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However, the procedure for complying with those new requirements were so stringent and difficult to satisfy that legal gun ownership became all but impossible for New York City residents. Since 1976, New York City residents who wish to obtain a gun license must apply in person at NYPD headquarters Licensing Division in lower Manhattan and furnish a non-refundable fee of $340. That license must be renewed at the same cost every three years. More importantly, the application process requires extensive background checks and personal interviews that go far beyond the reasonable degree of detail in comparison with the requirements of obtaining a firearm license in other states. Ultimately, gun license applications are virtually always denied in new York City, even to private citizens with no criminal history who are perfectly eligible to own firearms under the laws of other states.
Generally, it is common knowledge in New York City that…… [Read More]
government policy in criminal justice. Specifically it will answer the question: Do government policy and regulation help or hurt in the racial, ethnic, religious, gender, and sexual orientation area? These members of society could be called "vulnerable populations," and all are quite affected by society and governmental policies. These populations are "different" from the general population, and so, their needs, their reactions, and their experiences are often different, too. Governmental policy initially was meant "for the people and by the people," but today's governmental policies often ignore segments of the population, or make it harder for them to synthesize into the general population, both in society, and in the criminal justice system as it exits in America today.
Governmental policy has long been scrutinized, criticized, and manipulated as to where it stands on issues regarding the vulnerable populations. Sometimes, governmental policy shifts, as it has somewhat regarding gays and lesbians…… [Read More]
Some position papers are too open-ended to become white papers because position paper can mean "We believe x," and nothing else. A white paper means "We believe x and therefore we recommend y and z." A writer would transform an open-ended position paper into a white paper by clearly proposing policies or actions. Based on the data included in the position paper, the writer would take the work one step further toward creating possible solutions.
The field of nursing should utilize white papers in the upcoming election process. Nursing professionals can refer to government-issued white papers on health care issues when planning professional intervention programs in their community. Similarly, nursing professionals can use business-issued white papers to prepare for upcoming technological or medical changes or changes to preferred therapeutic interventions. The field of nursing can also use white papers to gauge changes to official health care policy that would result…… [Read More]
Even more generally, there are other examples of equally basic contradictions that qualify under the adherence-to- governing-law standard. Despite the official upreme Court interpretation of the Establishment Clause in the First Constitutional Amendment, U.. currency still features the words "In God We Trust." imilarly, several states still enforce unday blue laws such as prohibiting the sale of alcohol on the Christian "abbath." Many legal experts suggest that both violate the Establishment Clause (Dershowitz, 2002).
However, the unethical practices in connection with special interest lobbying of political representatives are a much more important problem in modern American society and politics. The traditional excuse used to justify the lobbying process is that monetary contributions to election funds merely provide access to legislators but not influence. In theory, no lobbyist has any greater influence on political decisions than any private citizen who e-mails members of Congress or the White House; in reality, that…… [Read More]
Federal Government Policy: Mandatory Internet Filtering
As a key component of the cyber-safety plan of the Australian Government, ISP filtering seeks to address a number of issues revolving around online concerns encountered by individuals as well as households in relation to restricted content material.
The Current Federal Government Policy on Internet Filtering: Arguments For and Against
The Australian Communications and Media Authority is charged with the responsibility of facilitating the regulation of internet material considered to contain drug use as well as crime instructions in a detailed format, instances of sexual violence, bestiality, child pornography and any other internet content considered to be illegal, harmful and against the interests of the general public.
It is important to note that though the federal government maintains that mandatory internet filtering is in line with enhancing cyber safety; those with dissenting views have over time branded the policy controversial and flawed (The Sydney…… [Read More]
However, some people might regard my decision as unwise: after all, what 'goes up, must come down,' and interest rates will inevitably go up. I may regret not borrowing now, if I have to pay a higher rate on a car payment in the future. On the other hand, given that the low interest rates and economic stimulus have not has a seismic effect on job growth, I am still wary about spending too much, despite the fact that money in a savings account with a low interest rate is actually 'losing' value, because of the inevitability of inflation. My uncertainty about borrowing for anything other than what I absolutely need (other than student loans, which is 'spending' that does not directly result in higher levels of production in enterprise and takes me out of the full-time labor force) means that the government must find more direct ways to stimulate…… [Read More]
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…… [Read More]
The article gives the example of China, where as much as $360 billion were allocated by the government towards the process of stimulating demand on the market. The process did not target only the car manufacturers, but rather all industries, while the instruments of actually putting the money to use ranged from fee vouchers to direct stimuli for the businesses. Countries such as Germany or the U.S. put in more money than ritain into stimulating the car industry, important in the overall national economy of these countries and, at the same time, a potential social issue.
