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The peace (essentially established in estphalia) merely provided a pretext for liberty. As free market enterprises adapted to new ideas of liberty, the very security that the former liberty promised gave way to a new threat of domination through war. Putin is quite correct to assert that international law is being flouted by America: American corporate interests have larger concerns that the maintenance of international law: their business is business -- not peace. Such, of course, is problematic for any continuation of global governance, unless hegemony of a single governor takes the reigns.
Lynn Miller states as much when she says "that the peace of the international community can be maintained [only] through a binding, predetermined agreement to take collective action to preserve it. It says that any illegal threat or use of force by any sovereign member of the international community against any other…should trigger the combined force of…
Brand, Ulrich. "Order and regulation: Global Governance as a hegemonic discourse of international politics?"
Cutler, A. Claire. "Global Governance."
Miller, Lynn H. "The Idea and the Reality of Collective Security."
"Putin Warns Against Flouting International Law For Own Interests." Spacewar. 2007.
In these constructs, the nation-state is seen as the outgrowth of global political arrangements, as global desires for money and power shape the globalizing world (Meyer et al., 1999). But the primary weakness in this paradigm is the fact that a globalized world constructed through political means would be just that, a globalized world, but not necessarily a global civil society. Indeed, such an organization would fail to meet the requirements of an idealized global civil society. In addition, models that stress politics as the driving force of the global civil society forget that the contemporary driving forces of the global civil society are issues that all the world has an interest in, such as global climate change and emissions, terrorism, and the development of nuclear weapons. Further, those models forget the importance of culture and shared cultural values in the world system. Evidence of this is the degree with…
GLOBAL GOVENANCE UNITED NATIONS & EGIONAL OGANIZATIONS
The foundations and basic ideas of Global Governance are examined in the book 'International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance' (Karns & Mingst, 2009). In the report below, three chapters from this text are first summarized, and then subsequently analyzed and discussed. Sections addressed are Chapter 3 - 'Foundation of the Pieces of Global Governance'; Chapter 4 - 'The United Nations: Centerpiece of Global Governance'; and Chapter 5 - 'egional Organizations'.
For Chapter 3, a historical basis, beginning with Confucius, is developed for inter-national cooperation; this then leads to a discussion of the 'state' system (Karns and Mingst, 2009, 64). The current complexity of international organizations developed out of first the state system and then from international rules, in a slow development from early recorded history to the present (Karns and Mingst, 2009). As the authors state, Pierre Dubois proposed political…
1) Karns, Margaret P, and Karen A Mingst. International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. 2nd ed.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2009.
2) Dwivedi, Sangit. International Organizations And Global Governance. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research 1, no. 12 (2012). Accessed December 27, 2014. http://www.indianresearchjournals.com/pdf/IJSSIR/2012/December/18.pdf .
3) Nobel Peace Prize, 2001. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2001 . Accessed December 27. 2014
1. Global governance refers to the shifting of political and economic institutions to transnational agents or organizations. A feature of globalization, global governance theoretically ensures collaboration and cooperation between sovereign nation-states as well as private sector enterprises. Global governance often includes participation by transnational or international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) as well as para-governmental organizations like the United Nations. Global governance recognizes the inevitability of interdependence for achieving mutually beneficial economic, political, and social goals.
The goals of global governance vary depending on regional differences and differential needs. International economics organizations like the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and the World Bank have become fully integrated into global economic strategies. Global governance groups do form policies and follow protocols, which are enforced mainly with sanctions and censure rather than through military pressure.
Global governance often has a regional focus, but is occasionally truly international in scope. Some of the…
Lechner, F. J. & John Boli (eds). (2014). The Globalization Reader. Fifth Edition. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ritzer, G. & Paul Dean. (2015). Globalization: A Basic Text. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
21st century experienced many changes. Some of which related to political and civil unrest and terrorist attacks. The issues surrounding global governance and the outcomes of such problems in the present day have sparked the interests of researchers and analysts. They have come to a better understanding. With closer integration of nations worldwide through globalization, greater need for collective action arises. Although globalization increased within the last decade, it is greater in terms of economic globalization vs. political globalization. Even in most recent years, development of an international rule of law has not truly formed. Instead, certain rules, like the WTO rules governing worldwide trade, are extremely unfair. "…they have been designed to benefit the developed countries, partly at the expense of the developing countries" (Stiglitz, 2004, p. 2).
In order to address specific issues when it comes to global governance, it is important to approach international problems in a…
Dingwerth, K. (2014). Global democracy and the democratic minimum: Why a procedural account alone is insufficient. European Journal Of International Relations, 20(4), 1124-1147. doi:10.1177/1354066113509116
Gray, K., & Murphy, C. (2013). Introduction: rising powers and the future of global governance. Third World Quarterly, 34(2), 183-193. doi:10.1080/01436597.2013.775778
Stiglitz, J. (2004). The Future of Global Governance. Columbia.edu. Retrieved 16 January 2015, from http://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac%3A126569
EDD+ Threaten to ecentralize Forest Governance" by Phelps and colleagues examines the phenomenon of the educing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (EDD+) movement and how this trend might lead to a disturbing tendency of decentralized forest management. Ultimately Phelps and associates argue that in order for the proper balance to be achieved, communities need to have the ultimate control over the design of EDD+ and the exact manner in which it is implemented. Keeping control at the local level will ensure that the integrity of the environment is maintained in the present and in the years to come. Furthermore, Phelps and company are pushing for the optimization of EDD+ policies through more intensified research. Finding a sense of harmony is the ultimate option. "There is a tension between the urgency to reduce emissions and science-based EDD+ governance that could benefit millions of forest-dependent people and could reduce forest carbon…
Betsill, M., & Bulkeley. (2004). Transnational Networks and Global Environmental Governance. International Studies Quarterly, 471 -- 493.
Busheley, B. (2012). Seeing the Communities for the Carbon:. Re-Considering Development.
Huppe, G., H., C., & Knoblach, D. (2012). The Frontiers of Networked Governance. The International Institute for Sustainable Development, 1-36.
Khan, J. (2012). What role for network governance in urban low carbon transitions? Journal of Cleaner Production, 133 -- 139.
The UN Convention on the ights of the Child was first signed in 1989. According to the primary document, the underlying principles of the convention are in the "inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family." In that sense, the Convention on the ights of the Child builds upon the Universal Declaration of Human ights, where the UN declared that childhood is entitled to special and assistance. The objectives of the document are to provide a framework for provisions for the welfare of children. So for example, it is stated in the convention that "the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration" in courts of law, and in social welfare institutions. State parties should also "ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child." The Convention then details other elements of protecting children, which is…
Cohen, L. & DeBenedet, A. (2012). Why is the U.S. against children's rights? Time. Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://ideas.time.com/2012/01/24/why-is-the-us-against-childrens-rights/
UHCHR.org (2013). Committee on the rights of the child. UHCHR.org. Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/
UHCHR.org. (2013). Convention on the rights of the child. UHCHR.org. Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx
.....pursuing graduate studies for professional and personal advancement. A graduate program for professional improvement will prime me for a profession in business, civil service, and nonprofit settings. The programs merge discipline-specific and complex coursework with competence such as critical thinking, multitasking/time management, and analytical thinking that are carried over even with change of profession. Moreover, completing a graduate degree signifies steadfastness, purpose, strength of mind and resilience, and individuals who possess these notable qualities are in great demand to fill innumerable positions. According to NYU (2015), my advancement within an organization lies in my ability to prove success in a long-term state requiring strength, discipline, and the willingness to work cooperatively with others.
On the personal level, earning a graduate degree will not only expand and strengthen my education, but it will also instill significant skills and fresh knowledge to become a successful frontrunner and innovator at the conclusion of…
In this order of ideas then, he strives to come up with a theory that explains the construction of global networks, as well as the systems they use to grow and prosper. In order to make his case, Kendall looks at global structures constructed in various domains, including society and technology. He comes to the realization that global peace and order can only be achieved with the full cooperation and collaboration of all structures in the international system. Additionally, there must exist a will and a way in order for the mentioned goals to be achieved. While he recognizes that his arguments address a certain kind of economists and politicians who promoted the idea of a uniform and powerful globalization, he hopes that his points will the least make for an interesting reading.
inally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon…
Finally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon starts at the premise that there exists a direct connection between the three components of population, government and security. This conclusion was found throughout a previous study, which came to raise new questions that are answered in the current analysis. In a perfect world, peace would be achieved through fruitful partnerships between private and public players and would ensure the safety of all populations and all classes. Yet, this is not the case and Dillon argues that while governmentality is the collection of cooperations and collaborations, it represents more of a "technological ontology that proceeds through reflexive epistemologies."
