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This makes the affiliates banks achieve the same status of the subsidiary banks because the latter will be least affected in relation to the turmoil. If the crisis was hard on their parent banks, then the affiliates banks would have required to stand on their own. The domestic banks in contrast could receive financial bails during the financial crisis hence offsetting the difference that existed between them and subsidiary of the foreign banks (Mihaljek, 2011, p.44). During the global financial crisis, both the local and the foreign owned banks had to reduce their profit target hence, the diminishing factor of whether one is an affiliate or the other is a subsidiary. Therefore, the financial crisis affected all the banks independent of whether they were subsidiary or affiliates.
3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the capital positions of Australian
and German banks in the wake of the GFC?
The…… [Read More]
Global Financial Crisis
Since the early 2008, financial institutions started to go through chaos all over the globe. The stock markets were beginning to crash, businesses were shutting down, and investors were losing their money. This was to indicate that the entire globe had been hit by a period of economic crisis leading to a large number of corporate collapses of banks, investment companies, multinational corporations, etc. This downfall of economic markets is more commonly known as the 'The Global Financial Crisis' or the 'Global Recession of 2009' (IMF, April 2012). These times of crisis led to an increase in unemployment, as jobs were being terminated by laying-off employees to cut costs which led to an increase in poverty. Oil prices and prices of other commodities increased by tenfold, making affordability difficult for the average population. This was followed by a steep fall in international trade. Since the Great Depression…… [Read More]
Global financial Crisis (GFC)
The present Global Financial Crisis (GFC) has been considered by the financial experts and economists as the worst financial crisis apart from 1930s Great Depression. The GFC led to the collapse of large financial institutions and downturns of the major stock markets globally. The crisis led to the failure of several key businesses and s significant decline in the economic activities. The GFC started on the U.S. mortgage markets leading to the significant turbulence and uncertainty in the global capital markets. (Kalinowski, Marcin 2011). The source of the financial crisis was due to the excessive risk taking because of the sustained low interests rates leading investors to maximize their profits. The root cause of GFC started in 2001 when many U.S. financial institutions increase the number of mortgage loans due low interest rates and the issue led to the increase in the prices of residential real…… [Read More]
Given that, they must take the steps necessary to ensure this health. This is a profound shift in priorities -- the banking sector was normally governed on the basis that the best outcome was increased profit-making opportunity. The Obama administration, with its predilection for increased regulation, realizes that the best outcome for the banking industry, its executives and its shareholders is not necessarily the best outcome for the nation as a whole.
It is interesting that the only major change to Fed policy was with respect to its bailout of AIG. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York funneled AIG $85 billion to keep that company out of bankruptcy, a move seen as essential to the preservation of the global financial system. Necessary or not, the move was unprecedented and marked new territory for Fed policy. The Fed's approach to monetary policy, on the other hand, has not changed. They…… [Read More]
Global Financial Crisis: An Examination of One Company's Performance Indicators
The global financial crisis of the recent past has been the subject of much commentary, investigation, and debate from people around the globe and from all walks of life. Despite the fact that politicians and armchair policy makers have gone round after round in debates regarding the causes and the ultimate effects of this worldwide economic downturn, the real effects of the recession on individual organizations can be difficult to ascertain. Different companies are impacted in different ways and to varying degrees based on a variety of factors, of course, but it is still quite useful to examine some particular instances of the recession's impact in order to come to a more concrete understanding of what a financial crisis and tightening of capital means for business organizations around the globe, operating in various sectors.
An examination of The Hour Glass,…… [Read More]
The banks repackaged their risks "into complex financial products and sold these to other financial institutions.
pril 2007 witnessed the collapse of sub-prime lender New Century Financial and this collapse was only the first of many casualties. The British government nationalized the mortgage lender Northern Rock and soon afterwards Bear Stearns collapse due to subprime loans. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were nationalized in September 2008 because of the great losses suffered due to mortgage defaults. Soon afterwards Lehman Brother, the United State's fourth largest investment bank collapse and this is stated to have "greatly intensified the financial crisis." (Jawai, 2008, p.2)
V. TIME SEQUENCE OF THE GLOBL FINNCIL CRISIS
Financial crisis begins with the United States subprime mortgage crisis
US financial crisis reaches global proportion due to interaction between the world banks and Hedge Funds with subprime mortgage backed securities.
2007…… [Read More]
Global Financial Crisis
The most recent financial crisis has badly affected the Global economy. Individuals, businesses, and Governments; every entity has taken its impacts in one way or another (Burger, Coelho, Karpowicz, & Tyson 2009). Since its arrival, financial crisis has posed big threats to the world markets. The countries are trying to overcome the bad impacts of this crisis but have failed to recover their positions due to severe recession and worsening economic conditions (U.S. Department of the Treasury 2012). Economists and Financial Analysts have discussed various reasons for this Global financial crisis; a big downturn in the financial and housing mortgage sector is said to be the biggest reason of all (Donath & Cismas 2009). The Global financial crisis has hit almost all the sectors of the economy which have not only hampered the industrial growth in the countries, but also caused serious challenges and issues…… [Read More]
SEC that features a short background on what the SEC is and when it was formed. It has interview questions and responses and a mini literature review to provide context from which to examine and recommend steps for the SEC to maintain control of major banks to avoid the Global Financial Crisis that happened in 2008.