However, as the author pointed out, this was not the case in ritain, where the amount of money allocated for boosting supply was significantly lower than in these other comparable economies. The process of exchanging an old car for a new one, referred to as the "car scrappage scheme," was given only 400 million…… [Read More]
S. military to stabilize the violent uprising by the 'opposition' thugs, many of whom were former members of the Duvalier-era military or members of the death squad known as the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti, who were responsible for a multitude of human rights violations during the three years following the coup d'etat in 1991 (ater pp). Moreover, aters and others want to know why the Bush Administration refused to negotiate a peaceful settlement to the crisis, and forced Aristide, "who had agreed to a peace plan worked out by the international community, to resign and leave his country" (aters pp). Prior to Aristide's departure, Bush's only concern was to make sure that all Haitian refugees were turned back at sea before they could reach the U.S. (aters pp).
Hallinan, Conn M. "Haiti: dangerous muddle." Foreign Policy in Focus. March 08
2004. Retrieved October 29,…… [Read More]
Competitive Environment and Government Policies Facing the Global Automobile Industry
New Entry Activity
The automobile market is always a hotbed for mergers and acquisitions. In the early part of last century, General Motors was at the head of those gaining market share through mergers and acquisitions when they absorbed such companies as Cadillac, Pontiac and Chevrolet. Ford followed suit, but made many of its agreements with companies later in the century with companies like Mercury, Mazda, Volvo, Land over, Jaguar and Aston Martin. However, the global financial crisis forced these large automakers to divest some of their holdings and to stop partnerships with other auto companies. Ford cut Jaguar and Land over, and cut ties with Volvos car division. Because these companies were available and there has been more money to invest lately in places like India and China, other companies were able to quickly add some of…… [Read More]
Perhaps this will always be an issue for the U.S. federal government because under the existing political system there are few substantial options for making policy decisions that can extend across political elections. Situations that represent a problem for one politician or political party will be ignored by the next, making consistent, proactive responses difficult if not outright impossible. From an emergency management position, this means that agencies will always have to be designed to react to the worst-case scenarios, instead of more reasonable, proactive affects that could control potential problems before they escalate out of control.
Farazmand, a. (2001). Crisis in the U.S. administrative state. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida Atlantic University.
Nice, D.C. And Grosse, a. (2001). Crisis policy making: some implications for program management. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida…… [Read More]
Policy Networks a Prevalent Feature Democratic Governanc
The issue I have selected related to policy networks pertains to utilizing marijuana for medicinal purposes in the state of Florida. At present, the usage of marijuana within this state is illegal -- regardless of the purpose. There are staunch advocates against legalizing marijuana or any other illegal substance which may be used as a recreational drug within this state. The most eminent form of opposition more than likely comes from current Florida governor ick Scott, which not surprising considering that networks frequently involve "local and national governments" (Thatcher, 1998, p. 389). However, the issue of medical marijuana has recently come to the attention of state legislators and government officials due to a form of marijuana known as "Charlotte's web," which is exceedingly low in THC (the active ingredient in the substance that produces euphoric "highs") yet high in cannibidiol, which is known…… [Read More]
Government managing of the economic using fiscal policy typically amounts to spending more, as governments rarely use fiscal policy to slow an overheated economy, preferring to rely on the more effective monetary policy tools that central banks have at their disposal. An increase in government spending provides a short-term boost to the economy. If the money is spent on investments for future growth such as transportation infrastructure and education, then the impacts will be long-term positive as well. There is the risk that active management of the economy through fiscal policy will be insufficient, or that it will have long-term negative impacts if the government borrows too much to pay for the spending.
Overall, government efforts to manage the economy make things better. Our economy does not even remotely resemble a free market economy, and has not since at least the 1930s. The economy has experienced, with few breaks, a…… [Read More]
Government Intervention in the Steel Industry
The Bush administration announced the imposition of sweeping tariffs of up to 30% on steel imports to the United States for a period of 3 years in March 2002 purportedly to save the ailing steel industry from collapsing. Predictably, the action has invited particularly harsh criticism from the U.S. trade partners that have been directly affected by the tax, i.e., the European Union, Japan, and China. Domestically too, the proponents of a free market economy have been no less critical of the measure, although the U.S. steel industry, in general, has welcomed the move.