In other words, there is a direct connection between technology and ontology as they validate each other and support each other in reaching the pre-established goals. "Here the dialogical interplay of the ontological and the technological is in evidence. If it takes a metaphysic to imagine a technic, it takes a technic to realize a metaphysic. But even that rendition fails to do justice to the co-evolutionary dynamic that exists in the power relations between technology and ontology. This is a mutually disclosive relationship in which each seems propelled by independent dynamics as well: the technologist continuously to interrogate and refine systems, the ontologist to secure the meaning of being.
Larner, W., Walters, W., 2004, Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces, Routledge
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
This behavio is not consideed dishonest; in fact, and Indian peson would be consideed ude if he o she did not ty to attempt to give a peson what has been equested.
Anothe vey impotant aspect of business cultue in India is the meeting etiquette. Meeting Etiquette is influenced by all sots of cultual elements descibed above, including social class. Fo example, in India, one must geet the eldest o moe senio fist, and when leaving a goup each peson must bid faewell individually. Though shaking hands is common, this is only in big cities, whee the natives ae accustomed to Westenes. Men and women, howeve, do not usually shake hands.
The next pat of the business cultue is knowing Indian names, and whee they oiginate. Accoding to one aticle, names ae based upon "eligion, social class, and egion of the county." Fo Hindus fo example, in the noth, people…
references taken from "India: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette." (2011). Kwintesential. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .
List provided by Shukla, M. (2011). "Guide to India." Executive Planet: Wiki. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=India >.
Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .
Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from . s
McKnight, D., Stokes, P., Vilmenay, J. (2003). "India - A Market Analysis: For Staples Incorporated." University of Maryland. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.sixsmart.com/SSPapers/subindia.htm >.
Global Financial Strategy
Critical assessment of the proposal to raise capital locally rather than in the UK
In the analysis of the proposal of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, it is essential to consider four critical aspects: costs, risks, benefits/advantages, and limitations/disadvantages. In the presentation of this critical assessment, the focus will be on the four factors or aspect in order to offer reliable analysis of the situation.
In the process of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, the organization must incur several costs. One of the essential costs is the professional cost. This refers to the amount of money or financial resources paid to the legal advisors, auditors, and reporting accountants in order to execute the process of raising the capital effectively and appropriately. Another important aspect of cost is the trading cost. These are direct costs including the brokerage commissions and financial…
Burnham, P 2010, 'Class, Capital and Crisis: A Return to Fundamentals', Political Studies Review, 8, 1, pp. 27-39,
Carvalhal, A, & Camara Leal, R 2013, 'The World Financial Crisis and the International Financing of Brazilian Companies', Brazilian Administration Review (BAR), 10, 1, pp. 18-39,
'Chad' 2013, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition, pp. 1-3,
Chana Kok, T, & Yap Voon, C 2011, 'Risk Factors of Commercial Banks in Malaysia', Journal Of Modern Accounting & Auditing, 7, 6, pp. 578-587,
As the 21st century unfolds, we are told that the world is embracing globalism -- a key change in the economic, political and cultural movements that, broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together. This idea refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events and actions are tied together, regardless of the geographic location of a specific country (political unit). The idea of globalism has become popular in economic and cultural terms with the advent of a number of macro-trade agreements combined with the ease of communication brought about with the Internet and cellular communication.
Would we not logically think, then, that countries in the developing world would be doing their upmost to encourage global thinking? That these same countries would embrace the chance to forge a nation of entrepreneurs and move into a position of self-sustaining…
Committee For Economic Development. (2006). Education for Global Leadership: The
Importance of International Studies and Foreign Language Education for U.S. Economic
And National Security. CED. Retrieved from: http://www.ced.org/images/library/reports/education/report_foreignlanguages.pdf
Graham, J.P. (2005). The Globalization of the Small Enterprise. Going Global. Retrieved from:
That is supposed to have become one market which does not entail any tariff distinctions between the nations. But it should be noted that some of the analysts feel that it will never become a single entity market, but will remain separated into different varying national markets. The reason is being ascribed to "cultural, informational, logistic barriers and perhaps remaining discriminatory barriers all of which imply an incurable tendency to award contracts to local suppliers." (Is Culture a Major Barrier to a Single European Market? The Case of Public Purchasing)
The general aim of free trade has however changed and it is now not limited any more to the removal of barriers in being able to sell the products made in one country to other countries of the world. This is considered to be even more important for that of the developing countries wherein their progress in development made however…
Madsen, Poul Thois. "Is Culture a Major Barrier to a Single European Market? The Case of Public Purchasing" Retrieved at http://www.ihis.aau.dk/~pmadsen/purchase.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Market Access and Protocol Commitments" Retrieved at http://www.uschina.org/public/wto/ch-memo.html . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Non-tariff Barriers to Imports" Retrieved at http://www.wright.edu/~tran.dung/Chapter8_Pugel.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Tariff" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TariffAccessed 18 September, 2005
Global Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility
An in-depth analysis of all possible factors responsible for the Social efforts
Socio-Economic, Cultural, Technological and Legal Factors
Strategic ideas involved in addressing corporate social responsibility issues
The Unique Composition of Microsoft
Creating etter-Quality Products
Using Conventional and Contemporary Resources
In recent years, augmented degree of interest has been shown on the subject of "Corporate Social Responsibility," also known as "CSR." This interest has been shown, both in the international/national business and academic circles, because almost all the current studies indicate that "Corporate Social Responsibility" increases the credibility of the business in the eyes of the stakeholders, both within and outside the organization (Isabelle and David, 2002).
Another reason for the increased interest being shown in the direction of "Corporate Social Responsibility," both by international/national business and academic circles, is because of the constant emphasis by the global society towards…
Bill Gates. Business @ the Speed of Thought: Succeeding in the Digital Economy. Warner Business Books; 2001
Christine L. Smith. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Dutch Approach. International Labor Review, 2002.
Doug Dayton. Selling Microsoft: Sales Secrets from Inside the World's Most Successful Company. Adams Media Corporation. 1999.
David Thielen, Shirley Thielen. The 12 Simple Secrets of Microsoft Management: How to Think and Act Like a Microsoft Manager and Take Your Company to the Top. McGraw-Hill. 1999.
Governance & Leadership
A classic work that reveals a set of differences between nonprofit organizations and profit organizations, compares the characteristics of public and private organizations to find the significant differences regarding the factors environmental, the relation environment / organization and internal structures and processes, all of which results in a set of strategic implications in the definition of the purposes, objectives, and planning, selection of human resources, management and motivation, and in control performance measurement. (Hopkins et al. 2005)
As a complement to the previous study, distinguish a set of factors that differentiate the public and the private. Such factors include: the complexity and ambiguity of goals, organizational structure, the degree of formalization, and the attitudes and values relating to work. (Jehn & Bezrukova, 2004) However, studies by analyzing previously, the authors find that managers public companies considered having goals clear and unambiguous, therefore, which must play in certain…
Dahlin, K.B., Weingart, L.R., & Hinds, P.J. (2005). Team diversity and information use. Academy of Management Journal, 48 (6): 1107-1123.
Doz, Y., Santos, J., & Williamson, P. (2004). Diversity: The key to innovation advantage. European Business Forum, 17: 25-27.
Earley, P.C. (2006). Leading cultural research in the future: A matter of paradigms and taste. Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (6): 922-931.
Ely, R.J. (2004). A field study of group diversity, participation in diversity education programs, and performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25 (6): 755-780.
How global warming induced natural resource shortages will cause violent conflict in the Middle East
Background on Climate Change
Implications for the Middle East
Global warming, or climate change, is no longer begging the question of when the effects of this phenomenon will begin to unfold; rather the changes in the climate are already being witnessed. There are many at risk populations all over the world. Many of these populations already are dealing with food and/or water shortages which will only become more problematic in the near future. Once resources become scarcer and exceed the carrying capacity of the local or regional population then this will introduce a new level of conflict that has the potential to easily become violent. There are few mitigation strategies that can help this point. Migration is always an option, but regional areas will be affected in similar ways. This analysis…
Britanica. (N.d.). Greenhouse Effect. Retrieved from Answers: http://www.answers.com/topic/greenhouse-effect
Brown, O., & Crawford, A. (2009). Rising temperatures, rising tensions: climate change and the risk of violent conflict in the Middle East. Retrieved from IISD: http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/rising_temps_middle_east.pdf
Clayton, M. (2007, March 22). Global boom in coal power - and emissions. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0322/p01s04-wogi.html
CO2 Now. (2011, November 16). Earth's CO2 Home Page. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from CO2 Now.