The Great Depression and the turmoil that 1929 brought to the United States contributed to various changes within the financial market. Such effects are still experienced and felt today. The crises of that time caused public confidence to plunge key areas of the market with the only remedy being the passing of the Securities and Exchange Act in 1934 and the Securities Act in 1933. These two laws had three basic intentions that offered investors a more reliable way to collect information. The first was forcing public companies that offered capital in exchange for…… [Read More]
Global Financial Crisis and esurgence of Keynesian Economic Model
The 2007-2008 global financial crises have been identified as the worst financial crisis apart from the 1930s Great Depression. The collapse of Lehman Brothers and two Bear Stearns in 2007 had been attributed to subprime mortgage crisis that led to the credit crunch, dry up of liquidity, bank failures, massive layoffs and private defaults. Moreover, the crisis threatens the collapse of many large financial institutions, which the national government prevented through the bailout operations. In the contemporary economic environment, global economy is interdependence making the U.S. financial crisis to contribute to the European debt crisis. The crisis has been the primary cause of failure of key businesses, prolonged unemployment and foreclosure. Financial crisis is the disruption of financial markets where markets fail to channel fund efficiently, which consequently prevent productive investment opportunities.
Several factors have been attributed to the global financial…… [Read More]
This is a poor use of the company's capital, since the global economy remains weak and since Qantas faces intense competition on numerous fronts. hile increasing the debt component of the capital structure would lower the overall cost of capital, it would also increase the risk that the company faces. The operating environment is turbulent, not just from competition but from high fuel costs as well. This implies that any additional risk would compromise the security that Qantas currently has with respect to meeting its debt service obligations.
hile Qantas' balance sheet looks remarkably unchanged as the result of the global economic crisis, this is only because of the proactive measures the company took at the outset of the crisis. The equity issue allowed the company to maintain its capital structure at a time when profits (and therefore retained earnings) were declining sharply. The company also made a number of…… [Read More]
Global Financial Strategy
Critical assessment of the proposal to raise capital locally rather than in the UK
In the analysis of the proposal of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, it is essential to consider four critical aspects: costs, risks, benefits/advantages, and limitations/disadvantages. In the presentation of this critical assessment, the focus will be on the four factors or aspect in order to offer reliable analysis of the situation.
In the process of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, the organization must incur several costs. One of the essential costs is the professional cost. This refers to the amount of money or financial resources paid to the legal advisors, auditors, and reporting accountants in order to execute the process of raising the capital effectively and appropriately. Another important aspect of cost is the trading cost. These are direct costs including the brokerage commissions and financial…… [Read More]
Investors from all over the world sunk money into Dubai-based projects, including those of Dubai orld. The global financial crisis, however, has slowed the Dubai economy to such a degree that it can no longer meet its debt obligations. Global investors who had been counting on high returns at relatively low risk are now seeing the value of their debt holdings diminish.
The fluid movement of capital around the world has allowed for thousands of powerful investors to put money into Dubai's economic development, which spreads the risk of such development around the world. Thus, when Dubai's economy falters and the state-run company cannot pay its debts, it reverberates around the global financial markets, which now must deal with Dubai's apparent lack of creditworthiness.
Giddy, I. (1993). Global Financial Markets. Boston: South-estern College Publishing.
No author. (2009). Standing still but still standing. The Economist. Retrieved November 27, 2009…… [Read More]
The second purpose of the $700 purchase of troubled assets is to create a market for the securitized versions of these assets. As a result of the crisis, the market for these assets became illiquid. The value of securitized debt obligations became near zero, which severely impacted the balance sheet of all banks that held these assets. By creating a secondary market for these products, the government hopes to increase their value. This will improve the balance sheets of the banks.
The second key clause in TARP is that banks selling troubled assets to the government are required to give the government warrants. This, in theory, protects the government from losses. The theory is that the banks will see an increase in value as a result of the government's efforts, allowing the government to profit from the warrants.
Ancillary to TARP was the FDIC's excusing of troubled assets in its…… [Read More]
Employee Relations Financial Crisis
Managing Employee Relations in the Event of a Financial Crisis
A Look into Management can Effectively Navigate through Adverse Conditions
Austerity Protests (Dowling, 2012)
Employee relations can often be a difficult aspect of maintaining the overall health of an organization. In general, employee relations often refer to the act of fostering productivity, motivation, and employee morale in an organizations human resources pool. However, there are some circumstances in which it is virtually impossible to maintain high levels of morale. One example of this is during a period of economic turmoil. During the global financial crisis of 2008, the world's economy took a sharp turn for the worse. This economic downturn had many implications for businesses and their employees. The level of unemployment rose quickly in many nations and pressure was also applied to lower employee wages.
In the event of such an economic downturn, it is…… [Read More]
Strategic Management of Qantas in the Light of Global Financial Crisis
The Global Economic/Financial Crisis, also known as GFC has influenced the performance of all organizations negatively in the current business environment. Besides increasing the costs of operations, GFC threatens the use of human resources in different organizations. With such a premise, this study analyzes the influence of the crisis on the performance, sustainability, and competitiveness of most of the airline companies. In specific, it analyzes the effects of the crisis on the performance of the Qantas Airlines, an Australian carrier known globally for its high quality services. As such, adopting the stated recommendations in the analysis will help reduce the threats facing the Qantas Airlines significantly because of the Global Financial Crisis.