This research report will focus on various aspects of the U.S. government's imposition of steel tariffs. It will discuss the benefits and costs of tariffs in general, and include a history of government's support of the U.S. steel industry, details of the steel tariff 2002, why it was imposed, and…… [Read More]
Government in Continuity Planning
Since the 1950s, continuity planning has been a major part of U.S. government policy. This is because there were concerns that some kind of nuclear attack or natural disaster could have an adverse impact on entire regions of the country. When this happens the odds increase that there could be various forms of lawlessness in these areas. To mitigate these kinds of situations, continuity planning was created to ensure that vital resources and personnel are dispatched to these kinds of areas. (Daleo, 2009, pp. 919 -- 925) ("Continuity Guidance Circular," 2009)
After September 11th, is when these ideas were once again revisited. In this case, National Security Presidential Directive-51 (NSPD-51) and Homeland Security Presidential Directive-20 (HSPD-20) were enacted to provide a strategy for dealing with disasters. Taking the lead in this area is the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). They have created the Continuity Guidance Circular.…… [Read More]
Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)
This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.
During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not…… [Read More]
Policy Initiative/No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
This paper will examine the NCLB (No Child Left Behind) policy initiative.
On 8th May, 2002, George W. Bush signed the NCLB Act into law. The Act represents the 1965 ESEA's (Elementary and Secondary Education Act's) most extensive reform ever. The federal government's role in kindergarten to secondary school education has been redefined through the Act, which is expected to help forge the achievement divide between minority and disadvantaged pupils and their fellow pupils. A nationwide Act such as the NCLB guides state standard development (Case Assignment Module ). These represent a form of course benchmarks, having a significant influence on course planning and development. This title's aim is ensuring every child has an equal, significant, and fair chance at obtaining superior quality education as well as (at least) reaching proficiency on difficult state-level academic tests and achievement benchmarks (Title I -…… [Read More]
government intervention through examining the meaning of market failure, reasons the market under-produces public goods, how externalities result in distortion of market outcomes, how market power prevents optimal results, and policy options for government interventions. The author considers market failure as the what question that contributes to the potential for government intervention in order to generate the most appropriate combination of output with present resources. Through an analysis of the nature of market failure, the term is used to describe less than perfect or suboptimal outcomes. The concept implies that supply and demand forces have not contributed to the realization of the best point on the production-possibilities curve.
Since it's a justification for government intervention, market failure is brought by various microeconomic factors such as public goods, externalities, market power, and inequity. This implies that market failure can be understood through examining these micro-economic sources or factors. Moreover, government intervention…… [Read More]
To increase effective demand, Keynesians believe the government must balance the economy with deficit and increase expenditure. However, the constant alternation between booms and recession is causing the booms to get shorter while the recessions become longer. This phenomenon is the result of empirical evidence that indicates that in the end, the interest rates decrease.
However, this situation creates a problem of capitalism as the rich increase their wealth while financial deficit worsens. Minsky adopted the perspective of Keynesians, hypothesized financial instability, as the finance and money that connects the present with the future, but the future is uncertain. Minsky finds the problem of financial stability is in financing. However, financial instability increases under contemporary capitalism, which increases economic crisis. This leads to the conclusion that to solve economic crisis, there is a need to reduce financing and take up investments in real economy.
This is in contrast to the…… [Read More]
UNSTUCTUED PLAY AND CHILDEN'S DEVELOPMENT
Unstructured play in childhood
The effect of lack of unstructured play on children's development
Unstructured play as a form of therapy for children was readily accepted when it was first introduced in both homes and schools. In fact, sand-play in its early form was used to allow children interact, enhance their creativity and develop their social skills (Frost & Norquist, 2007). esearch shows that a fundamental aspect of human development is attained in the early childhood stages. As such, any measures to facilitate future development of an individual needs to be cultivated in the early stages of their lives (Miller & Almon, 2009). Over time, unstructured play -- once a highly regarded child development measure -- has lost its meaning and place (Miller & Almon, 2009). Increasing cases of poor child development evidenced by volumes of mental illness antisocial behaviors and physical challenges…… [Read More]
Policy Making and Power Plant Emissions
There are many considerations that a government official in charge of developing policy concerning gas and particulate emissions must take into account in order to protect the environment and citizens while allowing business and the basic functions of society and its infrastructure to progress. The balance that must be struck here is one of the major reasons that environmental policy is so complex, and why it is such a hot-button issue for many officials and constituents alike. The potential effectiveness of each policy detail that might be implemented, the cost of each proposed implementation, the benefits and detriments to the various parties, and all other related minutiae must be taken into account in order for the best possible policies to be developed and implemented. The following paragraphs will consider two different alternative policies for protecting the environment and the human population surrounding a…… [Read More]
