects of existence. Huntington (1993: 22) asserts future conflicts will not be of previous natures; rather conflict will be of cultural origins. To use his term, conflict will be among cultural fault lines. In other words, clashes of civilizations will dominate global politics, (Huntington 1993: 22)

This is a bold assertion on Huntington's behalf.

Conflicts have every thing to do with ideology, economy, and politics. Culture has every thing to do with ways of life, geography, and as Huntington states, most importantly religion. Here he wants to separate religion from ideology; this is short sighted, and contrary to the following argument. The battle of…… [Read More]

References

Blair, Tony Feb 2007, A Battle for Global Values, Viewed on March 19, 2011,

http://www.foreignaffairs.com

Bostom, Andrew G. July 2008, Shiite Iran's Genocidal Jew Hatred, Viewed on March 19,

2011,  http://www.americanthinker.com
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Twentieth Century History Need Opening

Words: 2595 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8999906

It would seem that in the wars that were fought to contain Communism -- Korea, Viet Nam, many "brushfire" incidences such as the raid on the island of Granada -- the idea of spreading their ideology was not nearly as important to the Communists as just spreading, having more and more land under their control.

China has been a somewhat different story. The repression and brutality of Stalinism appeared the same but the Chinese actually seem to be trying to find ways to make Communism actually improve their country and way of life. Of course, in both major proponents of the philosophy, there is a ruling elite that just like the Emperor and the Czar get the most and best of everything.

The democracies fought to keep Communism from expanding but it doesn't appear it was actually motivated by political considerations. In most of the countries where the democracies have…… [Read More]

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About Egypt

Words: 1533 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65027965

History Of Egypt

Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3

The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4

ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5

Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6

Conclusion & Suggestions

Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,

and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.

Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.

Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
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Myth's Importance Today Myth Has

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99856919

Discussing myth can help bring these things to light.

Myth can also broaden our view from introspection to an examination of the workings of our society and culture. As already mentioned, our civilization can be seen as a continuum from the Ancient Greeks to the modern day. This is one way in which myth can help o explain our world -- understanding the Greeks from whom many of our ideas and myths came provides an understanding of ourselves (Powell, Chapter 2). According to Campbell, myth can even explain things that occurred before the Greeks, such as the nearly worldwide system of patriarchy that seems to have replaced a matriarchy in the pre-historic period (Campbell, 125-6). Many myths contain heroic and dominant ma figures, but they also contain hints of the concept of the Earth Goddess or powerful feminine force of reception and creation rather than simple submission.

Far from just…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell, Joseph. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor books, 1988.

Powell, Barry. Classical Myth. New York: Prentice Hall, 2006.
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History of War and Peace

Words: 771 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7863206

human civilization, the unpredictable nature of cultural collisions has inevitably spawned conflict between neighbors and warfare between nations. While these brutal behaviors may be attributed vestigial links to innate animalistic instinct, the intellectual capacity which separates and elevates humanity has compelled thinkers of every generation to study and reflect on the nature of widespread conflict. Emerging from the meticulous documentation of official matters provided by monks in the early church, the role of the historian has been refined throughout the centuries, but their fundamental objective has remained essentially the same: to record the continuity of events as time progresses, from the mundane minutiae of municipal politics to the mobilization of military forces for armed conflict. As noted historian and Cold War strategist John Lewis Gaddis states in his comprehensive treatise on the profession, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past, historians "pride ourselves on not trying to predict…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gaddis, John L. The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. Oxford University

Press, 2002.

Khong, Yuen F. Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam

Decisions of 1965, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), pp. 3-18 and 97-147.
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Islam in the Media Traditionally

Words: 1457 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53661711



Apparently, Islamic terrorists are the media marketing executives.

Once more, the tendency is to project American viewpoints and values on to supposed Islamist enemies. The same individuals and groups that are utterly alien to America's most cherished beliefs are also masters of manipulating Americans' views of themselves and of using the media to their own advantage. The idea that Islamist groups might possess some sort of legitimate grievance, or might be railing against actual conditions is dismissed in favor of complex marketing ploys. Terrorism is a product, just like everything else that is promoted on American television and in American newspapers and magazines. The only difference is that the Islamist product is a bad product. Other estern media too have taken up the general theme of Islamic terrorism as but the ultimate expression of Islamic failure to grasp the potentialities of the modern world. As presented in the French Canadian…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albritton, James S. "The Technique of Terrorism." Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table (2006).

Belkhodja, Chedly, and Chantal Richard. "The Events of September 11 in the French-Canadian Press." Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal 38.3 (2006): 119+.

Dunsky, Marda. "Missing: The Bias Implicit in the Absent." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.3 (2001): 1.

Vaisman-Tzachor, Reuben. "Psychological Profiles of Terrorists." The Forensic Examiner 15.2 (2006): 6+.
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Marshall Plan and the Post

Words: 6775 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17805296



Thus, paramount American interests were to be presented as being really the interests of the Europeans themselves. It would be a situation wherein America was simply helping along people who were, at present, unable to adequately help themselves. The concept had much in common with the goals of many charity or self-help organizations - people grow and are transformed by learning to help themselves. They are given assistance so as to be enabled to learn the skills and life ways necessary to improve their own conditions. Naturally, everything that was in the "real" interests of Europeans would also be in the interests of the United States. The more similar the peoples of the two continents could become, the more readily Europeans could identify their own aspirations with those of the American people, the closer would be the bond between the two sides. In effect, the new post-ar Europe would be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024806711

Adelman, Carol. "Foreign Aid: Effectively Advancing Security Interests." Harvard International Review 29.3 (2007): 62+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108516904

Agnew, John, and J. Nicholas Entrikin, eds. The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. London: Routledge, 2004.
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Prisoner's Dilemma and the Fight

Words: 7692 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85065728



Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).

However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Axelrod R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.

2. Baert Wiener J. (1999). Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal 108.4

3. Behreandt D. (18 Sept. 2006). "Global Warming Too Hot or Not? The Theory of Global Warming Proposes That Man's Activities Are Causing the Earth to Heat Up, but There Is Compelling Scientific Evidence That Does Not Support This Conclusion," the New American.

4. Clemons E.K. Schimmelbusch H. "The Environmental Prisoners' Dilemma or We're All in This Together: Can I Trust You to Figure it Out?" Retrieved May 6, 2010, from the Warton School of the University in Pennsylvania Web site:  http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu/~clemons/blogs/prisonersblog.pdf