Global Strategic Management
Siemens has a number of key strengths that have allowed them to become one of the largest industrial conglomerates in the world. The first key strength is their focus on innovation. Siemens has always been driven be engineering, and their ability to produce not only better products but to continuously improve those products is one of the reasons for their continued success. The company has utilized innovation to spur significant organic growth in recent years (Siemens, 2008).
To support their engineering competency, Siemens has developed an extensive in-house training program (2008 Annual Report). This helps the firm to develop the talent it needs to remain at the fore of the innovation curve. The company trains workers through a formal facility in Bavaria, where the company is headquartered. Training, however, has long been a fundamental strength of Siemens because it helps to attract talent as well as…
2008 Siemens Annual Report. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from http://w1.siemens.com/annual/08/pool/downloads/pdf/en/pdf_e08_00_gb2008.pdf
Siemens website. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from http://w1.siemens.com/investor/en/index.htm
Some financial information from Reuters. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/incomeStatement?symbol=SI.N
Schafer, Daniel. (2009). Siemens Cuts Outlook Despite Second-Quarter Boost. Financial Times. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/cd667ff6-3487-11de-940a-00144feabdc0.html?nclick_check=1
To be sure, serious obstacles still remain in Europe -- most notably, the rigid labor laws that make relocating jobs a long and costly process. For example, while it's relatively easy for companies in the U.S. To fire employees whose jobs they want to outsource, to lay off an employee in Germany, a company first has to justify its decision to the union and then give its worker a notice period of four weeks to seven months.
The difference in attitudes goes back to the way both regions developed, says ichard Hill, an intercultural consultant with Europublic, a Brussels-based agency that advises companies in international business. "America was based on a can-do mentality, which is a reflection of the first Europeans who got to a huge, open, immensely rich country and were able to exploit it without any inhibitions," Mr. Hill says. On the other hand, Germany became a nation…
____. 1997. Exporter, skills upgrading, and the wage gap. Journal of International Economics 47:3-31.
____. 1999. Exceptional exporter performance: Cause, effect, or both? Journal of International Economics 47:1-25. Leach, Peter T. (2004). A developing market. Journal of Commerce. 2. 1
Bernard, a., and Jensen, J.B. (1995). Exporters, jobs, and wages in U.S. manufacturing: 1976-1987. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics, 67-119. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
Business: More gain than pain; Offshoring; the Economist. London: Jul 17, 2004.Vol.372, Iss. 8384; pg. 60
CNN, referring to the decision by the Russian Federation to call to Moscow its ambassador for NATO, for consultations (http://edition.cnn.com/2014/04/03/world/europe/ukraine-crisis/). This comes as a measure against rising tensions, following Russia's actions in Ukraine and it decision to annex Crimea.
Before starting a discussion as to how a strong governing structure would have handled a situation such as the one in Ukraine, a first comment needs to be made about the statement "one of the defining features of contemporary global politics is the lack of a strong central governing structure" can be seriously nuanced. Certainly, this is true at a global level, but it becomes more and more applicable at a regional level and not for any region, but for Europe, a populated and developed continent.
The European Union is a good example in this sense: it is an organization that has continuously integrated, economically at first and, subsequently, politically. It…
For example, Shu-Acquaye (2007) cites the basic differences in the legal systems in various parts of the world as contributing to the different approaches to corporate governance. Likewise, Shu-Acquaye cites these differences and adds, "The American corporate governance system adheres to the idea of shareholder primacy. Because the United Kingdom, Austria, and Canada share a legal system based on English common law and equity principles, they are similar to the United States -- shareholder primacy is the predominant norm in each of these countries."
By sharp contrast, other countries such as Japan and Germany are characterized by stronger protection for their employees, creditors, and other nonshareholder stakeholders in general, representing examples of a stakeholder-orientated system. In their book, the Control of Corporate Europe, Barca and Becht point out that, "Germany has always had a prominent place in the international corporate governance debate. The country is among the largest and richest…
Aaronson, Susan Ariel, 2002 (Fall), "Broadening Corporate Responsibility: Is Maximizing Shareholder Value Alone a Good Enough Long-Term Strategy?," the International Economy 16(4): 46
Ashby, Meredith D. And Stephen a. Miles, Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak Their Minds (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)
Barca, Fabrizio and Marco Becht, the Control of Corporate Europe (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Brada, Josef C., Saul Estrin, Josef C. Brada et al. (eds.). Corporate Governance in Central Eastern Europe: Case Studies of Firms in Transition (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1999).
Global corporations are often difficult to control because they operate in various countries throughout the world. As such actions that may be illegal in some countries are perfectly legal in others. Furthermore law enforcement officials and governments do not have the power to enforce laws that are outside of their jurisdictions. These issues call into question the effectiveness mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct. The purpose of this discussion is to Assess the effectiveness of various mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct and recommend a mechanism that I believe is the most effective.
Survey of Mechanisms and their Advantages/Disadvantages
Private regulations employ civil regulations to compel transnational corporations to operate according to a certain set of standards. According to the "defining feature of civil regulation is that its legitimacy, governance and implementation is not rooted in public authority. Operating beside or around…
Fritsch, S.(2008) The UN Global Compact and the Global Governance
of Corporate Social Responsibility: ComplexMultilateralism for a More Human Globalisation? Global Society, Vol. 22, No. 1, pg. 2-26
Haufler, V. 2003 "Globalization and Industry Self-Regulation," in Governance in A Global Economy: Political Authority in Transition, Miles Kahler and David Lake, eds. Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 226
Haufler, V. 2002 The Public Role for the Private Sector, and The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance Rodney Hall and Thomas Biersteker, eds. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Africa in general, and igeria specifically, are both going through turmoil and change on a daily basis. Companies and firms and even government entities are being forced to make changes in the way the govern and are governed. Current literature is ripe with examples such as the review that determined that "though high dispersed, both within and between firms, corporate in the selected countries are relatively not independent" (Kyerboah-Coleman, 2007, p. 350). Failures abound in many industries and corporate governance affects almost every area of business. There have even been "major failures in corporate governance at banks" (ew African, 2010, p. 63). Along with corporate governance, other factors are present such as the lack of technology. Once recent study determined that "except for the introduction of online registration by the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) in igeria, no serious integrative reform has been undertaken" (Bolodeoku, 2007, p. 107). Of course problems…
New African (2010) Banking revolution continues, Issue 494, pp. 62 -- 64
Ntim, C.G.; (2013) Corporate governance, affirmative action and firm value in post-apartheid South Africa: A simultaneous equation approach, African Development Review, Vol. 25, Issue 2, pp. 148-172
Soderbaum, F.; (2004) Modes of regional governance in Africa: Neoliberalism, sovereignty boosting and shadow networks, Global Governance, Vol. 10, Issue 4, pp. 419 -- 436
How Global Warming Impacts Commercial Insurers
People assume that every person on earth is in danger due to global warming, but what companies and industries have the greatest financial risk? And, which industry will have to assume the risk that others disregarded? Of course, the obvious answer is the insurance industry. Insurance is the gamble by a financier (or underwriter) against the risks that endanger any purchase or venture (Cummins & Venard, 2008). Understanding what global warming threats entail and how they can adversely affect the insurance industry's ability to provide the funds to secure risk is a crucial present and future occupation.
The insurance industry may be the most significant deterrent against the costs that are to be incurred by the possible deleterious environmental effects of global warming (Litan, 2006). However, because of the money to be made and the costs associated others will incur some of…
Allen, R.D., Seaman, S.M., & Delascio., 2009. Emerging issues: Global warming claims and coverage issues. Defense Counsel Journal, 76(1). 12-37.
Bertagna, B.R., 2006. "Standing" up for the environment: The ability of plaintiffs to establish legal standing to redress injuries caused by global warming. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2006(2). 415-446.
Burt, L., Carlson, C., Kucera, J., & Massie, J., 2009. Florida homeowners insurance: How big Is the availability problem and Is there a fair solution?. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 12(2). 183-196.