The study of public policy gained significant importance in the late fifties and sixties. However, policy science did not come into existence all of a sudden. It started to emerge when social scientists started researches on a wide range of sociopolitical problems. After the World War II, significant developments were made in the areas of operations research, economics and social psychology. These developments proved to be helpful in formulating new ways for more systematic and empirical investigations of policy making. Although, a considerable level of research was done in the areas of sociopolitical studies but the clear concept of a policy science was first introduced in 1951 by Harold Lasswell. "Lasswell's seminal work identified six basic characteristics of an emerging field of study, concerned with explaining policy making and policy executing process. (McCool)
The study of public policy gained momentum in the late 1960s. With the introduction of…… [Read More]
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…… [Read More]
Policy Direction & Politics
Stone captures for me the crux of policy paradox with this statement: "…each type of policy instrument [e.g., inducements, rules rights, for example] is a kind of sports arena, each with its peculiar ground rules, within which political conflicts are continued" (2001, p. 13). Extending the metaphor, arena sports are based on a rational rule-bound game structure that -- as soon as the whistle blows -- is overwhelmed by messy, conflicting and reciprocal interplay. And so it is with policymaking. The calculated, rational market approach to policymaking that was developed to counter the "profound disgust for the ambiguities and paradoxes of politics" does not match what happens in the real world, where political tensions force the hand of those who would create better governance (Stone, 2001, p. xi). We have only to look at the context surrounding the Obama administration to know that this is so…… [Read More]
Governments should limit their interference in market progress.
The recent Presidential election was billed as a choice between two visions for America. Unfortunately for voters, there are many other visions that were not presented as viable options. If those options had been presented, voters may have chosen them. One such alternative political philosophy is libertarianism, which makes the case that government should interfere as little as possible in the daily lives of Americans. This is especially true in the economic realm -- whether it is regulation or tax handouts to powerful donor lobbies, the two big parties are equally culpable for creating needles burden that constricts the growth of the American economic engine.
Decentralization of government is a key concept. Manor (1999) notes that there has been a trend towards the decentralization of government worldwide. This trend is occurring because governments realize that decentralization can spur economic growth and alleviate…… [Read More]
This would lead to some sort of drug treatment and rehabilitation for the prisoners leading to reforms when they are released from prison Davis 20.
This sentiment is shared by Lt. Gannon who stated that many of those who end up in prison do not belong there. They just need drug treatment, rehabilitation and community support services. Most of all, they need a second chance Lemaitre ()
. If reforms can be designed along these lines, the benefits would be extremely huge.
A research study that was conducted in the year 1999 found that there a huge decrease in the rate of incarceration as a result of legalization of abortion. There were two reasons for this. First was that legalization of abortion led to a decrease in the number of unwanted babies and secondly, as a result of this reduction in unwanted babies, the children do not suffer abuse and…… [Read More]
Government Regulations and Hospice
Government Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Impact of rules on Hospice services
This paper focuses on how government regulations impact hospice. The paper starts off with an introduction to the hospice system that was revived by a nurse, Cecily Saunders, who then went on to become a physician, establishing one of the first modern hospices. The concept of total pain is explained in some detail. The body of the paper then includes the studies that have been conducted on patients and caregivers in hospice systems as well as on people who died after they were diagnosed with terminal illness resulting in death in six months following the prognosis. The overall conclusion that can be drawn here is that while in Japan there is a marked need for improving the Day hospice system, the American hospice industry…… [Read More]
He centers on people's inability to act according to the dictates of their conscience, for the existence of laws and policies rendered society paralyzed and unable to think conscientiously about their actions -- that is, whether the actions they committed were conscientiously right or wrong. Asserting this point, he stated, "Can there not be a government in which majorities do not virtually decide right and wrong, but conscience?... Must the citizen ever for a moment, or in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator? Why has every man a conscience, then? I think that we should be men first, and subjects afterward." From this passage, Thoreau stressed the importance of civil society as the primary holder of power and control in the sovereign rather than the individuals who were supposedly given the function to represent civil society (i.e., political leaders and officials).
In "On the duty of civil…… [Read More]
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…… [Read More]
Improving consumer protection is a less vital factor in the reform package. It focuses on ancillary issues such as predatory lending and credit card interest. Improving protections may help to reduce the incidence of consumer bankruptcy, but has two negative consequences. The first is that the illusion of protection can encourage increased risk-taking behavior among consumers. The second is that increasing consumer protection fails to address the underlying issue, which is the atrocious level of financial literacy among the general population. These reforms, therefore, may not be effective.