The worldwide economic crisis has influenced the performance of all sectors of the economy negatively in the current global business environment. Among the highly…… [Read More]
Causes of Financial Crisis
Ireland developed high growth rates based on rapid expansion of credit and a buildup of personal debt fueled by rising property prices (Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it?). This lead to risky bank lending practices. Banks also engaged in short-term borrowing from wholesale money markets causing increased risk appetite. Supervisors and regulators failed to identify and act on the emerging risks. Where construction was a large part of the employment and economy, it caused high unemployment rates and major bank losses in a bubble burst when household income could not afford to pay mortgage debt. Property value decreased making it harder to recover the mortgage value for banks. In turn, it created difficulty for the banks to pay back the short-term borrowing to the wholesale money markets. Where risks were not identified, no plans were put in place…… [Read More]
Governance Following the Financial Crisis
Principles of Good Governance Following the Global Financial Crisis
Many high profile companies suffered a downfall following the 2008 global financial crisis. The meltdown spanned across various nations including the top world economies. Accusations on the cause of the downfall pointed to the failure by institutional investors inadequate monitoring of investments. In 2007, the collapse of the subprime mortgage market in the U.S. marked the beginning of the financial crisis. The escalating default rates and the decline in housing prices contributed to the economic meltdown. Companies such as AIG, Freddie Mac, Lehman rothers, and Freddie Mae filed for bankruptcy protection (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD] 2010). A series of government bailouts followed various financial institutions including HOS, Citigroup, and Washington Mutual, amongst others. Key policy makers fault weaknesses in corporate governance that explain the financial crisis.
Following the adverse economic implications, top…… [Read More]
Canada: Comparative Politics
Canada, like any other nation suffered terribly from the effects of the global financial crisis. The economic impacts from Global Financial Crisis were resolved through Canada's political and provincial administration structures. The Great ecession further intensified such trends towards elements of the precarious unemployment across Canadian provinces such as British Columbia mostly with certain population groups. This paper intends to illustrate how the global fiscal crisis has affected provincial economies in Canada.
Global Financial Crisis Impact on Provincial economies
The goal was to establish suitable forms of welfare states that mediated on the effects of forces of the global market forces through the determination of levels of state intervention within the provincial economic marketplaces. The liberal welfare regime in Canada as compared to the conservative one in Germany and social democratic from Scandinavian countries focused less on welfare provision and citizen security. This translated into…… [Read More]
International Lending and Financial Crisis
One of the major global financial crises is the financial crisis of 2007-2009. The financial recession that occurred between 2007 and 2009, encompasses the housing bubble that instigated the financial crisis, federal expenditure, and foreign exchange rates. Also, referred to as the 'Great recession', this global financial crisis had adverse impacts not only on the financial markets but also on the economies of nations across the globe, being the worst financial crisis in history. The financial crisis emanating from the U.S. affected other nations owing to financial globalization and led to discussions regarding restructuring of the international financial system (Ozkan, 2012). In particular, the global financial crisis originally started in and adversely impacted the financial sector of developed nations, especially in the United States, and subsequently had a detrimental impact of the real sector of affected nations as the financial institutions in the United States…… [Read More]
financial crisis a "crisis of capitalism?
Compare and contrast the theories of Susan Strange, Karl Polanyi and Giovanni Arrighi. Explain how three of them accessed issues of Financial crisis and its relationship with capitalism
Starting from 2008 onwards, we are currently experiencing an unremitting state of economic recession. Each of the three theorists stated in this essay have different perspectives of whether or not the recession indicates crises of capitalism. Whilst Susan Strange and Karl Polanyi have a more optimist perspective on the subject and indicate that rather than crisis, the recession may, in effect, be, in the first case, a misplaced paradigm (or different, tortured perspective) and in the second case, only a slight wrench that necessitates government intervention for amending a temporary situation, Arrighiri sees the situation as indeed manifesting something that is intrinsically, irremediably, and inherently wrong in the structure of capitalism itself. Each of these views…… [Read More]
Global Credit Crisis on UK Northern ock Bank
The lingering effects of the Great ecession of 2008 still remain, but most authorities appear to agree that the corner has been turned and global economic recovery is well underway. The cause of the Great ecession of '08 was primarily the sub-prime mortgage meltdown that occurred in the United States, and its effects were already being experienced as early as September 2007, when the United Kingdom experienced a mass market run on Northern ock Bank, the first in the nation's history. The global credit crisis that resulted from these events has been felt in differing degrees by the nations of the world, but few countries in the increasingly globalized international community have been entirely immune from its effects. To gain new insights into this fiasco, this paper provides a corporate profile for Northern ock Bank, followed by a review of the relevant…… [Read More]
This study emphasized the importance roles of financial derivatives, which has been known for the last decade and its effects on the Global financial crisis. It further analyzes the impact of financial derivatives and how it can be controlled to prevent corporations from incurring a lot of risks. It also explains the existence of financial derivatives since 1970, to the recent Global Financial Crisis which occurred in the 2006.