Cummins, J.D., & Venard, B., 2008. Insurance market dynamics: Between global developments and local contingencies. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 11(2). 295-307.
This method is congruent with Fraenkel and Wallen (2001) who note, "esearchers usually dig into the literature to find out what has already been written about the topic they are interested in investigating. Both the opinions of experts in the field and other research studies are of interest. Such reading is referred to as a review of the literature" (p. 48). A critical review of the literature can also provide other benefits as well. For example, Wood and Ellis (2003) identified the following as important outcomes of a well conducted literature review:
1. It helps describe a topic of interest and refine either research questions or directions in which to look;
2. It presents a clear description and evaluation of the theories and concepts that have informed research into the topic of interest;
3. It clarifies the relationship to previous research and highlights where new research may contribute by identifying…
Anastas, J.W. (1999). Research design for social work and the human services. New York:
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Detomasi, D. (2002). International institutions and the case for corporate governance: Toward a distributive governance framework? Global Governance, 8(4), 421-422.
Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,
The Effect of the Eurozone Today on Global Financial Markets
Global markets are so intertwined today that what affects one is definitely going to have an impact on another. Case in point, the recent issues in Greece and other European Union (EU) countries have had a global effect and have wrought havoc on the Eurozone. Because if this global connectedness, large banks and organizations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are even more important today than they were in the past.
The EU's finances are powered by the countries that have become member nations, but those finances are guarded by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the IMF. The ECB is the institution that is responsible for the Euro, the currency of the EU, and it is also the organization responsible for negotiations regarding the economic difficulties of EU member nations. Since Greece, Spain, Italy and others have had…
Dam, Kenneth W. "The Subprime Crisis and Financial Regulation: International and Comparative Perspectives*." Chicago Journal of International Law 10.2 (2010): 581-594.
European Central Bank (ECB). "Recently Published." Monthly Bulletin, 2012. Web.
International Monetary Fund (IMF). "About the IMF." International Monetary Fund, 2012. Web.
Halmai, Peter, and Viktoria Vasary. "Real Convergence in the New Member States of the European Union (Shorter and Longer Term Prospects)." The European Journal of Comparative Economics 7.1 (2010): 229-237.
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/27746 (accessed 12-10, 2010).
-- . BLAMING the VICTIM: THE TUTH ABOUT PALESTINIAN ANTI-SEMITISM. 09-28, 2010. http://www.jewishpress.com/pageroute.do/45397 (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
All the personal and traffic data will only be accessed by authorized employees of our organization, who are to access the data to fulfill their duties. Our policy will be to protect all the data in the database from unauthorized access. Our data retention policy is to keep all data and metadata properly to prevent unauthorized access.
In line with our data retention policy, our organization will protect the privacy of our entire customer in our database.
We will implement policy to prevent accidental loss of data.
To prevent accidental loss of data, we will implement data recovery plan that will quickly recover all data in case of accidental loss. There would a back up for all data. (Wende, Kristin, 2007).
Our organization will refrain to share or collect data through the public emails. All the data will be shared through the corporate emails and all employees must use the…
Berson, a. & L. Dubov (2007). Master Data Management and Customer Data Integration for a Global Enterprise, McGraw-Hill.
Duvall, L (2011). Jump Starting Data Governance: a Program Manager's Story. The Fifth MIT Information Quality Industry Symposium: 13-15.
Thomas, G. (2010).The DGI Data Governance Framework. The Data Governance Institute.
Illinois State Board of Education (2011). Data Governance Program Scenario. Illinois State Board of Education. USA.
Dishonesty in either could result in disaster for companies. Communication is the element that unites everything else. Employers should encourage employees to communicate either grievances or suggestions. This opportunity will result not only in better mutual understanding, but also in loyalty that arises from being valued as an employee.
4. I certainly would want to do homework on any company I enter for the first time - and particularly one where my predecessor left under a cloud. It could mean many things, which my investigation is obviously meant to reveal. It could mean that the person who left was him- or herself not honest and brought about an unsavory situation. It could also however mean that working conditions became such that the person had no other choice than to leave, even if it meant that unsavory reputations would remain. I would want to thoroughly investigate to determine what the situation…
Greenberg, Josh. (2005, Jan 24). Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges and Solutions. http://ezinearticles.com/?Diversity-in-the-Workplace:-Benefits,-Challenges-and-Solutions&id=11053
Information Guide. (2006). Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. http://www.sarbanes-oxley-101.com/sarbanes-oxley-compliance.htm
Jung, Kim Dae & Wolfensohn, James. (1999, Feb. 26). Economic Growh Requires Good Governance. International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/1999/02/26/edkim.t.php
Multinational Corporation (MNC) and Ethical Standards
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have usually faced several challenges with regards to developing standards that deal with issues associated with corporate social responsibility. These corporations are forced to embrace more specific ethical codes in their corporate strategy because of the materialization and growth of a global economy. In the recent past, multinational corporations have started rethinking strategies that may be regarded unethical based on international standards (Manakkalathil & udolf, 1995). As a result, some people have argued that the corporations should lessen their ethical standards to compete globally. In contrast, others have stated that a multinational corporation to should retain its ethical standards to develop more credibility throughout the world.
Proponents of this statement argue that an MNC should lessen its ethical standards because it may encounter some business laws that are not permitted in some countries. For instance, a company operating in the United…
Manakkalathil, J. & Rudolf, E. (1995). Corporate Social Responsibility in a Globalizing Market.
SAM Advanced Management Journal, 60(1).
Roache, S. (2013, October). Brazil -- Selected Issues. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2013/cr13313.pdf
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…
Alberts S. Obama boosts hopes of climate deal. 24 November, 2009.
Balaam David N. And Veseth M. Introduction to International Political Economy.
London: Prentice Hall, 1995
Governance of Information Security: Why Metrics Do Not Necessarily Improve Security
The objective of this study is to examine the concept that the use of various Metrics has tended to improve security however, Metrics alone may not necessarily improve security. This study will focus on two well-known metrics.
The work of arabanov, Kowalski and Yngstrom (2011) states that the greatest driver for information security development in the majority of organizations "is the recently amplified regulatory environment, demanding greater transparency and accountability. However, organizations are also driven by internal factors, such as the needs to better justify and prioritize security investments, ensure good alignment between securities and the overall organizational mission, goals, and objectives, and fine-tune effectiveness and efficiency of the security programs." (p.1)
It is reported that a survey conducted by Frost and Sullivan demonstrated "that the degree of interest in security metrics among many companies (sample consisted…
Barabanov, R.; Kowalski, S.; and Yngstrom, L. (20111) Information Security Metrics: State of the Art. Retrieved from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/95396822/Information-Security-Metrics-State-of-the-Art
Brotby, K (nd) Information Security Management Metrics: A Definitive Guide to Effective Security Monitoring and Measurement. CAC Press. Retrieved from: http://www.iso27001security.com/html/metrix.html
McQueen, M. (2008) System Security Through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics. Idaho National Laboratory. Jan. 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublications/Documents/3881671.pdf
Pronto, JP (2008) Developing Metrics for Effective Information Security Governance. Getronics. Retrieved from: http://www.interop.com/newyork/2008/presentations/conference/rc10-pironti.pdf
Policy, Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector
Why the Public Policy Issue Was Chosen?
According to the report released by National Priorities and Goals -- aligning efforts meant to transform America's Health care (NQF, 2009; Partnership, 2008). NPP (National Priorities Partnership) came up with 6 priorities. If the priorities are addressed, it could improve the quality of health care delivered to the U.S. citizens. NPP consists of 48 major U.S. health care organizations, which work with NQF (National Quality Forum). It identifies and advances priorities geared at improving health care in the future (NQF, 2009). NPP has identified palliative care as one of the six priorities that can help improve patient-based utilization outcome. This article provides the background to help identify steps to assist match the medical treatment of the patient and family objectives. It concerns itself with access to quality hospice services and palliative care (Meier, 2011). This…
AHRQ. (2002). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP): Hospitalization in the United States. Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: http://www.ahrq.gov/data/hcup/factbk6/factbk6c.htm
American Hospital Association. (2009). AHA Hospital Statistics. Chicago: American Hospital Association.
ANA. (2008). Organizational Affiliate Criteria. Silver Spring: American Nurses Association.