The fourth set of reforms addresses the ability of government to respond to the crisis. The Federal Reserve's involvement in stabilizing the financial industry may have been needed at the time, but is inappropriate in the context of the Fed's tradition role. Furthermore, the FDIC has been forced into desperate action as its reserves have run low in the face of 100+…… [Read More]
etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1080/014428700114008
McClain, P. (1990, Winter 1990). Agenda Setting, Public Policy and Minority Group Influences: An Introduction. Policy Studies eview, 9(2), 263-272. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
Nakamura, . (1987, August). The Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch. Policy Studies eview, 7(1), 142-154. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
Weimer, D. (2008, November). Theories of and in the Policy Process. Policy Studies Journal, 36(4), 489-495. etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.2008.00280.x
David Dery. (2000, March). Agenda Setting and Problem Definition. Policy Studies, 21(1), 46. etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1080/014428700114008
obert Nakamura. (1987, August). The Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch. Policy Studies eview, 7(1), 146. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
As cited in Nakamura, the Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch, 146.
As cited in David L. Weimer (2008, November). Theories of and in the Policy Process.…… [Read More]
Instead they are being left in family homes, alone while family members work to pay the bills.
One of the problems with government regulations and business is that often times the regulation applies across the board with little regard to the size of the business or the size of the population that the business serves.
To implement a regulation to businesses across an entire geographic area can harm the business in the small town. Why should the same regulation apply to a business in a town of 330 as a business in a town of 1.5 million residents? To comply with certain government regulations businesses in small towns are often left with no choice but to close the doors.
Existing regulations already put a huge burden on the U.S. economy, more than $600 billion per year, according to detailed studies by economist Thomas Hopkins of the ochester Institute of Technology.…… [Read More]
com. 2007. February 26, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/open-door-policy-1
Stueck, illiam hitney. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
Tsou, Tang. America's Failure in China, 1941-50. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
The facility of most-favored-nation was later extended by the Chinese to other foreign powers as well.
Although most countries did not formally agree with the "Open Door Policy," John Hay went on to unilaterally declare that they had endorsed the policy.
This consisted of an oil embargo and freezing of Japanese assets in the months preceding the Pearl Harbor attacks
The Americans had also misjudged the ideological commitment of the Chinese communists and over-estimated the pro-American among the Chinese masses, believing that any Chinese government (even a Communist one) would remain friendly with the Americans. Such misplaced optimism continues to be the Achilles heel of the U.S. foreign office:…… [Read More]
This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…… [Read More]
Policy Problem & Proposal
The United States faces a $1.4 trillion national deficit, and partisan debate about how to address it is threatening economic stability on top of the shaky "recovery" from the 2009 financial crisis. Yet American corporations continue to enjoy tax loopholes that reduce their taxes to unprecedented low levels. epublicans argue that corporations must retain their preferred tax status in order to maintain and create jobs. This tax policy has been known by a number of names: supply-side economics, trickle-down theory, and horse and sparrow theory. It has not been without its critics, yet, irrationally, the practice of permitting tax loopholes continues to prevail from time-to-time.
"As for the growth enhancing effects of lower tax rates, just look to the 2000s for the latest persuasive evidence to the contrary. After the Bush tax cuts on the progressive rates paid by the wealthy, GDP between 2001…… [Read More]
Human esources Management is basically something that encompasses various activities in an office environment, some of them being: what sort of employees does a company need, what are the best methods to recruit as well as train these personnel, making sure that the performance levels of these people is at its optimum best, and also making sure that the rules regarding management issues are followed to the letter by the employees. Some other issues are those of employee compensation, employee benefits, and so on.
The first step in a human resources management policy is that of 'ecruitment' of the company's employees.
In order to prepare an Advertisement for the purpose of recruitment, certain guidelines must be followed. These are: there must be included, in the advertisement, a complete job description. This must state the 'job title' or 'rank' or 'position'. This means that the person who is interested will…… [Read More]
Policies and Emergency Management
ABSTACT/INTODUCTION: As a representative democracy, the United States tries to include as many people and interests into its decision-making processes as possible. Seldom has this practice been more challenged than since the country's intensive focus on emergency planning and preparations because of the rash of high-profile incidents that have brought about death, destruction, fear and critical assessments of our national capabilities, including the 9/11 terror attacks (Perry and Lindell, 2003). For the most part, the main sources of action in this regard have come from the federal government, which has been adopting various mandates and incentives to invite more effective systems of readiness. But state and local agencies and private and public organizations have also found their places in these steadily improving processes even though they continue to struggle with the many complexities they face of being ready for all types of conditions. Large and small…… [Read More]
Governments neutralize the monetary impacts of their foreign exchange activities. This sterilization seeks to prevent foreign exchange transactions from posing as obstacles to the domestic monetary policy objectives. The underlying disturbance is likely to cause conflict between governments. When the underlying disturbance to exchange rate originates from the domestic government, it is likely to pursue inflation objectives through non-sterilized foreign exchange interventions (Auerbach & Kotlikoff, 2009).