Risk is a feature associated with all productivity. As a result, financial markets adjust themselves to the fluctuation of exchange and interest rates. Hedging risk, these corporations highlight the importance of risk management tools known as Derivatives. Derivatives are defined as financial tools providing investors with effective solutions when avoiding risk caused from market volatility (Dodd, 2006). Financial derivatives are considered to be an effective risk management tool associated with Financial Engineering creating solutions to financial problems (Marks, 2010).…… [Read More]
Conduct a benchmarking analysis
As explained by Prasnikar, Debeljak and Ahcan (2005) benchmarking depends on comparing between two activities of an organization and another. In our case, we shall compare McDonald's activities and those of its competitors, Burger King and Wendy's.
• Best practices
McDonald's as a main player in the fast food industry is concerned with best practices with the industry. To this end, the corporation has adopted some best practices that include sustainability, nutrition and well-being, employee experience ad environmental responsibility. Accordingly, McDonald's protects the environment by going green and using methods that protect and conserve the environment. McDonald's also encourages its suppliers to uphold effective environmental. The company treats it employees well and offers them good working conditions as a way retaining them. Employees are offered training and promoted accordingly. McDonald's also adheres to ethical conduct its operations and food items are produced ethical. Similarly, the company…… [Read More]
During times of extreme pressure from the supply or demand side, the central bank is prepared to go in and support the currency, to help provide stability. This is significant because traders around the world; will use the major currencies as a way to hedge themselves against different risks. Where, they will view the weakness of one country's currency as a sign that they could be facing a number of different economic challenges. (Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rate, 2007) a good example of this can be seen with the ritish pound, where the ank of England decided to keep interest rates at .5%. This is important, because the increase in rates could be seen as a sign that economic stability could be returning to the country, which would help to reverse the downward pressure on the pound. However, the fact that they decided to keep interest rates unchanged, means that…… [Read More]
The article that was written by Conley (2011) discusses the impact that collateralized debt obligations (CDO's) would have upon the subprime loans. These were created in 1987, by the Wall Street firm Drexel urnham. In this product, the investment bankers would take a number of different articles and combine them together as one investment. The various assets that were used included: junk bonds, mortgages and other high yielding investments from the debt. The idea with these different products is that the investment bank could offer customers a stated return on their investment. The way it worked is the brokerage firm would distribute each investor, the stated amount of returns that they would make off of the tranche (the CDO investment). This was derived using a complex mathematical formula that would divide the total amount of interest that was received, from the various high yielding products that were inside the CDO.…… [Read More]
financial system trials tribulations starting early 2008. Indicate major reasons contributed financial market's collapse. Please leave a space reason. -College Level paperOrder ID
Five major factors that contributed to the financial market's collapse
eason 1: Historically low interest rates
The first major contributor to the collapse of the worlds' financial markets was the housing bubble. The Federal eserve dropped interest rates to historically levels after the September 11 terrorist attacks and the dot.com bubble burst. This was to generate more spending and borrowing and propel the nation out of recession. Low interest rates encouraged people to buy on credit. Many people took out mortgages, thinking that this was a good time to buy a house, and many others took out mortgages hoping to 'flip' a house, or sell it for more than they paid for it, as they were convinced that it was impossible for housing prices to go down…… [Read More]
global branding of Stella Artois
Porter's 5-forces analysis of the beer industry
Bargaining power of buyers
The bargaining power of buyers is very high in the beer industry. Consumers have many choices, spanning from other alcoholic beverages to other brands of beer, including smaller labels as well as the major brands. Also, beer is not strictly a necessity. Consumers can conceivably 'do without' if the price is too high.
Bargaining power of suppliers
The bargaining power of suppliers is also very high in the beer industry. Beer companies are critically dependent upon obtaining specific input goods to create their brews. They need a high volume of input goods to produce their product, and they need a timely and steady supply. Good relationships with bottlers and distributors are also required to take the product to market.
Competitive rivalry is extremely high. All of the major beer brands are fighting…… [Read More]
New International Banking Regulations on Bahrain Banking Sector
Major International regulatory developments that impacted banks in Bahrain for the past five years
Current Regulatory Trends Impacting Regulatory Activities in Banks in Bahrain
Top Three Risks Facing Banks in Bahrain & how it can help Develop Regulatory Environment
Following the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, there has been a worldwide debate about better regulations in the world banking systems which has impacted banks all across the globe. The global crisis led to, many banks all over the world reporting a financial loss in their financial report primarily due to connections with subprime mortgages in the United States or they were simply affected by the acute liquidity and credit crunch following the crisis of by the ensuing economic recessions in their own countries and regions. However, since the economic crisis, there has been enhanced public's interest in the Islamic banks primarily located…… [Read More]
Another significant factor that affected the financial crisis of 2008 was role that Wall Street played in worsening the impact of the financial disaster that was to come. Specifically, a number of prominent Wall Street companies effectively "bought in" to the housing shortage by investing in securities that are financially supported by loans of a dubious nature. A recent report compiled by the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission alludes to the fact that such investors were well aware of the substantial risk that these investments represented, yet pursued them anyway due to avaricious tendencies (Chan, 2011).