ANA. (2015, December 10). Palliative and Hospice Nursing Panel. Retrieved from American Nurses Association: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy-Advocacy/Professional-Issues-Panels/Palliative-and-Hospice-Nursing-Panel
UNDP Report Study
Human Development Report 2011:
A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations
Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…
From the data presented above, it is clear to see that, indeed, the studies mentioned in this paper correlate with the status of the countries at present and that Estonia and India seem to be faring a lot better than the DRC and Mexico. For example, it is clear that the DRC has gone down considerably in all four areas. Mexico, however, is a different story. It seems that it has gone up in all facets, which is does not correlates with research on Mexico that shows fluctuation in progress. It is a pity that the 2010 report does not yet have all the facts on Mexico, because they could, again, fluctuate due to the drug wars. The statistics for Mexico might look so great, despite the problems the country faces, due to Mexico's proximity to the U.S. And the help it receives from this country. Lastly, it is evident, especially from the GDP growth, that both India and Estonia have been growing steadily, as has Mexico, which is great news. Though this is in stark contrast to the DRC, which is at a pitiable $291 in GDP for 2010, according to the UNDP data in the table above.
This paper has presented a multitude of facts to examine what makes a country progress, while others stagnate. With the help of a comprehensive literature review and UNDP reports, the essay has concluded the two of the examined countries, Estonia and India, are faring better economically and political (and thus from health and education perspectives) than the DRC and Mexico. This has been due to the fact, as read in the literature review, that the first two countries have either international support in terms of trade and/or manpower and organization. The latter two, as seen above, are either torn apart by violence, or have a history of ineffectual political organization, and thus cannot fully prosper financially. Furthermore, their literacy rates, survival rates and GDP are substantially lower. In order to rise, Mexico and the DRC, and the latter especially, must find a way to put violence aside, so that the country may join in the progress of the modern world.
Though this research seems comprehensive, it has only analyzed other studies and the UNDP reports. Thus, a shortcoming is the inability of the researcher to be on the ground, or at least speak to experts on the issue, both inside the specific country and outside of it to obtain opinions on whether the poorer countries of the world can ever reach the kind of development that they should. Thus, the study presented here must be continued so that we may find future patters for development and help countries such as the DRC and Mexico advance in the world economy.
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Scandinavian prison models are considered to be amongst the most effective in the world. The penal system here, unlike is the case in other parts of the world -- including the U.S. -- is regarded humane and is designed in such a way that prisoners live more or less like regular citizens. With sunbathing facilities, vocational courses, and other amenities being a standard in most settings (unlike is the case in most Western prison settings), some prison systems like those in Norway could be mistaken for plush retirement community centers. How effective such incarceration facilities are in the control of crime is a valid topic for examination and analysis. This is more so the case given that from a "common sense" perspective, prisons conditions should be harsh enough to discourage inmates from committing the same crimes that landed them there in the first place. This seems to be the basic…
Delgado, B. (2007). Gangs, Prisons, Parole, and the Politics Behind them. New York, NY: Xulon Press
Grant, S. M. (2012). A Concise History of the United States of America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Lappi-Seppala, T. (2012). Penal Policies in the Nordic countries 1960-2010. Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 13, sup.1,
Mauer, M. (2003). Comparative international rates of incarceration: An examination of causes and trends: Presented to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
They feel they have survived and overcome harsh business environment and want to operate in risky markets like razil. Some of them benefited from privatization or part-privatization. The current government dislikes the notion of privatization, which tends to improve businesses. ut it likes national champions to succeed abroad. A government minister wrote the World Economic Forum in 1996 that it was not in the interest of the government for razilian companies to expand abroad. He said that capital was limited and they wanted to create local jobs. razil's laws also make the sending of profits from foreign subsidiaries back to razil impossible. They also refuse to recognize losses incurred abroad in company accounts. Some of the olivian assets of foreign investor Petrobras were nationalized by razil's president, Evo Morales. Multinationals are likely to encounter similar obstacles, but commodity producers, consumers or traders can be sure that their built-in comparative advantage…
Ardichvili, a. et al. (2010). Ethical business practices in BRICs. Society for Business
Ethics: Center for Ethical Business Cultures. Retrieved on December 13, 2010 from http://www.cebglobal.org/uploadedfiles/Ethical_Business_Practices_in_BRICs.pdf
Banham, R. (2010). The party gets started in Brazil. Treasury & Risk: the Free Library.
Retrieved on December 13, 2010 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/the+party+gets+started+in+Brazil%3A+multinational+corporations+are...-a02212023634
he World Bank Group: he role of the World Bank is to provide loans, policy and economic and technical advice and assistance and "knowledge sharing services" to poor and economically imperiled countries. It is a United Nations agency Made up of 184 member nations. hese nations both are responsible for financing and spending (loaning) World Bank funds. http://www.worldbank.org/
he United Nations Development Programme: the UNDP uses its global members to forward the agenda of the United Nations in the areas of "democratic governance," reduction of poverty, prevention of, and recovery from crisis events, advice and knowledge sharing and assistance on energy and environmental issues, as well as knowledge sharing and assistance on HIV and Aids prevention. http://www.undp.org/
he International Monetary Fund:
he IMF is an organization of 184 member countries that seek to cooperate in matters of global monetary issues, trade, employment, and poverty reduction worldwide.…
The ILO is a UN agency that is concerned with social justice and human and labor rights. It puts forward international labor standards in its conventions and recommendations including issues of human rights (association, freedom from forced labor, equal opportunity, etc.). It also provides technical assistance in vocational training, employment policy, labor administration and law, working conditions, management, co-ops, social security, and labor statistics and occupational safety. http://www.ilo.org
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: The OECD is a group of 30 member countries that puts out publications and statistics on economic, social issues, trade, development, and science and innovation. It also examines "emerging issues" and strategies that policy makers might use in individual cases. It also provides surveys and information reviews on individual nations. http://www.oecd.org/home/
World Trade Organization: The WTO is a global international organization that deals with the rules of trade between nations. It negotiates member trade agreements aimed at helping "producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business." Thus, the WTO member nations agree between themselves on issues of trade and import/export issues. http://www.wto.org
AT&T's code of ethics can be found on its ATT.com website (2014). The code exists in accordance with the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, according to the company. The code contains nine items: honest and ethical conduct, conflicts of interest, disclosure, compliance, reporting and accountability, corporate opportunities, confidentiality, fair dealing and protection and proper use of company assets. Under each category, the company explains its policies. Under "honest and ethical conduct," AT&T says it will "act with integrity," using a synonym to make a redundant statement. It also says it will "observe both the form and spirit of laws and government rules and regulations," which is the same as line IV, compliance. It will "adhere to a high standard of business ethics," another redundant statement, and without defining "high standard."
The company rather curiously defines "conflict of interest:" as arising when a personal interest interferes…
A&T Code of Conduct. (2014). Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.att.com/gen/investor-relations?pid=5595
AT&T (2013) AT&T global supplier diversity. AT&T. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.att.com/gen/corporate-citizenship?pid=17724
Holmes, A. (2014). AT&T buoyed in lobbying push against spectrum auction limits. Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from www.publicintegrity.org/2014/01/07/14081/att-buoyed-lobbying-push-against-spectrum-auction-limits
Saint Louis University. (2013). $1 million AT&T contribution to support global education initiatives. Saint Louis University. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.slu.edu/x87581.xml
The world of global communication is storied, vast and wide. It can also be very treacherous and unpredictable for people that are not in the know about what is involved, why things have to be done a certain way and so forth. This report will be a brief literature review of three articles that all pertain to global communications. The articles will relate to web-enabling for competitive advantage, the role of entrepreneurial networks in the exploration and exploitation of certain peoples and a case study about one of IBM's newer corporate volunteer programs. While these articles may seem to be about different things, they are all part of the different pieces and parts to the global communications landscape and all are worth of at least a cursory review. All of these articles pertain to the practice of business using global communications in the right way, the wrong way…
Kok, A. (2015). Demystifying Organizational Learning. Kellogg College, 1(1), 596-600.
Motiwalla, L., & Hashimi, A. (2003). Web-Enabling for Competitive Advantage. Journal Of Cases On Information Technology, 5(1), 274-289. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-
Vasilchenko, E. (2011). The Role of Entrepreneurial Networks in the Exploration and Exploitation of Internationalization Opportunities by Information and Communication Technology Firms. Journal Of International Marketing, 1(1), 88-92.