While other governments have boundaries on investments relating to international financial markets in different currencies, some governments factor objectives of nominal exchange rates into their financial policy decisions. For instance, the federal government occasionally alters the rate of federal funds while it undertakes compatible foreign exchange activities. Erecting the required monetary policy changes across the sale or purchase of foreign currency has a bigger impact on the foreign exchange rate. This is contrary to initiating this move through open market activities in state securities.…… [Read More]
eattle has been a leader in the United tates in trying to eradicate the homeless problems that arise in every city. ince the 1970's, the citizens of the city have agreed to tax increases (more than four times (Farestart, 2009) to address this issue. The following case analysis looks at the city's policy regarding finding shelter for all homeless families and single women.
Major Policy Concepts
Most analysts agree that the primary reason that there is a great degree of homelessness in eattle is the lack of affordable housing in the city (Kerns, 2011). The policy in the case suggests that the homeless be given greater access to affordable housing and shelters. However, there is a problem stated with this part of the policy also. Housing in eattle is not just expensive for the citizens of the city, it is expensive to build for the city government (Tong,…… [Read More]
Policy Process: Evaluation, Analysis and evision
The National Nursing Shortage eform and Patient Advocacy Act was designed to address the public health workforce shortage that is seen, especially where nurses are concerned. It is no secret that nurses are leaving the profession in record numbers, and as they do that it is becoming more and more difficult to replace them with others who want to do the same type of work (Buerhaus & etchin, 2013; Iglehart, 2013). Because of all the nurses retiring, and so many of them experiencing burnout, the gap between the number of needed nurses and those who are available continues to widen (Negron & Cohen, 2013). The issue here is how that Act becomes a policy, so it can provide more help to a public health workforce that is struggling. In order for the Act to become a policy, it must first be evaluated. The Act…… [Read More]
The Japanese Government to usiness Model
The Japanese government has more direct control of private business. The difference is that it is doing so, as a partner to ensure that the business is able to maintain successful long-term economic growth. The government does not offer subsidies or any kind of bail outs. Instead, they help companies through loans, tax breaks and other forms of assistance. This helped to contribute to the success of the Japanese auto industry by allowing executives to focus on how their organization can grow in the future. (Johnson, 1985)
usiness, government and the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan
The Liberal Democratic Party helped to liberalize the relationship that the government would have with the auto industry. As it would be successful in helping Japan to eliminate protectionism; this is something that would allow Japanese cars to become more competitive in markets around the world.…… [Read More]
Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues
Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.
Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections
The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how…… [Read More]
Data collection tools that will prove especially useful in the research will include online electronic database search features and both online and hardcopy items published as a matter of public record by the City of Richmond. Analysis of the data retrieved will take place on a qualitative basis, with specific policy features correlated to institutional changes based on past evidence as well as ongoing scholarship and hypotheses.
ryamn, A.; ell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods.…… [Read More]
Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community
"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…… [Read More]
Programs and Services
§ Briefly describe the major programs and services, and the population intended to be served.
Before choosing the programs it is pointed out that about three decades ago, the term 'organizational culture', came in vogue. It resulted in a study of the different styles of organizing. Today the organizational change can be achieved easily and the methods of conducting programs themselves can be a part of a project that involves multiple organizations. Non-profits also came into the scrutiny of these concepts. (Wright, 1994)
The theory now is to see that maximum benefits and opportunities are extended to the subjects by the organization in this case the disadvantaged groups, particularly women and children. The programs seem to be created and managed on the general principles that all organizations follow. There does not seem to be any specific study that was done to incorporate the persons who belong to…… [Read More]
The company was established in 1886 and since its inception the technology developed by Daimler has revolutionized the automotive industry (Daimler AG, 2014). Daimler's initial product line started with a motor carriage and a three wheeled vehicle. The quality, safety and comfort of Daimler's vehicles have impressed their customers, establishing the standards of the industry.
With automotives being a physical product, it is very easy to measure them. Standards of the industry are established and brought to public notice, allowing all customers to understand them and rapport to them. In this industry products are physical received by customers and they enter customers' possession once all contractual and financial aspects have been attained. Product reception takes place under the terms established by the seller and agreed by the buyer.