The involvement of banks in the financial crisis goes well beyond issuing loans that were of a suspect nature to people who required subprime loans. To that extent, this degree of culpability on the part of banks can actually be traced to the Securities and Exchange Commission, another federal government entity, that was decidedly lax…… [Read More]
There is a concerted effort to bring developing nations into the global trade system. There are certainly success stories of nations that have been able to enjoy advantages from joining this system -- China in particular comes to mind -- but there is room for debate as to whether or not the neoliberal trade system is actually desirable for developing nations. There are a lot of issues at play, starting with the basic economics.
In general, the theory of comparative advantage argues that nations should open up trade, so that they can produce the goods in which they have a comparative advantage and sell them to buy the goods in which they do not. There are some fairly significant real world limitations to this theory, however. One is that trade is usually governed by absolute competitive advantage, not comparative advantage. If a company wants a good at a low…… [Read More]
They feel they have survived and overcome harsh business environment and want to operate in risky markets like razil. Some of them benefited from privatization or part-privatization. The current government dislikes the notion of privatization, which tends to improve businesses. ut it likes national champions to succeed abroad. A government minister wrote the World Economic Forum in 1996 that it was not in the interest of the government for razilian companies to expand abroad. He said that capital was limited and they wanted to create local jobs. razil's laws also make the sending of profits from foreign subsidiaries back to razil impossible. They also refuse to recognize losses incurred abroad in company accounts. Some of the olivian assets of foreign investor Petrobras were nationalized by razil's president, Evo Morales. Multinationals are likely to encounter similar obstacles, but commodity producers, consumers or traders can be sure that their built-in comparative advantage…… [Read More]
Korean Financial Crisis in the Late 1990s: Lesson for Current Euro Area
The objective of this study is to examine what is unique or different about the Korean financial crisis as compared to other Asian financial crises and to determine the primary causes of the financial crisis in Korea. This work will further examine the government response to the crisis and what it is that can be learned from the Korean financial crisis and applied in Korea to the Euro Area.
The major components of the Korean financial system in the 1960s and 1970s are stated in reports to have been nationalized with "lending targeted toward favored sectors and firms including the exports and heavy industries. (Jeon and Miller, 2005) Regional banks came on in 1967 and could only operate in their own provinces, which provided encouragement for development that was regionally-based. In the early 1980s, plans were made for…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, more crucial remained the truth that the dollar itself oscillated severely as against the yen that is another vital currency for carrying out business for the affected nations. The fading of the dollar within the decadal period from 1985 to 1995 made a huge boon in the trade surplus for the affected nations. Thereafter, the acute turnaround began in 1995 wiped their enormous edge in price and damaged their current account situation, which in its effect spoiled the trust in the market created an appropriate climate for the crisis. To put it differently, it was not the system of linking the dollar in its own which is responsible. The cause was the non-observance of the basic instability in the economies of the nations and the uncontrolled oscillation of the exchange rate of dollar-yen. The dilemma was the outcome of the huge quantity of unstable capital and the blind follower…… [Read More]
Income Distribution Gap
The global fiscal crisis will be borne by the millions of people who do not have a share in the benefits that were derived from the global economic expansions that occurred previously. Not only has the gap widened between low wage earners and high wage earners in nations across the globe, the world's income gap distribution has widened. Economists have long concluded that a limited degree of income inequality contributes to worker motivation, promotes innovation, and rewards talent and effort. Nevertheless, when income differences become too great, the dynamics become counter-productive. unaway income inequality is considered to be a destructive force, such that "rising income inequality represents a danger to the social fabric" ("Board of Canada," 2012). The repercussions from excessive income inequalities include children not attending school so they can contribute to household earnings by going to work, increased crime rates, lower life-expectancies, and malnutrition.
In…… [Read More]
Financial Case Study
McDonald Corporation specializes in the food service globally. The company started operation in 1940, and in 1967, the MacDonald registered its trademark. The primary product of McDonald includes chicken, hamburgers, soft drink, French fries, dessert and milkshakes. Over the years, the company has expanded its menu and included wraps, fish, salads fruits and smoothies. Presently, the company operates its business through either affiliate or franchise globally and the company realizes bulk of its revenues from the fees collected from franchise. Moreover, the company derives its revenues from the royalties and rents. Since MacDonald has started operations, the company has enjoyed rapid growth. At the end of the 2012 fiscal year, the company recorded the annual revenues of more than $25.7 billion with the net profits of $5.5 billion. The company also recorded the market capitalization of $94.5 billion. The company operates in 119 countries and…… [Read More]
Global Financial Crisis and the Challenges for Developing Countries
Global financial crisis is known to generally hit the developed economies and cause a slowdown in the economy and even negative growth. This is primarily due to the slack demand in the local market and he surrounding markets. For the developing countries the impact of a global financial meltdown is directly related to the importance of exports and the dependence on capital inflow of foreign funds for local industries and to the economy.