Corporate governance, IT Governance and Information Security Governance
IS 8310 Governance, isk Management and Compliance
Governance is the process of empowering leaders to implement rules that are enforceable and amendable. For comprehensive understanding of the term' governance' it is essential to identify the leaders and the set of rules, and various positions that leaders govern. Corporate governance, IT Governance and Information Security Governance embraces a linkage with certain acquiescence system while focusing on information security and privacy issues in the organization. This work will give a distinction between the three terms and identify how they related to each other and how endeavors to comply with each system is leveraged to apply to each other.
Governance is the process of empowering leaders to implement rules that are enforceable and amendable. Therefore, for comprehensive understanding of the term' governance' it is critical to categorize the leaders and the set of rules,…
1) Adegbite, E. 2009. Corporate governance Journal of the Society for Corporate Governance in Nigeria 1(1): 45-48.
2) Adegbite, E. 2010. A scrutiny of corporate governance. Journal of the Society for Corporate Governance 2(1): 242-265.
3) Adegbite, E. 2012. Corporate governance in the banking industry: Towards a strategic governmental engagement. International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 7(3): 209-231.
4) Barnhizer, D. 2006.Waking from sustainability's 'impossible dream': the decision-making realities of business and government. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 18,662; Cleveland-Marshall Legal Studies Paper
Application to International Trade
Evaluation of New Governance
Application of New Governance to International Trade for Free Market
In today's robust world, scholars as well as the think tanks and tools of democracy and beaurcracy have been using a term "governance" or good governance rather frequently. Where governance in needed in every aspect of corporate management and public administration, it is important to understand how the very concept of governance has evolved over time. Old theory of governance has been replaced by its contemporary version which can be seen as a pre-requisite for the free trade regime especially for exporters. Where the new governance theory has a considerable impact on international trade; its effectiveness in public and private sector cannot be ignored.
Background of New Governance
Over past two decades, public and private organizations have followed a path of evolution. 'ayner's aiders' and the '3Es' of economy, efficiency…
Brown, A.G. & Stern, R.M. 2011. 'Free trade agreements and governance of the global trading'. University of Michigan.
Cleveland, Harland. 1972. The future executive: a guide for tomorrow's managers. New York: Harper & Row.
Heinrich, Carolyn J. And Laurence E. Lynn Jr., eds. 2000. Governance and performance: new perspectives. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Lynn, Laurence E. Jr., Carolyn Henrich, and Carolyn J. Hill. 2001. Improving governance: a new logic for empirical research. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Irish Corporate Governance
"Irish Development NGOs," notes a 2008 associational guidebook from the Corporate Governance Association of Ireland (CGAI), "exist to create a better world. They operate on a global scale with diverse missions, but are united by a shared commitment to social justice and the eradication of poverty" (CGAI, Irish Development NGOs).
But as noble as these intentions are, they are coming up short in their missions because they do not have in place the kinds of effective and efficient types of governance expectations needed to ensure that they are being profitable in their own success. Many NGOs, just like many for-profit businesses, are struggling with extraordinary financial challenges. And they are finding out that just as they need to learn to be more effective in their operations, they have few guidelines in place for improving the services they provide and for professional conduct in general (CGAI, Irish Development…
CGAI. Irish Development NGOs: Code of Corporate Governance. The Corporate Governance Association of Ireland. In partnership with Dochas, The Irish Association of Non-Governmental Development Organizations. http://www.ecgi.org/codes/documents/irish_ngo_2008.pdf.
CGAI. Professional Code of Conduct. The Corporate Governance Association of Ireland. http://www.cgai.ie/pdf/code_of_conduct.pdf .
Freedman, R.E. And L. Stewart. Developing Ethical Leadership. Business Roundtable. Institute for Corporate Ethics. 2006. Downloadable at http://www.corporate-ethics.org/pdf/ethical_leadership.pdf.
GIIN. The Global Impact Investment Network. 2011. Viewable at http://www.theGIIN.org .
Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility
OCED state-owned enterprises and Privatized companies
In the past few decades, emerging economies have launched ambitious plans to privatize their state owned enterprises (SOEs). The volume of privatization in emerging economies has increased from $8 billion in 1990 to about $65 billion in 1997 (Dharwadkar, George, & Brandes, 2000). In privatization, ownership is transferred from the state to new private and public owners, which may include management, employees, local individuals, institutions, and foreign investors, with the state also retaining a certain percentage of ownership after privatization. The new diversified ownership structure after privatization makes corporate governance an important issue in emerging economies (ajagopalan and Zhang, 2008).
On the one hand, the new ownership structure creates the traditional principal agency problem whereby self-interested executives aim to maximize their private interests rather than the owners' interests. To address this problem, it is necessary to design…
Aman, H. And Nguyen, P. (2008). Do stock prices re-ect the corporate governance quality of Japanese "rms" Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 22(4), 647 -- 662.
Buchanan, J. And Deakin, S. (2007). Japan's paradoxical response to the new "Global Standard" in corporate governance. Accessed on October 12, 2011 from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1013286
Dharwadkar, R., George, G., & Brandes, P. (2000). Privatization in emerging economies: An agency theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 650-669.
Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs. (2005). Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. Accessed on October 14, 2011 from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/46/51/34803211.pdf
Regional Star to Global Leader
Global and Intercultural Competencies of Yang Jianguo
Using the information case study from regional star to global analyze the global competencies and intercultural competencies of Yung Jianguo. What are his strength and weakness?
Yang Jianguo possesses some of the most important and competent skills having been promoted from a regional to a global leader. Getting an appointment to this position demands great qualities that only a few educated and well-experienced persons can possess. This man had certain cultural and global competencies that enabled him to be among the best people. For instance, he is very innovative and can form ideas and opinions that can take a business so many milestones. His critical analysis of situations and business environment makes him capable of tackling global issues that may seem a bit complex. His ability to apply these skills competently made him one of the best global…
Adler, N.J., & Gundersen, A. 2008. International dimensions of organizational behavior. Mason, Ohio, Thomson/South-Western.
Doh, J., & Stumpf, S. 2009. Handbook on Responsible Leadership and Governance in Global Business. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Pub.
McCall, M.W., & Hollenbeck, G.P. 2010. Developing global executives the lessons of international experience. Boston, Harvard Business School Press.
Mobley, W.H., Wang, Y. & Li, W. 2008, Advances in Global Leadership. London: Emerald Group Publishing
Discuss the key difference between conducting a financial audit and a fraud audit, and the related level of responsibility of the auditing firm.
Financial audits are typically carried out by certified public accountants or outside agencies or firms that work directly on behalf of individual companies. At times financial audits may be initiated by government entities. The audit itself is more of a "double-check" of financial reports and practices (Weinberg, 2003). Financial audits are deemed complete upon verification that numbers are accurate. Completed financial audits may prove or disprove information, but discrepancies will typically not result in the same serious consequences as those uncovered during a fraud investigation or audit.
Fraud auditing usually comes at the demand of the U.S. court system - usually the work is carried out by the government or privately-held third parties. Fraud audits look for dishonesty and hidden figures. They probe deeper than…
Dyck, A., Morse, A., & Zingales, L. (2010). Who Blows the Whistle on Corporate Fraud?. Journal of Finance, 65(6), 2213-2253. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6261.2010.01614.x.
Lee, A. (2012). MF Global client funds: how new NFA proposal would work. International Financial Law Review, 41.
Spencer, J. (2011, December 14). MF Global: A search for answers and millions of dollars. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN).
Weinberg, J.A. (2003). Accounting for Corporate Behavior. Economic Quarterly (10697225), 89(3), 1-20.
It should not be treated as a separate exercise undertaken to meet regulatory requirements." (ICA, 29) Here is expressed a philosophical impetus that drives the focus of this research, that such compliance which will generally concern matters such as corporate accounting, the practice of internal oversight and the practice of financial transaction must be considered inextricable from other aspects of practical, procedural and legal operation in terms of its relevance and necessity.
The practice of corporate governance may perhaps best be understand from the perspective that deregulation has largely defined the processes and direction of the global economy across the two decades following the Cold ar and its inevitable opening of economic channels. This is because in practice, corporate governance is a concept which has suffered much neglect. To the point, the statistics availed by organizations such as the orld Bank and the International Monetary Fund illustrate that…
Aguilera, R.V. & Yip, G.S. (2004). Corporate Governance and Globalization:
Toward an Actor Centred Institutional Analysis. University of Illinois: College
of Business. Online at .