There are several ways customers can address in order to find out information about the price and characteristics…… [Read More]
As a part of this initiative, the EPA works with local communities to: establish the optimal use of the cleaned up sites, it provides relevant information to the potential buyers / developers and dispenses advice on technical needs for re-utilization of the site. ("SARA Overview," 2010)
In this particular case, the RTU is effective at helping communities be able to reclaim land that had once been considered to be contaminated. For business, this will have long-term benefits as the reclaimed land could help to support other commercial activities. At the same time, time it will help to increase property values, by taking land that was thought to be destroyed and making it re-useable once again. This will have ripple effects for a host of different businesses, as their net worth will increase from a rise in the price of land.
However, over the short and medium term, this will have…… [Read More]
Other departments dealing with issues relating to sexual harassment are Foundation Personnel, Judicial Affairs Officer, or even the University Police Dispatch (in case of sexual assault).3
VIOLENCE PREVENTION POLICY at CUMB
Violence is defined as "to use force so as to injure or damage." It is recognized as part of CUMB policy that violence is as a result of emotional distress. Also that it is a rare occurrence which results from such extreme frustration so as to make the student break all the barriers of emotional control. Another reason cited as the instigator of violence is the undue use of liquor or other drugs. The recommended course of action in such a situation is to stay calm, and to seek help (through the Public afety Department), to stay safe (to have some form of defense like furniture between the student and yourself), and in no circumstance to coerce or threaten…… [Read More]
Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones
THEE SHOULD BE NO GOVENMENT MANDATED GUN-FEE ZONES IN PUBLIC SPACE.
Banning guns for masses and establishing gun-free zones are one of the most controversial topics in American politics. There are clearly two schools of thoughts on this subject. The right to keep a gun and displaying it publically is directly related to individual's rights under the second amendment of the prevailing constitution. However, despite the recognition of the citizens' rights, one cannot ignore the dangers of gun-free zones. Every year, there are cases reported, resulting from arms used in the gun-free zones. Maximum cases were reported in educational institutions where ammunition was used by children and teenagers. Publically mandated gun-free zones have resulted in loss of many precious lives.
There have been many cases reported where emotionally unstable individuals killed number of individuals in the public place. Majority of these massacres took place in educational…… [Read More]
For the government and the companies involved, the resultant lack of competition is easily controlled in terms of what is broadcast. The government can then more easily dictate what the public is to receive via the airwaves. For the companies involved, increased growth means increased revenue and success.
For the public, the most obvious disadvantage of the lack of competition means a probably lack of objectivity in broadcasting. This has implications for the ideals of freedom of the press and the public right for accurate information. On the other hand, an advantage is an increase of choice in terms of products offered by the large broadcast networks. Some for example have begun to offer Internet broadcasting stations, providing users with a wider variety of listening choices.
According to ret a. Fausett (2003), the FCC's new directive towards FM radio during the 1960s stimulated healthy competition and experimentation. New audiences were…… [Read More]
Government-Mandated Microchip Implantation
Government-Mandated Chip Implantation in Citizens:
Technological Breakthrough or Privacy Disaster?
Government-Mandated Chip Implantation in Citizens:
Technological Breakthrough or Privacy Disaster?
In a world in which new technology turns over nearly every day, individuals around the world, and particularly in the United States, continually jump at the chance to integrate these new technologies into their own lives. Generally, we as Americans view technology as a convenience, created to make our lives easier. From GPS systems in our cars to GPS systems on our children, it seems that no technology is off-limits. Perhaps, though, our continual interest in these technologies lies in our ability to take them or leave them. Some may view the placement of a GPS tracking chip in a child's coat as a dream come true, while others may find it excessive. How then, would a technologically-obsessed nation react if our choice to consume was taken…… [Read More]
I explore policy making process issues reach public agenda-based Kingdon's model
The policy making process and how issues reach the public agenda: Kingdon's model
According to John W. Kingdon's book Agendas, alternatives, and public policy, simply because an idea is beneficial to the public interest does not necessarily mean that the idea will come to fruition and be enacted into law. An idea whose 'time has come' in the American system of government must be created by a series of different types of pressures which Kingdon calls problem streams, policy streams, and political streams. Kingdon uses metaphors such as a 'garbage can' and a 'policy primeval soup' to describe how decision-making in Washington takes place: there is nothing logical or linear about it. Kingdon views the creation of policies as the result of these various intersecting 'streams.' First, 'the problem stream' "can push some items higher on the…… [Read More]
Policies and Procedures
eliance Healthcare Computer Policies and Procedures
The installation of a new computer system requires many considerations from a managerial standpoint. Computer usage, particularly access to the Internet is controversial, as there is significant room for abuse by staff. The new system will help to streamline processes in the organization, but it will also provide opportunities for non-productive time. The forthcoming policies and procedures are designed to allow employees access to the technology that will make their lives better, but also limit liability and loss due to unauthorized Internet use.