For example in the countries of South Asian countries, for example more than 22% of the Gross Domestic Products is formed by exports of goods and services. The percentages of such exports of the GDP is 26% in the Latin America and the Caribbean countries, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 40% in central Asia while it is nearly half of the GDP in countries of…… [Read More]
Globalism Influenced 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, Effects Japan
The Asian financial crisis took place during an era of financial crisis that effected a great part of East Asia. The whole nightmare started in July 1997 and the disaster raised a lot of fears of a universal economic collapse because of financial infection. The tragedy happened in Thailand with the monetary failure of the Thai baht right after the Thai administration was enforced to drift the baht for the reason that the lack of foreign currency in order to support its secure rate of exchange (United Nations). This cut its peg to the U.S. dollar, after thorough efforts to support it in the encounter of a critical financial over-delay that was in part driven by real estate. However, globalism not only influenced the 1997 crisis, but also caused Japan to not only become asymmetrical but also caused financial instability in the…… [Read More]
economic and financial crisis (2008-2009), the Federal Reserve took exceptional measures in order to combat the effects of the crisis on the American economy. These measures translated into an expansionary policy that included pumping money in the economy and purchasing assets that were in trouble. Through its expansionary work, the government was able to balance some of the effects of the crisis.
The question that seems to be on everybody's mind (and lips) today is where does it all end? One thing everyone can agree on is that this type of expansionary policy cannot last forever. The United States economy functions as a free market economy where the laws of supply and demand govern the realities of the market. A continuous and permanent intervention of the Federal Reserve is neither possible, nor healthy. What nobody can agree on, however, is when the expansionary approach should stop: now, in the near…… [Read More]
Asian Financial Crisis of 1997
The economies of the so-called "Asian Tigers" were looked at with envy by the rest of the world in the early 1990s. These Southeast Asian countries -- South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand had shown impressive (in most cases double-digit) growth rates for the preceding decade and more; thus becoming "darlings" of liberal capitalism and globalization in the post-cold war era. Other developing countries were looking to follow their example, and indeed Indonesia and Philippines were straining at the leash to join the "tiger" club. Investors, bankers, and fund managers from all over the world were queuing up to be part of the Asian "economic miracle" -- and perhaps make a quick buck or two in the process. What's more -- the "trickle down effect" was actually pulling the poverty line in the region steadily downwards giving rise to a growing and…… [Read More]
Global Economic Crisis
Throughout the history of the U.S. and the world at large, financial crises and the resultant economic recessions have occurred unerringly recurrently. In fact, the phenomenon has become so common that some think of such crises as parts of economic systems of the major world powers. The most recent one is the 2008 financial crisis that brought about the world economic recession. The recession resulted in over 4.1 trillion dollars in losses, increased poverty, unemployment numbers climbing to over 10% in the U.S. and quite higher in major European economies, major banks collapsed and several stock markets crashed. In fact, American investors alone lost over forty percent of their savings value. Housing prices dropped sharply from the high recorded previously in 2006. The 2008 crisis also resulted in decline in manufacturing, reduction of world trade, decrease in consumer spending, and many negative effects. Because of the importance…… [Read More]
The Effect of the Eurozone Today on Global Financial Markets
Global markets are so intertwined today that what affects one is definitely going to have an impact on another. Case in point, the recent issues in Greece and other European Union (EU) countries have had a global effect and have wrought havoc on the Eurozone. Because if this global connectedness, large banks and organizations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are even more important today than they were in the past.
The EU's finances are powered by the countries that have become member nations, but those finances are guarded by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the IMF. The ECB is the institution that is responsible for the Euro, the currency of the EU, and it is also the organization responsible for negotiations regarding the economic difficulties of EU member nations. Since Greece, Spain, Italy and others have had…… [Read More]
When businesses go international, they have to operate in a more competitive, uncertain, and risky business environment. The forces present in the Global environment bring a number of challenges for the businesses; making it more difficult for them to maintain their market share, enhance profitability, and keep the customers satisfied (Cherunilam, 2007). To compete successfully and ensure a sustainable future in the international markets, business organizations have to analyze these forces carefully and strategize accordingly. Globalization has also impacted the way countries use to recognize themselves as internationally competitive and advanced than other countries (Tellis, Stremersch, & Yin, 2003).
This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the positive and negative impacts of Globalization and the efforts which nations and business organizations make in order to become internationally competitive and keep up pace with the Globalization. The paper starts with a brief description of different environmental forces that are…… [Read More]
If asset bubbles can be leading indicators of recession, that begs the question what assets are the most important? Several studies have shown that housing prices are critical. They were important in Japan and in 2008 in the United States. Babecky (2012) showed that housing prices consistently predict asset bubbles, minus the occasional false positive. Intuitively this makes sense since any sort of bubble will result in more investment in real estate.
There is a further question that is raised in light of the contagion of the 2008-2009 crisis. Prior to that, as Evanoff (2013) notes, several asset bubbles were effectively contained by monetary policy and did little damage. Most bubbles that cause damage do so in the developing world -- Southeast Asia and Russia in the late 1990s for example -- but in the developed world the damage is usually contained. Frankel and Saravelos (2011) examined the indicators that…… [Read More]
Financial Analysis of Lehman rother
The history has been full of financial collapses and financial scandals and one of the biggest financial collapses that a company has ever seen was that of Lehman brother. The collapse of a firm as huge as Lehman rother and a firm which has such great experience of over a hundred years lead the world into a shock. It created doubts in the minds of people regarding the condition of other financial institutions. The history of Lehman rother is rich which is further discussed.