ASB. (1999). Reporting Financial Performance. Financial Reporting Council. Online at
The company showed a global reach early, adding numerous language versions around the world. In 2000, the company reached 18 million search queries per day and officially became the world's largest search engine ("Google, Inc." paras. 11-14).
The company now sought to address its need for income by introducing a keyword-targeted advertising program for another source of revenue. The company partnered with Yahoo! And with other partners, such as China's leading portal NetEast and NEC's BIGLOBE in Japan. Google introduced Adords, a self-service advertising program that could be activated with a credit card. By December of 2000, Google received more than 60 million searches per day and reached the 100-million search mark per day in 2001 ("Google, Inc." paras. 15-16).
Google as a Public Company
Google would offer an IPO of stock beginning in 2004. McShane and Von Glinow cite Google as a successful company, especially in terms of navigating…
Bylund, Anders. "All Aboard Google." The Motley Fool (6 June 2007). February 10, 2008. http://www.fool.com/investing/value/2007/06/06/all-aboard-google.aspx .
Everett, Chad. "The Google Way." Infoworld (23 February 2004). February 12, 2008. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=4&sid=e2bbe58a-ff50-4544-be56-d20f347f3c1f%40SRCSM2 .
Google Inc." Hoover's Online (2007). http://www.hoovers.com/google/--ID__59101 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtml.
Google, Inc." International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 50. St. James Press, 2003. Reproduced in Business and Company Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.:Gale Group. 2008. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BCRC
Environmental Governance: A eview of elevant Literature
The field of environmental governance has grown unprecedentedly as a result of the increasing concern and occurrences of climate change-related events all over the world. Where social, political, and cultural movements and shifts have influenced human history over the years, the environment is taking the forefront as humanity -- societies and nations -- are threatened by one common force no amount of socio-political or cultural power could control or undermine: climate change. Indeed, events relating to climate change are more pervasive than ever, affecting not just specific groups of people or nations, but all of humanity. This is why literature on climate change and environmental sustainability, both popular and academic, have increased over the years, triggering a global debate about the future of the planet and the "plight" of the human race in the decades or centuries to come.
Beyond the issue of…
Clapp and Dauvergne. (2011). "Paths to a green world? Four visions of a healthy global environment." (faxed material).
Evans, J.P. (2011). Environmental governance. London: Routledge.
Levine, K., B. Cashore, and S. Bernstein. (2010). "Playing it forward: Path dependency, progressive incrementalism, and the "super wicked" problem of global climate change." Paper presented in Climate change: Global risks, challenges and decisions congress, March 2009.
Voss, J. And R. Kemp. (2006). "Sustainability and reflexive governance: introduction." (faxed material)
The most important objectives proposed by the ICGN refer to shareholders. Therefore, it is recommended to optimize return to shareholders, which should become the most important objective for a company. In other words, "corporate governance practices should focus board attention on this objective. In particular, the company should thrive to excel in comparison with the specific equity sector peer group benchmark" (ECGI, 2005). Another objective refers to the long-term prosperity of the business. This requires the development and implementation of a corporate strategy that focuses on increasing the equity value on a long-term.
Another recommendation refers to facilitating the exercise of ownership rights by all shareholders. In relation to this, all shareholders must be treated equitably. One of the most important recommendations refers to increasing the shareholders' possibility to be a part in the decision making process for matters of extreme importance to the company's activity.
The importance of corporate…
Sapovadia, V.K. (2003). Good Corporate Governance: An Instrument for Wealth Maximization. MBA Department of Saurashtra University Conference, India. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=955289 . Accessed January 18, 2008.
Corporate governance (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_governance . Accessed January 19, 2008.
ICGN Statement on Global Corporate Governance Principles (2005). International Corporate Governance Network. European Corporate Governance Institute. www.ecgi.org/codes/documents/revised_principles_jul2005.pdf. Accessed January 19.
La Porta, R. et al. (1999). Investor Protection and Corporate Governance. Social Science Research Network. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=183908#PaperDownload . Accessed January 19, 2008.
Additionally, it has been observed that whenever companies implement strategies of CS, they do this not out of individual choice and desire, but as a result of imposed legislations. "All of these decisions are made under the mandatory legal rules embodied in employment and labor law, workplace safety law, environmental law, consumer protection law, and pension law. Such rules, because they often apply to all businesses, are not susceptible to easy evasion through choice of form. As a result, those charged with governing a corporation find their decision tree considerably trimmed and their discretion decidedly diminished by mandatory legal rules enacted in the name of protecting stakeholders" (Winkler, 2005). In other words, the modern day evolutions of corporate social responsibility "caution against a rush to declare the ultimate triumph of shareholder primacy" (Winkler, 2005).
As a direct result of this changing legislation, more companies have commenced corporate social responsibility programs.…
Akerstrom, a., 2009, Corporate governance and social responsibility: Johnson & Johnson, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 364045605X
Boyd, C., 2003, Human resource management and occupational health and safety, Routledge, ISBN 0415265908
Conley, J.M., Williams, C.A., 2005, Engage, embed and embellish: theory vs. practice in the corporate social responsibility movement, Journal of Corporation Law, Vol. 31, No. 1
Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high costs of low price (documentary available on DVD)
There have been controversies on the subject of the governance and accountability of big corporations, but it is only recently that these issues have gained prominence. The compensation for the top management is one of the major issues of corporate governance today. The primary reason for offering stocks to executives was for raising the share prices and thereby increasing its value for both investors as well as shareholders. Though this proved to be a major success, there were a few executives who would not disclose their stock options or would not make full use of the stock options offered to them. This caused inefficiency in the financial market. Stakeholders have the freedom to check their shares and to question the management if there were any discrepancies. Despite these constant checks with financial analysts, the board of directors, the panel of regulators, auditors and managers, there has been instances…
Charkham, Jonathan. 1994. 'Keeping Good Company: A Study of Corporate Governance in Five Countries' New York: Oxford University Press.
Davies, Adrian. 1999. 'A Strategic Approach to Corporate Governance' Gower.
De George, Richard T. 1995. 'Business Ethics' New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Fort, Timothy L. 2001. 'Ethics and Governance: Business as Mediating Institution' New York, N.Y: Oxford University Press.
Corporate governance of finances in major corporations has been a major controversy during the recent recession. The scandal at Satyam is indicative of problems across the board, from CEOS, to executive boards, to independent auditors and even accounting firms such as Price Waterhouse. In this essay, the author will consider the unique problems presented in a globalised market where faith in the market is essential for international trade to function.
When the CEO assumes the entire responsibility in a corporate governance fiasco absolving everyone else (family members, board of directors, independent directors and other top management people), how should the regulatory authorities and the government proceed against the CEO who has confessed and other people who were absolved by him. Critically evaluate especially from the point-of-view of absolving all the others including the top management, board of directors and the family members, from any of the accumulated corporate wrongdoings.
Caprio Jr., J. And Levine, R. (2002). Corporate Governance in Finance: Concepts and Inernational Observations. World Bank, IMF, and Brookings Institution Conference, Building the Pillars of Financial Sector Governance: The Roles of Public and Private Sectors.. pp. 1-44. Available: http://www.siteresources.worldbank.org/DEC/.../corporategover_finance.pdf.
Kumar, G, Paul, P, and Sapkota P. (2011). The Largest Corporate Fraud in India: Satyam Computer Services Limited, Proceedings of the American Accounting Association 2011 Annual Meeting pp. 1-23. Available: http://www.mendeley.com/research/largest-corporate-fraud-india-satyam-computer-services-limited/ . Last accessed 24 Dec. 2011.
Post-Sovereign Governance: The EU as a partial Polity
The past several decades have been the evolutionary stage for most of the European Union (EU) policies as they have implemented expansions of functions and modifications in the number and input of members. The most significant evolution that EU has experienced has been in the past 2 decades, however. The past two decades have seen EU take a front seat in the policies and strategies needed for local, national and international challenges especially on the security and political fronts.
There is however no clear path that EU adopted hence it cannot be replicated with a guarantee of the same success. The reason that there isn't a clear pattern is primarily because of the differing situations and their demands on practical solutions. Furthermore, the structure of EU is made up of really diverse countries, cultures and institutions, all of which brought their own…
HIV / AIDS Implication in African Governance
Implications of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
This dissertation paper is a research study that foresees on the governance structure of African nations, in particular, Botswana. The country has had a declining development on the improvements being instigated in government. This has been attributed to ht increasing rates of HIV / AIDS in the country; more so, it has been rated top among nations with the highest rate of HIV / AIDS infection. This paper raises concerns being implicated on in the social and economic aspects of Botswana government structure and Africa in general. The future is also prospected with a close analysis on the disease's trend in the country, and the importance of reducing the rate of infection for the betterment of governance.