Security is of utmost importance in the new system. The computer system will need to have the highest level of security possible, as it contains personal information about patients. It contains private healthcare information that is protected by the Federal Government. It also contains sensitive company information. The nature of the information makes it necessary to have the…… [Read More]
Policy Issues in Education Settings AB
Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU). (2010). "A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning"
Retrieved from: http://www.aplu.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=311
"The A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning was formed in May 2007 to engage the A-P-L-U Presidents and Chancellors in a discussion about the utility of online education as a means to achieve broader institutional priorities, such as diversity, retention, internationalization and accountability." This resource specifically examines the policy and infrastructural issues dealt with by four-year colleges and universities experimenting with online learning and/or hybrid courses. The longitudinal study is meant to offer comprehensive data about the specific challenges of integrating online learning into traditional college experiences.
C.J. Bonk, The Perfect E-Storm: Emerging Technologies, Enhanced Pedagogy, Enormous Learner Demand, and Erased Budgets (London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2004)
This is a comprehensive publication reviewing the infrastructural challenges, including policy concerns, effecting colleges who integrate e-learning…… [Read More]
Government Changes post-Revolution ar vs. post-Civil ar
Close examination of the reasons for and the results of the Revolutionary ar and the Civil ar forces me to disagree with McPherson's position that more radical change in government occurred due to the Civil ar than the Revolutionary ar. In order to understand how this is true, one must look at several issues, such as the causes of each of the wars, the purposes and intentions, and the ultimate results.
The Revolutionary ar was based on the struggle to become independent from Great Britain and this struggle began due to a series of taxes forced upon the citizens. So "taxation without representation" was the initial call to arms however, it grew to include other freedoms as well.
The Civil ar was utterly a different process of situation. hile claims by the South of freedom it was always an economic issue tightly woven…… [Read More]
Developing a Federal Acquisition Team: everse Engineering a Standard Forestry Project to Determine Team equirements
The selected project is controlled by the Forestry Department, which is part of the Department of Agriculture, placing the project under the auspices of Chapter 4 for the Federal Acquisition egulations, which themselves make up Title 48 of the Code of Federal egulations (e-CF, 2012). elevant paragraphs include a provision that all Head of Contracting Activities (HCAs) comply with FA 7.103, detailed further below (e-CF, 2012, Title 48, Chapter 4, Part 407, par. 407.103). In addition, paragraph 407.503 of the same chapter provides provisions for the determination of whether or not a proposed contracting function is "inherently governmental" according to FA 7.503(e), and also sets out rules for settling disputes when there is not agreement on this issue (e-CF, 2012). It is not expected that this will be of issue in…… [Read More]
Government Funds for Internet ducation
The government has a duty to provide the best possible education to our future leaders. It is imperative that the school environment is conducive to learning. Textbooks should be up-to-date, teachers should be well qualified and the curriculum should teach children the skills they need to succeed in the world, no matter what career path they choose. Denying funding to connect our children to the Internet is to deny them an adequate education. The purpose of the Internet far surpasses that of instant messages and email, the Internet is a useful tool for just about anything. Learning how to navigate the World Wide Web is not an option; it has become mandatory for anyone who wishes to thrive in this century and for the rest of time.
Brian Goldfarb, a student at Canyon High School in Anaheim, California whose ingenuity, computer savvy and his realization…… [Read More]
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…… [Read More]
Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).
III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…… [Read More]
More and more small businesses and employers are unable to offer insurance to their employees and health care premiums for individuals are growing between 5.8-18% every year in the last decade. The condition of the health care system in the United States is insane and fundamental reform is necessary. Of course, fundamental reform is never easy, particularly given the partisan-polarization of politics in the United States.
Despite the over 46 million American who will benefit from this type of reform, there are also groups that will "suffer," at least in their perception. First, the epublicans want to disagree with anything that the Democrats propose (Pickert, 2011). Second is the question of finances and whether or not the government can afford the proposed (and previously passed) legislation to move towards universal health care in the United States. Many individuals who can afford health care or have it provided through insurance from…… [Read More]