The history of Lehman rother dates back to 1844, when a boy named Henry who was a 23-year-old son of a cattle merchant who immigrated to the United States from Germany and he settled in Alabama State of the United States where he opened dry goods store. In 1847, when Henry Lehman's elder brother arrived to Alabama, the firm…… [Read More]
Global Financing and Exchange ate Mechanisms
oles of International Financial Institutions: IMF, World Bank, and ADB
All international financial institutions have their different goals, objectives, varying expertise, and areas of specialization. This study will focus on the role African Development Bank, World Bank and International Monetary Fund on global finance. The partnerships enhanced are geared towards poverty reduction and economic growth that can be maintained. This is according to the recent announcements made by global financial institutions. The International Monetary Fund mainly focuses on promotion of international financial support and macroeconomic stability together with the growth of the member states.
On the other hand, the World Bank has diverted more attention on assisting member states to see a reduction of poverty levels by emphasizing on the development and social, structural, and institutional dimensions. Evidently, the reform for the financial sector is a key role promoted by international financial institutions. Collaboration…… [Read More]
The projected growth rates are of 7% for 2009, 7% for 2010, 8% for 2011 and 9% for 2012 (Hoovers). Wyeth is expected to increase at higher rates due to its being taken over by Pfizer.
3. Stock Price Analysis
The Wyeth stock is being currently (September 16th, 2009) traded at $47.70, revealing a 0.23 (0.48%) decrease relative to the previous trading session, which closed at $47.93. The day's high value so far is of $47.94, with a low of $47.64. The highest value for the past twelve months is of $48.30, with the lowest of $28.06 (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Company Website). Compared then to the evolution of the past year, it is obvious that the price of the Wyeth stock option increased. The highest price in its trading history was of $69.75 and it was achieved on the 12th of April 1999. The lowest price was registered on the 17th…… [Read More]
he only observation that could be made here is that one would expect a larger proportion of the total expenses to be allocated to research and development, given the fact that this is such an important part of Microsoft's activity and essential in order to obtain a competitive advantage on the market.
Asset and Capital Structure
Cash and cash equivalents
otal fixed assets
he asset structure at Microsoft reflects some of the particularities in the industry, notably the fact that the inventory levels tend to be quite low, as compared to the other assets. his means that the I industry is not one supporting production on stock. At the same time, the value of the total fixed assets is significantly high, which can be partly explained by the size of the company and the investments in land, buildings and equipment.
Part III…… [Read More]
Despite the positive contributions they generated upon the culture and economy of Singapore, the foreign citizens, mainly Chinese, have also given birth to some less pleasant effects. In terms of education and healthcare, the costs of these types of services increased and in the future could materialize in increased fiscal pressure as a means of covering the expenditures. The housing sector has also been impacted in two manners -- structurally, there has been noticed an increase in facilities used as business 'offices' and secondly, there has been registered an increase in retail prices for the purchase and rental of real estate properties. In terms of language, the 42% immigrants are generally able to become integrated. Crime rates have however increased and nearly one percent of this growth is directly linked to immigration.
Abet, C., Localization vs. Globalization, The Architectural eview, Vol. 196, 1994
Brimelow, P., Immigration's Impact on Education…… [Read More]
3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets
ecause the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…… [Read More]
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…… [Read More]
Global Organizations -- IMF
At the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, that created the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, the Western capitalist nations sought to avoid a repetition of the events that led to the Great Depression and Second World War by establishing a stable international economic order that was not bound by the rigidity of the pre-1914 gold standard system. The interwar period of 1919-39 was one of economic and politic chaos, featuring deflationary devaluations, closed trading blocs, massive unemployment and the failure of the revived gold standard in 1925-31, which were key factors in the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany in 1933 and the fascist takeover of Japan that began in 1931. President Woodrow Wilson had been an early advocate of free trade and had warned against the nationalism and autarky in economic policies that became the norm in the 1920s and 1930s. Secretary of…… [Read More]
These funds are now removed from the banking system. Keep in mind that banks use every dollar on deposit to create many more dollars worth of loans, the hit to the banking system and by extension, to the money supply is something approaching 25 to 30 billion dollars. This was a global phenomenon, as the crisis arises interest rates are slashed. So hence, by 2008-2009 the Federal Reserve, Bank of England to many others have pushed interest rates close to zero. He also explains how major players like Mr. Bernake and the Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson affected the crisis and how the steps and how they have left their mark on this financial crisis. He also contends that all crisis have an ebb and flow in their severity and rarely hit once and subside. He vilifies our toxic waste method of having recourse to non-recourse government loans and in the…… [Read More]
Aside the attraction of customers, the money invested in marketing have created the desired outcome of a strong and reputable brand. Another pivotal element in the financial strategies has been that of maximizing the efficiency of managing inventories. This was necessary in order to continually strengthen the brand as well as achieve the profitability goals. Alongside with operating principles, supply-chain renovation and inventory management, financial management represents the pillar of the Nike business model (Filbeck, Krueger and Preece, 2007).