Impact of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
Governance is the act of utilizing institutional resources in…
Adepoju, A., Naerssen, A. L & Zoomers, E.B. 2008. International migration and national development in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: BRILL.
Bell, C., Shantayanan, D & Hans, G. 2003. The long-run economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an application to Southern Africa. Heidelberg: Heidelberg University.
Deacon, H., Stepheny, I & Prosalendis, S. 2005. Understanding HIV / AIDS stigma: a theoretical and methodological analysis. Chicago: HSRC Press.
EPub. 2002. Botswana: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. New York: International Monetary Fund.
In these cases, others working in those fields are the only ones who have the ability to conduct quality check to verify instances of possible fraud. Qualified doctors can analyze the work of other doctors to attest their medical malpractice. An honest lawyer who deals with related issues can understand how a fellow lawyer could have used deceitful methods to cheat a client off his money. Proficient lecturers can set good examples for students to bring out the incompetency of others. In the managerial level, well qualified professionals are the only ones who are smart enough to figure out the plots hatched by higher executives in order to use the shareholder money for personal needs. Scams in the political sector can only be challenged by opposing political parties or powerful entities like the court. The media is highly potent in this regard as they present malpractices in front…
Description of Corporate Governance [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2010]
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2010]
Blundell M., Explain what is meant by the principal agent problem [online] Available at:
< tutor2u.net/blog/files/Principal_Agent_Problem.pdf > [Accessed 11 August 2010]
, 2003). The use of BSCs and the COBIT Model give organizations and opportunity to quantify the performance of their IT governance efforts over time. The use of Cobit in conjunction with BSC also forms the foundation for creating the monitoring process workflows critical for keeping IT governance focused and continually moving to its objectives. Dr. Van Grembergen, one of the authors of both cited articles (Van Gremberge et al., 2003) (Van Grembergen, De Haes, & Guldentops, 2004) is one of the global thought leaders in the area of IT governance, is professor and chair of the MIS Department at the University of Antwerp. Dr. Van Grembergen's research seeks to quantify and provide insights into how organizations can attain their strategic objectives while also attaining IT governance and compliance objectives.
Amelinckx, I, De Haes, S, & Van Gremberge, W (2003). Using COBIT and the Balanced Scorecard as Instruments for…
Amelinckx, I, De Haes, S, & Van Gremberge, W (2003). Using COBIT and the Balanced Scorecard as Instruments for Service Level Management. Information Systems Control Journal.
Van Grembergen, W, De Haes, S, & Guldentops, E Structures, Processes and Relational Mechanisms for IT Governance. 3, Retrieved February 24, 2009, at http://www.igi-pub.com/downloads/excerpts/1591401402E.pdf .
As both carriers, are concerned about addressing the various provisions in: the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act of 2004 and Sarbanes-Oxley. This is accomplished by tackling those issues that contributed to a host of moral dilemmas through their ethics policies. As a result, they are addressing these regulations by: implementing new standards that are reflected in the code of ethics. Once this occurs, it means that it will help to ensure compliance with these regulations.
ritish Airways Standing Instructions. (2010). ritish Airways. Retrieved from: http://www.britishairways.com/cms/global/pdfs/corporate_responsibility_report_2006/asi18V1.pdf
Continental Airlines. (2010). FAQS. Retrieved from: http://www.faqs.org/sec-filings/100217/CONTINENTAL-AIRLINES-INC-DE-_10-K/fexhibit321.htm
Continental's Ethics. (2010). PHX. Retrieved from: http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NzE2NjF8Q2hpbGRJRD0tMXxUeXlPTM=&t=1
Corporate Governance. (2009). ritish Airways. Retrieved from: http://www.britishairways.com/cms/global/microsites/ba_reports0809/pdfs/Corp_gov.pdf
Guidance on Companies. (2010). IS. Retrieved from: http://www.bis.gov.uk/files/file13420.pdf
Three Cheers for Sarbanes-Oxley. (2006). Times. Retrieved from: http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/columnists/article700966.ece
Feeny, T. (2007). Reforming Sarbanes-Oxley. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.heritage.org/research/lecture/reforming-sarbanes-oxley-how-to-restore-american-leadership-in-world-capital-markets
Young, H. (2010). ritish Airways Strike. http://www.self-catering-breaks.com/news/103521545.html
British Airways Standing Instructions. (2010). British Airways. Retrieved from: http://www.britishairways.com/cms/global/pdfs/corporate_responsibility_report_2006/Basi18V1.pdf
Continental Airlines. (2010). FAQS. Retrieved from: http://www.faqs.org/sec-filings/100217/CONTINENTAL-AIRLINES-INC-DE-_10-K/fexhibit321.htm
Continental's Ethics. (2010). PHX. Retrieved from: http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NzE2NjF8Q2hpbGRJRD0tMXxUeXBlPTM=&t=1
Corporate Governance. (2009). British Airways. Retrieved from: http://www.britishairways.com/cms/global/microsites/ba_reports0809/pdfs/Corp_gov.pdf
Politics of eflexive Governance: Challenges for Designing Adaptive Management and Transition Management" by Voss and Bornemann (2011), really demonstrates a comprehensive, though somewhat unimaginative perspective on the pillars of adaptive governance. One of the savvier aspects of this article is that it is able to take into account is the necessity of a concept of governance which includes uncertainty and societal change. Few concepts of governance make allowances for the fact that the future will bring things that cannot be anticipated or sometimes even prevented. Another strong aspect of this article is the fact that it pushed for flexibility and reflexivity in terms of the boundaries of prognostic knowledge and real control. In this manner, the authors attribute adaptive and transition management as originating from social -- ecological and sociotechnical systems, as both focus on the experimentative aspect of learning. The authors ultimately are able to demonstrate that these methods…
Allen, C.F., & Pope, K. (2011). Adaptive management for a turbulent future. Journal of Environmental Management, 1339e1345.
Evans, J. (2012). Environmental Guidance. New York: Routledge Press.
Gunderson, L. (2012, November). Adaptive Capacity. Retrieved from [HIDDEN]
Kallis, G., Kiparsky, M., & Norgaard, M. (2009). Collaborative governance and adaptive management. Environmental Science and Policy, 631 -- 643.
Belgian Development Cooperation, (2014). Democratic Governance -- the Key to Development. http://www.btcctb.org/files/web/publication/Democratic%20governance_he%20key%20to%20development.pdf
his is a source from the Belgian Development Cooperation and looks at the link between development and democracy. Within the source, there are sample countries that have been used like Congo, Burundi, Belgium and Rwanda to show how democracy and development have been related over time. he article, indeed is a collection f smaller scholarly works by authorities in the individual areas and countries having conducted sufficient research on these countries discussed. It also highlights how the different systems of governance have helped shape the path of development. his, on evaluation pass for a peer reviewed article as it is reviews made on the existing researches and historically recorded happenings in the countries in question. he quality can be said to be worthy of the academic use and the credibility of this source can be categorized…
This source give an informative analysis of the politics of Latin America starting from the historical recap and the implications of the historical times in politics to the current state of democracy in the region. The paper further explains how the leadership in the region (several countries covered) has helped shape the politics and the democratic process to the contemporary times. The source further examines and comments on the link between politics and the economy of the region, an aspect that it refers to as the political economy of the region. Actually, the source was published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars hence giving it credibility as a scholarly source as it has reviewers who are authorities in the particular chapters they comment on or contribute in.
Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, (2011). Concepts and Principles of Democratic Governance and Accountability. http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_29779-1522-2-30.pdf?111219190223
This source is a report from a European Union sponsored research and project on the subject of democracy. The source attempts to give a clear understanding of democracy through looking at the definitions, the actors in the democratic process, the various types of democracy and the particular principles that guide modern democracy. It also highlights the elements that underpin the democratic state and society like the election processes and the rights and freedoms of institutions and individuals. The source goes further tom exemplify democracy and the tenets through looking at Uganda (in East Africa) to indicate the extent to which the state has demonstrated or failed to demonstrate the democratic process. The source is commissioned by a reliable organization and involved several researchers to come up with this report that was only published and distributed after thorough peer reviewing by scholars in democracy hence a credible source of information for this research writing.