It is extremely difficult to generalize the approaches of multinational organizations to financial management as each individual entity will employ those courses of action which best suit its needs as well as its characteristics. Whilst Ford continued to invest its resources in the manufacturing of large and luxurious vehicles in an attempt to drive the market, McDonald's has recognized the necessity in satisfying customer needs and has as such…… [Read More]
The decision of investing or not here then depends on the personal adversity to risk of each individual investor. The general theory states that each investor should construct a diversified portfolio, which adequately balances high risk-high gain shares with medium or even low rates of risk and gains (Hagin, 2004). New Zealand could then be assimilated with a medium risk-medium gain share, and as such would be perceived as a valuable addition to one's portfolio. In this order of ideas then, the recommendation would be that of investing in the country.
Amadeo, K., 2009, An Introduction to the Financial Markets, About, http://useconomy.about.com/od/themarkets/a/capital_markets.htm last accessed on December 17, 2009
Hagin, ., 2004, Investment Management: Portfolio Diversification, isk and Timing -- Fact and Fiction, John Wiley and Sons
Healy, J., 2001, New Zealand Capital Markets, Ministry of Economic Development, http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/18163/healy.pdf last accessed on December 17, 2009
Malkin, B., 2009, Financial Crisis:…… [Read More]
Bank of America and Merrill Lynch would have to be separated and Goldman Sachs could no longer be a bank holding company. "Commercial banks would take deposits, manage the nation's payments system, make standard loans and even trade securities for their customers -- just not for themselves. The government, in return, would rescue banks that fail. On the other side of the wall, investment houses would be free to buy and sell securities for their own accounts, borrowing to leverage these trades and thus multiplying the profits, and the risks. Being separated from banks, the investment houses would no longer have access to federally insured deposits to finance this trading. If one failed, the government would supervise an orderly liquidation. None would be too big to fail -- a designation that could arise for a handful of institutions under the administration's proposal" (Uchitelle, "Volcker," 2009).
The Volcker proposal seems sensible,…… [Read More]
Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
Matthews, Owen and Anna Nemtsova. "The Kremlin Vigilantes." 14 February 2009. Newsweek. 17 May 2009 .
Monacelli, R. "Russia: Population, Immigration and the Economy." 19 February 2009. Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology, Policy. 17 May 2009 .
Schwirtz, M. "For Russia's Migrants, Economic Despair Douses Flickers of Hope." 9 February 2009. New York Times. 17 May 2009 .
Yasmann, V. "Russia: Immigration Likely to Increase, Mitigating Population Deficit." November 2005. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. 16 May 2009 .
RUSSIAN IMMIGRATION STATS:
immigrant population > Immigrants as percentage of state population
immigrant population >…… [Read More]
what is climate change and what is it doing?
The reality of global warming: fact vs. fiction and the marginalized greed-based business perspective
The Economics of global warming vs. The moral impact of global warming on all stakeholders including non-human ones.
Climate change, not global warming: the effects are different in different parts of the globe.
The political, social, and financial challenges that global warming creates and how the challenges can be met.
The Economic, Political, and Ethical Effects of Global Warming
Global warming, or climate change, has economic, social, and political consequences. These consequences are experienced by the non-human populations of the planet, too, and perhaps even more so. The Environmental Protection Agency points out that due to climate change and global warming, migratory birds are flying an average of thirty-five miles further north than they did just forty years ago. The recent Hurricane Sandy…… [Read More]
Combined with the increasing prevalence of regional trading blocs, higher transportation costs may result in a move towards regional production rather than global. In other respects, however, Lonely Planet's business will remain essentially unchanged over the coming years.
The globalization of international trade has had a profound impact on Lonely Planet's operations. It has allowed the company to use offshore production centers that are capable of serving the global market. The monetary flows even at a relatively simple, one-product firm like LPP illustrate the degree to which economies around the world are intertwined. The company receives monetary inflows from dozens of nations, and disperses monetary flows to dozens more. Including small flows, the operations of Lonely Planet contribute to the economy of nearly every nation on earth.
The recent changes with respect to the global economy will continue to impact operations into the coming years, affecting the firm's ability…… [Read More]
The orld Bank is a likely source of support for such an initiative. Recent research has focused on the promise of rural development through a restructuring of agri-business (Jarosz, 1996) and the results are promising. Rural labor practices are subject to change and some of those changes do not require a global revolution. Instead of waiting for the IMF to collapse or fertilizer companies to go bankrupt, sustainable agricultural development advocates should focus on the community level.
The global food system is unjust by almost every measure. Billions of people are starving to death while another billion are suffering the ill health effects of too much food. Our domestic and international institutions have not only created this reality, but are situated now to support policies that perpetuate this reality. Change will not be easy and transformation will be even harder. Small, locally-led reform can begin in any community that…… [Read More]
Indeed, risk-seeking is pervasive in the financial industry, as competition compels banks to seek higher returns. Regulation such as capital requirements can help to reduce risk-seeking behavior, although the negative affect such regulations have on value can ultimately encourage at least some degree of risk-seeking. Despite this unintended potential consequence, regulation serves to neuter overly aggressive bankers and reduces risk in the banking system. Reducing the risk in the banking system is congruent with the government's objective of making effective use of taxpayer money.
A fourth consideration is that consumers demand regulation. hile this does not constitute an economic case for regulation, it must be understood that governments are not motivated by purely economic considerations. Consumers want to know that their deposits are safe and that they can access money when needed for homes, vehicles and small businesses. Consumer demand, while irrational, is a key driver in the level of…… [Read More]